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Research Article
Systematics and Taxonomy of Tonatia saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae)
expand article infoMateo Basantes, Nicolás Tinoco, Paúl M. Velazco§|, Melinda J. Hofmann, Miguel E. Rodríguez-Posada, M. Alejandra Camacho
‡ Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador
§ American Museum of Natural History, New York, United States of America
| Arcadia University, Glenside, United States of America
¶ Grupo de Investigaciones Territoriales para el Uso y Conservación de la Biodiversidad, Bogotá, Colombia
Open Access

Abstract

The Stripe-headed Round-eared bat, Tonatia saurophila, includes three subspecies: Tonatia saurophila saurophila (known only from subfossil records in Jamaica), Tonatia saurophila bakeri (distributed from southeastern Mexico to northern Colombia, Venezuela west and north of the Cordillera de Mérida, and northwestern Ecuador), and Tonatia saurophila maresi (distributed in Venezuela east and south of the Cordillera de Mérida, the Guianas, Trinidad and Tobago, northeastern Brazil, and along the upper Amazon basin in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia). The last two subspecies are an attractive example to test predictions about the historical role of the Andes in mammalian diversification. Based on morphological descriptions, morphometric analyses, and phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitochondrial gene Cyt-b and the nuclear exon RAG2, this study evaluates the intraspecific relationships within Tonatia saurophila and the taxonomic status of the taxon. The three subspecies of T. saurophila are recognizable as full species: Tonatia bakeri, Tonatia maresi, and Tonatia saurophila. The latter is restricted to its type locality and possibly is extinct. Tonatia bakeri, in addition to being larger than T. maresi, is morphologically distinguishable by possessing an acute apex at the posterior edge of the skull, a well-developed clinoid process, and relatively robust mandibular condyles, and by lacking a diastema between the canine and the first lower premolar. The genetic distance between T. bakeri and T. maresi is 7.65%.

Resumen

El Murciélago de orejas redondas de cabeza rayada, Tonatia saurophila, incluye tres subespecies: Tonatia saurophila saurophila (conocida sólo por registros subfósiles en Jamaica), Tonatia saurophila bakeri (distribuida desde el sureste de México hasta el norte de Colombia, Venezuela al oeste y norte de la Cordillera de Mérida, y el noroeste de Ecuador), y Tonatia saurophila maresi (distribuida en Venezuela al este y sur de la Cordillera de Mérida, las Guayanas, Trinidad y Tobago, el noreste de Brasil, y la vertiente amazónica de los Andes de Colombia, Ecuador, Peru y Bolivia). Las dos últimas subespecies representan un ejemplo atractivo para poner a prueba predicciones sobre el rol histórico de los Andes en la diversificación de mamíferos. Con base en descripciones morfológicas, análisis morfométricos y una reconstrucción filogenética empleando el gen mitocondrial Cyt-b y el gen nuclear RAG2, este estudio evalúa las relaciones intraspecíficas dentro de Tonatia saurophila y el estatus taxonómico del taxón. Las tres subespecies de T. saurophila son reconocidas como especies plenas: Tonatia bakeri, T. maresi y T. saurophila. Esta última está restringida a la localidad tipo y posiblemente está extinta. Tonatia bakeri, además de ser de mayor tamaño que T. maresi, se diferencia morfológicamente por poseer un ápice agudo en el borde posterior del cráneo, un proceso clinoideo bien desarrollado y cóndilos mandibulares relativamente robustos, y por carecer de un diastema entre el canino y el primer premolar inferior. La distancia genética entre T. bakeri y T. maresi es 7.65%.

Keywords

Andes, Phyllostominae, Tonatia saurophila, T. saurophila bakeri, T. saurophila maresi

Introduction

The Neotropical bat genus Tonatia Gray, 1827 (Phyllostomidae, Phyllostominae) includes two species: T. saurophila and T. bidens. This genus is widely distributed from the southern Mexico to northern Argentina and Paraguay (Williams and Genoways 2008). Members of the genus Tonatia are easily differentiated from other phyllostomines by a combination of the following characteristics: a single pair of lower incisors; three pairs of lower premolars; a tail that extends to the middle of the uropatagium; short and wide ears that are not joined by a band of skin on the forehead; absence of a notch on the lower margin of the pinna; hairy face, ears, forearms, legs, and feet; and postorbital constriction greater than 5 mm (Williams et al. 1995; Williams and Genoways 2008).

Since its description in 1823 the taxonomic history of Tonatia has been controversial. Spix (1823) described Vampyrus bidens based on a single specimen from Bahia, Brazil. Four years later, Gray (1827) described the genus Tonatia and considered V. bidens as its type species. A decade later, Gray (1838) described Phyllostoma childreni, a species with similar characteristics to V. bidens, based on a single specimen without a precise location in South America. Concurrently, d’Orbigny (1836) described the genus Lophostoma based on a specimen of L. silvicola collected in Bolivia, the only species he included in the genus (d’Orbigny 1836; d’Orbigny and Gervais 1847). Dobson (1878) listed three species for Lophostoma: L. bidens (Spix 1823), L. brasiliense Peters, 1867, and L. amblyotis Peters, 1867; he also listed L. silvicolum as a junior synonym of L. amblyotis. Additionality, Dobson (1878) synonymized V. bidens and P. childreni under the name Lophostoma bidens. Based on Dobson’s taxonomic arrangement and because L. bidens was assigned to the genus Tonatia Gray, 1827, Palmer (1898) treated Lophostoma as a junior synonym of Tonatia Gray, 1827. More than a century later, Koopman and Williams (1951) described Tonatia saurophila, based on fragmentary subfossil material found by H. E. Anthony (1919–1920) in two caves in Jamaica (Wallingford and Dairy). Later, Koopman (1976) considered T. saurophila as a subspecies of Tonatia bidens. The synonymy of Lophostoma under Tonatia was not challenged until studies of G-banded karyotypes, allozymes, and albumin immunology (Patton and Baker 1978; Baker and Bickham 1980; Arnold et al. 1983; Honeycutt and Sarich 1987) showed that the T. bidens complex was divergent from the other species of the genus. Lee et al. (2002) examined DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial ribosomal genes and found significant differentiation and paraphyly within the genus Tonatia. Based on these results, Lee et al. (2002) recommended restricting Tonatia to T. bidens and T. saurophila and transferring brasiliense, carrikeri, evotis, schulzi, and silvicola to Lophostoma. Based on morphological and morphometric differences, Williams et al. (1995) elevated T. bidens saurophila from subspecies to species level, resulting in Tonatia to include two species: Tonatia bidens and T. saurophila. Furthermore, Williams et al. (1995) described two subspecies in T. saurophila: T. s. bakeri and T. s. maresi.

The Stripe-headed Round-eared bat, Tonatia saurophila, is characterized by presenting a secondary process in the mastoid that partially obscures the base of the mastoid bulla. It also presents a conspicuous space between the cingula of the lower canines, lower premolars relatively uncrowded with the first lower premolar slightly overlapping on the second premolar, and a clear line of short fur on top of the head stretching laterally between the eyes and crown (Williams et al. 1995; Tirira 2017). Currently three subspecies are recognized: T. saurophila saurophila (only subfossil records; type locality: Balaclava, Jamaica); T. saurophila bakeri, distributed from southern Mexico southward into South America to northern and western Colombia, northwestern Ecuador, and Venezuela (west and north of the Cordillera de Mérida); and T. saurophila maresi distributed in Venezuela (east and south of the Cordillera de Mérida), the Guianas, northeastern Brazil, and along upper Amazon basin of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil (Williams et al. 1995; Williams and Genoways 2008).

Tonatia saurophila is in need of a taxonomic and systematic revision. Its wide geographic distribution in Central and South America, which includes populations on both sides of the Andes, raises questions regarding the role of this mountain range as a potential barrier to gene flow and a promoter of diversification. The phylogenetic relationships between the species of Tonatia, and within the subspecies of T. saurophila, have not been investigated. Herein, we aim to evaluate the taxonomic status of the subspecies of T. saurophila based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular data. We discuss the role of the Andes in the diversification and the taxonomic substructure of this taxon in light of the results.

Methods

Material included

Specimens examined and tissues used in this study are deposited in the following institutions: AMNH, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; CEBIO, Centro de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Lima, Peru; FMNH, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA; ICN, Mammals Collection “Alberto Cadena García” at Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional, Bogotá, Colombia; INABIO, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Quito, Ecuador; MEPN, Museo de Historia Natural Gustavo Orcés V., Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador; MUSM, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru; QCAZ, Sección Mastozoología, Museo de Zoología, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Sampling and measurements

We examined 137 adult specimens of Tonatia saurophila (68 females, 67 males, and two specimens of undetermined sex), of which 31 were collected in localities west of the Andes, and 106 from localities east of the Andes (Appendix 1). We evaluated 21 craniodental and external measurements based on the external and osteological characteristics defined by Williams et al. (1995) and Velazco and Gardner (2012). The measurements of the body and skull were taken from the left side and of the jaw from the right side. All measurements were made using digital calipers with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. The craniodental and external measurements used in this study were: FA, forearm length; METIII, metacarpal III length; METIV, metacarpal IV length; METV, metacarpal V length; TiL, tibia length; HF, hind-foot length; GLS, greatest length of skull; CB, condylobasal length; CCL, condylocanine length; CIL, condyloincisive length; BB, braincase breadth; PB, postorbital constriction breadth; MPW, mastoid process width; ZB, zygomatic breadth; BC, breadth across upper canines; PL, palatal length; DENL, dentary length; COH, coronoid height; MANDL, mandibular toothrow length; MTRL, maxillary toothrow length; and M2M2, width at M2s.

Morphological and morphometric analyses

In order to identify morphological differences among T. saurophila populations across their range, 23 specimens from localities west of the Andes and 77 from localities east of the Andes were examined. From these observations, each individual was examined and variation patterns of various qualitative and discrete characteristics were described, following Velazco (2005). Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum values) were obtained from all the measured specimens. Data transformation was performed through a standardization process. Differences between sexes and between subspecies were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). Factorial points of these multivariate tests were graphically plotted in morphospace to show relationships between subspecies. All tests were done using the statistical software package PAST v. 1.0 (Hammer et al. 2001).

Molecular analyses

Tissue samples from 15 specimens stored in the QCAZ mammal collection were used for the molecular analysis. DNA was obtained from liver, muscle, or tail preserved in 95% ethanol and stored at −80 °C, as well as from dried skin fragments from specimens in fluid. The DNA was extracted using the salt protocol (Bilton and Jaarola 1996), modified in the use of 300 μl of ethanol for the washes instead of 1000 μl. The concentration and quality of DNA was measured using the NanoDropTM1000 v. 3.7 spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific). From the stock solution, aliquots of 20 ng/μl of DNA concentration were prepared to be used in PCR reactions. Sequences of the Cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and the Recombination Activating Gene (RAG2) were amplified and sequenced for this study. The following primer pairs were used for the Cyt-b gene: forward primer glo7L and reverse primer glo6H, and for RAG2: forward primer RAG2-F1 and reverse primer RAG2-R1. Thermal profile for the Cyt-b PCR followed Hoffmann and Baker (2001), and for RAG2, PCR followed Baker et al. (2000). The amplicons were visually evaluated with gel electrophoresis and subsequently purified with ExoSap-IT (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK). Amplicons were then sequenced by Sanger method at Macrogen Inc. (Seoul, South Korea).

Sequences were edited using Geneious R11 (https://www.geneious.com), and aligned using the ClustalW tool. We calculated interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances using software MEGA v. 7.0 (Kumar et al. 2015); to get corrected distances we used the Kimura 2 Parameters. The best partition strategies along with corresponding models of evolution were obtained in PartitionFinder v. 1.1 (Lanfear et al. 2012). For the Bayesian Inference Analysis (BI) the best substitution models for Cyt-b were: first position K80+G, second position HKY+I and third position GTR+I. For RAG2 they were: first and second position HKY+G and for third position K80+G, while for the Maximum Likelihood Analysis (ML) substitution model used was GTR. The ML analysis was conducted using RAXML (Stamatakis 2014). Nodal support was determined by 1000 bootstrap replicates. The BI analysis was conducted using MrBayes v. 3.2.2 (Ronquist et al. 2012). Four Markov chains were run twice for 10,000,000 generations. Trees were sampled every 1,000 generations resulting in 20,000 trees saved per analysis. Adequacy of chain mixing was assessed by examining effective sample sizes (ESS) in Tracer, with ESS > 200 considered as satisfactory and plotting the –ln L per generation. After analyzing convergence, chain mixing, and sampling, the first 1000 trees sampled were discarded as “burn-in”. The remaining trees were used to obtain a consensus tree by 50% majority rule. To evaluate the monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of our Tonatia samples, several phyllostomines were selected as outgroup (Table 1), which have been used in previous works (Lee et al. 2002; Velazco and Cadenillas 2011; Camacho et al. 2016). The outgroup sequences were obtained from GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank).

Table 1.

Specimens used for phylogenetic analyses. Species, museum and tissue ID numbers, and GenBank accession numbers are given for the Tonatia and outgroup samples used in the phylogenetic analyses presented in this study. *Misidentified specimens.

Species Specimen Catalog # GenBank # GenSeq Nomenclature
Cyt-b RAG2
Chrotopterus auritus CMNH68638 NA AF316442 genseq-4 RAG2
CMNH76767 FJ155481 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
AMNH / AMCC110459 KC783057 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
FURB-SLA1799 NA DQ903851 genseq-4 RAG2
Gardnerycteris crenulatum TTU33287 NA AF316472 genseq-4 RAG2
MN36684 NA DQ903850 genseq-4 RAG2
CMNH25230 FJ155478 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
Gardnerycteris keenani MUSM19346 /RCO360 MG018960 MG018969 genseq-4 Cyt-b, RAG2
MUSM19347 /SVS0606 MG018961 MG018970 genseq-4 Cyt-b, RAG2
MUSM19190 / ESP003 MG018962 MG018971 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
MUSM19348 / VPT2959 MG018963 MG018972 genseq-4 Cyt-b, RAG2
Gardnerycteris koepckeae MUSM41327 / EA216 MG018959 MG018968 genseq-4 Cyt-b, RAG2
Lophostoma brasiliense AMNH267103 NA AF316489 genseq-4 RAG2
QCAZ12957 NA MN585262 genseq-4 RAG2
QCAZ13837 NA MN585258 genseq-4 RAG2
QCAZ15777 NA MN585254 genseq-4 RAG2
ROM106608 FJ155486 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
NA JF923842 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
AMNH / AMCC110343 NA KC783118 genseq-4 RAG2
Lophostoma carrikeri ROM107190 JF923843 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM107391 JF923844 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
QCAZ13578 KU886210 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
QCAZ13994 KU886211 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
QCAZ4935 KU886212 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
Lophostoma evotis TTU61070 / TK40341 NA AF442080 genseq-4 RAG2
ROM95625 FJ155491 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM95626 JF923845 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
TTU84384 JF923846 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
Lophostoma occidentalis MUSM19334 JF923847 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
TTU85277 JF923848 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
TTU85292 / QCAZ6500 JF923849 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
Lophostoma schulzi TK18833 / AMNH267106 NA AF442079 genseq-4 RAG2
F38318 FJ155485 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM101128 JF923850 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
Lophostoma silvicolum TK56716 FJ155493 AF442081 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
TK56635 JF923852 AF442082 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
TK18832 / AMNH267107 NA AF442083 genseq-4 RAG2
ROM100949 FJ155492 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
MSB68337 JF923851 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
CM63684 JF923853 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
CM63669 JF923854 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
TTU84904 JF923855 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
TTU84930 JF923856 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM104232 JF923857 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
F38068 JF923858 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
FMNH203542 JF923859 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
CM98608 JF923860 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
CM78340 JF923861 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
CM78337 JF923862 NA genseq-4 Cyt-b
AN1918 DQ903830 DQ903849 genseq-4 Cyt-b, RAG2
T4497 NA HG380330 genseq-4 RAG2
Mimon bennetti MN36387 DQ903832 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
Mimon cozumelae ROM96534 NA KM362064 genseq-4 Cyt- b
Phyllostomus discolor NA HM470153 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
NA HM470154 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
NA HM470155 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
NA HM470156 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
NA HM470157 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM112692 NA KM362066 genseq-4 RAG2
Phyllostomus discolor* Pdis5655 NA FN641681 genseq-4 RAG2
Phyllostomus elongatus AMNH / AMCC110396 KC783056 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
C2739 KU295471 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
Phyllostomus hastatus CMNH78333 FJ155479 AF316479 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
Phylloderma stenops CMNH63614 NA AF316480 genseq-4 RAG2
QCAZ13589 NA MN585261 genseq-4 RAG2
Tonatia bakeri QCAZ9233 MN585249 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM104215 NA MN585268 genseq-4 RAG2
QCAZ9236 NA MN585270 genseq-4 RAG2
QCAZ2350 MN585247 MN585274 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
QCAZ8627 MN585248 MN585272 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
QCAZ9234 MN585250 MN585271 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
Tonatia bidens TK56633 FJ155489 AF442087 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
MVZ185673 FJ155490 AF442088 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
MVZ185959 JF923863 AF442089 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
Tonatia bidens* MN37301 DQ903829 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
Tonatia maresi NA NA AF203763 genseq-4 RAG2
ROM103210 / TK49889 NA AF442084 genseq-4 RAG2
TK46028 NA AF442085 genseq-4 RAG2
TK49885 / NK30034/ MSB70286 NA AF442086 genseq-4 RAG2
T4488 NA HG380332 genseq-4 RAG2
ROM103210 FJ155488 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM103414 JF923864 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM119530 MN585236 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM125481 MN585237 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM125512 MN585238 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
QCAZ10950 MN585241 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
QCAZ11797 MN585242 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
QCAZ12925 MN585243 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
QCAZ13364 MN585253 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
ROM105914 NA MN585267 genseq-4 RAG2
ROM122096 NA MN585266 genseq-4 RAG2
QCAZ14405 NA MN585257 genseq-4 RAG2
ROM104459 MN585234 MN585269 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
ROM112583 MN585235 MN585265 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
ROM125100 MN585239 MN585264 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
ROM125926 MN585240 MN585263 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
QCAZ13787 MN585244 MN585260 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
QCAZ13788 MN585245 MN585259 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
QCAZ14407 MN585252 MN585256 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
QCAZ14606 MN585246 MN585255 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
QCAZ7017 MN585251 MN585273 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
Trachops cirrhosus TK19132 FJ155483 NA genseq-4 Cyt- b
AMNH267129 DQ233669 AF316490 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
MN36720 DQ903828 DQ903852 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2
NMNH584479 NA KF569355 genseq-4 RAG2
Vampyrum spectrum TTU61070 / TK40370 FJ155482 AF316495 genseq-4 Cyt- b, RAG2

Results

Morphometric analyses

The statistical analyses performed on data obtained from measurements of the entire sample set of Tonatia saurophila found no sexual dimorphism within groups for the analyzed variables (contrary to that observed in Tonatia bidens and in some species of the genus Lophostoma; Davis and Carter 1978; Williams et al. 1995). In addition, we found that specimens from Central America and the western foothills of the Andes in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador (Tonatia saurophila bakeri) share similar morphometric characteristics that separate them from specimens from Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil and individuals from eastern foothills of the mountain range in Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (Tonatia saurophila maresi), which form morphometrically independent groups (Figs 1, 2). The subspecies T. saurophila bakeri presents larger craniodental and external measures than T. saurophila maresi (PCA, percentage of variation: 71.3%; DFA, percentage of variation: 86.84%). CCL, GLS, CIL, MTRL, MANDL, and ZB are variables that contribute the most in discriminating these two subspecies (Table 2).

Figure 1. 

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of two morphometric groups. Projection of 137 specimens of Tonatia saurophila from western (squares) and eastern (rhombuses) localities with respect to the Andes on PC1 and PC2 of a Principal Component Analysis with 21 morphometric cranio-dental and external variables.

Figure 2. 

Discriminant Function Analysis of six morphometric groups. Projection of 137 specimens of Tonatia saurophila, assembled in six groups according to their localities of origin: western Colombia and Ecuador (squares); eastern Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (diamonds); Caribbean of Colombia and Venezuela (circles); Guyana, French Guiana, and northeastern Brazil (ovals); Central America (crosses); and Trinidad and Tobago (triangles), on DF1 and DF2 of a Discriminant Function Analysis with 21 morphometric cranio-dental and external variables.

Table 2.

Measurements (in mm) of Tonatia bakeri and Tonatia maresi. Measurements are given for the holotypes and for the specimens included in this study (mean and observed range). Holotype data taken from Williams et al. (1995).

Measurements Tonatia bakeri Tonatia bakeri Tonatia maresi Tonatia maresi
Holotype specimens Holotype specimens
Calcar length 20.00 19.41 (16.37–21.59) 16.00 18.49 (12.10–22.66)
Hindfoot length 15.00 16.22 (13.73–20.00) 13.50 14.69 (11.92–18.00)
Length of ear from notch 14.00 30.00
Length of forearm 60.60 59.69 (57.45–62.66) 55.00 55.92 (52.70–60.00)
Metacarpal III length 50.80 (48.56–53.13) 48.11 (43.48–51.73)
Metacarpal IV length 51.61 (49.62–54.27) 49.21 (44.09–52.36)
Metacarpal V length 53.38 (51.43–56.31) 50.94 (45.42–54.37)
Tail length 36.00 14.93 (8.38–21.00) 19.00 16.76 (4.55–25.00)
Tibia length 29.81 (26.51–31.69) 27.00 (24.00–30.77)
Total length 105.00 94.00
Breadth of braincase 11.70 10.75 (10.46–11.29) 10.50 10.41 (9.68–11.85)
Condylobasal length 25.30 25.51 (24.50–26.73) 24.00 23.79 (22.31–25.17)
Condylocanine length 25.03 (24.25–26.00) 23.42 (22.28–24.69)
Condyloincisive length 25.08 (24.91–26.86) 24.22 (22.88–25.55)
Coronoid height 7.61 (6.94–8.07) 7.07 (6.33–7.71)
Greatest length of skull 30.20 29.73 (28.54–30.78) 28.20 27.90 (26.01–29.38)
Mastoid breadth 13.50 13.07 (12.69–13.45) 12.90 12.55 (11.77–13.35)
Palatal length 13.82 (12.59–14.61) 12.62 (9.05–13.65)
Palatal width at canines 2.47 (1.78–3.13) 2.38 (1.65–3.97)
Postorbital constriction breadth 5.60 5.80 (5.41–6.18) 5.30 5.47 (5.05–6.10)
Zygomatic breadth 15.00 13.81 (12.80–14.85) 14.30 13.41 (10.99–14.52)
Breadth across lower incisors 1.60 1.80
Breadth across upper canines 5.90 5.72 (5.19–6.05) 5.60 5.41 (5.03–5.92)
Breadth across upper molars 9.10 8.56 (8.24–9.16) 8.30 8.12 (7.46–8.88)
Dentary length 18.85 (18.29–19.86) 17.65 (16.45–18.61)
Height of crown of lower incisor 1.50 1.60
Length of maxillary toothrow 10.10 10.34 (9.92–10.81) 9.20 9.52 (9.13–10.13)
Mandibular toothrow length 11.37 (10.81–11.88) 10.51 (9.95–11.11)
Molariform toothrow length 7.44 (5.27–8.34) 6.44 (4.94–8.06)

Morphological analyses

Four patterns of cranial and morphological variation were recognized: (1) from a dorsal view of the skull, the posterior edge of the cranial cavity in T. saurophila maresi presents a blunt vertex due to presence of a poorly developed sagittal process, whereas T. saurophila bakeri presents an acute apex due to presence of a well-developed sagittal process (Fig. 3a, b); (2) in an occlusal view of jaw, the mandibular condyle is feeble in T. saurophila maresi and robust in T. saurophila bakeri (Fig. 3c, d); (3) in lateral view of mandible, the diastema between canine and first premolar is small in T. saurophila bakeri, while in T. saurophila maresi the diastema is larger (Fig. 4a, b); and, (4) in view through the foramen magnum (basioccipital view), the clinoid process is well developed in T. saurophila bakeri and poorly developed or absent in T. saurophila maresi (Fig. 4c, d).

Figure 3. 

Illustrations showing the differences of the posterior edge of the cranium and the mandibular condyle between Tonatia bakeri and T. maresi. In the dorsal view of the skull, arrows point to the posterior border of the cranium in a T. bakeri and b T. maresi. In the occlusal view of the mandible, arrows point the mandibular condyle of c T. bakeri and d T. maresi.

Figure 4. 

Differences in the separation of the canine with respect to the first premolar, and the development of the clinoid process between Tonatia bakeri and T. maresi. Illustrations of the lateral view of the mandible, arrows indicate the separation between the canine and the first premolar in a T. bakeri and b T. maresi. In the posterior basioccipital view, arrows indicate the clinoid process in c T. bakeri (QCAZ 9754) and d T. maresi (QCAZ 4972).

Externally, the coloration of the nose leaf, warts of lower lip, and skin surrounding the mouth is lighter in T. saurophila bakeri, whereas the skin color in those areas in T. saurophila maresi is darker. In addition, T. saurophila maresi has darker pelage that present patches of hair with reddish tips, while the pelage in T. saurophila bakeri is lighter and uniform in color (Fig. 5).

Figure 5. 

Differences in the dorsal pelage between Tonatia bakeri and T. maresi. Dorsal view of the body in a T. bakeri (QCAZ 9234) showing lighter and uniform colored pelage, and b T. maresi (QCAZ 15498) showing darker pelage and patches of hair with reddish tips.

Phylogenetic analyses

Maximum Likelihood and BI analyses of the two genes analyzed independently (Cyt-b and RAG2; Fig. 6) recovered the genus Tonatia as monophyletic and as sister to a clade that included representatives of Phyllostomus, Phylloderma, Gardnerycteris, and Lophostoma (Fig. 6). Within Tonatia, the monophyly of T. bidens was strongly supported. Within T. saurophila, two well-supported clades were recovered. One clade included samples from western Ecuador, Panama, and Costa Rica and corresponds to the subspecies T. saurophila bakeri. The second clade included samples from eastern Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and the Guiana Shield and corresponds to T. saurophila maresi. Both clades exhibit high support values (Fig. 6).

The Cyt-b gene topology showed two clades within T. saurophila maresi. Samples from the Guiana Shield, Brazil, and Peru formed a poorly supported clade, while samples from eastern Ecuador formed a clade with high support (Fig. 6). We recovered the sample DQ903829 identified as T. bidens (Brazil) nested within the clade of T. s. maresi. The exon RAG2 topology for T. s. maresi did not record these two clades. The sample FN641681 identified as P. discolor (Costa Rica) is located within the clade of T. s. bakeri (Fig. 6). In the case of the FN641681 sample, Dávalos et al. (2012) confirmed that the specimen was misidentified. The DQ903829 sample may have the same identification error due to the morphological complexity of the genus Tonatia and due to the use of few genetic samples from T. saurophila and T. bidens. This same misidentification could have occurred in previous works, but, in our case, when using more sequences of T. saurophila, the error was notorious.

Figure 6. 

Phylogenetic relationships within Tonatia based on Maximum-likelihood derived from the analyses of the RAG2 exon (top) and Cyt-b gene (below). Both consensus trees depict three strongly supported clades: T. bidens, T. s. bakeri, and T. s. maresi. The support of each node is represented by the values of posterior probability (PP) and bootstrap (BS), in the phylogeny only the values of PP < 0.90 and BS < 70 are presented. Nodal support is represented by posterior probabilities (<0.90), and bootstrap values (<70).

The average Cyt-b pairwise distance between clades from west of the Andes (T. s. bakeri) and east of the Andes (T. s. maresi) is 7.65% ± 0.65. The clades of T. s. bakeri and T. bidens exhibit a genetic differentiation of 13.66% ± 1.12, and the clades of T. s. maresi and T. bidens differ by 13.52% ± 1.02 (Table 3). Levels of intraspecific variation within T. s. bakeri and T. s. maresi are 1.73% ± 0.29 and 4.01% ± 0.3, respectively (Table 3). Within the T. s. maresi clade, the specimens grouped by the country of origin (e.g., Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, and the Guiana Shield) exhibit values between 3.51% and 5.88% (Table 4).

A century has passed since Harold E. Anthony recovered the subfossil material that was used by Koopman and Williams to describe T. saurophila. Despite numerous bat surveys since then throughout the West Indies, no additional records of this bat either alive or as subfossil remains have been confirmed. In spite of being known from fragmentary remains, morphological and morphometric differences have been found between the subfossil samples of T. saurophila and specimens of T. bakeri and T. maresi. Based on the aforementioned information we support the recognition of †Tonatia saurophila as an extinct full species, with a distribution restricted to Jamaica.

Table 3.

Corrected genetic distances and intraspecific variation, with standard deviation (bold, in parenthesis), between Tonatia species using the Cyt-b gene. Values above the diagonal represent the standard deviation.

T. maresi T. bidens T. bakeri
T. maresi (4.01, 0.37) 1.02 0.65
T. bidens 13.52 (0.06, 0.06) 1.12
T. bakeri 7.65 13.66 (1.73, 0.29)
Table 4.

Corrected genetic distances between samples of T. maresi grouped according to the country of origin. Values above the diagonal represent the standard deviation.

Brazil Guiana shield Peru Ecuador
Brazil 0.74 0.72 0.70
Guiana Shield 4.64 0.72 0.67
Peru 3.51 5.34 0.66
Ecuador 4.84 5.88 5.33

Taxonomy

Family Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825

Subfamily Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825

Genus Tonatia Gray, 1827

Tonatia saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951

Tonatia saurophila Koopman and Williams 1951: 11.

Tonatia bidens saurophila Koopman 1976: 45.

Tonatia saurophila saurophila Williams, Willig, and Reid 1995: 625.

Holotype

Adult, sex undetermined. Deposited at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH 147206), collected in 1919–1920 by H. E. Anthony (original field number J ½ T1) in “Wallingford Roadside Cave, Balaclava, St. Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica, British West Indies.” The specimen is a partial mandible from the cave deposits.

Paratype

Adult, sex undetermined. Deposited at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH 147207), collected in 1919–1920 by H. E. Anthony (original field number J ½ T2) from the same locality as the holotype. A second partial mandible from cave deposits.

Additional material

Adults, sex undetermined. Individuals of undetermined sex, deposited at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH 147205, 147211, 147212), collected in 1919–1920 by H. E. Anthony from Dairy Cave, Dry Harbour, St. Ann Parish, Jamaica. Fragments of rostra only (no lower jaws). The type series and this material are the only specimens available of T. saurophila.

Distribution

The only record of this species is based on the subfossil remains found by H. E. Anthony in the aforementioned caves in Jamaica (Koopman and Williams 1951; Fig. 7).

Figure 7. 

Geographic distribution of Tonatia saurophila†, T. bakeri, and T. maresi. Map of Central and South America showing the geographical distribution of T. saurophila† (subfossil records, Jamaica, type locality), T. bakeri, and T. maresi. Modified from Williams and Genoways (2008), and based on the localities of the specimens included in this study.

Diagnosis

Similar to Tonatia bidens, but differing in having: the axis of the talonid of m3 straight in an anteroposterior sense, instead of running obliquely in a lingual-labial direction; slightly lower coronoid; more bulbous forehead; a well-developed labial posterior lobe of the last upper premolar; overall size smaller (Koopman and Williams 1951).

Description

The holotype is a partial mandible. The mandible is comprised of the entire dentary bone except for the end of the angular process. All three molars are present along with the last premolar. Complete dental formula of the mandible can be determined from alveoli. There are two small roots, a large canine root and a single small incisor root in front of the last premolar. Also, the coronoid is moderately high. The last premolar is anteriorly squared and therefore the middle premolar is relatively larger (Koopman and Williams 1951). The subfossil fragment of the specimen AMNH 147205 (as shown in the description) includes the entire rostrum, except the extreme anterior end, almost the entire hard palate, and the roots of the teeth except the incisors. Also, the anterior border of the orbit rises obliquely to join the dorsal border. This subfossil also has a slightly bulbous forehead and the presence of an anterior lobe on the last premolar.

Measurements of the holotype taken by Koopman and Williams (1951) are: mandibular toothrow length, 9.8 mm, and depth of ramus behind last molar, 3.1mm. Also, measurements of the paratype taken from Koopman and Williams (1951) are: mandibular toothrow length, 9.5 mm; depth of ramus behind last molar, 2.9 mm; and coronoid height, 6.3 mm.

Comparisons

Tonatia saurophila is smaller than any other species within the genus. Tonatia saurophila differs from Tonatia bidens in having the axis of the talonid of m3 running not obliquely in a lingual-labial direction but straight anteroposteriorly, in having a somewhat more bulbous forehead, and in possessing a well-developed posterior lobe on the last premolar (Koopman and Williams 1951). On the other hand, T. saurophila differs from T. bakeri and T. maresi by having smaller craniodental measurements. Mandibular toothrow length in the holotype of T. saurophila is 9.8 mm, while in specimens of T. bakeri and T. maresi, analyzed in this study, the mandibular toothrow length averaged 11.37 mm and 10.51 mm, respectively. In addition, the coronoid height in the paratype of T. saurophila is 6.3 mm, while in specimens of T. bakeri and T. maresi, analyzed in this study, the coronoid height averaged 7.61 mm and 7.07 mm, respectively. Also, the axis of the talonid of the last molar running not obliquely in a lingual-labial direction, while tends to be oblique in T. bakeri and T. maresi.

Etymology

The etymology of the term Tonatia is unknown (Medellín and Arita 1989). The name saurophila is the union of the Latin terms saurus, lizard and philus, loving. This is because T. saurophila was described based on some subfossil material from the “Lizard” stratum of the Wallingford Roadside cave (Williams and Genoways 2008).

Remarks

In 1951, Koopman and Williams considered the fragmentary subfossil material found in the Jamaican caves as a new species. Then, Williams et al. (1995) recognized the Jamaican taxon as the subspecies Tonatia saurophila saurophila, along with two other subspecies (T. saurophila bakeri and T. saurophila maresi). Herein, we recognize T. bakeri and T. maresi as full species, and support that T. saurophila be considered as an extinct monotypic entity, as only subfossil specimens have been recorded in 1920, and there have been no new records since then.

Tonatia bakeri Williams, Willig & Reid, 1995

Tonatia saurophila bakeri Williams et al. 1995: 622.

Holotype

Adult male, deposited at the Museum of Texas Tech University (TTU 39120), collected on 31 January 1983 by R. J. Baker (original field number 1195), 6 km SW of Cana, Darién, Panama, 1200 m. Prepared as skin and skull by M. S. Hafner. Karyotype reference number TK22573. No paratypes were designated by Williams et al. (1995), but several specimens from Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela were listed and used in the description.

Distribution

Tonatia bakeri is distributed from southeastern Mexico southward into South America to northwestern Ecuador, northern Colombia, and northern Venezuela (west and north of Cordillera de Mérida). The southernmost records of the species are located in the Province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador (Fig. 7).

Diagnosis

Tonatia bakeri is distinguished from T. bidens and T. maresi mainly by craniodental and external measurements. Tonatia bakeri is larger than any other species within the genus (Williams et al. 1995; Table 2). The measurements that explain most of the variability are postorbital constriction length, mastoid width, and upper canine width. The skin around the mouth, nose leaf, and warts of the lower lip presents a light coloration. The posterior edge of the cranium presents an acute apex, the mandibular condyles are robust, the diastema between the canine and first lower premolar is absent or not evident, and clinoid process is well developed (Figs 3a, c, 4a, c). Measurements of the holotype taken from Williams et al. (1995), as well as averages of the external craniodental and external measurements of the specimens analyzed in this study, are presented in Table 2.

Description

The holotype has bicolored gray-brown dorsal fur with dark tips; hairs behind ears and neck are bicolored with white bases, and are overall slightly lighter than the rest of the dorsum. Hairs on shoulders are gray-brown, presenting white bases and tips (tricolored). The hairs on the top of head have white tips forming a pale stripe between the ears. Ventral pelage is paler than dorsal pelage; hairs are fawn with lighter tips, but around the throat the fur has a lighter and more uniform color. Dorsal and ventral pelage is dense. Dorsal hairs are longer (12.0 mm) than ventral hairs (5.0 mm). The proximal third of the forearm is covered by short hair (the ventral surface is more densely furred than dorsal), as well as base of the thumbs and proximal side of the feet. The proximal ventral margins of the uropatagium and wing membranes have sparse short hair. The skull of the holotype is complete and in perfect condition, presenting a well-defined sagittal crest.

Comparisons

Tonatia bakeri and T. maresi differ from T. bidens in the presence of a clear line of short fur on the top of the head between ears, a secondary process in the mastoid that partially obscures the base of the bulla (unique within subfamily Phyllostominae), a larger gap between lower canines, a lower crowded appearance of the premolars, and a narrower postorbital constriction. Tonatia bakeri differs from T. maresi in its narrower breadth across the lower incisors (Williams et al. 1995), presence of an acute apex in the posterior edge of the braincase due to the presence of a well-developed sagittal process, robust mandibular condyles, a reduced or absent space between the canine and the first lower premolar, observable in the mandible body (lateral view), and a well-developed clinoid process (Figs 3a, c, 4a, c). Additionally, T. bakeri specimens are larger than those of T. maresi (Table 2).

Etymology

The name bakeri was coined in recognition to Robert J. Baker for his contributions to the genetics and systematics of the family Phyllostomidae (Williams et al. 1995).

Remarks

Little is known on the natural history of the genus Tonatia. It has been reported that it uses hollow trees as day roosts, within which forms monospecific groups, or multispecific groups with other bat species (Williams and Genoways 2008). The diet of Tonatia includes arthropods, fruit, and small vertebrates (Tirira 2017).

Tonatia maresi Williams, Willig & Reid, 1995

Tonatia saurophila maresi Williams et al. 1995: 623.

Tonatia saurophilla Falcão et al. 2005: 222; incorrect subsequent spelling of T. saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951.

Holotype

Adult female, deposited at the Museum of Texas Tech University (TTU 9774), collected on 12 July 1969 by R. J. Baker (original field number 318) in Blanchisseuse, Trinidad and Tobago. Prepared as skin, skull, and partial postcranial skeleton by S. L. Williams. No paratypes were designated by Williams et al. (1995), but several specimens from Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador were listed and used in the description.

Distribution

Tonatia maresi is restricted to South America. It occurs in Venezuela (east and south of Cordillera de Mérida), the Guianas, northeastern Brazil, and along the upper Amazon basin of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, as well as in the South American islands of Trinidad and Tobago (Fig. 7).

Diagnosis

Tonatia maresi is distinguished from other extant species of Tonatia by its smaller craniodental and external measurements. The measurements that explain most of the variability are postorbital constriction length, mastoid width, and upper canine width. The skin around the mouth, nose leaf, and warts of the lower lip present a dark coloration. The posterior edge of the cranium presents a blunt vertex due to the poorly developed sagittal process, mandibular condyles are gracile, the canine and the first lower premolar are separated by a diastema, and the clinoid process is poorly developed or absent (Figs 3b, d, 4b, d). The measurements of the holotype, taken from Williams et al. (1995), as well as the averages of the external craniodental and external measurements of the specimens analyzed in this study are presented in Table 2.

Description

The holotype has dark gray-brown dorsal fur with patches of hair having reddish tips (bicolored). The hairs on the shoulder have white tips and, like the hairs behind the ears and around the base of the neck, present a white base (tricolored). The hairs on the top of head have white tips forming a pale stripe between the ears. Ventral pelage is grayer, and paler, than the dorsal hair and has white tips. The throat region has a uniformly colored hair. The body is densely furred, with the dorsal hairs longer (12.0 mm) than the ventral hairs (5.5 mm). The forearm presents shorter hairs on the proximal half of its length, with the ventral surface being more densely furred. Short, sparse hairs occur on the inner margins of the ventral surfaces of the uropatagium and the wing membranes; short hairs also occur on the thumbs and feet. The skull of holotype is complete, and in perfect condition.

Comparisons

Specimens of Tonatia maresi are smaller than those of T. bakeri and T. bidens. Additionally, T. maresi can be distinguished from T. bakeri by its wider breadth across the lower incisors (Williams et al. 1995), by the presence of a blunt vertex in the posterior edge of the braincase due to a poorly developed sagittal process, delicate mandibular condyles, the presence of a space between the canine and the first lower molar, observable in the mandible body (lateral view), and the lacking or poorly developed clinoid process (Figs 3b, d, 4b, d). The coloration of the dorsal pelage on T. maresi is dark and usually presents patches of hair with reddish tips; while in T. bakeri it is light and uniform in color. The warts on the lower lip are darker in T. maresi than in T. bakeri.

Etymology

The name maresi was coined in recognition to Michael A. Mares for his contributions to the systematics, ecology, and zoogeography of South American mammals (Williams et al. 1995).

Remarks

Little is known about its natural history. The diet of Tonatia includes various arthropods such as crickets, cicadas, and spiders. Additionally, they consume fruit, and small vertebrates such as lizards and birds (Tirira 2017). The species roosts in hollow trees, forming monospecific groups, or multispecific groups with other bat species (Williams and Genoways 2008). Recently, three species of ectoparasites (Mastoptera minuta, Pseudostrebla greenwelli, and Strebla tonatiae: family Streblidae) were found in specimens of Tonatia in the Reserva Natural La Palmita, Department of Casanare, in the Colombian Llanos. This locality occurs within the range of T. maresi (Liévano-Romero et al. 2019).

Discussion and conclusion

Our study shows that, within extant Tonatia saurophila populations, there are two clearly differentiated genetic lineages, namely, the lineage of Tonatia maresi, which includes samples from eastern Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, northeastern Brazil, and the Guiana Shield, and the lineage of Tonatia bakeri, which includes samples from Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, and western Ecuador (Fig. 6). These lineages were formerly considered to be subspecies of a single species (T. saurophila maresi, T. saurophila bakeri; Williams et al. 1995). For decades, the recognition of three subspecies in Tonatia saurophila was commonly accepted; however, the integration of morphological, morphometric, and molecular evidence indicates that T. bakeri and T. maresi are two well-supported and distinguishable taxa. In addition to being dissimilar in size and morphology, they differ genetically at the 7.65% level, a percentage within the 3.3%–14.7% range of genetic distances known to separate sister species of mammals when the Cyt-b gene is considered (Baker and Bradley 2006). More recent works that resolve the taxonomic status of species in Phyllostomidae have shown similar genetic differences ranges to those of this study, such as between Sturnira burtonlimi and S. adrianae: 3.93% + 0.25, Sturnira hondurensis and S. ludovici: 5.74% + 0.46 (Molinari et al. 2017), and, specifically in the subfamily Phyllostominae, Lophostoma silvicolum and L. evotis: 5.02% + 0.49; Lophostoma carrikeri and L. brasiliense: 12.78% + 0.97 (Camacho et al. 2016); Gardnerycteris crenulatum and G. koepckeae: 11.2% + 1.0 (Hurtado and D’Elia 2018).

According to simultaneous phylogenetic analyses, it is estimated that diversification between bat genera of the subfamily Phyllostominae occurred during beginning and mid-Miocene (23–16.9 Ma; Hoffmann et al. 2008). Specifically the split between Tonatia and a clade that included Artibeus (Stenodermatinae) and Anoura (Glossophaginae) is estimated to have occurred 22 Ma ago (Teeling et al. 2005). At the end of this period, there were probably several ancestral migration processes of Tonatia throughout northern South America (as also occurred with Carollia), especially in the Northern Andes (Hoffmann and Baker 2003). The divergence between T. bakeri and T. maresi may have occurred due to a process of allopatric speciation, in which an ancestral population split into two separate lineages as a result of the uplift of the Andes, although this separation had to have happened very recently, along with the rising of the Northern Andes. The Central Andes of Peru and Bolivia and the Northern Andes of Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela showed complex landscape transformations during the Miocene and Pliocene. However, the Central Andes experienced its most surface uplift in the late Miocene–Pliocene between 25–14 Ma ago, and the Northern Andes, with a different tectonic history, experienced rapid elevations between 2 and 5 Ma, reaching its modern elevations by around 2.7 Ma (Gregory-Wodzicki 2000).

We speculate that at the beginning of the Pliocene, Tonatia may have taken advantage of the newly formed Isthmus of Panama and all subsequent biogeographic processes (i.e. forests expansions) to colonize Central America and some Caribbean islands, including Jamaica (Hoffmann and Baker 2003; Arita et al. 2014; Leigh et al. 2014). Finally, glaciations and tectonic activity in the Andes, during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene, could have facilitated vicarious speciation within Tonatia saurophila (Chesser 2000). However, with the Andes uplift, a reduction in temperature and a shortage of resources at high altitudes possibly were impediments for migratory processes and gene flow to occur between western and eastern populations (Graham 1990). This kind of speciation process has been proposed for other bat species, such as Artibeus jamaicensis (Larsen et al. 2007), Carollia castanea (Vaca 2016), Uroderma bilobatum (Hoffmann et al. 2003), and Gardnerycteris crenulatum and G. keenani (Hurtado and D’Elia 2018). In the case of Tonatia maresi, relationships between the Amazon and the Guiana Shield samples are not clear yet, since the mitochondrial (Cyt-b, Fig. 6) and nuclear (RAG2, Fig. 6) gene trees are not congruent. The relatively high level of genetic differentiation may indicate the existence of more than one species.

Despite numerous bat surveys throughout the West Indies in recent years, no new records of Tonatia saurophila have been confirmed. Tonatia specimens, recorded in Trinidad and Tobago (AMNH 180261–180264 and 182923) have been identified as T. maresi on the basis of their morphometric characteristics. Morphometric differences were found between subfossil samples of T. saurophila and specimens of T. bakeri and T. maresi (also considering the individuals collected in Trinidad and Tobago). For example, in T. saurophila the mandibular toothrow length and the coronoid height are smaller than in T. bakeri and T. maresi. These facts support the recognition of Tonatia saurophila (formerly classified as T. saurophila saurophila) as a full extinct species, with a distribution restricted to Jamaica.

In the Neotropics, more studies on the richness, distribution, and conservation status of the species are urgently needed. Diversity of better-known groups should be studied continuously and consistently, given increasing rates of habitat loss and global climate change. In bats, some of the recently described species were formerly recognized and treated as synonyms or subspecies until extensive mammal collections reviews showed that they were indeed different species (Solari and Martínez 2014). The conservation of biodiversity requires accurate and up to date studies of the taxonomy, distribution, and habitat preferences of species in order to effectively manage and protect them.

Taxonomic perspectives

With the elevation of T. bakeri and T. maresi to the species category, the genus Tonatia now includes three extant species, including T. bidens, and one extinct species.

Acknowledgements

We wish to express our gratitude to the Dirección de Investigación of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, which founded the Project IINV529010100-QINV0061 that included the study of Tonatia and Lophostoma. We thank Santiago F. Burneo for providing access to specimens under his care at QCAZ, for assisting with the geographical information, and for critically reviewing the manuscript. Also from QCAZ, special thanks are extended to Ana B. Manzano for providing the illustrations. We express our deep gratitude to Víctor Pacheco for providing access to specimens at the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Mayor de San Marcos (MUSM), and to Pamela Sánchez, also from the MUSM, for the help provided to M.A. Camacho. Also, our sincere gratitude goes to Burton Lim for kindly sharing Tonatia gene sequences to complete our molecular analyses. Finally, we thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscript.

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Appendix 1

Examined specimens

Tonatia bakeri

COLOMBIA – Cesar 1 ♂; Valledupar, “Corregimiento Río Seco, Las Palomas”; 10.278N, 73.574W; 276 m a.s.l.; 30 Apr. 2011; ICN 21276. – Guajira • 1 ♀; Albania, “Cerrejón, compensation area - Mushaisa sector”; 11.277N, 72.412W; 13 Dec. 2005; ICN 19454 • 1 ♂; Albania, “Cerrejón, Palomino”; 11.177N, 72.304W; 24 Mar. 2006; ICN 19455.

COSTA RICA • 3 ♀♀; Puntarenas, Puntarenas, Palmar; 9.9763N, 84.838W; 2 Feb. 1941; AMNH 139437 / 139438 / 139445 • 2 ♂♂; same data as for preceding; AMNH 139439 / 139440 • 2 ♀♀; same data as for preceding; 1 Feb. 1941; AMNH 139443 / 139444.

ECUADOR – Carchi • 1; Tulcán, “Tobar Donoso, vía Anrá”; 1.1892N, 78.488W; 258 m a.s.l.; 22 Sep. 2009; MECN 2948 • 1 ♀; Tulcán, “Tobar Donoso, vía Helipuerto”; 1.1892N, 78.488W; 305 m a.s.l.; 22 Aug. 2010; MECN 3305. – Esmeraldas • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Muisne, Quingue; 0.7231N, 80.078W; 6 Sep. 2005; QCAZM 7423 / 8282 • 1 ♂; San Lorenzo, Comuna San Francisco de Bogotá; 1.2536N, 78.9W; 63 m a.s.l.; 12 Aug. 2004; QCAZM 9233 • 1 ♂; San Lorenzo, San Francisco Santa Rita; 1.2527N, 78.909W; 88 m a.s.l.; 12 Aug. 2004; QCAZM 9235 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 1.0421N, 78.424W; 88 m a.s.l.; 12 Aug. 2004; QCAZM 9236 • 1 ♀, 1 ♂, San Lorenzo, San Lorenzo; 1.2333N, 78.76W; 12 Aug. 2004; QCAZM 9754 / 9755 • 2 ♂♂; Eloy Alfaro, “Playa de Oro, Culo de Negra”; 0.8712N, 78.792W; 113 m a.s.l.; 25 Aug. 2017; QCAZM 17041 / 17044 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; QCAZM 17045 • 1 ♀; Eloy Alfaro, “Luis Vargas Torres, Playa de Oro “; 0.8758N, 78.794W; 75 m a.s.l.; 25 Aug. 2017; QCAZM 17042 • 1 ♀; Muisne, Bunche Estero el Aguacate; 0.6496N, 80.033W; 37m a.s.l.; 1 Jun. 2000; MECN 2049 • 1 ♂; Quinindé, Valle del Sade; 0.5177N, 79.341W; 250 m a.s.l.; 10 Mar. 1985; EPN 2038 • 2 ♂♂; same data as for preceding; 13 Mar. 1985; EPN 2039 / 2040 • 1 ♀; Salto del Río Bravo; 0.6813N, 78.946W; 198 m a.s.l.; 10 Aug 1985; EPN 2041. – Imbabura • 1 ♂; Ibarra, Verde River; 0.7497N, 78.401W; 750 m a.s.l.; 15 Oct 2000; QCAZM 3810 • 1 ♂; Cotacachi, Cielo Verde; 0.2241N, 78.899W; 630 m a.s.l.; 13 Apr. 2010; EPN 11725.

VENEZUELA • 1 ♂; Falcón, Bolivar, Tocuyo River; 11.121N, 69.683W; 26 Mar. 1938; AMNH 130704.

Tonatia maresi

BRAZIL • 1 ♂; Para, Santarem, Tapajos River; 2.4394S, 54.698W; 7 Aug. 1931; AMNH 95429 • 1 ♀; Para, Cametá, “Tocantins River, Ilha do Taiuna”; 2.2540S, 49.512W; 2 Nov. 1931; AMNH 96964 • 3 ♀♀; same data as for preceding; 12 Nov. 1931; AMNH 96997 to 96999 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 13 Nov. 1931; AMNH 97226.

COLOMBIA – Amazonas • 1 ♀; Leticia,Caño Boliviano; 4.1005S, 69.933W; 150 m a.s.l.; 23 Jun. 2005; ICN 17874 • 1 ♀; Leticia, “Tarapacá, Hitoma community”; 4.1005S, 69.933W; 84 m a.s.l.; 26 Apr. 2002; ICN 21033 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 29 Apr. 2002; ICN 21034. – Caquetá • 1 ♂; Solano,”Mesay River, Puerto Abeja (trocha piscina), Serrania de Chiribiquete”; 0.0753N, 72.806W; 240 m a.s.l.; 2 Feb. 1995; ICN 14619 • 1 ♂; Solano,”Mesay River, Puerto Abeja, (Tepuy), Serrania de Chiribiquete”; 0.3216N, 73.167W; 340 m a.s.l.;30 Jan. 1995; ICN 14623 • 1 ♂; Solano,”Mesay River, Bombonal (rastrojo)”; 0.321631N, 73.167614W; 240 m a.s.l.; 1 Jun. 1994; ICN 14685. – Casanare • 1 ♀; Trinidad, “Vereda La Cañada, La Palmita”; 5.4186N, 71.655W; 153 m a.s.l.; 12 Sep. 2008; ICN 19338 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 165 m a.s.l.; 17 Sep. 2008; ICN 19339 • 1 ♀; San Luis de Palenque, “Vereda Guaracura, La Bretaña”; 5.3801N, 71.727W; 125 m a.s.l.; 5 Mar. 2012; ICN 22944 • 1 ♀; Trinidad, “Vereda La Cañada, R. N. La Palmita, caño Guajivo, sendero Morroco”; 5.4186N, 71.655W; 168 m a.s.l.; 25 Jun. 2014; ICN 23103. – Huila • 1 ♂; Baraya, “El Cruce, Las Delicias”; 3.1547N, 75.026W; 750 m a.s.l.; 8 Apr. 1994; ICN 13625. – Meta • 1 ♀; Acacías, “Vereda San José, Colegio Departamental Agropecuario”; 4.0062N, 73.797W; 625 m a.s.l.; 8 Dec. 1985; ICN 9692 • 1 ♂; San Juan de Arama, “Serranía de La Macarena, caño La Curia “; 3.4003N, 73.941W; 500 m a.s.l.; 27 Apr. 1988; ICN 10251 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 22 May. 1988; ICN 10252 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 1 May. 1992; ICN 12045 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 9 Aug. 1988; ICN 12054 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 11 Jul. 1988; ICN 12056 • 1 ♂; Puerto Gaitán, Carimagua Investigation Centre; 4.1886N, 72.357W; 150 m a.s.l.; 1 Sep. 2005; ICN 18425 • 1 ♀; Villavicencio, “Barrio El Manantial, wetland Reserva Parque El Coroncero”; 4.0740N, 73.367W; 285 m a.s.l.; 9 May 2003; ICN 18456. – Putumayo • 1 ♂; Puerto Leguízamo, “Vda. El Triunfo, km 19 La Taguita, La Distancia (Pablo Yara)”; 0.0394N, 74.830W; 203 m a.s.l.; 27 May. 2015; ICN 22007. – Vaupes • 1 ♀; La Libertad, Serranía de Taraira; 0.4264S, 70.496W; 310 m a.s.l.; 8 Aug. 1993; ICN 12731.

ECUADOR – Morona Santiago • 1 ♂; San Juan Bosco, “Kunkuki community, 25 min to the mountain”; 3.3213S, 78.211W; 1186 m a.s.l.; 2 Jan 2018; QCAZM 17373 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 3.3277S, 78.212W; 1216 m a.s.l.; 3 Jan 2018; QCAZM 17374. – Orellana • 1 ♂; Yasuní National Park; 0.5629S, 76.463W; 220 m a.s.l.; 10 Mar. 2001; QCAZM 4972 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 5 Mar. 2001; QCAZM 7569 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 0.38S, 76.3W; 220 m a.s.l.; 5 Mar 2001; QCAZM 7574 • 1; same data as for preceding; 0.6768S, 76.936W; 246 m a.s.l.; 3 Jun. 2001; QCAZM 12433 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 0.6722S, 76.399W; 217 m a.s.l.; 31 May 2013; QCAZM 14028 • 1 ♀; Orellana, Dumbique; 0.5181S, 76.122W; 217 m a.s.l.; 18 Jan 2009; QCAZM 10950 • 1 ♂; Loreto, Loreto; 0.6803S, 77.199W; 316 m a.s.l.; 20 Dec. 2009; QCAZM 11797 • 1 ♂; Joya de los Sachas, Comuna San Antonio; 0.3939S, 76.66W; 279 m a.s.l.; 8 Mar. 2013; QCAZM 13787 • 1 ♀; Orellana, Pre. Coop. Cononaco; 1.0013S, 76.973W; 279 m a.s.l.; 24 Mar. 2013; QCAZM 13788 • 1 ♂; Orellana, Dayuma Shiripuno River; 1.0598S, 76.867W; 246 m a.s.l.; 1 Jul. 2013; QCAZM 14407 • 1 ♀; Francisco de Orellana, “Yasuní National Park, 37 km S Pompeya South”; 0.6333S, 76.466W; 11 May. 1995; MECN 662 • 1 ♂; Francisco de Orellana, “Yasuní National Park, 42 km S, 1 km E Pompeya South”; 0.6833S, 76.433W; 12 Oct. 1995; MECN 762 • 1 ♂; Aguarico, “Yasuní National Park, 66 km S Pompeya South”; 0.8S, 76.4W; 8 Jun. 1996; MECN 976 • 1 ♀; Aguarico, Garzacocha Yasuní National Park; 0.7283S, 75.752W; 27 Sep. 1988; EPN 3833 • 1 ♂; Loreto, Caimitoyaku; 0.6137S, 77.251W; 510 m a.s.l.; 12 Sep. 1996; EPN 5113. – Pastaza • 1 ♂; Arajuno, Operation Area AGIP - Block 10; 1.4531S, 77.441W; 380 m a.s.l.; 27 Mar. 2012; QCAZM 12843 • 2 ♂♂; Arajuno, Operation Area AGIP - Block 10; 1.506S, 77.509W; 350 m a.s.l.; 16 May. 2012; QCAZM 12925 / 12930 • 1 ♀; Arajuno, Tarangaro; 1.4006S, 77.383W; 23 Jun. 2012; QCAZM 12975 •1 ♀; Arajuno, Oglán, 1.2569S, 77.654W; 18 Oct. 2012; QCAZM 13364 • 1 ♀; Pastaza, Lorocachi; 1.666S, 76.418W; 223 m a.s.l.; 31 May. 2013; QCAZM 14388 • 1 ♂; Arajuno, AGIP Oil installations. Block 10; 1.27S, 77.26W; 393 m a.s.l.; 1 Feb. 2013; QCAZM 14605 • 1 ♀; Arajuno, Tarangaro; 1.4006S, 77.383W; 320 m a.s.l.; 27 Nov 2013; QCAZM 14606 • 2 ♂♂; Arajuno, Operation Area AGIP - Block 10; 1.4636S, 77.45W; 370 m a.s.l.; 2 Apr. 2015; QCAZM 15498 / 15499 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 6 Apr. 2015; QCAZM 15500 • 1 ♂; Arajuno, Operation Area AGIP - Block 10; 1.4748S, 77.531W; 455 m a.s.l.; 20 Jul. 2015; QCAZM 15793 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 459 m a.s.l.; 23 Jul. 2015; QCAZM 15794. – Sucumbios • 1 ♂; Cuyabeno, Cuyabeno River Bridge; 0.32S, 76.32W; 230 m a.s.l.; 22. Jan 2004; QCAZM 6853 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 24 Jan. 2004; QCAZM 6875 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 25 Jan. 2004; QCAZM 6938 • 1 ♂; Cuyabeno, Zábalo; 0.3181S, 75.766W; 233 m a.s.l.; 17 Mar. 2004; QCAZM 7017 • 1 ♀; Cuyabeno, Coop. Tierras Orientales; 0.3129S, 76.366W; 233 m a.s.l.; 8 Nov. 2008; QCAZM 10831 • 1 ♀; Shushufindi, Limoncocha - Biological Reserve; 0.4N, 76.633333W; 28 Sep. 1978; EPN 3425; • 1 ♂; Cuyabeno, “Cofán Zábalo Community, Aguarico River”; 0.3666S, 75.768W; 235m a.s.l.; 13 Oct. 1991; EPN 4481; • 1 ♀; Lago Agrio,”Aguarico River, Pozo Zafiro”; 0.0574N, 77.081W; 17 Mar. 1996; EPN 5008 • 1 ♀; Shushufindi, Panacocha Pañayaku River BPP; 0.203S, 76.526W; 229m a.s.l.; 21 Feb. 2010; EPN 11681.

FRENCH GUIANA • 1♀; Cayenne, Sinnamary, Paracou; 4.9333N, 52.333W; 7 m a.s.l.; 9 Jul. 1991; AMNH 266047 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 31. Aug. 1993; AMNH 267429 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 10 Sep. 1993; AMNH 267431 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 24 Oct. 1994; AMNH 267909 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 3 Oct. 1994; AMNH 267912 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 7 Oct. 1994; AMNH 267914.

GUYANA • 1 ♂; Cuyuni Mazaruni Region, Bartica, Kartabo Point; 6.4N, 58.616W; 30 Aug. 1922; AMNH 64164.

PERU – Cusco • 1 ♂; La Convención, “Camisea, Pagoreni”; 11.779S, 72.783W; 450 m a.s.l.; 9 Apr. 1998; MUSM 13970 • 1 ♀; La Convención, 2 km southwest of C.N. Tangoshiari; 11.779S, 73.341W; 1000 m a.s.l.; 14 May 1998; MUSM 13399 • 1 ♀; La Convención, “Camisea, San Martín”; 11.772S, 72.522W; 475 m a.s.l.; 12 May. 1997; MUSM 13971. – Loreto • 1 ♀; Requena, “Lagarto, Ucayali River”; 5.07S, 73.91W; 17 Jan. 1928; AMNH 76558 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 20 Jan. 1928; AMNH 76559 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; 20 Jan. 1928; AMNH 76560 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 24 Jan. 2012; AMNH 278467 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 28 Jan. 2012; AMNH 278484 • 1 ♀; same data as for preceding; CEBIO 110 • 1 ♂; Balsapuerto, “Cerro Escalera, Cachiyacu Camp”; 5.9014S, 76.777W; 2520 m a.s.l.; 25 Sep. 2013; FMNH 233361 • 1 ♀; Requena, Jenaro Herrerra; 5.0806S, 73.819W; MUSM 5549 • 1 ♂; Maynas, Lagartococha River Catalino camp; 3.7368S; 73.312W; 26 Feb. 1994; MUSM 21293 • 1 ♂; Maynas, Lagartococha River Catalino camp; 3.6541S, 71.621W; 2 Mar. 1994; MUSM 21294 • 1 ♀; Maynas, 20 km south of Diamante Azul town; 3.7066S, 73.345W; 139 m a.s.l.; 15 Oct. 2008; MUSM 26538 • 1 ♀; Maynas, 13 km northwest of Albarenga town; 3.6315S, 73.591W; 145 m a.s.l.; 20 Jan. 2009; MUSM 26578 – Madre de Dios • 2 ♂♂; Manu, Pakitza; 11.952S, 71.249W; 350 m a.s.l.; 6 Nov. 1990; MUSM 6811 / 6812 • 1 ♀; Manu,Pakitza; 11.952S, 71.249W; MUSM 6815 • 1 ♀; Tambopata, Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heathi; 11.997S, 69.597W; 200 m a.s.l.; 9 Jun. 1996; MUSM 11715 • 1 ♀; Tambopata, Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heathi; 2.9544S, 68.9W; 200 m a.s.l.; 9 Jun. 1996; MUSM 11717 • 1 ♀; Manu, “Santuario Nacional Pampas del Heath, Picoplacha”; 12.439S, 68.806W; 6 Jun. 1992; MUSM 12860 • 1 ♂; Manu, “CICRA, Cruce Sachavaca, Bajío”; 12.721S, 69.786W; 199 m a.s.l.; 25 Oct. 2005; MUSM 26094 • 1 ♀; Manu, Trocha Trompeteros; 12.948S, 69.606W; 148m a.s.l.; 22 Apr. 2006; MUSM 26133. – Pasco • 1 ♂; Oxapampa, Iscozacín; 10.348S, 75.193W; 15 Jul. 1988; MUSM 450 • 2 ♀; Oxapampa, “Cerro Chontilla, 5 km west Shiringamazu, road to Iscozacin”; 10.484S, 75.043W; 930 m a.s.l.; 6 Jul. 1992; MUSM 10345 • 1 ♂; same data as for preceding; 4 Jul. 1992; MUSM 10346. – Puno • 1 ♀; Carabaya, “Coasa, Boca de Qa. Ursulinda del Río Candamo”; 13.422S, 69.28W; 400 m a.s.l.; 10 Apr. 1999; MUSM 15829. – Ucayali • 1 ♀; Purús, “Curanja River, Balta”; 9.9666S, 70.966W; 300 m a.s.l.; 3 Apr. 1971; MUSM 1189.

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO • 1 ♂, 3 ♀; Saint Patrick, “Trinidad Island, Siparia”; 10.183N, 61.55W; 13 Jan. 1959; AMNH 180261 to 180264 • 1 ♀; Saint Patrick, “Trinidad Island, La Brea”; 11.55N, 60.183W; 7 May. 1959; AMNH 182923.