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Ceriantharia (Cnidaria) of the World: an annotated catalogue and key to species
expand article infoSérgio N. Stampar§, James D. Reimer|, Maximiliano M. Maronna, Celine S. S. Lopes§, Hellen Ceriello§, Thais B. Santos|, Fabián H. Acuña#¤, André C. Morandini«
‡ Universidade Estadual Paulista, Assis, Brazil
§ Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brazil
| University of The Ryukyus, Nishihara, Japan
¶ Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
# Universidad Nacional de Mar Del Plata Funes, Mar del Plata, Argentina
¤ Estación Científica Coiba, Clayton, Panama
« Universidade de São Paulo, São Sebastião, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

The diversity of Ceriantharia is known from studies formally describing species from the late 18th Century onwards. However, no nomenclators including a list and discussion of all valid species have been produced since a list discussed by Carlgren in 1912. The present nomenclator presents a complete list of adult species of Ceriantharia of the World, including a discussion on each species. It includes the three families (Arachnactidae, Botrucnidiferidae, Cerianthidae) and the currently accepted 54 species based on their adult form. This study serves as a presentation of the “state-of-the-art” list of species of Ceriantharia, and includes a species identification key to support taxonomic identification. Additional in-depth species-by-species investigations for almost all cerianthid species is still needed, as the information available for most of these species is quite superficial.

Keywords

Cnidaria, families, genera, identification key, tube-dwelling anemones

Introduction

The subclass Ceriantharia Perrier, 1893 (Fig. 1), a group of anthozoan species commonly known as ‘tube anemones’, is characterized by the presence of two tentacle discs and a tube produced by filaments of a special kind of cnida, the ptychocyst (Daly et al. 2007; Stampar et al. 2016). This group of sediment-dwelling species is recognized as some taxa are common as pets in the aquarium industry (Stampar and Silveira 2006). On the other hand, the general taxonomy of the group is rather confusing, and the literature includes some incorrect definitions of characters for both species and genera (Torelli 1961; Stampar et al. 2012; 2016).

Knowledge on Ceriantharia dates back from the late 1700s, with the description by Spallanzani (1784) of an aberrant and tubular hydroid species with a membranous tube around the body, Tubularie (= Tubularia membranosa in Gmelin, 1791: 3836). Currently, the subclass Ceriantharia is divided into three families, eight genera, and includes 54 valid species (den Hartog 1977; Stampar et al. 2016; Molodtsova 2020) (Fig. 2). Different Ceriantharia classification schemes exist, with only limited consistency with each other (e.g., Mejia et al. 2019). However, until now, there has been only one published table-style catalogue (= nomenclator) of all species of tube-anemones, which is over a century old (Carlgren 1912a) and does not contain an extensive bibliographic compilation. Additionally, many species descriptions (e.g., Arai 1965; Molodtsova 2001a) and higher-level taxonomic reorganizations have taken place since 1912, and, thus, subsequent researchers have faced difficulties in finding and organizing historical and recent citations and information on Ceriantharia. Therefore, there is an obvious need for an organized species nomenclator, as well as for an identification key to aid in further studies of this group. Here, we present a nomenclator and a key to the extant valid Ceriantharia species in their adult form (polyps), including discussions of the status of each species. Some other articles have addressed larval forms (Molodtsova 2004b; Stampar et al. 2015b) but these are not included in the present study.

Figure 1. 

Examples of Ceriantharia: A Cerianthidae, Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis B Pachycerianthus schlenzae C Arachnactidae, Isarachnanthus nocturnus D Botrucnidiferidae, Botruanthus mexicanus (Photograph Ricardo Gonzalez-Muñoz).

Figure 2. 

Classification of Ceriantharia (adapted from Stampar et al. 2016a).

Material and methods

The checklist’s classification follows den Hartog (1977) for the orders and Carlgren (1912b, 1931) for genera of the subclass Ceriantharia. Cited articles have mostly been compiled from specific literature. The online databases Hexacorallians of the World (Fautin 2013) and the World Register of Marine Species (Molodtsova 2020) were used to assist in bibliographic compilations. Information on deposited specimens was obtained directly from the original descriptions and/or collections of mentioned museums for each species. If the type material was not found, this information is indicated for each species. In terms of life cycle, larval forms of cerianthids were not added to this study, as it is still not possible to make proper correlations with adult forms without the aid of molecular-based re-examinations (e.g., Stampar et al. 2015c). The identification key was constructed with the characters available for each species, although unfortunately some species have sparse descriptions and only a few distinctive characters are known.

Results

The compilation of species resulted in a list of 54 valid species (Fig. 2) of adult forms of Ceriantharia. The current classification divides the species into the families Arachnactidae (nine species, 16%); Botrucnidiferidae (four species, 8%), and Cerianthidae (41 species, 76%). There is a clear prevalence in numbers of Cerianthidae species, and this can be explained by the large sizes and high visibility of many species described in this family (Stampar et al. 2016). There are two clear periods of comparatively high rates of formal species descriptions with a long break in between them (Fig. 3): a) the ‘Carlgren/van Beneden/McMurrich period’ (1890 to 1951), and b) the ‘Molodtsova/Stampar period’ (ongoing from 2001). During these two periods more than 75% of the valid Ceriantharia species were described.

Figure 3. 

The cumulative number of Ceriantharian species descriptions per year. A Period Carlgren/van Beneden/McMurrich (1890 to 1951) and B Period Molodtsova/Stampar (2001 to present).

Checklist

Phylum Cnidaria Hatschek, 1888

Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834

Subclass Ceriantharia Perrier, 1893

Order Spirularia den Hartog, 1977

Number of valid taxa: two families, six genera, and 45 species

Family Cerianthidae Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851

Number of valid taxa: four genera and 41 species

Ceriantheomorphe Carlgren, 1931

Table 1

Type species

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis by original designation (Carlgren 1931).

Number of valid species: 3

Table 1.

Comparison of anatomical features of Ceriantheomorphe species (after Lopes et al. 2019).

C. ambonensis C. brasiliensis C. adelita
Marginal tentacles More than 100 Up to 392 Up to 352
Directive labial tentacle Absent Present (?)
Arrangement of labial tentacles (0)112.2112 (1)123.1324.3124.3124 (?)112.211
Actinopharynx 1/8 to 1/10 of gastric cavity 1/4–1/5 of gastric cavity 1/7 to 1/8 of gastric cavity
Oral disc ~ 4 cm ~5 cm ~3 cm
Siphonoglyph Long, 6 mesenteries attached Rather wide, 4 mesenteries attached Long, 6 mesenteries attached
Directive mesenteries >Actinopharynx >Actinopharynx >Actinopharynx
P2 Almost to aboral pole To aboral pole Almost to aboral pole
P3 Short, ≅ directives Short, < directives Short, > directives
M ± 2B ± 2B ± 2B
M3 ± M2 =M2 ± M2
Cnido-glandular tract at fertile mesenteries of first quartets Present Present Present
Craspedion tract at fertile mesenteries 2/4 2/5 – 3/5 2/5 – 3/5

Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (Kwietniewski, 1898)

Cerianthus ambonensis Kwietniewski, 1898: 426; Pax 1910: 167; McMurrich 1910: 26–28 Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Lopes et al. 2019: 127–148

(?) Cerianthus sulcatus McMurrich, 1910: 28–30

Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis: Carlgren 1931: 1

Type locality

Moluccas (Maluku) Islands, Indonesia, shallow waters.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

The original description made by Kwietniewski (1898) is very simple and based only on external characters. McMurrich (1910) obtained two specimens from the same area and conducted a more detailed anatomical study. Carlgren (1931), based on McMurrich’s description, moved the species to the newly erected genus Ceriantheomorphe. There has been no other subsequent research performed on this species. This species is commercially exploited for the international aquarium trade (exported from Indonesia), perhaps owing to its vivid orange color (S. Stampar pers. obs.).

Type material

Not found in this study.

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão, 1919)

(?) Cerianthus americanus: Hertwig, 1882: 110 116

Cerianthus brasiliensis Mello-Leitão, 1919: 38–39

Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis: Carlgren 1931: 2–6; Carlgren 1940: 6,11–12; Stampar et al. 2010: 205–209; Silveira and Morandini 2011: 3; Rodriguez et al. 2011: 52, 54–55; Spier et al. 2012: 1–3; Stampar et al. 2012: 5–6, 9; Stampar et al. 2014a: 2,5,8; Stampar et al. 2014b: 344, 347, 351, 353; and Stampar et al. 2015a: 3; González-Muñoz et al. 2016: 5, 9; Stampar et al. 2016: 64, 67, 68; Stampar and Morandini 2017: 690; Lopes et al. 2019: 127–148

(?) Cerianthromorphe brasiliensis: Hedgpeth 1954: 286

Type locality

Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Distribution

Brazil (Espírito Santo (20.5°S) to Rio Grande do Sul (33.7°S) states); Uruguay (35°S), and Gulf of Mexico (dubious record, 24–29°N), shallow waters (at < 40 m depth).

Remarks

This species was first described as Cerianthus brasiliensis by Mello-Leitão (1919) from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This description is quite simple and based on only a few external morphological characters. Oskar Carlgren visited the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) at the time of description of the genus Ceriantheomorphe sometime between 1925 and 1929, but he was unable to find the type material designated by Mello-Leitão. However, the type material (MNRJ 100) of Cerianthus brasiliensis is available and, based on our examinations, every mesentery, except for the directives, is fertile. Thus, based on this, the species described by Mello-Leitão should be moved to the genus Ceriantheomorphe. Carlgren (1931) mentions that the species (with this name) as described by him in that publication may be a junior synonym of C. brasiliensis Mello-Leitão 1919, as Lopes et al. (2019) have shown. Hertwig (1882) recorded a specimen of Cerianthus americanus from the Uruguayan coast whose external shape appeared to be very similar to that of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis. However, that specimen was not available at the time of the present study and may be lost.

Type material

Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro – MNRJ 100 (Holotype).

Ceriantheomorphe adelita Lopes, Morandini & Stampar in Lopes et al., 2019

Ceriantheomorphe adelita Lopes et al., 2019: 127–148

Cerianthromorphe brasiliensis: Molodtsova 2009: 365–367

(?) Cerianthromorphe brasiliensis: Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952: 148, 169–170; Hedgpeth 1954: 286; 290; Frey 1970: 309

Type locality

off Port Aransas, 32 km south off Corpus Christi, Texas, United States of America.

Distribution

Gulf of Mexico (Northern Mexico) to North Atlantic (North Carolina, United States of America), shallow waters.

Remarks

A very large species, which for many years was considered to be synonymous with C. brasiliensis even without biogeographic justification. Recently, Lopes et al. (2019) have indicated morphological differences that support the distinction between both species. Apparently, this is a species with very low incidence, since several sampling attempts have been unsuccessful (S. Stampar pers. obs.).

Type material

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History NMNH 50015 (holotype).

Ceriantheopsis Carlgren, 1912

Table 2

Type species

Ceriantheopsis americana by original designation (Carlgren 1912a)

Number of valid species: 4

Table 2.

Comparison of anatomical features of Ceriantheopsis species (after Stampar et al. 2016).

C. americana C. nikitai C. austroafricana C. lineata
Marginal tentacles Up to 100–120 Up to 70 Up to 70 Up to 60
Directive labial tentacle Present Present Present Absent
Arrangement of labial tentacles (2)413.4232.4312* (4)413.4231.4312.4312 (3)423.4232.4312.4312 (2)313.4343.4324.3124 4231.4231.4231.4231
Actinopharynx 1/12–1/8 of gastric cavity 1/5–1/4 of gastric cavity 1/10–1/8 of gastric cavity 1/6-1/5 of gastric cavity
Oral disc 0.7–1.0 cm ~0.6–0.7 cm Wide, ~1.5 cm in preserved 1.0 – 1.5 cm in preserved
Siphonoglyph Narrow, 4 mesenteries attached Wide, 4 mesenteries attached Wide, 4 mesenteries attached Narrow, 2 mesenteries attached
Directive mesenteries <Actinopharynx ~Actinopharynx ~Actinopharynx <Actinopharynx
P2 To aboral pole To aboral pole To aboral pole Almost to aboral pole
P3 =B =B =B =B
M >>B <2B >B ≥B
M3 ≤M2 >M2 ≤M2 <Half M2
Cnido-glandular tract at fertile mesenteries of first quartets Present Not present Present Present
Craspedion tract at fertile mesenteries 6/7–8/9 3/5 6/7 ~6/7-8/9
Cnido-glandular tract at B <<b =b <b <b
Craspedonemes of craspedion at fertile mesenteries Sometimes present Absent Absent Absent

Ceriantheopsis americana (Agassiz in Verrill, 1864)

Cerianthus sp. Agassiz 1859: 24

Cerianthus americanus Agassiz in Verrill, 1864b: 32–33; Verrill 1864a: 56–57; Verrill 1872: 436; Hertwig 1882: 110,116; Andres 1883: 352; McMurrich 1887: 63; van Beneden 1897: 140; Haddon 1898: 401; Parker 1900: 756; Duerden 1902a: 329–330; Duerden 1902b: 301; Roule 1905: 89; McMurrich 1910a: 11,15–16,20; Hargitt 1912: 249; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36–38; van Beneden 1924: 91; Field 1949: 5–6, 18–21, 27; den Hartog 1977: 212; Pei 1998: 179–180

Ceriantheopsis americanus: Carlgren 1912a: 366; Carlgren 1912b: 19–26; Pax 1924: 118; Carlgren 1940: 6, 12–13; Leloup 1964: 257; Frey 1970: 309–311; Peteya 1973a: 301–316; Peteya 1973b: 1–10; Widersten 1976: 858; Shepard et al. 1986: 625–646; Kristensen et al. 1991: 590–591, 589–614; Sebens 1998: 13, 16, 21, 57; Holohan et al. 1998: 466–468; Molodtsova 2000: 14,17; Molodtsova et al. 2011: 2–3, 5–7; Reft and Daly 2012: 123–125, 127, 129; Mata et al. 2012: 602–603; Kayal et al. 2013: 3, 5–6, 10–11, 15; Stampar et al. 2014a: 2, 8

Cerianthiopsis americanus: Hedgpeth 1954: 286–290

Ceriantheopsis americana: Stampar et al. 2015b: 1–6; Stampar et al. 2016a: 69

Type locality

Off Charleston, South Carolina; Beaufort, North Carolina, United States of America (not specified).

Distribution

Atlantic coast of United States and Canada, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea, at 2–250 m depth.

Remarks

This species is probably the most extensively studied among the Ceriantharia. There are appropriate descriptions of specimens (McMurrich 1910; Carlgren 1912a) and there is much biological information, especially related to ecological aspects (Shepard et al. 1986; Kristensen et al. 1991; Holohan et al. 1998). One important issue that still needs be studied is the possible occurrence of this species in the deep sea. Several photographic records, especially from ROV surveys below 400 m depth are available on the internet, but, to date, no such deep specimens have been collected for study.

Type material

Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard) – Invertebrate Zoology 243 and SCOR-1245 and Peabody Museum of Natural History (Yale) – YPM IZ 000977.CN (syntype).

Ceriantheopsis austroafricanus Molodtsova, Griffiths & Acuña, 2011

Ceriantheopsis austroafricanus Molodtsova et al., 2011: 1–7; Stampar et al. 2015b: 1–3, 6

Type locality

Off Cape Town, South Africa.

Distribution

Only known from shallow waters at the type locality (8–15 m depth).

Remarks

This species was recently described and therefore little is known about it beyond a detailed morphological description. One of the most interesting features of the species is the wide range of colors (Molodtsova et al. 2011). This species occurs in waters around Cape Town. Interestingly, this species is found close to industrialized coastal development, such as marinas and ports (S. Stampar pers. obs.), which may have provided a special habitat.

Type material

Zoological Museum of Moscow State University – ZMMU No. Ec-105 (holotype).

Ceriantheopsis lineata Stampar, Scarabino, Pastorino & Morandini, 2015

Ceriantheopsis lineata Stampar et al., 2015c: 1475–1481

Type locality

off Quequén, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Distribution

Warm temperate south-western Atlantic, from Argentina (Buenos Aires State) to Brazil, Laje de Santos (São Paulo State), at 5–130 m depth.

Remarks

This species was recently described, and little is known beyond a detailed morphological description. Similar to Ceriantheopsis austroafricanus, this species shows considerable variation in color pattern (Stampar et al. 2015b). The deepest record of the species is 130 m from a dredging expedition (Stampar et al. 2015b). However, it is possible that the species occurs at even greater depths.

Type material

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo – MZUSP 2686 (Holotype).

Ceriantheopsis nikitai Molodtsova, 2001

Ceriantheopsis nikitai Molodtsova, 2001a: 773–780; Stampar et al. 2015c: 1475, 1480

Type locality

Benguela Upwelling System, Namibia.

Distribution

Only known from deep water at the type locality (145–240 m depth).

Remarks

This species was recently described and has not been the subject of any study since the original description of the species by Molodtsova (2001a). Recorded only from a restricted area in Namibia, this species occurs sympatrically with two other species, Botrucnidifer shtokmani and Cerianthus malakhovi. These three species were found in the same upwelling system, which suggests that they can also occur in deeper areas.

Type material

Zoological Museum of Moscow University – ZMMU UE-97 (Holotype).

Cerianthus Delle Chiaje, 1841

Table 3

Type species

Cerianthus membranaceus (Spallanzani, 1784)

Number of valid species: 18

Table 3.

Comparison of anatomical features of Cerianthus species.

Species Directive mesenteries length Directive labial tentacle M-mesentery (M1) length M-mesentery (M2) length M-mesentery (m1) length M-mesentery (m2) length Mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Siphonoglyph shape Number of marginal tentacles
C. andamanensis Reach aboral pore ~160
C. bathymetricus Reach aboral pore 1/2 of M-1 Wide? 28
C. filiformis > stomodeum Present Reach aboral pore 6/8 of M-1 7/8 of M-1 5/8 of M-1 6 Wide? ~70
C. incertus 38-42
C. japonicus > stomodeum Present Almost reach aboral pore ≅ M-1 3/4 of M-1 ~1/2 of M-1 4? Wide 65
C. lloydii > stomodeum Present Almost reach aboral pore Longer than M-1 1/5 of M-1 1/6 of M-1 4 Narrow Up to 70
C. malakhovi ? Half column (?) > M-1 ? ? ? ? ~160
C. medusula ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Few
C. membranaceus > stomodeum Present Almost reach aboral pore ≅M-1 ≅P2 ≅m-1 6 Narrow 140
C. mortenseni >stomodeum Present Short, almost half of gastrovascular cavity ≅ M-1 3/4 of M-1 1/2 of M-1 8 Wide 125
C. punctatus > stomodeum Present Almost reach aboral pore =M-1 2/3 of M-1 1/4 of M-1 6 Rather wide 80-90
C. roulei ? ? Long? ? ? ? ? ? ~40
C. stimpsonii ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
C. sulcatus > stomodeum Present Reach aboral pore ≅M-1 ? ? ? Narrow ~180
C. taedus > stomodeum Present Short? Short ? ? ? Narrow 55
C. valdiviae ≅stomodeum Absent Short? =M-1 ≅M-1 1/2 of M-1 4 Narrow 35
C. vas ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
C. vogti > stomodeum Present (?)Almost reach aboral pore (?)Longer than M-1 (?)1/5 of M-1 (?)1/6 of M-1 ? Narrow 30-40

Cerianthus andamanensis Alcock, 1893

Cerianthus andamanensis Alcock, 1893: 153; Carlgren 1896: 174; Pax 1910: 167; Molodtsova 2001b: 913

(?) Cerianthus andamanensis: Haldar 1981: 60–61

Type locality

off Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

The species description is based on three specimens from Port Blair in the Andaman Sea (Alcock 1893); it is very simple with scant information on anatomy. The only two useful pieces of published information are related to the size of the preserved specimens (up to 10 cm in length), and the number of marginal tentacles (up to 160). The specimens observed by Alcock (1893) should be placed within the family Cerianthidae, but currently it is not possible to state that this species is truly part of the genus Cerianthus, and a systematic examination of this species is needed. The material recorded by Haldar (1981) is probably not the same species since the biogeographical region is different, but owing to the absence of a detailed description no definite conclusions can be drawn.

Type material

(?) Indian Museum.

Cerianthus bathymetricus Moseley, 1877

Cerianthus bathymetricus Moseley, 1877: 302–305; Andres 1883: 350; van Beneden 1897: 142; Pax 1910: 167; Mello-Leitão 1919: 37; Molodtsova 2000: 14–15, 17, 19; Molodtsova 2001b: 913

Type locality

Deep sea, North Atlantic (35° 26’N 50° 53’W), at 5000 m depth.

Distribution

Only known from deep water at the type locality.

Remarks

This species is one of the smallest tube-dwelling anemone species known. The described specimens are only 2.5 cm long and lived in a very long membranous tube of more than 11 cm in length. The description is not detailed but provides some information on the anatomy, indicating a very long hyposulcus (especially in figure 17, Moseley 1877). Molodtsova (2001b) proposed that this species should be placed within the family Arachnactidae, however we are uncertain about this classification as some species of Cerianthidae have comparatively long hyposulcus regions, and the small size of this species may be misleading. Additionally, the description of the tube is much more consistent with the organization of Cerianthidae (see Stampar et al. 2015a). Thus, we choose to maintain this species as valid until additional studies say otherwise.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Cerianthus filiformis Carlgren, 1924

In part Cerianthus orientalis Verrill 1865: 151

Cerianthus sp. 1 Wassilieff 1908: 46

Cerianthus sp. 2 Wassilieff 1908: 46

Cerianthus filiformis Carlgren, 1924: 169–173; Uchida 1979: 195–197; Song 1986: 79–87; Song and Lee 1998: 239–240; Song 1998: 195–198; Pei 1998: 179–180; Song 2000: 324–326; Uchida and Soyama 2001: 127, 150, 152

Cerianthus misakiensis Nakamoto, 1923: 167

Type locality

Aburatsubo Bay, Miura, Japan.

Distribution

South Japan, South Korea, Korea (East China Sea), and China (Yellow Sea), at 1–50 m depth.

Remarks

There are some detailed descriptions about this species (e.g., Nakamoto 1923; Carlgren 1924). Uchida (1979) described the color variation of specimens from Japan (Kushimoto) and some ecological aspects. The same author also compared C. filiformis to other specimens described from the same area and concluded that all specimens belonged to the same species. This assumption includes the specimen from Okinose Bank, Sagami Bay (Kanagawa, Japan) described by Wassilieff as C. orientalis Verril, 1865. This specimen is deposited in the Zoologische Staatssammlung München (ZSM; 173/D65) and does not belong to the genus Cerianthus but to Ceriantheomorphe (S. Stampar pers. obs.). It is not very well preserved, but the overall organization of the mesenteries is quite consistent with that of Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (Kwietniewski, 1898). The occurrence of Ceriantheomorphe in Japanese waters was also discussed by Molodtsova (2001b).

Type material

Lund Museum of Zoology – MZLU L930/3095b (Syntype).

Cerianthus incertus Carlgren, 1932

Cerianthus danielsseni Levinsen, 1893: 398; Carlgren 1896: 174; Roule, 1904: 792; Kingsley 1904: 347; Roule 1905: 85–89; Pax 1910: 167; Carlgren 1912a: 5; Carlgren 1942: 71

Cerianthus incertus Carlgren, 1932: 255; Molodtsova 2000: 14–15; Molodtsova 2001b: 913; Molodtsova 2014: 100

Type locality

North Sea (not specified).

Distribution

Arctic Ocean, Norway, and Iceland, at 650–1185 m depth.

Remarks

Cerianthus incertus has a complicated taxonomic history and was originally described as C. danielsseni by Levinsen (1893) based only on its external morphology. Carlgren (1896) discussed this problem and, later, Roule (1905), based on specimens from nearby locations, described a new species using the same name. However, at this point, the name C. danielsseni became a homonym and was no longer available according to the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). Thus, Carlgren (1932) suggested a new name (Cerianthus incertus) to solve both situations. Molodtsova (2014) postulated that C. incertus is a junior synonym of C. vogti, but there are no data available to confirm this hypothesis. Despite discussions on the past taxonomic confusion, this species is still understudied.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Cerianthus japonicus Carlgren, 1924

Cerianthus japonicus Carlgren, 1924: 173–175, Uchida 1979: 185–194; Molodtsova 2000: 19; Molodtsova 2001b: 913

Type locality

Aburatsubo, Misaki (Sagami Bay), Japan.

Distribution

Sagami Bay and Miyazaki, Kyushu Island, Japan; North Hamgyong Province, North Korea, at 10–100 m depth.

Remarks

The original species description was based on two small specimens, one from North Korea (North Hamgyong Province) and the other one from Japan, Aburatsubo, Misaki (Sagami Bay). The description is quite adequate and presents the most important characteristics of the species. However, as noted by Molodtsova (2001b), differences between C. japonicus and C. punctatus Uchida, 1979 are very subtle. There are only two reliable characters that can be used to differentiate the two species: (1) the organization of the tentacular pseudocycles and (2) the number of mesenteries attached to the siphonoglyph. The first is a plastic character and intraspecific variation has been reported (Carlgren 1912a; Arai 1965), while the second seems to be consistent (Stampar et al. 2016). However, figure 4 by Carlgren (1924) does not allow verification if the third pair of mesenteries (P3) is in contact with the siphonoglyph or not. If the siphonoglyph format is the same as indicated by Uchida (1979), the P3 is probably also connected. Most data indicate that C. punctatus is synonymous to C. japonicus, which currently cannot be confirmed based on the available data.

Type material

Museum of Evolution- Evolutionsmuseet (Uppsala University – ZTY 2516) (Holotype).

Cerianthus lloydii Gosse, 1859

Edwardsia vestita Gosse, 1856a: 74–75

Cerianthus membranaceus Gosse, 1858: 419

Cerianthus lloydii Gosse, 1859: 50; Gosse 1860: 268–274; Fischer 1874: 201; M’Intosh 1875: 38–39; Robertson 1876: 25, 30; Koren and Danielssen 1877: 80; Andres 1883: 554; Hartlaub 1884: 203; Fischer 1887: 383–384, 432, 437; Carlgren 1893: 120–123, 133, 148; van Beneden 1897: 139–140, 142; Fowler 1897: 806; Haddon 1898: 401; Gravier 1902: 592; Gravier 1904: 259, 267, 276, 278, 280, 288; Roule 1904: 791–792; Roule 1905: 83–85; Walton 1908: 215, 225–226; Torrey and Kleeberger 1909: 117; Pax 1910: 166; McMurrich 1910: 10–11, 17–18; Carlgren 1912a: 11–18; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36, 39; Gravier 1922: 88–89; van Beneden 1924: 101–116, 126, 154; Pax 1928: 201, 234; Stephenson 1928: 83–84; Carlgren 1928: 255–263; Carlgren 1931: 10; Leloup 1931: 2, 3, 5–9; Carlgren 1932: 264–266; Müllegger 1938: 2, 12, 13; Carlgren 1940: 9, 10; Carlgren 1942: 69–71; Nyholm 1943: 95–140, 193–227; Dons 1945: 20; Carlgren 1945: 67–69, 71, 155; Teissier 1950: 33; Williams 1954: 52; Füller 1957: 31; Robins 1969: 339; Riemann-Zürneck 1969: 170, 199, 201, 210, 211, 225; Cutress 1961: 80; Laverack and Blackler 1974: 28; Manuel 1977: 484; den Hartog 1977: 233; Uchida 1979: 194; Manuel 1981: 64–66; Ates 1982: 80–83; Braber and Borghouts 1977: 16, 17; Eleftheriou and Basford 1983: 147–157; Ates 1985: 230–232; Chintiroglou and Koukouras 1991: 395; Harms 1993: 16; Molodtsova and Malakhov 1995a: 5–16; Molodtsova and Malakhov 1995b: 4–11; Ates 1997: 10, 18, 24, 25; Sebens 1998: 48; Blanco 1987: 198; Vafidis and Koukouras 1998: 123; Moore and Cameron 1999: 369–370; Molodtsova 2000: 3, 7, 12–13, 17; Molodtsova 2001a: 778; Molodtsova 2001b: 919; Molodtsova 2001c: 1035; Grebel’nyi 2001: 36; Uchida and Soyama 2001: 129, 150, 152; Molodtsova 2001d: 9, 10; Molodtsova 2003: 252; Molodtsova 2004a: 297; Molodtsova 2004b: 261; Wieking and Kröncke 2005: 395–396; Brown and Collier 2007: 207; Rehm and Rachor 2007: 130, 132; Schückel et al. 2010: 5–7, 9; Bolam et al. 2011: 2239, 2241; Strain et al. 2012: 63–65; Sciberras et al. 2013: 91, 93, 95; Peckett et al. 2014: 336; Coolen et al. 2015: 87

(?) Cerianthus borealis Danielssen, 1860: 251; Verrill 1873b: 405, 414; Danielssen 1888: 1–12; van Beneden 1924: 91, 120–127, 128–131

Cerianthus vermicularis Lütken, 1860: 199–200

Cerianthus lutkenii Andres, 1883: 353

Arachnactis bournei Fowler, 1897: 805–807 (larval stage)

Cereanthus lloydii Goette, 1897: 293

Cerianthus lloydii borealis Grieg, 1913: 142

Synarachnactis bournei Leloup, 1962: 2–4, 6–7 (larval stage)

Cerianthus septentrionalis van Beneden, 1924: 120: 126–131; Molodtsova 2001d: 9–10

(?) Cerianthus sp. Tarasov et al. 1990: 1–3; 6; 15, 17

(?) Cerianthus lloydii: Kussakin and Kostina 1996: 207; Çinar et al. 2014: 684

Type locality

Menai Strait, Irish Sea, United Kingdom.

Distribution

North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, Bay of Biscay, and (?) Sea of Okhotsk; (?) depths from 2 m to the deep sea,

Remarks

This species has been the subject of many studies. There have been several morphological descriptions (e.g., Gosse 1860; Carlgren 1912a; Molodtsova and Malakhov 1995a) and several aspects of its ecology and life cycle have been investigated (e.g., van Beneden 1924; Nyholm 1943; Molodtsova and Malakhov 1995b). However, two points still need further attention. The first is related to the distribution of the species, as the presence of some disjointed records in the Pacific Ocean raise the possibility of a disjunct distribution (e.g., more than one species contained in these records). However, the presence of larvae in plankton for long periods of time (Nyholm 1943) may explain the very large occurrence areas as already known for other Ceriantharia species (Stampar et al. 2015c). Braber and Borghouts (1977) reported the occurrence of this species from an estuary system (salinity around 16 psu), and Çinar et al. (2014) from the coast of Turkey, although the second record is questionable. The second point is related to the position of the species within the genus Cerianthus. Preliminary studies (unpublished) based on molecular data indicate that perhaps this species is more related to the genus Ceriantheopsis than to Cerianthus.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Cerianthus malakhovi Molodtsova, 2001

Cerianthus malakhovi Molodtsova, 2001a: 909–913; Molodtsova 2001b: 913; Molodstova et al. 2011: 1

Type locality

Close to Torra Bay and Mowe Bay, Skeleton Coast Park, Namibia; at 300–350 m depth.

Distribution

Only known from deep water at the type locality.

Remarks

This species has been described in detail relatively recently based on five collected specimens. The original description, in Russian, contains no information on living animals because the material examined was already fixed at the time of diagnosis. This is a species that requires attention, as it can occur in deeper waters and may contain very important evolutionary information.

Type material

Zoological Museum of Moscow University, ZMMU EC-102 (Holotype).

Cerianthus medusula (Klunzinger, 1877)

Paractis medusula Klunzinger, 1877: 71–72

Cerianthus medusula Andres, 1883: 353–354; Cerfontaine 1891a: 37–38; van Beneden 1897: 141; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36

(?) Pachycerianthus maua: Krempf 1905: 195

(?) Pachycerianthus mana: Fishelson 1970: 109

Type locality

Al-Qusair (Red Sea), Egypt.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water (at < 5 m depth) at the type locality.

Remarks

This is another species with only little available data, and these are quite contradictory. This species was described as a sea anemone (order Actiniaria) by Klunzinger (1877) based only on the external morphology. Andres (1883) described some aspects of the external morphology based on work by Klunzinger (1877) and indicated that this must be a species of family Cerianthidae. Cerfontaine (1891a) argued that this species may be the same as C. oligopodus (= Arachanthus oligopodus) found in Italy, and furthermore the specimen observed by Klunzinger (1877) was not in good condition. However, it is not possible to make more statements about this species due to the absence of material available from the region. On the other hand, the indication that this species is a member of the family Arachnactidae as stated by Cerfontaine (1891a) seems to be incorrect. The few characters present in the descriptions are not consistent with those of the Arachnactidae, but instead with those of the Cerianthidae. This is a species that requires additional sampling from the type locality for further examination, especially as some specimens identified as Pachycerianthus maua Carlgren, 1900 have been subsequently collected from the same region (Krempf 1905; Fishelson 1970).

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Cerianthus membranaceus (Gmelin, 1791)

Tubularie Spallanzani, 1784: 627–628

(?) Tubularie: Rapp 1829: 656–658

Tubularia membranosa Gmelin, 1791: 3836

Actinia cylindrica Renier, 1807: 23

Actinia vestita Renier, 1807: 23–24

Moschata rhododactyla Renier in de Blainville, 1830: 284; de Blainville 1834: 318;

Cereus cupreus Ilmoni, 1830: 698–699; Ilmoni 1831: 123

In part Actinia elongata Grube, 1840: 11–12; Sars 1857: 33

Cerianthus cornucopia Delle Chiaje, 1841: 136; Milne Edwards and Haime 1851: 14

Cerianthus breae Delle Chiaje, 1841: 136

Cerianthus actiniodeus Delle Chiaje, 1841: 136

Cerianthus membranaceus: Haime 1854: 352–389; Milne-Edwards 1857: 309; Sars 1857: 28–32; Agassiz 1863: 529; Fischer 1874: 200–203, 237–239; Fischer 1875: 184–185; Heider 1879: 204–254; Jourdan 1880: 16, 44–45, 103–117, 130–132, 152–153; Andres 1881: 331–332; Andres 1883: 347–349; Mark 1884: 42; Graeffe 1884: 340; Fischer 1887: 383–385, 405, 432, 435; Hertwig 1888: 54; Fischer 1889 252, 254–265; Hickson 1889: 8; Cerfontaine 1891a: 37; Cerfontaine 1891b: 133–141; Goette 1897: 292–316; van Beneden 1897: 54–56, 139, 142; Gravier 1902: 592; Child 1903a: 239–260; Child 1903b: 10; Child 1904a: 70–71; Child 1904b: 279–284; Gravier 1904: 259, 269, 276, 278, 280; Carlgren 1906: 77–78; van Beneden 1924: 18, 28, 59, 30–68, 70, 73, 77, 85, 92, 94, 104, 108, 135–144, 163–164, 175; Carlgren 1927: 443; Menon 1927: 31–32; Torelli 1932: 2–15; Müllegger 1938: 2, 12; Pax and Müller 1955:110; Leloup 1960:1–3; Pax and Müller 1962: 107–110; Leloup 1962: 3–4, 6–7; Schmidt 1972: 427, 429, 431, 433; Schmidt 1974: 535, 537, 547; den Hartog 1977: 233, 235; Uchida 1979: 194; Ates 1982: 80–83; Tur and Godall 1982: 178, 180–182; Gili 1982: 120, 125–126; Ates 1985: 230; Morri et al. 1991: 37; Chintiroglou et al. 1995: 362; Vafidis and Koukouras 1998: 119–120, 123; Molodtsova 2000: 14, 17; Ocaña et al. 2000a: 57; Molodtsova 2001b: 913; Molodtsova 2004: 261; Wiedenmann et al. 2004: 270, 272–274, 276; Calado 2006: 391; Nienhaus et al. 2006: 12942–12943; Casellato et al. 2007: 127, 129; Cosentino et al. 2011: 409–411, 413–414; Lo Iacono et al. 2012: 466–467; Rastorgueff et al. 2015: 142, 148; Stampar et al. 2015b: 2167

(?) Edwardsia vestita Gosse, 1856a: 74–75; Gosse 1856b: 220; Milne-Edwards 1857: 286; Gray 1867: 240

(?) Cerianthus membranaceus: Gosse 1858: 419; Heller 1868: 20, 79

Cerianthus cylindricus Milne-Edwards, 1857: 309; Heller 1868: 20, 79

Saccanthus purpurescens Milne-Edwards, 1857: 310

Cerianthis membranaceus: Sars 1857: 28–32

(?) Cerianthus lloydii Gosse, 1859: 419; Çinar et al. 2014: 684

Cerianthus membranaceus nigricans Andres, 1881: 332

Cerianthus membranaceus violaceus Andres, 1881: 332

Cerianthus membranaceus viridis Andres, 1881: 332

Cerianthus membranaceus roseus Andres, 1881: 332

Cerianthus nans Andres, 1881: 333

Saccanthus purpurascens Andres, 1883: 351

Saccanthus purpurensis van Beneden, 1897: 142

Pachycerianthus multiplicatus: Çinar et al. 2014: 684

Type locality

Mediterranean Sea, Italy (not specified).

Distribution

Mediterranean Sea (Italian coast), shallow waters.

Remarks

This is one of the most well-known cerianthid species, but at the same time there are many questions about the taxonomic consistency of past works. This was the first species of Ceriantharia described (type locality Italy); however, this has caused many records from the Mediterranean Sea being incorrectly attributed to this species. For example, Pax (1908) argued that C. (Saccanthus) maderensis (= Isarachnanthus maderensis) Johnson, 1861 is synonym of C. membranaceus based on the two species’ original descriptions. However, the descriptions presented and discussed by Johnson (1861) and Pax (1908) are incompatible with C. membranaceus and more likely describe a species of the family Arachnactidae, perhaps a member of the genus Isarachnanthus. In addition, I. maderensis is very common in Madeira and the Azores (Stampar et al. 2012; Stampar and Morandini 2017). Haque (1977) recorded C. membranaceus from Bangladesh and Pakistan, but these records are biogeographically incongruent and probably these specimens from the Indian Ocean are another species. In short, C. membranaceus is a species that requires a comprehensive review of all its records, especially for the presence of cryptic species, and to assess if the different morphotypes reported truly belong to just one species or to a species complex.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Cerianthus mortenseni Carlgren, 1924

Cerianthus mortenseni Carlgren, 1924: 175–182, 195; Molodtsova 2001b: 773

Type locality

Paniquian Island, Mindoro, Philippines.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

This is a very intriguing species as the two specimens described in the original description are very different in shape. The organization of the mesenteries is not coincident on both sides of the body, indicating a considerable difference in the development of mesenteries (Carlgren 1924). This sort of large variation is not commonly reported in tube-dwelling anemones. The mesentery organization and associated structures indicate a strong correlation of these specimens with the genera Cerianthus and Pachycerianthus. Thus, this species may be important in the ongoing discussion about the validity of the genus Pachycerianthus (Torelli, 1961). Unfortunately, these are the only two specimens collected from the type locality (Philippines). Other specimens examined from this area (S. Stampar pers. obs.) are not similar to the specimens described by Carlgren (1924).

Type material

Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, Sweden (holotype) (?).

Cerianthus punctatus Uchida, 1979

Cerianthus punctatus Uchida, 1979: 189–195; Molodtsova 2000: 19; Uchida and Soyama 2001: 129, 150, 152; Molodtsova 2001b: 913

Type locality

Suruga Bay (Numazu), Japan.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

The available information on this species is amongst the most complete from before the advent of detailed descriptions in the 2000s. Uchida (1979) gives a complete comparison of several characters with most species of the genus Cerianthus. However, besides morphological data there is still no other information about this species (e.g., reproduction).

Type material

Saibura Marine Park Research Station (lost?), but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Cerianthus roulei Carlgren, 1912

Cerianthus lloydii Gosse, 1859: 50; Roule 1904: 791–792; Roule 1905: 83–85; van Beneden 1924: 111–116

Cerianthus roulei Carlgren, 1912a: 3–5; Carlgren 1932: 255–256; Carlgren 1942: 71; Molodtsova 2001b: 913

Type locality

close to Svalbard, Norway, Greenland Sea.

Distribution

Svalbard, Norway, Greenland Sea; depth unknown.

Remarks

This species has a very deficient description and is represented by very few museum specimens for comparison. The description of C. lloydii by Roule (1905) (see synonymy list) may fit a range of species (e.g., Cerianthus lloydii, Ceriantheopsis americana) and thus it is not possible to discuss it based on these data. The type locality is difficult to reach, and it may be very problematic to obtain additional specimens due to the absence of precise locality data and because material is likely to be from great depths up to 5000 m (Ritzmann et al. 2004). Therefore, the validity of this species remains uncertain.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Cerianthus stimpsonii Verrill, 1868

Cerianthus stimpsonii Verrill, 1868: 317–318; Verrill 1870: 102; Andres 1883: 351–352; van Beneden 1897: 140; Pax 1910: 167; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36; Molodtsova 2001b: 913

Type locality

Port Lloyd, Bonin Islands (Ogasawara Islands), Japan.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water (18 m depth) at the type locality.

Remarks

Based on the description by Verrill (1868), this species probably belongs to the family Arachnactidae, particularly due to the description of a soft tube (see Stampar et al. 2015b). The few external characters presented are only consistent with those of the family Arachnactidae. Unfortunately, there are no specimens from the Ogasawara Islands deposited in museums, and further discussions on this point depends on finding some material that can be correlated with the type material or else new collections for the designation of a neotype.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Cerianthus sulcatus Kwietniewski, 1898

Cerianthus sulcatus Kwietniewski, 1898: 427; Pax 1910: 167; Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Uchida 1979: 194; Molodtsova 2001b: 919

(?) Cerianthus sulcatus: McMurrich 1910: 28–30

Type locality

Raha, Ambon, Moluccas, Indonesia.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

This species was described by Kwietniewski (1898) based on a 4 cm long and 2.5 cm wide specimen with 90 tentacles in each tentacle series (marginal and labial) and three cycles each. However, these are the only characteristics indicated. McMurrich (1910a) gave a description of a specimen collected from near the type locality. However, the description is incomplete and presents some differences compared to original description. Thus, currently, we cannot confirm if this species is valid or not.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Cerianthus taedus McMurrich, 1910

Cerianthus taedus McMurrich, 1910: 30–31; Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; van Soest 1979: 117; Pei 1998: 181

Type locality

Makassar Strait, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Distribution

Only known from deep water (at 724 m depth) at the type locality.

Remarks

This species was described based on only one damaged specimen, which was 6 cm long, with 55 marginal and labial tentacles arranged in two and four cycles, respectively. The organization of the mesenteries was not described in detail by McMurrich (1910), who simply indicated the alternation of fertile and sterile mesenteries. There are several observations of different morphotypes that are not formally associated with any other name described from this or related areas. As there are no other species described for this region with this morphotype, it is probably a valid species, but it is not possible to certainly state that this species belongs to Cerianthus.

Type material

Possibly lost (Zoological Museum of Amsterdam, now Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden).

Cerianthus valdiviae Carlgren, 1912

Cerianthus valdiviae Carlgren, 1912a: 44–47; Carlgren 1923: 245–252; Uchida 1979: 193; Molodtsova 2001b: 929

Type locality

Between Keeling and south Sumatra, Indian Ocean.

Distribution

Only known from deep water (at 5000 m depth) at the type locality.

Remarks

This species was initially described in a table by Carlgren (1912a). However, the same author redescribed this species in 1923 in more detail. This is a species from the deep sea; however, the detailed description allows confirmation that this species belongs to Cerianthus. This is another example of a species that needs further study, as it may present very different characters compared to species from shallow waters.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Cerianthus vas McMurrich, 1893

Cerianthus vas McMurrich, 1893: 202–203, 206; Carlgren 1896:174; Haddon 1898: 401; Torrey and Kleeberger 1909: 115 -116; Pax 1910: 167; Arai 1965: 205

Type locality

Cedros Island, Mexico (Pacific coast).

Distribution

Only known from shallow to deep water (at 80 m depth) at the type locality.

Remarks

This is a doubtful species, as the original description is very incomplete, and some characters are incongruent. Torrey and Kleeberger (1909) comment that Cerianthus vas is a very problematic species, but they did not discuss the problems in detail. This species may actually be valid, but due to the absence of materials from the same depth and location, it is not possible to further discuss this.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Cerianthus vogti Danielssen, 1890

Cerianthus vogti Danielssen, 1890: 137–142; Carlgren 1895: 284; Roule 1905: 89; Pax 1910: 167; Carlgren 1912a: 18–21; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36–38; Carlgren 1932: 255; Carlgren 1942: 69, 71; Jensen 1992: 75–80; Molodtsova 2000: 15,17; Molodtsova 2001b: 919

Cerianthus abyssorum Danielssen, 1890: 143; Carlgren 1895: 284; van Beneden 1897: 140; Roule 1905: 89; Pax 1910: 167; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36

Type locality

Norwegian Sea (not specified).

Distribution

Only known from deep water (at 900–1400 m depth) at the type locality.

Remarks

This species is well known, even though it is a species from deeper areas. The description by Danielssen (1890) is incomplete as it presents few characters related to the organization of the mesenteries. Nevertheless, it is quite detailed in various other aspects. Carlgren (1912a) presents a slightly more complete description with more comprehensive information on the organization of the mesenteries and a comparison with C. lloydii. Jensen (1992) presents environmental and biological data about the species, especially on the occurrence of branching and fairly long tubes (tube system).

Type material

Not found in this study.

Pachycerianthus Roule, 1904

Table 4

Type species

Pachycerianthus multiplicatus Carlgren, 1912a (proposed by Kelly and Keegan 2000)

Number of valid species: 16

Table 4.

Comparison of anatomical features of Pachycerianthus species (after Stampar et al. 2015).

Species Directive mesenteries length Directive labial tentacle M-mesentery (M1) length M-mesentery (M2) length M-mesentery (m1) length M-mesentery (m2) length Mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Siphonoglyph shape Number of marginal tentacles
P. aestuari > stomodeum ? Reach aboral pore ≅ M-1 1/5 of M-1 = m-1 16 Wide 30–34
P. benedeni < stomodeum ? Reach aboral pore ? ? ? 6? Wide? ~125
P. borealis > stomodeum ? Reach aboral pore = M-1 3/4 of M-1 ~1/3 of M-1 8 Wide 139–155
P. curacaoensis > stomodeum Absent Reach aboral pore 1/2 of M-1 1/4 of M-1 2/3 of m-1 4 Short and narrow 74–105
P. delwynae > stomodeum Present Almost reach aboral pore Larger than M-1 1/3 of M-1 1/2 of M-1 6 Narrow 89–114
P. dohrni ? Half column (?) > M-1 ? ? ? ? ~160
P. fimbriatus > stomodeum Present Reach aboral pore 3/4 of M-1 1/3 of M-1 1/3 of M-1 8 Wide and long <60
P. insignis < stomodeum Present Almost reach aboral pore ≅M-1 ≅M-1 ≅M-2 8 ? ~100
P. johnsoni < stomodeum ? Reach aboral pore ≅3/4 of M-1 3/4 of M-1 1/2 of M-1 8 Wide ~108
P. longistriatus > stomodeum Present Reach aboral pore =M-1 1/3 of M-1 1/4 of M-1 6 Wide 138–140
P. magnus > stomodeum Present Almost reach aboral pore 3/4 of M-1 1/3 of M-1 1/2 of M-1 6 Short and narrow ~120
P. maua < stomodeum Absent Reach aboral pore 1/4 of M-1? 1/3 of M-1? 1/3 of M-1? 6 Narrow ~150
P. monostichus > stomodeum Present Reach aboral pore ≅M-1 1/2 of M-1 ≅m-1 8 Narrow and long ~47
P. multiplicatus > stomodeum Absent Reach aboral pore =M-1 1/3 of M-1 1/3 of M-1 6 Narrow 175
P. nobilis ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 160–170
P. schlenzae > stomodeum Present Reach aboral pore 3/4 of M-1 1/2 of M-1 1/3 of M-1 6 Long and narrow 60–85
P. solitarius > stomodeum Present Reach aboral pore ≅ M-1 1/4 of M-1 1/5 of M-1 6 Narrow ~64

Pachycerianthus aestuarii (Torrey & Kleeburger, 1909)

Cerianthus aestuarii: Child, 1908: 27–53; Torrey and Kleeburger 1909: 115–119, 121, 123; Pax 1910: 167; Pei 1998: 181

Pachycerianthus aestuari: McMurrich, 1910: 11; Arai 1965: 205, 210; Arai 1971: 1680; Carter 1995: 6

Pachycerianthus aestuarii: Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Stampar et al. 2014b: 345, 350, 352

Type locality

Mission Bay, East Pacific, California, United States of America.

Distribution

East Pacific, California, USA, shallow waters.

Remarks

This species was described by Torrey and Kleeburger (1909) based on specimens obtained from Mission Bay, California. This description is not very detailed but relevant information about its morphology is available. Child (1908) described some information on the movements and regeneration of P. (Cerianthus) aestuarii and morphological adaptations in relation to the environment. Carlgren (1912a) moved the species to genus Pachycerianthus based on the original description. Arai (1965) described a new species of the same genus, P. torreyi, from a nearby area and claimed that this was not the same species as described by Torrey and Kleeburger (1909). This species was considered a synonym of P. fimbriatus by Arai (1971), which occurs in the same area as P. aestuarii.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Pachycerianthus borealis (Verrill, 1873)

Cerianthus borealis: Danielssen 1860: 251 (senior homonym); Verrill 1873b: 5,14; Verrill 1873a: 349, 350, 368, 391; Verrill 1873c: 440–441; Verrill 1874: 413; Harger and Smith 1876: 54; Verrill 1879: 15; Andres 1883: 352; Verrill 1885: 534; Danielssen 1888 1–12; McMurrich 1893: 204; van Beneden 1897: 140 -142; Parker 1900: 757; Kingsley 1904: 345–359; Torrey and Kleeburger 1909: 119, 125; McMurrich 1910a: 167; Pax 1910: 167; Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36; 37; Verrill 1922: 134–136; van Beneden 1924: 91, 120–127, 128–131; MacGinitie 1955: 61, 75, 84, 85, 97, 122; Widersten 1976: 857, 858; Shepard et al. 1986: 625–646; Sebens 1998: 13, 16, 21, 57; Molodtsova 2001d: 9; Molodtsova 2004b: 261

Cerianthus verrillii McMurrich, 1910: 10–11

Pachycerianthus borealis: Molodtsova 2000: 15, 17; Molodtsova 2001b: 9; Stampar et al. 2014b: 344–345, 350, 352–353

Type locality

Georges Bank, Massachusetts, United States/Nova Scotia, Canada (not specified).

Distribution

Northwestern Atlantic (Arctic Sea to North Carolina, USA), at depths of 10–500 m.

Remarks. This species was described by Verrill (1873b) based on external morphology but he did not give many details. Danielssen (1888) gave a very detailed description, including various characters concerning the internal anatomy. A century later, Shepard et al. (1986) presented a study on ecological aspects of tube-dwelling anemones from the Northwest Atlantic and included some information about Pachycerianthus (Cerianthus) borealis. Molodtsova (2001b), in her discussion of the genus Cerianthus, showed that Cerianthus borealis should be part of the genus Pachycerianthus. This species occurs at lower temperatures and apparently resists considerable variations in salinity (S. Stampar pers. obs.).

Type material

Peabody Museum of Natural History (Yale – YPM 9830, 9831, 9832 (Syntype).

Pachycerianthus curacaoensis den Hartog, 1977

Pachycerianthus curacaoensis den Hartog, 1977: 215–221, 237; Carter 1995: 6; Molodtsova 2000: 15, 17; Stampar et al. 2014b: 344, 345, 350, 353

Type locality

Curaçao, Dutch Caribbean.

Distribution

Caribbean Sea (Curaçao), at 65–75 m depth.

Remarks

This species was described by den Hartog (1977) based on specimens from Curaçao. The description of this species is fairly detailed and includes a wide range of biological and morphological information. This is the only species of this genus in the Caribbean Sea and it shows no morphological similarity to congeners described from the Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, this species shares some characters with P. schlenzae, which was described from the South Atlantic (Stampar et al. 2014b). Thus, the evolutionary correlation of these two species is of biogeographical relevance.

Type material

Naturalis Biodiversity Center (former Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden – RMNH.COEL.11359 (holotype).

Pachycerianthus delwynae Carter, 1995

Pachycerianthus delwynae Carter, 1995: 2–3; Molodtsova 2007: 133; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Type locality

off Port Jackson, Sydney harbor, Australia.

Distribution

Sydney harbor, Australia, at 5–15 m depth.

Remarks

This is one of two species of this genus described from Australia by Carter (1995), the other one being P. longistriathus. They co-occur in the same bay and therefore doubts about the consistency of the two taxonomic species still exist. The morphological differences between the two species appear consistent, but intraspecific variation is quite significant and thus a more thorough evaluation of the morphological characters and the inclusion of molecular data may change this view.

Type material

Australian Museum; AMG15399 (holotype).

Pachycerianthus dohrni (van Beneden, 1924)

Cerianthus membranaceus viridis Andres, 1881: 332

Cerianthus membranaceus Andres, 1883: 347–349

Cerianthus dohrni: Lo Bianco 1909: 552; Pax 1910: 166; van Beneden 1924: 24, 30, 32, 33, 45, 60, 63, 65–89, 92, 94

In part Cerianthus viridis Torelli, 1932: 1–15

Pachycerianthus dohrni: Carlgren 1940: 15; Arai 1971: 1679; Carter 1995: 6; Vafidis and Koukouras 1998: 122–123; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Type locality

Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy.

Distribution

Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy and Aegean Sea, Greece, shallow waters.

Remarks

This species was initially described from the Italian coast (Naples region) as a variation of Cerianthus membranaceus (Andres 1881). However, Lo Bianco (1909) recognized distinct differences from the material identified as C. membranaceus and suggested a new name, Cerianthus dohrni, but without giving a description. Subsequently, van Beneden (1924) gave a very detailed morphological description of the species with some observations from specimens in aquaria. Some years later, Torelli (1932) described Cerianthus viridis based on specimens with a morphology clearly related to that of Cerianthus dohrni. Carlgren (1940) relocated C. dohrni to the genus Pachycerianthus. This is one of the largest species of tube-dwelling anemones in the world with a length of more than 40 cm, which is comparable to the lengths of Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis and Cerianthus membranaceus.

Type material

Not designated (several specimens mentioned, which can be considered syntypes).

Pachycerianthus fimbriatus McMurrich, 1910

(?) Cerianthus elongatus Kwietniewski, 1898: 426–427; Pax 1910: 167

Pachycerianthus fimbriatus McMurrich, 1910: 35–38; Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Arai 1971: 1677–1680; Arai 1972: 311–317; Arai and Walder 1973: 1086–1088, 1090; Arai and Karakashian 1973: 719–720, 723–724; Tiffon and Hugon 1977: 289–290; Uchida 1979: 188; Carter 1995: 6; Fautin 1998: 135; Arai 1985: 47–48; Pirtle et al. 2012: 1896, 1905–1906; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Pachycerianthus plicatus Carlgren, 1924: 182–186, 195; den Hartog 1997: 352; Arai 1971: 1677; 1680

(?) Pachycerianthus torreyi Arai, 1965: 205–210; Arai 1971: 1677; 1680

Type locality

Cebu, Philippines.

Distribution

Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea, Philippines, and Indonesia, (?) Pacific Coast of US and Canada; shallow waters.

Remarks

This species forms part of a taxonomic problem. The description of P. fimbriatus was based on a study of 15 specimens collected mainly from the Celebes Sea, Philippines, by McMurrich (1910). In the same study, McMurrich argued that Cerianthus elongatus was the same as the new species P. fimbriatus, and considered Kwietniewski’s (1898) description as incomplete and invalid. McMurrich (1910) also argued that Cerianthus nobilis described by Haddon and Shackleton (1893), based on specimens from North Australia, could also be the same species, but specimens were not available for comparison. Later, Arai (1965) described a new species from the Pacific Coast of North America, P. torreyi. The same author in 1971 recognized that this species was highly correlated with McMurrich’s P. fimbriatus from the Celebes Sea. Thus, Arai (1971) considered P. torreyi to be a junior synonym of P. fimbriatus. However, the geographical distribution is disjunct by 14,000 km, and it is likely that a more detailed study with the inclusion of molecular data will present different results. In our opinion, P. torreyi should be a valid species.

Type material

The provenance data of a specimen in the Natural History Museum at London, NHMUK 1889.11.25.64, is coherent with the locality and dates in the original description, but it is impossible to make an exact connection between the materials.

Pachycerianthus insignis Carlgren, 1951

Pachycerianthus insignis Carlgren, 1951: 435–436; Arai 1965: 205, 210; Arai 1971: 1679; Carter 1995: 6; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Type locality

El Mogote, Baja California, Mexico.

Distribution

Gulf of California, Mexico; shallow waters.

Remarks

Although this species occurs in an area with a long history of marine research, it is still little known, and the only study focused on this species is the original description by Carlgren (1951). The species description is based only on one individual and therefore knowledge is quite limited and morphological variation is not known to date. Thus, this species still lacks taxonomic confirmation as well as other studies.

Type material

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History – USNM 49454 (Holotype).

Pachycerianthus johnsoni (Torrey & Kleeburger, 1909)

Cerianthus johnsoni Torrey and Kleeburger, 1909: 116, 119, 123–125; Pax 1910: 167; Pei 1998: 181

Pachycerianthus johnsoni: McMurrich 1910: 11; Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Arai 1965: 205, 210; Arai 1971: 1679; 1680; Carter 1995: 6; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Type locality

Los Angeles, East Pacific, United States of America.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

This is another species described from the United States’ Pacific Coast by Torrey and Kleeburger (1909) with a relatively good amount of detail; like P. insignis, there have been no more subsequent detailed or comparative studies. Arai (1971) has been the only author that has mentioned the morphological characters of this species after the original description, but even this characterization was based on the characters listed in the original description. The taxonomic status of this species is doubtful.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Pachycerianthus longistriatus Carter, 1995

Pachycerianthus longistriatus Carter, 1995: 3–5; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Type locality

off Port Jackson, Sydney harbor, Australia.

Distribution

Sydney Harbor, Australia; 5–10 m depth.

Remarks

As mentioned for P. delwynae, the taxonomic status between the two Australian species, P. delwynae and P. longistriatus, is not clear. Both were described from a very restricted area and the morphological variation between them is very subtle. There is a need for a more detailed study approach to understand the differences between these two currently valid species.

Type material

Australian Museum – AM G15402 (Holotype).

Pachycerianthus magnus (Nakamoto, 1919)

Cerianthus magnus Nakamoto, 1919: 118–120

Pachycerianthus magnus: Uchida 1979: 186–189; Carter 1995: 6; Uchida and Soyama 2001: 125, 151, 152; Molodtsova 2004b: 261; Stampar et al. 2014a: 2; Stampar et al. 2014c: 350, 352; Stampar et al. 2019: 1–9

Type locality

south of Jogashima, Sagami Bay, Miura, Kanagawa, Japan (at 1100 m depth).

Distribution

Japan and China, shallow to deep waters.

Remarks

The description of Cerianthus magnus by Nakamoto (1919) is quite adequate, but still very simple. Nevertheless, the author presented a scheme of the mesenteries, and two photos of preserved and dissected material, which allows an adequate comparison with other species. Uchida (1979) moved this species to the genus Pachycerianthus and performed a very detailed redescription of the species based on specimens from Sagami Bay, Japan. This species occurs in an area with several other species of Ceriantharia but is apparently consistent with regard to its taxonomy. The co-occurrence of these species in Sagami Bay may be relevant in an evolutionary context with a focus on environmental niche differentiation among Ceriantharia species.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Pachycerianthus maua (Carlgren, 1900)

Cerianthus maua Carlgren, 1900: 27–29; Krempf 1905: 195; Pax 1909: 413; Pax 1910: 167; Schmidt 1972: 427, 433; Emig et al. 1972: 304–307

Cerianthus mana Fishelson 1970: 109

Pachycerianthus maua: Carlgren 1912b: 389–391; Arai 1971: 1680; Carter 1995: 5; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Type locality

Mkokotoni, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Distribution

Indian Ocean (Mozambique, Madagascar, and Tanzania) and Aden Gulf (Djibouti) and Red Sea (Egypt and Saudi Arabia), shallow waters.

Remarks

This species was described by Carlgren (1900), who subsequently moved this species to the genus Pachycerianthus and added some comments on its morphology (Carlgren 1912b). Krempf (1905) recorded two specimens from Djibouti, but he did not study anatomical characteristics. Much later, Fishelson (1970) recorded a great number of specimens from Eilat, Israel. However, again, the author failed to mention any anatomical characters of the specimens, and the figure of the presented specimen is quite inconsistent with the description of Carlgren (1900) or with specimens analyzed from Mozambique (S. Stampar pers. obs.). Thus, the identification of the Red Sea specimens may be misleading, and these Red Sea specimens could be classified either as another species already known to the region (perhaps Cerianthus medusula) or as an undescribed species.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Pachycerianthus monostichus McMurrich, 1910

Pachycerianthus monostichus McMurrich, 1910: 38–39; Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Arai 1971: 1680; van Soest 1979: 118; Carter 1995: 6; den Hartog 1997: 352; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350 352

Type locality

Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

This species was described by McMurrich (1910) based on two specimens from Ambon Island, Indonesia. The information presented by the author is quite suitable for characterization of the species, especially as the mesentery organization is quite conspicuous. No further relevant information on this species is available to date.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Pachycerianthus multiplicatus Carlgren, 1912

Cerianthus membranaceus: Lütken 1889: 362

Cerianthus danielssen: Levinsen 1893: 397; Carlgren 1896: 174

Pachycerianthus multiplicatus Carlgren, 1912a: 5–11; Carlgren 1931: 8–9; Carlgren 1940: 9–12; Carlgren 1942: 70–71; Carlgren 1945: 68–70; Schmidt 1972: 427, 432–433; Arai 1971: 1689; Keegan and Könnecker 1973: 257 Mariscal et al. 1977: 395; Manuel 1981: 64, 67; Picton 1985: 485; McFarlane 1988: 365–370; Carter 1995: 6; Molodtsova 2000: 12, 15, 17; Jonsson et al. 2001: 189–195; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

(?) Pachycerianthus multiplicatus: Çinar et al. 2014: 684

Type locality

Two areas are mentioned – Kattegat Strait and Trondheim, Norway (not specified)

Distribution

North, Inner, Celtic, Irish and Norwegian Seas, Gulf of Biscay, at < 130 m depth.

Remarks. Levinsen (1893) described this species as Cerianthus danielssen, however, this description was incomplete and did not meet the minimum characterization requirements for a cerianthid species. Thus, Carlgren (1912a) proposed the new name P. multiplicatus, while giving a detailed description of this species. Carlgren (1912b) included several records in the region as well as some biological aspects. Nyholm (1943) gave a detailed study of the life cycle of the species, including information on reproductive seasons and also on larval development (a modified planula). This is a very interesting species for ecological studies, as several reports have mentioned clusters of individuals in different regions (e.g., Jonsson et al. 2001). There is still doubt about the true distribution of the species as individuals recorded from the coast of France and Spain have never been studied in detail.

Type material

(?) Lund Museum of Zoology (MZLU) - 6570 (syntype), but not formally designated in description.

Pachycerianthus nobilis (Haddon & Shackleton, 1893)

Cerianthus nobilis Haddon and Shackleton, 1893: 116, 118; Carlgren 1896: 174; Haddon 1898: 400–401; Pax 1910: 167

Pachycerianthus nobilis: Molodtsova 2000: 19; Molodtsova 2007: 133; Stampar et al. 2014b: 350, 352

Type locality

Thursday Island, Queensland, Australia.

Distribution

Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia, New Caledonia, shallow waters.

Remarks

A large species originally described from northeastern Australia as Cerianthus nobilis. This description is very simple and was based only on external characters and there have been no further studies based on specimens from this area. Molodtsova (2000, 2007) correctly suggest that this species does not belong to the genus Cerianthus, but to the genus Pachycerianthus. The relation with two species described by Carter (1995) (P. delwynae and P. longistriatus) is completely unknown, however, there is the possibility that all three species are, in fact, a single one, based on their overlapping morphological characters.

Type material

Museum of Zoology (University of Cambridge) – I.33575.A-B (holotype).

Pachycerianthus schlenzae Stampar, Morandini & Silveira, 2014

Pachycerianthus sp. Vieira and Stampar 2014: 365, 367–368, 370–371

Pachycerianthus schlenzae Stampar et al., 2014b: 343–354

Type locality

off Guarapari, Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

Distribution

Brazil, from Bahia to Espírito Santo states (Abrolhos Bank and Royal Charlotte Bank), at 5–10 m depth.

Remarks

This species was recently described based on a study of several specimens from the central area of the Brazilian coast, where it is an endemic occurring along a coastline of approximately 500 km length. Some aspects of external morphology are similar to those of P. curacaoensis and may reflect a correlated evolutionary history between the two species. Although Stampar et al. (2014b) presented some biological information mainly related to the reproduction seasons, little is known about the ecology and biology of this species. The species is endangered as its range suffers from high levels of anthropogenic pressure (Miranda and Marques, 2016), which could result in the loss of its habitat.

Type material

Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP) – 1949 (Holotype).

Pachycerianthus solitarius (Rapp, 1829)

Tubularia solitaria Rapp, 1829a: 656–658; Rapp 1829b: 48–49

(?) Cereus cupreus Ilmoni, 1830: 689–699; Ilmoni 1831: 123

Cerianthus brerae Delle Chiaje, 1841: 136

Edwardsia vestita Forbes, 1843: 42; Milne-Edwards 1857: 286

Cerianthus membranaceus: Sars 1857: 28–32; Heller 1868: 20, 79

Cerianthus solitarius: Andres 1881: 332; Andres 1883: 345–346; Fischer 1887: 384–385, 432, 437; Fischer 1889: 254, 264, 265; Faurot 1895: 221; van Beneden 1897: 138; Child 1903a: 239–260; Child 1903b: 8–10; Child 1904a: 70–71; Child 1904b: 266–284; Gravier 1904: 283; Rioja and Martin 1906: 280; Cerfontaine 1909: 699–700; McMurrich 1910: 17–18; Pax 1910: 166; Mello-Leitão 1919: 35–36, 39; van Beneden 1924: 29, 89–96; Torelli 1961: 17–28

Pachycerianthus solitarius: Carlgren 1912a: 367–387; Carlgren 1912b: 44–47; Carlgren 1927: 443; Panikkar 1936: 259; Pax and Müller 1962: 110; Torelli 1963: 175–177; Naumov 1968: 73; Arai 1971: 1680; Uchida 1979: 188; Williams 1981: 350; Ates 1985: 230–231; Carter 1995: 6; Molotsova 2003: 250, 252–253; Çinar et al. 2014: 684

(?) Pachycerianthus solitarius: Kisseleva 1975: 1595–1596; Wirtz et al. 2003: 115, 116

Cerianthus bicyclus Torelli, 1961: 17–28

Type locality

off Languedoc coast, France.

Distribution

Mediterranean Sea, Azores, and (?) Black Sea; shallow waters.

Remarks

After Cerianthus membranaceus, this was the second species to be formally described in Ceriantharia. It was first described as an unclassified polyp with some similarities with Hydrozoa and Anthozoa (Rapp 1829a). Later, it was only characterized as a Ceriantharia by Sars (1857). This species was widely studied by Child (1903a, 1903b, 1904a, 1904b) in a series of experimental studies related to asexual reproduction, behavior, and regeneration of polyps. Carlgren (1912b) presented a detailed redescription of this species and moved it to the genus Pachycerianthus. He described several abnormalities of the species’ anatomy (Carlgren 1912a), which were attributed to asexual reproduction events that are uncommon in Ceriantharia. After this, several authors reported this species from various regions, including the Black Sea (Kiseleva 1975). If P. solitarius occurs in the Black Sea, it would show a great tolerance to brackish water. Therefore, specimens recorded in the Black Sea may not be of the same species that inhabits the Mediterranean Sea. However, there are no available specimens for comparison. Wirtz et al. (2003) recorded this species in the Azores, however a more detailed study is needed to understand if this species occurs outside the Mediterranean Sea, or whether the Azores specimens belong to P. solitarius.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Family Botrucnidiferidae Carlgren, 1912

Number of valid taxa: two genera and four species.

Botruanthus McMurrich, 1910

Table 5

Type species

Botruanthus benedeni (Torrey & Kleeberger, 1909)

Number of valid species: 2

Table 5.

Comparison of anatomical features of Botruanthus species (after Stampar et al. 2016a).

B. benedeni B. mexicanus
Marginal tentacles Up to 90–100 Up to 40–60
Directive labial tentacle Present Present
Arrangement of labial tentacles (1)321.3213.3213 (2)314.2314.2314.2314
Actinopharynx 1/3 – 1/4 of gastric cavity 1/5–1/4 of gastric cavity
Oral disc 1.1–1.3 cm 0.5–0.7 cm
Siphonoglyph Broad, 8 mesenteries attached Narrow, 2 mesenteries attached
Directive mesenteries >Actinopharynx (= size of Actinopharynx) > Actinopharynx
P2 Long, almost to aboral pole (> 2/3 of gastric cavity) Short (<1/3 of gastric cavity)
P3 Short (1/3 of P2) Short (~P2)
M1 To aboral pore Almost to aboral pore
M3 Almost to aboral pore Short, 1/2 of M1
Cnido-glandular tract at fertile mesenteries of first quartets Present Present
Craspedion tract at fertile mesenteries 5/7–8/9 8/9
Cnido-glandular tract at B < ½ 3/4
Craspedonemes of craspedion
at fertile mesenteries
Sometimes present Sometimes present
Botrucnidae Rare in m and B, absent in M and b mesenteries Very abundant (4-5 groups) in M and m, absent in B and b mesenteries

Botruanthus benedeni (Torrey & Kleeberger, 1909)

Pachycerianthus benedeni Roule, 1904: 708–710

Cerianthus benedeni: Torrey and Kleeberger 1909: 115, 119, 120–123, 125; Pax 1910: 167;

Botryanthus benedeni: McMurrich 1910: 11; Torelli 1932: 9

Botruanthus benedeni: Carlgren 1912a: 44–47; Leloup 1932: 17; Carlgren 1951: 431, 433–435; Arai 1965: 205; den Hartog 1977: 211, 233, 236–237; Molodtsova 2001c: 1027, 1033–1035; Fautin et al. 2007: 551–552, 567–569; Stampar et al. 2016b: 1; 5

Type locality

San Diego Bay, California, United States of America.

Distribution

California (United States of America), Baja California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), shallow waters.

Remarks

This species was described based on a study of a single specimen. This species (and genus) is characterized by possessing wart-like structures (cnidorages) organized in bunches (botrucnids) in the mesenterial filaments. Except for these structures, the anatomy is very similar to species of the genus Pachycerianthus. The holotype is not available, and we therefore here designate a neotype collected from the same region by Charles Cutress in 1955 (NMNH 49400). This specimen was studied by Stampar et al. (2017) (erroneously referred to as “holotype”) and its characters are consistent with those in the original description. Because of its importance as type species of the genus Botruanthus, the neotype designation for this species is justified. This is a poorly studied genus and there is no biological or ecological information about this species.

Type material

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (USNM) – 49400 (neotype).

Botruanthus mexicanus Stampar, González-Muñoz & Morandini, 2017

Botruanthus mexicanus Stampar et al., 2017: 113–118

Type locality

off Veracruz, Mexico.

Distribution

Gulf of Mexico, intertidal to shallow waters.

Remarks

This species was recently described by specimens from the intertidal zone in reefs of Central Mexico in the Gulf of Mexico. Morphological characterization is quite easy, as the number of anatomical characters allow its distinction in relation to B. benedeni. There have been no studies on ecological or biological aspects of this species.

Type material

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo; MZUSP 002757 (Holotype).

Botrucnidifer Carlgren, 1912

Table 6

Type species

Botrucnidifer norvegicus Carlgren, 1912

Number of valid species: two

Table 6.

Comparison of anatomical features of Botrucnidifer species.

B. novergicus B. shtokmani
Marginal tentacles Up to 17 72
Directive labial tentacle Present Absent
Arrangement of labial tentacles (1)431.3231.3231 (0)230.2024.3123.3142
Actinopharynx 1/4 – 1/5 of gastric cavity 1/3 of gastric cavity
Oral disc 0.3 cm 1.5 cm
Siphonoglyph Narrow, 2 mesenteries attached Narrow, 4 mesenteries attached
Directive mesenteries >Actinopharynx = Actinopharynx
P2 Long, almost to aboral pole (> 4/5 of gastric cavity) Regular (<2/3 of gastric cavity)
P3 Long (2/3 of P2) Short, 1/2 of P2
M1 Almost to aboral pore = P2
M3 Almost to aboral pore (3/4 of M1) Long, 3/4 of P2
Cnido-glandular tract at fertile mesenteries of first quartets Present Present
Craspedion tract at fertile mesenteries ¾ 1/2 – 3/4
Cnido-glandular tract at B Present Present
Botrucnidae Only in M mesenteries Only in B/b mesenteries

Botrucnidifer norvegicus Carlgren, 1912

Botrucnidifer novergicus Carlgren, 1912a: 30–34; Carlgren 1931: 10; Leloup 1932: 16–18; Carlgren 1940: 6,10,14–15; Carlgren 1942: 70–71; Carlgren 1945: 72; Nair 1949: 245; den Hartog 1977:136; Molodtsova 2000: 14–17; Molodtsova 2001c: 1027, 1033–1036; Molodtsova 2004a: 292–293, 295–296; Stampar et al. 2016c: 2,4; Ceriello et al. 2019: 2017–2020

Type locality

Trondheimfjord, Trondheim, Norway.

Distribution

Norwegian Sea, at 50–700 m depth.

Remarks

This species was described by Carlgren (1912a) based on specimens from Trondheim Fjord, Norway. These are small ceriantharians (up to 4 cm long) with an expansion of the cnidoglandular tract and some botrucnidae (= cnidoragae) at the end of some mesenteries. Although the description is fairly comprehensive, knowledge of this species is limited. Other authors cite only some of the species characteristics or have reported occurrences in areas that look similar (e.g., Molodtsova 2004a). Recently, Ceriello et al. (2019) reported on the coloniality of this species, which is a newly discovered trait among Ceriantharia. This species is important in the discussion on the homology of morphological characters, particularly in relation to mesenterial structures.

Type material

Lund Museum of Zoology (MZLU) – L898/3051 and Marine invertebrate collection Norwegian University of Science and Technology University Museum (NTNU) – 40499 (syntype).

Botrucnidifer shtokmani Molodtsova, 2001

Botrucnidifer shtokmani Molodtsova, 2001a: 773; Molodtsova 2001c: 1027–1036; Molodtsova et al. 2011: 1

Type locality

off Namibia coast (southeast Atlantic), at 130–350 m depth.

Distribution

Only known from deep water at the type locality.

Remarks

This species was described based on dredged specimens from off the Namibian coast. This is the second species of this genus that has been sampled beyond conventional SCUBA diving depths. The description of this species (in Russian) is very detailed and addresses all the necessary characters. As discussed by Molodtsova (2001c) some larval forms of this family are recognized from this area, however the link between larval and adult stages is only possible based on molecular or developmental approaches (Nyholm 1943; Stampar et al. 2015c).

Type material

Zoological Museum of Moscow University – ZMMU EC-100 (holotype).

Order Penicillaria den Hartog, 1977

Number of valid taxa: one family, two genera, and nine species

Family Arachnactidae McMurrich, 1910

Number of valid taxa: two genera, and nine species

Arachnanthus Carlgren, 1912

Table 7

Type species

Arachnanthus oligopodus (Cerfontaine, 1891)

Number of valid species: Five

Table 7.

Comparison of anatomical features of Arachnanthus species (after Stampar et al. 2018).

A. australiae A. bockii A. oligopodus A. sarsii A. lilith
Marginal tentacles Up to 40 Up to 30 ~20 Up to 35 Up to 24
Arrangement of labial tentacles (0)1.11.11.11.11 (0)1.11.11.11.11(?) (0)1.11.11.11.11 (0)1.11.11.11.11 (0)3.12.31.23.23.12
Length of actinopharynx ~2/3 of gastric cavity ~1/2 of gastric cavity ~1/2 of gastric cavity ~1/2 of gastric cavity >1/2 of gastric cavity
Hyposulcus ~1/2 size of stomodeum ~1/2 size of stomodeum ~2X size of stomodeum < size of stomodeum = size of stomodeum
Oral disc diameter ~0.7 cm ~1 cm 0.5 cm
Mesentery attachment to actinopharynx Broad, 12 mesenteries attached Broad, 12 mesenteries attached Narrow, 4 mesenteries attached Broad, 6 mesenteries attached Broad, 8 mesenteries attached
Directive mesenteries = length of Actinopharynx < length of Actinopharynx > length of Actinopharynx < length of Actinopharynx < length of Actinopharynx
P(C)2 Short, 1/2 of gastric cavity Very short, 1/4 of gastric cavity Short, 1/2 of gastric cavity Long, 3/4 of gastric cavity Long, 6/7 of gastric cavity, almost to aboral pole
P(C)3 Very short, <1/4 of gastric cavity Very short, <1/4 of gastric cavity Short, ~1/2 of gastric cavity Short, ~1/3 of gastric cavity Short, 1/3 of gastric cavity
M1 Almost to aboral pore Almost to aboral pore To aboral pore Almost to aboral pore To aboral pore
M3 4/5 of gastric cavity Almost to aboral pore 1/5 of gastric cavity Almost to aboral pore 3/4 of gastric cavity
Cnido-glandular tract of fertile mesenteries Present (short?) Present (short?) Present Present Present
Cnido-glandular tract of B Present (short?) Present (short?) Present (short?) Present (short) Present (short)
Acontioids Only in M1, M2 and M3 Only in M1, M2 and M3 Only in M1 Only in M1, M2 and M3 Only in M3 and M4

Arachnanthus australiae Carlgren, 1937

Arachnanthus australiae Carlgren, 1937: 177–180; den Hartog 1977: 235; Fautin et al. 2007: 570; Stampar et al. 2018: 3,8

Type locality

Low Isles, Queensland, Australia.

Distribution

Queensland, Australia, shallow waters.

Remarks

Carlgren (1937) described this species from northeastern Australia and this is the only study so far on this species. Although the description is adequate, it does not include detailed information. In general, the Australian coast is vastly understudied regarding Ceriantharia species diversity. The taxonomic status of A. australiae in relation to Arachnanthus bockii remains to be studied in detail.

Type material

Natural History Museum (London); NHMUK – 1954.6.25.47 (holotype).

Arachnanthus bockii Carlgren, 1924

Arachnanthus bockii Carlgren, 1924: 193–195; den Hartog 1977: 235

Type locality

Viti Levu, Fiji.

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality.

Remarks

This is another species with little information, except for the morphological description. There are some characters in Carlgren’s (1924) description that allows distinction of this species in comparison to Arachnanthus australiae, however, the reduced number of specimens may be a problem to understand the intraspecific variation of these characters.

Type material

Not found in this study, but the original description provided a graphic representation.

Arachnanthus oligopodus (Cerfontaine, 1891)

Cerianthus oligopodus Cerfontaine, 1891a: 32–38; Carlgren 1895: 284; van Beneden 1897:140; Gravier 1904: 286; Cerfontaine 1909: 653–707; McMurrich 1910a: 165; Pax 1910: 166; Mello-Leitão 1919: 36, 39; van Beneden 1924: 12, 20, 30, 45, 92, 97, 98; Torelli 1932:12; Torelli 1961: 17–28

Pachycerianthus oligopodus: McMurrich 1910b: 11–13

Arachnanthus oligopodus: Carlgren 1912a: 367–388; Carlgren 1912b: 44–47; Panikkar 1947: 243; Leloup 1960: 2; den Hartog 1977: 235; Vafidis and Koukouras 1998: 123–124; Molodtsova 2003: 253; Çinar et al. 2014: 677, 683, 687, 688; Rastorgueff et al. 2015: 142, 148

Type locality

Italian Coast, Mediterranean Sea (not specified in detail).

Distribution

Mediterranean Sea, shallow waters and caves.

Remarks

Arachnanthus oligopodus was initially described as a species of the genus Cerianthus by Cerfontaine (1891a), and was moved to the genus Arachnanthus by Carlgren (1912b). This is a very common species in several areas of the Mediterranean Sea, especially on the Italian Coast (Carlgren 1924; Torelli 1961). This species has a number of descriptions with appropriate levels of detail (e.g., Cerfontaine 1909; Carlgren 1912a). However, knowledge of the species is still incipient. Biological aspects, especially on the life cycle, are still quite unknown.

Type material

Not found in this study.

Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi in Stampar et al. 2018

Arachnanthus lilith Stampar and El Didi in Stampar et al. 2018: 1–7

Type locality

island near Jaz’air Sila, Saudi Arabia.

Distribution

Red Sea, shallow waters.

Remarks

This species was recently described from shallow Saudi Arabian waters of the Red Sea. Morphological characterization was based on internal anatomy and there have been no studies on ecological or biological aspects of this species yet.

Type material

Florida Museum of Natural History – FLMNH UF9168 (holotype).

Arachnanthus sarsi Carlgren, 1912

Arachnanthus sarsi Carlgren, 1912a: 27–30; Carlgren 1942: 70–71; Nair 1949: 243; Picton and Manuel 1985: 343–349; Picton 1985: 485–486; Molodtsova 2000: 15, 17; Molodtsova 2003: 251; Stampar et al. 2015c: 2164

Arachnanthus sarsii: Carlgren 1931: 9–10; Carlgren 1940: 6, 11, 13, 15

Type locality

Röberg Indalbay, Trondheim, Norway.

Distribution

North Sea, at 10–200 m depth.

Remarks

This species is rather common in some areas of Great Britain and Scotland and there are two detailed descriptions; the original (Carlgren 1912b) and a redescription (Picton and Manuel 1985). The life cycle has been inferred from the occurrence of larvae named as Arachnactis albida (Picton and Manuel 1985), but further study is needed to understand the relationship in detail. Not much is known about ecological aspects of this species and this should be a very interesting field of study.

Type material

Swedish Museum of Natural History (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet) – NRM 134778 (Holotype).

Isarachnanthus Carlgren, 1924

Table 8

Type species

Isarachnanthus maderensis (Johnson, 1861)

Number of valid species: 4

Table 8.

Comparison of anatomical features of Isarachnanthus species.

I. bandanensis I. maderensis I. nocturnus I. panamensis
Marginal tentacles Up to 40 Up to 42 Up to 60 Up to 32
Arrangement of labial tentacles (3)413.4242.4312.4312 (1)1.11.11.11.11 (1)2.12.12.12.12 (2)431.4231.4231
Length of actinopharynx ~1/4 of gastric cavity ~2/5 of gastric cavity ~2/5 of gastric cavity ~1/2 to 1/3 of gastric cavity
Hyposulcus ~2/3 size of stomodeum = size of stomodeum = size of stomodeum = size of stomodeum
Oral disc diameter ~2cm 2 cm 3.5 cm ~0.5 cm
Mesentery attached to siphonoglyph Broad, 18 mesenteries attached Broad, 10 mesenteries attached Broad, 12-14 mesenteries attached Broad, 16 mesenteries attached
Directive mesenteries = length of Actinopharynx > length of Actinopharynx > length of Actinopharynx >length of Actinopharynx
P(C)2 Long, 3/4 of gastric cavity Short, 1/3 of gastric cavity Short, 1/3 of gastric cavity Long, 3/4 of gastric cavity
P(C)3 Very short, <1/8 of gastric cavity Very short, ~1/6 of gastric cavity Very short, ~1/5 of gastric cavity Short, ~1/5 of gastric cavity
M1 Almost to aboral pore Almost to aboral pore Almost to aboral pore Reach aboral pore
M3 Almost to aboral pore Almost to aboral pore Almost to aboral pore Reach aboral pore
Cnido-glandular tract of fertile mesenteries Present (short?) Present Present Present (short?)
Cnido-glandular tract of B Present (short?) Present (short) Present (short) Present (short?)
Acontioids Only in M1- M4 Only in M1-M6 M1-M3 (sometimes in M4 and M5) Only in M1- M5 or absent

Isarachnanthus bandanensis Carlgren, 1924

Isarachnanthus bandanensis Carlgren, 1924: 187–190, 195; Cutress 1977: 145; den Hartog 1977: 235; Cutress and Arneson 1987: 54, 56–58; den Hartog 1997: 352; Stampar et al. 2012: 1–2, 5–9.

Type locality

Neira, Banda Island, Indonesia.

Distribution

Indonesia, French Polynesia, and Hawaii (USA), shallow waters.

Remarks

This species was described based on two specimens from the Banda Islands, Indonesia. The diagram of mesenteries, part of cnidome, and tentacle organization are present in the original description, however, there are some evident similarities in relation to Isarachnanthus panamensis. Furthermore, unpublished molecular data indicate similarity between these two species and studies on this clade should be prioritized.

Type material

Zoological Museum of Amsterdam (now Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden) – (ZMA.COEL.000209 – Lectotype/ ZMA.COEL.000210 – Paralectotype).

Isarachnanthus maderensis (Johnson, 1861)

Saccanthus maderensis Johnson, 1861: 305–306; Andres 1883: 346

Cerianthus maderensis: Pax 1908: 262–263;

In part Cerianthus membranaceus Pax 1908: 464–465, 497–498

Arachnanthus nocturnus: Ocaña et al. 2000b: 107; Wirtz et al. 2003: 114–116

Isarachnanthus cruzi Brito, 1986: 174–181

? Cerianthus sp. Torelli 1963: 714–715

Isarachnanthus maderensis: Molodtsova 2003: 249–253; Stampar et al. 2012: 1–9; Stampar and Morandini 2017: 689–693

Type locality

Madeira Island, Portugal.

Distribution

Madeira Island (Portugal), Ascension Island, Rocas Atoll (Brazil), Caribbean Sea, (?) Mediterranean Sea; at 2–30 m depth.

Remarks

This species was described by Johnson (1861) from Madeira Island. However, the first detailed morphological characterization was presented by Brito (1986) (as I. cruzi). The delimitation of this species is quite complicated, as according to Stampar et al. (2012) only molecular data or morphometric data of the cnidome can be used to compare to other species of the genus. The distribution of this species is quite wide, from oceanic islands of the South Atlantic to the Caribbean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea (Stampar and Morandini 2017).

Type material

Not found in this study.

Isarachnanthus nocturnus (den Hartog, 1977)

Cerianthus natans: Verrill 1901: 47

Ceriantheopsis sp. Pax 1924: 94, 118–120

Arachnanthus nocturnus den Hartog, 1977: 221–230; Cairns et al. 1986: 192–193; Uchida and Soyama 2001: 142, 150, 152 Wirtz et al. 2003: 115–116;

Isarachnanthus nocturnus: Molodtsova 2000: 15,17; Molodtsova 2003: 251–252; Stampar et al. 2012: 1–9

Isarachnanthus sp. Rodriguez et al. 2011: 51; 52, 54

Tessera gemmaria Goy, 1979: 288–289; Rodriguez et al. 2011: 51–55; Stampar et al. 2015c: 2162

Type locality

Piscadera Bay, Curaçao, Dutch Caribbean.

Distribution

Caribbean Sea, South Atlantic (Argentina; Brazil), at 1–20 m depth.

Remarks

This species was described by den Hartog (1977) based on specimens from Curaçao. The specific epithet is related to the nocturnal behavior of this species. This is the most studied species of the genus, as the larval development has been described and the taxonomy has been reviewed with molecular data (Stampar et al. 2012, 2015c). Molodtsova (2003) argued that this species is only a synonym of Isarachnanthus maderensis, however, based on molecular and micrometric data (Stampar et al. 2012) it has been shown that these two species are distinct.

Type material

Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (former Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie) – RMNH.COEL.11364 (Holotype).

Isarachnanthus panamensis Carlgren, 1924

Isarachnanthus panamensis Carlgren, 1924: 190–193, 195; Carlgren 1940: 6, 11, 13–14; Molodtsova 2003: 251; Stampar et al. 2012: 1–2

Type locality

Taboga, Panama (Pacific coast).

Distribution

Only known from shallow water at the type locality

Remarks

This species was described from the Panama coast based on three specimens. The description is also detailed, including two mesentery diagrams. Thus, variation in mesenterial organization is quite evident, especially in relation to the size of directive mesenteries. As discussed above, regarding Isarachnanthus bandanensis, these two species are very similar in terms of both morphological and molecular data and further studies are needed.

Type material

Zoological Museum of Amsterdam (now Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden) – ZMA.COEL .000211) (holotype).

Key to species

* Species with limited information on their anatomy, therefore key must be used with caution.

1a Ceriantharia with mesenteries organized in doublets (Spirularia) 2
1b Ceriantharia with mesenteries organized in quartets (Penicillaria) 16
2a Ceriantharia with cnidorage (botrucnidae) 3
2b Ceriantharia without cnidorage (botrucnidae) 6
3a Cnidorage on appendages united as botrucnidae 4
3b Cnidorage over mesenteries 5
4a P-mesenteries (P2) and M-mesenteries (M3) long, almost to aboral pore Botruanthus benedeni (Torrey & Kleeburger, 1909)
4b P-mesenteries (P2) and M-mesenteries (M3) short, 1/2 to 1/3 of gastric cavity Botruanthus mexicanus Stampar, González-Muñoz & Morandini, 2016
5a Directive mesenteries much longer than hyposulcus Botrucnidifer novergicus Carlgren, 1912
5b Directive mesenteries shorter or equal than hyposulcus Botrucnidifer shtokmani Molodtsova, 2001
6a Ceriantharia with all mesenteries except directives fertile 7
6b Ceriantharia with second couple of protomesenteries (P) short and sterile 8
6c Ceriantharia with second couple of protomesenteries (P) long and fertile, mesenteries in quartets m, B, M, b 11
6d Ceriantharia with second couple of protomesenteries (P) long and fertile, mesenteries in quartets M, B, m, b 12
7a Directive mesenteries of the same length as protomesenteries 3 (P3) Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis (Mello-Leitão, 1919)
7b Directive mesenteries shorter than protomesenteries 3 (P3) Ceriantheomorphe ambonensis (Kwietniewski, 1898)
7c Directive mesenteries longer than protomesenteries 3 (P3) Ceriantheomorphe adelita Lopes, Morandini & Stampar in Lopes et al., 2019
8a Number of marginal tentacles – less than 90 9
8b Number of marginal tentacles – more than 115 10
9a Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than ¾ of metamesenteries 1 (M1) and 6 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Pachycerianthus schlenzae Stampar, Silveira & Morandini, 2014
9b Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than ¾ of metamesenteries 1 (M1) and more than 90 marginal tentacles Pachycerianthus johnsoni (Torrey & Kleeburger, 1909)
9c Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than ¾ of metamesenteries 1 (M1) and less than 70 marginal tentacles Pachycerianthus fimbriatus (Kwietniewski, 1898)
9d Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than half of metamesenteries 1 (M1) and 4 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Pachycerianthus curacaoensis den Hartog, 1977
9e Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than metamesenteries 1 (M1), 6 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph and directive labial tentacle present Pachycerianthus delwynae Carter, 1995
9f Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than Metamesenteries 1 (M1) and 16 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Pachycerianthus aestuarii (Torrey & Kleeburger, 1909)
9g Metamesenteries 2 (M2) and metamesenteries 1 (m1) longer than metamesenteries 1 (M1) and 8 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Pachycerianthus insignis Carlgren, 1951
9h Metamesenteries 2 (M2) and metamesenteries 2 (m2) longer than metamesenteries 1 (M1) and 8 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Pachycerianthus monostichus McMurrich, 1910
9i Metamesenteries 1 (m1) longer than ¼ of Metamesenteries 1 (M1) and 6 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Pachycerianthus solitarius van Beneden, 1924
10a Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than metamesenteries 1 (M1) and metamesenteries 1 (m1) longer than than ¾ of M1 Pachycerianthus borealis Kingsley, 1904
10b Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than metamesenteries 1 (M1) and metamesenteries 1 (m1) longer than 1/3 of M1, labial directive tentacle present Pachycerianthus longistriatus Carter, 1995
10c Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than ¾ of metamesenteries 1 (M1) and metamesenteries 1 (m1) longer than 1/3 of M1 Pachycerianthus magnus Uchida, 1979
10d Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than 1/4 of metamesenteries 1 (M1) and metamesenteries 1 (m1) longer than 1/3 of M1 Pachycerianthus maua Carlgren, 1900
10e Metamesenteries 2 (M2) longer than metamesenteries 1 (M1) and metamesenteries 1 (m1) longer than 1/3 of M1, labial directive tentacle absent Pachycerianthus multiplicatus Carlgren, 1912
10f Polyp with more than 160 tentacles from Australia Pachycerianthus nobilis (Haddon & Shackleton, 1894)
10g Polyp with more than 160 tentacles from Mediterranean Sea Pachycerianthus dohrni van Beneden, 1924
11a Polyp with up to 60 marginal tentacles and directive labial tentacle absent Ceriantheopsis lineata Stampar, Scarabino, Pastorino & Morandini, 2015
11b Polyp with up to 70 marginal tentacles and cnido-glandular tract at fertile mesenteries present Ceriantheopsis austroafricana Molodtsova, Griffiths & Acuña, 2011
11c Polyp with up to 70 marginal tentacles and cnido-glandular tract at fertile mesenteries absent Ceriantheopsis nikitai Molodtsova, 2001
11d Polyp with more than 90 marginal tentacles and short directive mesenteries Ceriantheopsis americana (Agassiz in Verrill, 1864)
12a Polyp from India (shallow waters) with more than 150 marginal tentacles Cerianthus andamanensis Alcock, 1893*
12b Polyp from India (deep sea ~ 5000 m) with up to 40 marginal tentacles and directive labial tentacle absent Cerianthus valdiviae Carlgren, 1912*
12c Polyp from North Atlantic (deep sea ~ 5000 m) with up to 30 marginal tentacles Cerianthus bathymetricus Moseley, 1877*
12d Polyp from Red Sea (shallow waters) with up to 20 marginal tentacles Cerianthus medusula (Klunzinger, 1877)*
12e Description with information about mesentery organization and tentacle distribution 13
13a Species from Pacific Ocean 14
13b Species from Atlantic Ocean 15
14a Protomesenteries 2 (P2) short, sterile and metamesenteries 1 (M1) reach or almost reach the aboral pore, marginal/ labial tentacles in 4 pseudocycles Cerianthus (?) mortenseni Carlgren, 1924
14b Polyp from Japan, Korea or China, marginal tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 2, labial tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 3 Cerianthus filiformis Carlgren, 1924
14c Polyp from Japan, marginal tentacles in 3 pseudocycles and directive in position 2, labial tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 2 Cerianthus japonicus Carlgren, 1924
14d Polyp from Japan, marginal tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 2, labial tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 2 Cerianthus punctatus Uchida, 1979
14e Polyp from Indonesia, marginal tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 2, labial tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 2 Cerianthus sulcatus Kwietniewski, 1898
14f Polyp from Indonesia, marginal tentacles in 2 pseudocycles and directive in position 1, labial tentacles in 4 pseudocycles and directive in position 2 Cerianthus taedus McMurrich, 1910
15a Polyp from North Sea/North Atlantic, directive labial tentacle absent, 4 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Cerianthus lloydii Gosse, 1859
15b Polyp from Mediterranean Sea and Central Atlantic, directive labial tentacle present, 6 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Cerianthus membranaceus (Gmelin, 1791)
15c Polyp from Norwegian Sea, directive labial tentacle present, 4 mesenteries attached to siphonoglyph Cerianthus vogti Danielssen, 1890
15d Polyp from Namibia, mesenteries type M and m and P2 are almost of the same size Cerianthus malakhovi Molodtsova, 2001
16a Directive labial tentacle present 17
16b Directive labial tentacle absent 18
17a Polyp from Atlantic Ocean, microbasic P-mastigophore absent in column Isarachnanthus nocturnus (den Hartog, 1977)
17b Polyp from Atlantic Ocean, microbasic P-mastigophore present in column Isarachnanthus maderensis (Johnson, 1861)
17c Polyp from Pacific Ocean, directive labial tentacle in position 2 Isarachnanthus panamensis Carlgren, 1924
17d Polyp from Pacific Ocean, directive labial tentacle in position 3 Isarachnanthus bandanensis Carlgren, 1924
18a Polyp with 6 mesenteries attached to actinopharynx, protomesenteries 2 (P2) long (3/4 of gastric cavity) Arachnanthus sarsi Carlgren, 1912
18b Polyp with 4 mesenteries attached to actinopharynx, protomesenteries 2 (P2) short (1/2 of gastric cavity) Arachnanthus oligopodus (Cerfontaine, 1891)
18c Polyp with 12 mesenteries attached to actinopharynx, protomesenteries 2 (P2) very short (1/4 of gastric cavity) Arachnanthus bockii Carlgren, 1924
18d Polyp with 12 mesenteries attached to actinopharynx, protomesenteries 2 (P2) short (1/2 of gastric cavity) Arachnanthus australiae Carlgren, 1937
18e Polyp with 8 mesenteries attached to actinopharynx, protomesenteries 2 (P2) long (almost to aboral pole) Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi in Stampar et al. 2018

The species Cerianthus incertus, Cerianthus roulei, Cerianthus vas and Cerianthus stimpsonii are not included in key due to absence of characters.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by São Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP 2015/24408-4, 2016/50389-0, 2019/03552-0, CNPq (PROTAX) 440539/2015-3 and CNPq (Research Productivity Scholarship) 301293/2019-8 to SNS, FAPESP 2016/04560-9 to MMM, FAPESP 2015/21007-9 and CNPq 309440/2019-0 to ACM, and FAPESP 2018/07622-0, 2019/14236-2 to TBS. SNS, HC and CL were supported by CAPES/CNPQ; PROTAX II 88887.301759/2018-00. SNS was also supported by Australian Museum and Research Institute (AMRI) Visiting Collection Fellowship. We are grateful to several curators and researchers who helped with information or providing access to materials (Dr Stephen Keable (Australian Museum), Dr Sadie Mills (NIWA Invertebrate Collection), Dr Bert Hoeksema (Naturalis Biodiversity Center), Dr Torkild Bakken (NTNU University Museum), Dr Kensuke Yanagi (Natural History Museum and Institute Chiba), Dr So Ishida (Osaka Museum of Natural History), Dr Takuma Fujii (Kagoshima University), Dr Danwei Huang, Dr Neo Mei Lin and Dr Nicholas Yap (National University of Singapore), Dr Priscila Grohmann (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro), Dr Débora Pires (Museu Nacional – UFRJ), Dr Marymegan Daly (Ohio State University), Dr Stephen Cairns and Dr Allen Collins (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History), Dr Gustav Paulay (Florida Museum Science), Dr Fabrizio Scarabino (Centro Universitario Regional Este UDELAR), Dr Kennet Lundin (Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum), Dr Antonio Carlos Marques and Dr Alvaro E Migotto (Universidade de São Paulo), Dr Marcelo V Kitahara (Universidade Federal de São Paulo), Dr Victor Quintino and Dr Ana Rodriguez (Universidade de Avero), Dr Mark Vermeij (Caribbean Research and Management of Biodiversity), Dr Mark Gibbons (University of the Western Cape), Dr Adam Reitzel (University of North Carolina at Charlotte), Dr Jason Macrander (Florida Southern College), Dr Shin Kubota (Seto Marine Biological Laboratory), and Dr Andreja Ramsak (National Institute of Biology, Slovenia)). We are also grateful to the two reviewers and Dr Bert Hoeksema (Subject Editor) who provided constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. This is a publication of NP-BioMar-USP.

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