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Faunistic and bibliographical inventory of the Psychodinae moth-flies of North Africa (Diptera, Psychodidae)
expand article infoHanan Afzan, Boutaïna Belqat
‡ University Abdelmalek Essaâdi-Faculty of Sciences, Tétouan, Morocco
Open Access

Abstract

All published records for the 49 species of moth flies known from North Africa are reviewed and discussed: Morocco (27 species), Algeria (33 species), Tunisia (18 species) and Egypt (five species). In addition, records of seven species of Psychodinae new to the fauna of Morocco are added, of which three are new mentions for North Africa (Table 1) and one is a new record for Egypt. Telmatoscopus squamifer Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the genus Iranotelmatoscopus Ježek, 1987, comb. n. Satchelliella reghayana Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1987 is transferred to the genus Pneumia Enderlein, 1935, comb. n. Pneumia aberrans Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the subgenus Logima.

Keywords

Moth-flies, Psychodinae, checklist, Rif, High Atlas, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, North Africa

Introduction

Within Psychodidae, the Psychodinae form a highly derived subfamily containing the majority of psychodid species diversity. The world fauna of Psychodinae consists at present of approximately 2000 recognized and described species belonging to approximately 100 genera. Their taxonomy is not yet satisfactory; a universally-agreed, stable classification is still lacking for the world fauna, since different generic and tribal concepts are still followed by several authors (Vaillant 19711983, 1990; Duckhouse 1987; Wagner and Beuk 2002; Ježek and Van Harten 2005; Kvifte 2011).

Contributions to Psychodinae of Morocco are very fragmented and remain patchy; the first record in this area was by Tonnoir (1920) and the first study was that of Vaillant (1955). A few years later, the same author (Vaillant 1958) published on the Psychodinae in North Africa and their range in Europe. It took almost thirty years for another work on Psychodidae in southern Morocco; the survey in the High Atlas showed the presence of five species (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986). As part of a national study on the biota of inland waters, Dakki (1997) conducted an initial inventory of Moroccan Psychodidae, in which ten species were listed as Psychodinae. A recent study (Ježek 2004) showed the presence of a new species of Psychodinae in Morocco; and in 2012 Omelková and Ježek described a new species from the High Atlas. For Algeria the study of Psychodinae started with Eaton (1894, 1896) who mentioned records on Algerian Psychodinae; in 1955 Satchell showed the presence of six new species for country. Later, Vaillant described many species from Algeria between 1971 and 1983. The only important Psychodinae reference from Tunisia is provided by Wagner (1987).

Concerning the Egyptian psychodids, Tonnoir (1920, 1922) recorded four species of Psychodinae.

In our study, a total of 674 specimens (109 larvae, 377 males and 188 females) collected at 47 sampling sites in Morocco and one in Egypt (Table 2) has provided 19 species (18 from Morocco and one from Egypt) and added seven unpublished species to the list of Moroccan Psychodinae: Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893), Psychoda cinerea Banks, 1894, Psychoda gemina (Eaton, 1904), Pericoma pseudexquisita Tonnoir 1940, Philosepedon humerale (Meigen, 1818), Pneumia nubila (Meigen, 1818) and Pneumia propinqua (Satchell 1955), and one unpublished species to the Egyptian list: Psychoda alternata Say 1824. Of these, Pericoma pseudexquisita Tonnoir 1940, Pneumia nubila (Meigen, 1818) and Psychoda gemina (Eaton, 1904) are first records for North Africa. Locality photos are given in Figures 1, 2 and 3 (A, B, C and D).

Figure 1.

Moroccan habitat of Pericoma pseudexquisita Tonnoir, 1940: Oued Azila, mossy and rocky river in cedar forest with dominance of Pteridium aquilinum and Rubus ulmifolius. Photograph by HA.

Figure 2.

Moroccan habitat of Pneumia nubila (Meigen, 1818): Aïn Mâaze, spring with swampy shores, predominant vegetation: Quercus canariensis, Rubus ulmifolius, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, Cistus populifolius, Luzula sp. Photograph by HA.

Figures 3.

Moroccan habitat of Psychoda gemina (Eaton, 1904): A Daya Fifi, bog on siliceous sol, predominant vegetation: Quercus canariensis, Quercus pyrenaica, Cistus salviifolius, Euphorbia characias B Oued Zarka, waterfall and pool with the dominance of moss covering the rocks C Oued Aâyaden, river of the high course on a limestone sol with dominance of Pistachia lentiscus, Cistus sp., Nerium oleander and moss on the roc D Douar Kitane, farm with Arondo donax, Midicago sativa, Inula viscose and mosses. Photographs by BB.

Species (in alphabetical order) of Psychodinae known from the North African countries. Libya has been omitted because no information exists in the literature from Libya.

Morocco Algeria Tunisia Egypt
Bazarella atra (Vaillant, 1955) X* X
Berdeniella lucasii (Satchell, 1955) X
Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) X** X X
Clytocerus kabylicus Wagner, 1987 X
Iranotelmatoscopus numidicus (Satchell, 1955) X
Iranotelmatoscopus squamifer (Tonnoir, 1922) X
Lepiseodina tristis (Meigen, 1830) X
Mormia tenebricosa (Vaillant, 1954) X* X X
Mormia riparia (Satchell, 1955) X
Mormia similis Wagner, 1987 X
Panimerus goetghebueri (Tonnoir, 1919) X X
Panimerus thienemanni (Vaillant, 1954) X X X
Paramormia ustulata (Walker, 1856) X* X X
Pericoma barbarica Vaillant, 1955 X* X X
Pericoma blandula Eaton, 1893 X X X
Pericoma diversa Tonnoir, 1920 X*
Pericoma exquisita Eaton, 1893 X X X
Pericoma granadica Vaillant, 1978 X*
Pericoma latina Sarà, 1954 X* X
Pericoma maroccana Vaillant, 1955 X*
Pericoma modesta Tonnoir, 1922 X X
Pericoma pseudexquisita Tonnoir, 1940 X***
Philosepedon beaucournui Vaillant, 1974 X X
Philosepedon humerale (Meigen, 1818) X** X
Pneumia nubila (Meigen, 1818) X***
Pneumia pilularia (Tonnoir, 1940) X X
Pneumia propinqua (Satchell, 1955) X** X
Pneumia reghayana (Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1986) X
Pneumia toubkalensis (Omelková & Ježek 2012) X*
Psychoda aberrans Tonnoir, 1922 X
Psychoda (Falsologima) savaiiensis Edwards, 1928 X
Psychoda (Logima) albipennis Zetterstedt, 1850 X X
Psychoda (Logima) erminea Eaton, 1893 X
Psychoda (Psycha) grisescens Tonnoir, 1922 X X X
Psychoda (Psychoda) phalaenoides (Linnaeus, 1758) X
Psychoda (Psychoda) uniformata Haseman, 1907 X
Psychoda (Psychodocha) cinerea Banks, 1894 X** X X
Psychoda (Psychodocha) gemina (Eaton, 1904) X***
Psychoda (Psychomora) trinodulosa Tonnoir, 1922 X
Psychoda (Tinearia) alternata Say, 1824 X* X X X**
Psychoda (Tinearia) efflatouni Tonnoir, 1922 X
Psychoda (Tinearia) lativentris Berden, 1952 X
Telmatoscopus advena (Eaton, 1893) X
Thornburghiella quezeli (Vaillant, 1955) X X
Tonnoiriella atlantica (Satchell, 1953) X X
Tonnoiriella paveli Ježek, 1999 X
Tonnoiriella pulchra (Eaton, 1893) X X
Vaillantodes fraudulentus (Eaton, 1896) X X
Vaillantodes malickyi (Wagner, 1987) X

Sampling sites (in alphabetical order) harboring the species collected in Morocco and Egypt with localities, geographical coordinates and altitudes.

Site Province, locality Geographical coordinates Altitude (m)
Rif Mts
1. Aïn Bou Ghaba Chefchaouen, Jbel Bou Bessoui 35°57.980'N/4°43.447'W 1638
2. Aïn Mâaze Larache, Jbel Bouhachem 35°14.381'N/05°26.316'W 1294
3. Aïn Quanquben Chefchaouen, Jbel Bou Bessoui 34°57.634'N/4°40.842'W 1596
4. Aïn Sidi Yahya Berkan, Beni Snassen 34°48.370'N/2°32.408'W 541
5. Âounsar Aheramen Chefchaouen, Majjou village 35°06.319'N/5°10.820'W 855
6. Cascade Ras El Ma Chefchaouen, Majjou village 35°6.162'N/5°10.739'W 859
7. Daya Fifi Chefchaouen, Fifi 35°06.873'N/5°11.338'W 856
8. Douar Derâa Chefchaouen, Tanakoub 35°10.106'N/5°25.381'W 770
9. Douar Idrene Chefchaouen, Oued Laou 35°24.942'N/5°12.593'W 460
10. Douar Ihermochene Chefchaouen, Oued Laou 35°26.602'N/5°11.793'W 405
11. Douar Ikhlafene Chefchaouen, Oued Laou 35°25.575'N/5°11.807'W 548
12. Douar Kitane Tétouan, Kitane 35°32.412'N/05°20.393'W 52
13. Douar Mouklata Tétouan, Mouklata 35°34.551'N/5°21.505'W 9
14. Douar Taria Chefchaouen, Daradara 35°8.312'N/5°20.991’ W 796
15. Oued Aâyaden Chefchaouen, Majjou village 35°6.186'N/5°10.935'W 799
16. Oued Achekrade Tétouan, Douar Aouzighen 35°22.931'N/5°20.364'W 642
17. Oued Ametrasse Chefchaouen, Chrafate 35°05.014'N/5°5.130'W 828
18. Oued associé à daya Fifi Chefchaouen, Fifi 35°00.041'N/5°12.166'W 1280
19. Oued Azila Al hoceima, Jbel Tidghine 34°52.028'N/04°32.609'W 1601
20. Oued à 20 Km de Fifi Chefchaouen, Fifi 35°02.077'N/5°12.083'W 1020
21. Oued Chrafate Chefchaouen, Armoutah 35°04.14'N/5°06.66'W 900
22. Oued El Kanar Chefchaouen, Beni Fenzar 35°10.083'N/5°01.133'W 220
23. Oued El Kanar Chefchaouen, 2 km de Douar Assoul 35°17.233'N/4°59.639'W 52
24. Oued Farda Chefchaouen, Akchour, 35°14.350'N/5°10.46'W 420
25. Oued Hachef Tanger-Azilah 35°31.37'N/05°42.51'W 58
26. Oued Inesmane Chefchaouen, Adeldal 35°08.595'N/5°05.100'W 1173
27. Oued Jnane en Niche Jebha, village Jnane en Niche 35°17.040'N/4°51.479'W 46
28. Oued Kelâa Chefchaouen, Akoumi 35°14.440'N/5°14.542'W 400
29. Oued Madissouka Chefchaouen, Talassemtane 35°10.622'N/5°08.400'W 1367
30. Oued M’Hannech Tétouan, Faculty of Sciences 35°33.650'N/5°21.751'W 8
31. Oued Nakhla Chefchaouen, Koudiet Krikra 35°23.084'N/5°31.448'W 145
32. Oued Ouara Chefchaouen, Ikadjiouene 35°03.987'N/5°14.005'W 680
33. Oued Ras El Ma Chefchaouen, Chefchaouen ville 35°10.230'N/5°15.412'W 628
34. Oued Taïda Larache, Taïda 35°22.099'N/5°32.297'W 494
35. Oued Talembote Chefchaouen, Talembote 35°15.041'N/5°11.717'W 320
36. Oued Tazzarine Chefchaouen, Beni Oualal 35°04.347'N/5°19.339'W 242
37. Oued Tiffert Chefchaouen, Tiffert 35°11.012'N/5°07.573'W 1230
38. Oued Zarka Tétouan, Zarka 35°31.211'N/5°20.477'W 128
39. Ruisseau Maison forestière Chefchaouen, Parc National Talassemtane 35°08.076'N/5°08.262'W 1674
40. Seguia barrage Dar Chaoui Tanger-Azilah, Dar Chaoui 35°31.27'N/05°43.46'W 47
Beni Snassen
41. Cascade Grotte des Pigeons Berkan, Beni Snassen 34°49.044'N/5°24.329'W 676
Middle Atlas Mts
42. Aïn Vittel Ifrane, Ifrane ville 33°32.87'N/5°6.616'W 1611
43. Gîte Aït Ayoub Sefrou, Barrage Allal El Fassi 33°55.446'N/4°40.558'W 537
Central Plain (Costal region)
44. Douar Aoulad Ali Safi, Jemaâ Shaim 32°20.288'N/8°51.09'W 170
High Atlas Mts
45. Cascade sur sol cuivreux Al Haouz, Taddart 31°21.19'N/7°23.54'W 1607
46. Oued Reghaya Marrakech, Asni 31°14.736'N/7°58.654'W 1189
Egypt
47. Oued Nile Nady Tajdif, Giza 30°3.511'N/31°13.013'E 26

Material and methods

Collecting

Six techniques have been used to collect Psychodinae: rearing larvae and pupae in the laboratory from collected substrates in the field; adults were collected with sweep net, adhesive papers impregnated with Ricin oil, malaise traps, light traps and aspirators. The early stages of Psychodids were obtained from the lotic and lentic habitats where they may be abundant. Larvae or/and pupae were collected from running (rivers, springs, streams) and standing waters (ponds, lagoons). The substratum was transported to the laboratory and organized on steel gauze net. This is put over a shallow watered dish and left for several days (Wagner 1997).

As the substratum dries out, larvae of Psychodidae fall down into the water and are extracted from the substrate and put into Petri dishes with some rewet substratum from their biotope. The top of the dishes is covered with fine gauze for aeration and the substratum is kept moist by regular water spraying, but not too wet. Larvae are difficult to control, because they bury into the substratum. However, they develop successfully into adults that can be collected by aspiring them from the dishes (pers. obs., approach modified from Wagner 1997). Adults were also collected with hand nets, sweeping through the vegetation preferably at sunset or directly with an aspirator below bridges at daylight. On the other hand, adults were also collected on sticky traps made of paper impregnated with Ricin, placed in different habitats: trees in the field, old urban and animal environments. Whatever the method used, all adult specimens were fixed in 70% ethanol in which they are left until identification. Some species were recognized at 40–80× magnification but for many species, it was necessary to prepare slides, mostly for the close identification of the male genitalia. The method followed was that used by Wagner (1997).

The authors sampled the Moroccan areas from March 2011 to May 2015 and BB captured the Egyptian material in the Nile River in April 2015.

All specimens collected and recorded are deposited in the collection of Diptera in the Laboratory of Ecology, Biodiversity and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, University Abdelmalek Essaâdi, Tétouan.

The following checklist summarizes the species presently known from North Africa. Those species which are new records for North Africa are marked with three asterisks (***), those new for Morocco or Egypt are marked with two asterisks (**) and the species which represent the first record in the Rif Mountains are signalized with one asterisk (*) (Table 1). Taxa are listed according to the classification scheme of Vaillant (1990), Wagner (1990) and Kvifte et al. (2011).

Results

Tribe MARUININI Enderlein, 1937

Genus TONNOIRIELLA Vaillant, 1982

Tonnoiriella paveli Ježek, 1999

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas, Anti Atlas (Ježek 1999).

Comment. Male described by Ježek (1999: 10–12). Species collected by sweeping on the bank of streams (on Oleander, Ficus and Pteropsida), on wet grassy rocky slopes and on sources in semidesert areas. Considered as mountainous species (Ježek 1999: 10–12).

Biology. Unknown.

Tonnoiriella pulchra (Eaton, 1893)

= Pericoma pulchra (Eaton, 1893); Vaillant 1955: 223

Literature records. Morocco (Wagner 1990); Algeria: Aurès (Vaillant 1955).

Biology. Species found in “madicole” habitat whose substrate consists on bare rock or lined by retaining algae by very few mineral particles, and in compact limestone crust “néoformation” (Vaillant 1955).

Tonnoiriella atlantica (Satchell, 1955)

= Pericoma atlantica Satchell, 1955; Satchell 1955

Literature records. Algeria: Fort National, El Biar (Satchell 1955), L’Hospice de Veillards, Bône (Satchell 1955); Tunisia: Oued Titria, Ain Sobah (Wagner 1987).

Comment. Male and female described by Satchell (1955: 112–113).

Biology. Unknown.

Tribe PARAMORMIINI Enderlein, 1937

Genus CLOGMIA Enderlein, 1937

**Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893)

= Telmatoscopus meridionalis (Eaton, 1894); Tonnoir 1920: 128–133.

= Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893)

Literature records. Algeria: Boghari (Alger), Rocher Blanc (Tonnoir 1920, Satchell 1955); Egypt: Delta Barrage, Ghezireh (Tonnoir 1920, El-Badry et al. 2014).

New records. Morocco, Rif: Douar Kitane, 13/V/2014, 1♂, 2♀♀, 1/V/2015, 1♀, light trap; Douar Mouklata, 12/IV/2005, 5 larvae, suber net; Oued M’Hannech, 12/IV/2005, 3♂♂, 1/V/2015, 5♂♂, 7♀♀, aspirator; Central Plateau (Coastal region): Douar Aoulad Ali, 12/VII/2014, 1♂, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

New site. Egypt, Oued Nile: 1–9/IV/2015, 3♀♀, Malaise trap, coll. Belqat.

Comment. A complete description and full synonymy of Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) can be found in Ibañez-Bernal (2008).

Biology. Species reported, in central Europe in kitchens, bathrooms and hospitals (Oboňa and Ježek 2012). Full bionomies can be found in Boumans (2009), Boumans et al. (2009) and Werner (1997). Collected in the present study in synanthropic habitats and on plants such as Oxalis.

Genus LEPISEODINA Enderlein, 1937

Lepiseodina tristis (Meigen, 1830)

= Clogmia tristis (Meigen, 1830)

= Telmatoscopus tristis (Meigen, 1830); Vaillant 1972: 53–54

Literature record. Algeria (Vaillant 1972).

Biology. Species found in wet rot-holes and in an oak branch-end (Withers 1989). Larvae found in rotting wood or hole trees (Oboňa and Ježek 2012).

Genus IRANOTELMATOSCOPUS Ježek, 1987

Iranotelmatoscopus numidicus (Satchell, 1955)

= Telmatoscopus numidicus Satchell, 1955: 115

= Panimerus numidicus (Satchell, 1955); Vaillant 1972: 78

= Iranotelmatoscopus numidicus (Satchell, 1955); Ježek 1987: 6–8

Literature records. Algeria: Biskra (Satchell 1955), Vaillant (1972).

Comment. Original description of the species Telmatoscopus numidicus by Satchell (1955: 115–116).

Biology. Unknown.

Iranotelmatoscopus squamifer (Tonnoir, 1922), comb. n

Telmatoscopus squamifer Tonnoir, 1922: 102

Literature record. Egypt: Shoubra (Tonnoir 1922).

Comment. Telmatoscopus squamifer is transferred to Iranotelmatoscopus based on the structure of the male genitalia, ascoids and wing venation, as judged from illustrations.

Biology. Unknown.

Genus PANIMERUS Eaton, 1913

Panimerus goetghebueri (Tonnoir, 1919)

= Pericoma goetghebueri Tonnoir, 1919

= Telmatoscopus (Panimerus) goetghebueri (Tonnoir, 1919); Satchell 1955: 119

= Telmatoscopus goetghebueri (Tonnoir 1919); Freeman 1950 (synonymy according to Vaillant 1972)

= Panimerus goetghebueri (Tonnoir, 1919); Vaillant 1972: 71

Literature records. Algeria: Satchell (1955), Bône (Vaillant 1972); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba stream, Hammam Bourguiba, Oued Hammam Bourguiba Barbarian, Ain Sobah, Dum Djeddour, Oued Titria (Wagner 1987).

Comment. adults described by Vaillant (1972).

Biology. Unknown.

Panimerus thienemanni (Vaillant, 1954)

= Mormia thienemanni Vaillant 1954

= Telmatoscopus thienemanii (Vaillant, 1954); Vaillant 1955: 85, 200–202

= ? Panimerus maynei (Tonnoir, 1919); Vaillant 1972 (placed in synonymy)

= Panimerus thienemanni (Vaillant, 1954); Vaillant and Withers 1992 (raised from synonymy)

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986); Algeria: Djurdjura mountains (Satchell 1955), (Vaillant 1972; Vaillant and Withers 1992); Tunisia: Oued Maden (Wagner 1987).

Comment. Adults reared from larvae collected in the foam in Assif Reghaya by Boumezzough and Vaillant (1986: 237); detailed description of the adult given by Vaillant (1972).

The status of Panimerus maynei in North Africa is unclear. Vaillant (1954) described Mormia thienemanni from Algeria and later synonymized it with P. maynei (Vaillant 1972). However, Vaillant and Withers (1992) identified diagnostic differences between the type material of P. maynei and P. thienemanni and raised the latter species from synonymy. The records of P. maynei given by Satchell (1955), Boumezzough and Vaillant (1986) and Wagner (1987) are here assumed to represent P. thienemanni, although the material should ideally be revised.

Genus VAILLANTODES Wagner, 2001

Vaillantodes fraudulentus (Eaton, 1896)

= Pericoma sp. Eaton, 1896

= Pericoma fraudulenta Eaton, 1896

= Xenapates fraudulenta (Eaton, 1896); Eaton 1904

= Telmatoscopus fraudulentus (Eaton, 1896); Satchell 1955:116–118

= Panimerus fraudulentus (Eaton, 1896); Vaillant 1972: 79

= Jungiella fraudulenta (Eaton, 1896); Wagner 1987: 17–18

= Vaillantia fraudulentus (Eaton, 1896); Wagner 1988: 10

Literature records. Algeria: Mt. Edough, l’Hospice de Vaillards (Bône), El Biar, Aine Souk, Forêt de Yakourene (Hakowen), Mustaph Superior (Satchell 1955); Tunisia (Wagner 1987).

Comment. Male and female described by Satchell (1955).

Biology. Unknown.

Vaillantodes malickyi Wagner, 1987

= Jungiella malickyi Wagner, 1987: 18–19

Literature record. Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba (Wagner 1987).

Comment. Description of adult by Wagner (1987: 18–19).

Biology. Unknown.

Genus PARAMORMIA Enderlein, 1935

= Paramormia Enderlein, 1935: 248

= Duckhousiella Vaillant, 1972: 54

*Paramormia ustulata (Walker, 1856)

= Pericoma ustulata Walker, 1856: 263

= Telmatoscopus limosus Vaillant, 1955: 85

= Duckhousiella ustulata (Walker, 1856); Vaillant 1972: 58

= Paramormia ustulata (Walker, 1856); Wagner 1990: 50

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Vaillant 1955, 1972); Algeria: Djurdjura, Aurès, Petite-Kabylie (Satchell 1955, Vaillant 1955, 1972); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba stream, Oued Hammam Bourguiba Barbarian, Ain Drahan, Dum Djeddour, reservoir of Kasseb, Oued Maden (Wagner 1987).

New record. Morocco, Rif: Seguia barrage Dar Chaoui, 14/II/2013, 4♂♂, reared; Douar Kitane, 14/XI/2013, 2♂♂, adhesive papers, 24/III/2015, 1♂, malaise trap; Oued Jnane en Niche, 19/IV/2013, 4 ♂♂, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Detailed descriptions of adult, pupae and larvae given by Vaillant (1972: 58–59).

Biology. Larva and pupa can live in habitats with different levels of salinity in seaweed-heaps or near salt springs. Larvae can be found in rivers, sea shores, thermal springs, in crust of limestone dust, beneath stones, in moss and in moist earth (Vaillant 1971, 1972). Specimens collected by Ježek (1990a) occupy a large variety of habitats like, banks of outflows of ponds, moist pastures, swamps, steams and pools on margins of forest, arms of rivers, in biotopes with Alnus, Salix, Populus, Aesculus, Pinus, Fraxinus and others.

Genus TELMATOSCOPUS Eaton, 1904

Telmatoscopus advena (Eaton, 1893)

= Pericoma advena Eaton 1893, 1896

= Telmatoscopus advenus Vaillant, 1972: 80

= Panimerus havelkai (Wagner, 1975); syn. according to Kvifte (2014): 392

= Telmatoscopus seguyi (Vaillant, 1990); syn. according to Kvifte (2014): 392

Literature record. Algeria: Fort National (Vaillant 1972).

Comment. Vaillant (1972) lists a single specimen that was captured and determined as Pericoma advena, but the identification must be considered as doubtful. A full synonymy is given in Kvifte (2014).

Biology. Species considered as a tree-breeder; found in sycamore with damp (no standing water) rot, approximately 1.5 m above ground, in elm trunk-base, very damp, but no standing water, in ash, birch, hole approximately 1.5 m. above ground, with some standing water (Withers 1989).

Tribe Mormiini Enderlein, 1937

Genus MORMIA Enderlein, 1935

*Mormia tenebricosa Vaillant, 1954

= Telmatoscopus tenebricosus Vaillant, 1955: 85; Vaillant 1974: 135

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Vaillant 1955, 1974); Algeria: Aurès, Petite-Kabylie, Alger (Vaillant 1955, 1974); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba, Hammam Bourguiba stream, Ain Drahan, Oued Ain Bousabala, Oued Maden (Wagner 1987).

New record: Morocco, Rif: Oued Achekrade, 9/III/2014, 1♂, reared, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Detailed description of adult, pupae and larvae (Vaillant 1974: 135–139).

Biology. In the present work, larvae were collected and reared by the authors at laboratory temperature; the emergence of the adult took 10 days.

Mormia similis Wagner, 1987

Literature records. Tunisia: Oued Hammam Bourguiba Barbarian (Wagner 1987).

Biology. Unknown.

Mormia riparia (Satchell, 1955)

= Telmatoscopus (Mormia) riparius Satchell, 1955: 113–115

= Mormia riparia (Satchell, 1955); Vaillant 1975: 144

Literature records. Algeria: Bône, El Biar (Satchell 1955), (Vaillant 1975).

Comment. Descriptions of the male (Satchell 1955: 113–115).

Tribe PERICOMAINI Enderlein, 1935

Genus BAZARELLA Vaillant, 1964

*Bazarella atra (Vaillant, 1955)

= Pericoma atra (Vaillant, 1955); Vaillant 1983: 337–339

Literature records. Morocco, High Atlas: Massif du Siroua (Vaillant 1955); Algeria: Aurès, Tlemcen, Djurjura, Petite-Kabylie, Massif des Aures (Vaillant 1955, 1983).

New records. Morocco, Rif: Oued Inesmane, 12/IV/2004, 1 larva, surber net; Oued Madissouka, 18/V/2014, 5♂♂, sweep net; Aïn Quanquben, 28/IV/2015, 3♂♂, 10♀♀, sweep net; Aïn Bou Ghaba, 28/IV/2015, 1♂, 4♀♀, sweep net; Oued Aâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 2♂♂, aspirator; High Atlas: Oued Reghaya, 07/V/2011, 8 larvae, surber net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Larvae, pupae and adults described by Vaillant (1983: 337–339). Species wrongly recorded as new for Morocco by Ježek (2004: 146–147).

Biology. Authors of this paper collected the material in rivers, springs and brook with cedar forest and Rubus ulmifolius as the predominant vegetation.

Genus BERDENIELLA Vaillant, 1976

Berdeniella lucasii (Satchell, 1955)

= Pericoma lucasii (Satchel, 1955); Satchell 1955: 111–112.

Literature records. Algeria: Coastal city Bône (Satchell 1955, Vaillant 1976).

Comment. Adult described by Vaillant (1976: 188).

Genus CLYTOCERUS Eaton, 1904

Clytocerus kabylicus Wagner, 1987

= Clytocerus wollastoni Satchell, 1953; Satchell 1955: 107–109 (partim, misidentification)

Literature records. Algeria: El Biar (Wagner 1987: 14).

Comment. Clytocerus wollastoni Satchell, 1955 was recorded from Algeria by Satchell (1955), but according to Wagner (1987), these specimens were likely misidentified C. kabylicus. True C. wollastoni occurs only on Madeira.

Genus PERICOMA Walker, 1856

*Pericoma barbarica Vaillant, 1955

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Vaillant 1955); Algeria: Aurès, Tlemcen, Edge of Tlemcen, Oued Safsaf, Constantine, Petite Kabylie (Vaillant 1955); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba stream, Ain Drahan (Wagner 1987: 13).

New record. Morocco, Rif: Oued Taïda, 17/IV/2013, 1♂, 1♀, reared; Douar Taria, 08/IX/2013, 4♂♂, adhesive papers; Cascade Grotte des pigeons, 5/XI/2014, 3♂♂, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Biology. In the present work, the adults were collected from vegetation as, Eucalyptus, Olea oleaster, Rubus ulmifolius, Crataegus monogyna, Nerium oleander, Chamaerops sp., and Phragmites australis by a waterfall. Adults were also reared at the laboratory temperature from larvae collected in a stony ground stream with brown algae and mosses. They emerged in 30 days.

Pericoma blandula Eaton, 1893

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986; Ježek 2004), Rif (Ježek 2004); Algeria: Ruisseau des singes (Vaillant 1979); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba stream, Ain Drahan, Oued Sardouk, Oued Titria (Wagner 1987; Ježek 2004).

New site. Morocco, Rif: Oued Taïda, 17/IV/2013, 2♂♂, reared; Âounsar Aheramen, 10/V/2014, 9♂♂, 6♀♀, reared; Oued Beni Ouachekradi, 24/XI/2014, 2♂♂, 6♀♀, reared, Oued Aâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 6♂♂, aspirator; Cascade Ras El Ma, 27/IV/2015, 2♂♂, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Adults reared from larvae collected along the Assif Reghaya by Boumezzough and Vaillant (1986: 237); adult, larvae and pupa, habitat of different states and characteristics of Pericoma blandula of North Africa and Europe were described by Vaillant (1979: 239–240). Species wrongly recorded as new for Morocco by Ježek (2004: 147).

Biology. According to Duckhouse (1962) and Vaillant (1976), the larvae of Pericoma blandula can live in different habitats: in mosses which cover, the dead leaves present in the banks of springs and rivers, as well as in sand, mud and stones on the edge of large and small courtyards water. They also can be found in different substrates: granite, basalt and slate. Vaillant (1979) described in detail the larva.

*Pericoma granadica Vaillant, 1978

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986).

New records. Morocco, Rif: Oued Taïda, 18/III/2011, 2 larvae, surber net; Oued Ametrasse, 16/V/2011, 9 larvae, surber net; Oued Ras El Ma, 17/V/2011, 2 larvae, surber net; Oued Farda, 28/III/2012, 11♂♂, 2♀♀, sweep net, reared; Oued Aâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 13♂♂, sweep net; Middle Atlas: Aïn Vittel, 11/XII/2011, 4♂♂, 5♀♀, reared; High Atlas: Cascade sur sol cuivreux, 06/V/2011, 2 larvae, surber net; Oued Reghaya, 07/V/2011, 2♂♂, 1♀, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Adults reared from larvae collected in the foam in the site Assif Reghaya (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986: 237–238).

Biology. Larvae extremely abundant in the foam that cover the walls of irrigation canals and exterior walls; adults obtained by breeding (Vaillant 1978). In the present paper, the eclosion at the temperature laboratory of several adults was registered at 2 days from pupae and 60 days from larvae. Adults were also collected by sweeping the vegetation mostly constituted by Nerium oleander, Pistacia lentiscus and Rubus ulmifolius near springs, streams and waterfall habitats.

Pericoma exquisita Eaton, 1893

= Pericoma minutissima Vaillant, 1963

= Pericoma petricola Vaillant, 1962

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas, Rif (Ježek 2004); Algeria: Ježek (2004); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba stream, Oued maden, Oued Titria (Wagner 1987).

Biology. Larvae living on the banks of rivers; adults found on Crete and the islands of Evia in the Aegean (Vaillant 1978).

*Pericoma diversa Tonnoir, 1920

Literature record. Morocco: High Atlas (Vaillant 1978: 229).

New record. Morocco, Rif: Cascade Chrafate, 18/III/2015, 2♂♂, 1♀, reared, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Description of larva, pupa and male by Vaillant (1978: 229).

Biology. Present in fast rivers, fit into the foams containing stones, in walls of natural or artificial waterfalls; as well as in bryophytes covering irrigation canals. In England, larvae were found at an altitude that does not exceed 1100 m; in Morocco it was collected at 2000 m (Vaillant 1978) and at 900 m in the present work.

*Pericoma latina Sarà, 1954

= Pericoma numidica Vaillant, 1955

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Vaillant 1955); Algeria: Aurès, Tlemcen mountains (Vaillant 1978).

New record. Morocco, Rif: Cascade Chrafate, 18/III/2015, 2♂♂, reared; Oued Majjou, Nord Village Majjou, 19/03/2004, 1 larva; Oued Majjou, Majjou village, 19/03/2004, 17 larvae; Oued Kelâa, 04/V/2004, 29 larvae; Oued Talembote, 21/VI/2005, 4 larvae; Oued associé à daya Fifi, 16/VI/2005, 25 larvae; Oued Tiffert, 16/VI/2005, 3 larvae; Oued à 20 Km de Fifi, 16/VI/2005, 1 larva; Oued El Kanar, Beni Fenzar, 21/VI/2004, 1 larva, surber net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Detailed description of larvae, pupae and adults, reared from larvae (Vaillant 1978: 234–235).

Biology. Larvae particularly “petrimadicolous”; can be found also under the leaves soaked on the banks of sources. In the present work, the authors collected the larvae in diversified habitats, in streams, in arms of pounds and rivers, in waterfall. The reared adults were obtained at the temperature laboratory from larvae collected in a waterfall which abundant vegetation was: Olea oleaster, Ficus carica, Rubus ulmifolius, Eucalyptus, Nerium oleander, Hedera maroccana and Ricinus communis.

*Pericoma maroccana Vaillant, 1955

= Pericoma numidica var. marocana Vaillant, 1955

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986; Dakki 1997).

New records. Morocco, Rif: Cascade Chrafate, 18/III/2015, 2♂♂, 2♀♀, sweep net; Ruisseau Maison forestière, 21/IV/2015, 1♂, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Species recorded from Tissaout in the High Atlas; it is endemic from Morocco.

Biology. The authors of the present paper collected the species on the branches of the vegetation around a waterfall and a streamlet. The localities with Olea oleaster, Ficus carica, Rubus ulmifolius, Eucalyptus, Nerium oleander, Hedera maroccana, Ricinus communis, Abies marocana, Pinus negra, Pinus pinaster, Cedrus atlantica and Berberis hispanica.

Pericoma modesta (Tonnoir, 1922)

= Pericoma numidica Vai1lant, 1955 (syn. according to Vaillant 1978)

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas: Boumezzough and Vaillant (1986); Algeria: Aurès, Djurdura, Constantine, Atlas de Blida, Ruisseau des singes, Camp-des-Chênes, Sidi-Madani, Alger (Vaillant 1955), Aegean, Djurdjura mountains (Vaillant 1978).

Comment. Adults reared from larvae collected in wet sand along the Assif Reghaya (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986: 237). Detailed description of larvae and adults (Vaillant 1978: 226–227).

Biology. Unknown.

***Pericoma pseudexquisita Tonnoir, 1940

= Pericoma avicularia Tonnoir, 1940; Vaillant 1978: 233

New record. North Africa, Morocco, Rif: Oued Azila, 27.VI.2013, 7♂♂, 2♀♀, reared, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Biology. Larvae living on pure rocky soil, in the foam and between the leaves. Adults observed throughout the summer season (Vaillant 1978). In the present work, adults were reared at the laboratory and the hatchings were obtained at the 10th and the 20th days. At the unique locality, the most abundant vegetation was formed by Pteridium aquilinum and Rubus ulmifolius, and the rocky substrate was covered by some mosses.

Genus THORNBURGHIELLA Vaillant, 1982

Thornburghiella quezeli (Vaillant, 1955)

= Pericoma quezeli (Vaillant 1955)

Literature records. Algeria: Petite-Kabylie, Camp-des-Chênes, Constantine, Atlas de Blida, Chabet-el-Akra Vaillant (1955); Tunisia: Aïn Draham (Vaillant 1983).

Comment. Detailed description of adult, pupa and larvae (Vaillant 1983: 326–328).

Biology. Unknown.

Genus PNEUMIA Enderlein, 1935

= Satchelliella Vaillant, 1979

***Pneumia nubila (Meigen, 1818)

= Satchelliella nubila (Meigen, 1818); Vaillant 1979: 270

New record. Morocco, Rif: Aïn Mâaze, 1/XI/2014, 1♂, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Biology. Larvae found in accumulations of dead, leaves decaying on the bottom of a tank near a stream, or on the banks of a marsh (Vaillant 1981). In the present work, the authors collected the unique adult by sweeping the vegetation formed essentially by Quercus canariensis, Rubus ulmifolius, Arbutus unedo, Erica arborea, Cistus populifolius and Luzula sp.

Pneumia pilularia (Tonnoir, 1940)

= Pericoma pilularia Tonnoir, 1940; Satchell 1955: 118

= Satchelliella pilularia (Tonnoir, 1940); Vaillant 1981: 277–278

Literature records. Morocco (Ježek 2004); Algeria: Djurdjura mountains (Satchell 1955).

Comment. Description of larvae and adult (Vaillant 1981: 277–278).

Biology. Larvae common among the remaining plants on the banks of rheocrene springs, many madicole habitats and on limestone substrates (Vaillant 1981).

**Pneumia propinqua (Satchell, 1955)

= Pericoma propinqua Satchell, 1955; Satchell 1955: 109–111

= Satchelliella propinqua (Satchell, 1955); Vaillant 1979: 265–266

Literature records. Algeria: Village Tissadourt (Satchell 1955), Tissadourt, Algiers, Fort National in Kabylia (Vaillant 1979).

New Record: Morocco, Rif: Chrafate, 24/V/2013, 2♂♂, reared; Oued Zarka, 14/XI/2013, 2♂♂, reared, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Description of the male (Satchell 1955: 109–111, Vaillant 1979), placement in Pneumia according to Omelková and Ježek (2012).

Biology. The authors of the present work reared the species at temperature laboratory; the emergence of the adults was registered after 30 days. The abundant vegetation at the localities was: Olea oleaster, Ficus carica, Rubus ulmifolius, Eucalyptus, Nerium oleander, Hedera maroccana and Ricinus communis.

Pneumia reghayana (Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1986), comb. nov

= Satchelliella reghayana Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1986: 238–239; Dakki 1997: 87, 89

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986, Dakki 1997).

Comment. Adults reared from larvae, description, differential diagnosis (Boumezzough and Vaillant 1986: 238–239). The species was overlooked by Omelková and Ježek (2012) in their catalogue of world Pneumia species and is here first recognized as a species of Pneumia.

Biology. Unknown.

*Pneumia toubkalensis (Omelková & Ježek, 2012)

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas (Omelková and Ježek 2012).

New record: Morocco, Rif: Oued Aâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 4♂♂, sweep net; Aïn Ras El Ma, 27/IV/2015, 1♂, sweep net, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Comment. Pneumia toubkalensis can be separated from P. reghayana on the presence of four digitiform sensilla laterosubapically and a microseta mediosubapically on the gonostyle.

Biology. The species was collected on a wall of a river of the higher course, on a limestone soil and mosses on the rock, and on a wall of a spring. The localities were dominated by Pistachia lentiscus, Cistus sp. and Nerium oleander.

Tribe PSYCHODINI Newman, 1834

Genus PHILOSEPEDON Eaton, 1904

**Philosepedon (Philosepedon) humerale (Meigen, 1818)

= Psychoda humeralis Meigen, 1818; Eaton 1893, Satchell 1955: 119, Tonnoir 1919, 1922, Enderlein 1937, Freeman 1950, Jung 1956, Vaillant 1960

Literature record. Algeria (Satchell 1955).

New records. Morocco, Rif: Oued Hachef, 4/II/2013, 2♂♂, 1♀, reared; Cascade Ras El Ma, 27/IV/2015, 1♀, aspirator; Oued El Kanar, 2 km de Douar Assoul, 27/IV/2015, 1♂, aspirator; Oued Aâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 1♂, aspirator, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Biology. Larvae growing in snail-shells; adults found in damp places (Ježek 1985). The authors of the present work collected the adults on walls of a river of the higher course and of a spring. The localities had a dominance of Pistachia lentiscus, Cistus sp. and Nerium oleander.

Philosepedon (Philosepedon) beaucournui Vaillant, 1974

Literature records. Algeria (Vaillant 1974); Tunisia: Oued Ain Bousabala, reservoir of Kasseb, Ain Drahan (Wagner 1987).

Comment. Description of adult from Algeria. Brief comparison between this species and Philosepedon humerale (Vaillant 1974: 116–117).

Genus PSYCHODA Latreille, 1796

Subgenus Falsologima Ježek and Van harten, 1996

Psychoda (Falsologima) savaiiensis (Edwards, 1928)

= Psychoda rarotongensis Satchell, 1953: 183–184

Literature record. Algeria (Satchell 1955).

Subgenus Logima Eaton

Psychoda (Logima) aberrans Tonnoir, 1922

Literature record. Egypt: Shoubra (Tonnoir 1922)

Comment. The species is transferred to subgenus Logima based on figures in Tonnoir (1922).

Biology. Unknown.

Psychoda (Logima) albipennis Zetterstedt, 1850

= Psychoda severini Tonnoir, 1922; Ježek, 1983: 214

Literature records. Algeria (Satchell 1955); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba stream, Ain Drahan (Wagner 1987).

Biology. Larvae living in various habitats: in the mud of tracks of both cattle and horses, dung, waste pipes drain devices out houses and on the trickling beds of sewage films, bathrooms (Wagner 1977).

Psychoda (Logima) erminea Eaton, 1893

Literature records. Algeria (Satchell 1955).

Biology. Larvae found on the margins of polluted ponds or reservoirs (Nielsen 1961), on banks of streams and drainage canals, swamps, periphery of ponds (Vaillant and Botosaneanu 1966); adults have been collected in localities shaded by Alnus, Salix, Robinia, Sambucus, Pinus and Fraxinus, with undergrowth with mostly Geranium and Urtica (Ježek 1983).

Subgenus Psycha Ježek, 1984

Psychoda (Psycha) grisescens Tonnoir, 1922

Literature records. Morocco: Rif (Ježek 2004); Algeria (Satchell 1955); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba stream (Wagner 1987).

New records. Morocco, Rif: Douar Kitane, 13/III/2014, 1♂, 3♀♀, sweep net, 20-22/IV/2015, 14♂♂, light trap, 1/V/2015, 4♂♂, light trap, 24/III/2015, 60♂♂, 5♀♀, malaise trap, H. Afzan and B. Belqat collectors; Middle Atlas: Gîte Aït Ayoub, 14/IV/2014, 2♂♂, adhesive papers, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Biology. Larvae found on banks of polluted brooks or in wet cow dung; adults collected in banks of a pond, on house windows, on the branches of coniferous trees and in gardens (Ježek 1990b).

Subgenus Psychoda s. str

Psychoda (Psychoda) phalaenoides (Linnaeus, 1758)

Literature record. Algeria (Satchell 1955).

Biology. Adults found in several habitats: banks of mountain forest brooks, decaying organic matter in drainages, growth of alders, dry places, banks of rivers, springs on meadows, outflow from ponds and swamps with Populus, Alnus, Picea, Fagus, Castanea, the undergrowth with Urtica, Petasites, Imoatiens, Ficaria, Grossularia, Ires, Rubus, Fragaria, Filipendula and Assarum (Ježek 1990b).

Psychoda (Psychoda) uniformata Haseman, 1907

Literature record. Morocco: Rif (Ježek 2004).

Biology. Adults found in various habitats: banks of drainages, moist meadows, near arms of rivers, forest brooks pond, in dry bed of canal shaded by Alnus, Fraxinus, Crataegus and others (Ježek 1990b).

Subgenus Psychodocha Ježek, 1984

**Psychoda (Psychodocha) cinerea Banks, 1894

Literature records. Algeria (Satchell 1955); Tunisia: Hammam Bourguiba, Hammam Bourguiba stream, Oued Titria, Ain Drahan, Ain Sobah (Wagner 1987).

New records. Morocco, Rif: Oued Tazzarine, 17/V/2011, 3♂♂, 7♀♀, sweep net; Douar Taria, 08/IX/2013, 5♂♂, adhesive papers; Douar Kitane, 30/IV/2015, 2♂♂, light trap, 24/III/2015, 4♂♂, malaise trap; Oued Chrafate, 27/IV/2015, 2♂♂, 3♀♀, light trap, 27/IV/2015, 2♂♂, 5♀♀, aspirator, 28/IV/2015, 2♂♂, 2♀♀, sweep net; OuedAâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 2♂♂, sweep net; Beni Snassen: Cascade Grotte des Pigeons, 25/XI/2014, 1♂, reared, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Biology. Larvae registered by several authors (in Ježek 1990b) in diversified habitats (in mud and moss, below stones and moist rock walls, in stagnant waters, in ducts of drainage machinery, on toilets, near banks, in food industry, cow excrements, hollows of trees, heaps of garden’s rest, margins of periodical water reservoirs, etc.). Adults, also collected by several authors (in Ježek 1990b) in light traps, on branches of coniferous trees, in mixed forests, on banks of gutters, brooks, ponds, arms of rivers, in gardens, dirty toilets, etc. Authors of the present work collected the species in several habitats with predominant vegetation as: Eucalyptus, Olea oleaster, Rubus ulmifolius, Crataegus monogyna, Nerium oleander, Chamaerops sp., Phragmites australis, Ficus carica, Hedera maroccana and Ricinus communis.

***Psychoda (Psychodocha) gemina (Eaton, 1904)

New record. North Africa, Morocco, Rif: Daya Fifi, 30/III/2012, 3♂♂, 2♀♀, sweep net; Oued Zarka, 14/XI/2013, 8♂♂, 1♀ reared; Douar kitane, 20-22/IV/2015, 5♂♂, 1/V/2015, 5♂♂, light trap; Oued Aâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 1♂, aspirator, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

Biology. Larvae living in moist mud of paddocks, in manure, in waste pipes, on toilets, sewage work, water mains etc. (Jung 1956), among decayed leaves on the banks of pounds and near springs (Wagner 1977). Ježek (1990b) collected adults near mountain streams drainages, banks of river, inundated lowland forests, surroundings of sluices, moist places near dustbins, rills below railway bridges, spring areas with fallen trees, brooks in meadows, ponds and their outflows, swamps in forests, dry water reservoirs and dry cesspools.

In the present paper, the authors collected the species on both lotic and lentic habitats. The predominant vegetation in the localities were dominated by Quercus canariensis, Quercus pyrenaica, Cistus salviifolius, Euphorbia characias, Arondo donax, Midicago sativa, Inula viscose and mosses.

Subgenus Psychomora Ježek, 1984

Psychoda (Psychomora) trinodulosa (Tonnoir, 1992)

Literature records. Algeria (Satchell 1955).

Biology. Larvae developed in horse and cow excrement (Wagner 1977). Adults collected in areas of inundated forests, on banks of brooks and gutters, on moist pastures, near arms of rivers, rubbish heaps, at moist material, dry drainages, banks of ponds, spring areas and toilets (Ježek 1990b).

Subgenus Tinearia Schellenberg, 1803

*Psychoda (Tinearia) alternata Say, 1824

Literature records. Morocco: High Atlas: La Maire (Tonnoir 1920); Algeria (Satchell 1955); Tunisia: Oued Ain Bousabala (Wagner 1987).

New record: Morocco, Rif: Oued Nakhla, 18/III/2011, 7♂♂, 5♀♀, sweep net; Oued Farda, 28/III/2012, 1♀, reared; Oued Ouara, 23/XI/2012, 1♀, reared; Oued Ametrasse, 11/VI/2012, 2♂♂, 4♀♀, reared; Oued Chrafate, 11/VI/2012, 12♂♂, 16♀♀, reared; Douar Derâa, 24/VIII/2013, 2♂♂, 5♀♀, adhesive papers; Douar Ihermochene, 06/V/2014, 9♂♂ 9♀♀, adhesive papers; Douar Ikhlafene, 07/X/2013, 15♂♂, 10♀♀, 06/V/2014, 2♂♂, 6♀♀, adhesive papers; Douar Taria, 08/IX/2013, 4♂♂, 11♀♀, adhesive papers; Douar Idrene, 4♂♂, 2♀♀, 6.X.2013, adhesive papers; Douar Kitane, 9/III/2014, 12♂♂, 20♀♀, light trap; Oued 2km deDouar Assoul, 27/IV/2015, 2♀♀, aspirator; Douar kitane, 1/V/2015, 50♂♂, 6♀♀ light trap; Oued Aâyaden, 27/IV/2015, 1♀, sweep net; Ruisseau Maison forestière, 21/IV/2015, 2♂♂, sweep net; Oued Mhannech, 5♂♂, 7♀♀, aspirator; Aïn Sidi Yahya, 26/XI/2014, 1♂, reared; Middle Atlas: Gîte Aït Ayoub, 14/IV/2014, 1♂, 1♀, adhesive papers, coll. Afzan and Belqat.

New record. Egypt, Oued Nile: 3♂♂, 1♀, 1-9/IV/2015, malaise trap, Belqat coll.

Biology. The authors of this paper collected the species in varied habitats: rivers, streamlets and walls of homes in small countryside villages (light trap and adhesive papers). The localities whith Olea oleaster, Ficus carica, Rubus ulmifolius, Eucalyptus, Nerium oleander, Hedera maroccana, Ricinus communis, Abies marocana, Pinus negra, Pinus pinaster, Cedrus atlantica, Berberis hispanica, Pistacia lentiscus and Rubus ulmifolius.

Psychoda (Tinearia) efflatouni Tonnoir, 1922

Literature record. Egypt: Shoubra (Tonnoir 1922).

Biology. Unknown.

Psychoda (Tinearia) lativentris (Berdén, 1952)

Literature record. Tunisia: Ain Drahan (Wagner 1987).

Comment. Cited in Tunisia by Wagner (1987).

Acknowledgments

It is our pleasure to warmly thank our colleague Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte (University of Bergen) for his generous help given to us whilst writing the manuscript, especially for the valuable background information about the classification for the world Psychodinae fauna.

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