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Revision and phylogeny of the genus Loxoneptera Hampson, 1896 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Pyraustinae), based on morphology and molecular data
expand article infoLanbin Xiang, Kai Chen§, Dandan Zhang
‡ Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
§ Jiaying University, Meizhou, China
Open Access

Abstract

The genus Loxoneptera Hampson, 1896 is revised based on external appearance and genitalia. It is comprised of eleven species, of which three are described as new species from China: L. crassiuncata Chen & Zhang, sp. nov., L. triangularis Chen & Zhang, sp. nov., and L. rectacerosa Chen & Zhang, sp. nov.; six species are proposed as new combinations: L. carnealis (Swinhoe, 1895), comb. nov., L. medialis (Caradja, 1925), comb. nov., L. pentasaris (Meyrick, 1932), comb. nov., L. bipunctalis (Hampson, 1912), comb. nov., L. brevipalpis (Snellen, 1890), comb. nov., and L. dichroma (Moore, 1888), comb. nov. A new replacement name, L. hampsoni Chen & Zhang, nom. nov., is proposed for L. carnealis Hampson, 1896, the type species of the genus, because it is a secondary homonym of L. carnealis (Swinhoe, 1895), comb. nov. External characters and genitalia morphology of all species are figured. Nucleotide sequences of COI, 16S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and EF-1α were used for the molecular analysis and phylogeny of Loxoneptera species.

Keywords

Calamochrous, China, molecular phylogeny, new combinations, new species

Introduction

The genus Loxoneptera was established as a monotypic genus by Hampson (1896), based on L. carnealis Hampson, 1896 from Sikkim and Assam. Subsequently, Swinhoe (1906) described a new species, L. albicostalis, from Padang, Sumatra, mainly based on appearance of the wings. The genus was not investigated again until Chen et al. (2018) who, for the first time, recorded these two species in China (see also Nuss et al. 2003–2021). They noted that Loxoneptera was paraphyletic, with respect to two species of Calamochrous Lederer, 1863, i.e., C. carnealis (Swinhoe, 1895) and C. medialis Caradja, 1925, appeared as terminal lineages within Loxoneptera clade based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis. But C. carnealis and C. medialis were not transferred to Loxoneptera in their study.

Within the additional Chinese specimens collected, three undescribed species of Loxoneptera were recognised. Moreover, a few species of Calamochrous and Anania Hübner, 1823 were found to be congeneric with species of Loxoneptera. The aim of this study is to diagnose Loxoneptera based on external and genital characters, to clarify the species included in the genus, and to provide a preliminary phylogenetic hypothesis based on selected genetic markers.

Materials and methods

The material studied, including the types of the newly described species, are all deposited at the Museum of Biology, Sun Yat-sen University, China (SYSBM) except those stored in the following institutions: Insect Collection of the College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, China (NKU), Forest Canopy Ecology Lab, Yunnan, China (FCEL), “Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Romania (MGAB), and Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (NHMUK). Slides of genitalic dissections were prepared according to Robinson (1976) and Li and Zheng (1996), with some modifications. Genitalia terminology follow Klots (1970), Munroe (1976), Maes (1995), and Kristensen (2003). Images of the adults were taken using a Canon EOS 60D camera provided with a Canon 100 mm macro lens; the genitalia images were taken using Zeiss Axio Scope.A1 in combination with a Zeiss AxioCam camera and the Axio Vision SE64 program on a Windows PC; source images were then aligned and stacked on Helicon Focus to obtain a fully sharpened composite image. All images were edited using Adobe Photoshop SC5.

Ten species in four genera were included in the molecular phylogenetic analyses (Table 1). Euclasta stoetzneri (Caradja, 1927) was chosen as the outgroup because it has been inferred as sister-group of Pyraustini and Portentomorphini in Pyraustinae (Mally et al. 2019). One species of Sclerocona Meyrick, 1890 and three species of Eumorphobotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1969 were also included as related genera to Loxoneptera according to Chen et al. (2018). Total DNA was extracted from two legs, and sometimes from the abdomen of the dry specimens using the TIANGEN DNA extraction kit following the manufacturer’s instructions. The nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and two nuclear genes, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) and Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were selected for study. Primers used in this study and all PCRs performed are the same as in Zhang et al. (2020). PCR products were confirmed with 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis in TAE buffer, then were purified and direct-sequenced at Majorbio Bio-pharm Technology Co., Ltd (Guangzhou), utilising the same primers used for PCR amplification.

Table 1.

Species sampled for the molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Genus Species Voucher Locality GenBank accession number References
COI 16S EF-1α 28S
Eumorphobotys eumorphalis SYSULEP0046 Fujian MG739574 MG739586 MG739598 MG739609 Chen et al. 2018
SYSULEP0047 Fujian MG739575 MG739587 MG739599 MG739610 Chen et al. 2018
concavuncus SYSULEP0042 Yunnan MG739571 MG739583 MG739595 MG739606 Chen et al. 2018
SYSULEP0175 Guangxi MG739581 MG739593 MG739604 MG739616 Chen et al. 2018
horakae SYSULEP0043 Sichuan MG739572 MG739584 MG739596 MG739607 Chen et al. 2018
SYSULEP0172 Sichuan MG739580 MG739592 N/A MG739615 Chen et al. 2018
Loxoneptera hampsoni SYSULEP0166 Hainan MG739579 MG739591 MG739603 MG739614 Chen et al. 2018
SYSULEP0174 Hainan MW736545 MW736550 MW736555 MW728364 Present study
albicostalis SYSULEP0162 Yunnan MG739578 MG739590 MG739602 MG739613 Chen et al. 2018
medialis SYSULEP0096 Hainan MG739576 MG739588 MG739600 MG739611 Chen et al. 2018
SYSULEP0171 Guangdong MW736546 MW736551 MW736556 MW728365 Present study
SYSULEP0173 Guangdong MW736547 MW736552 N/A N/A Present study
rectacerosa SYSULEP0170 Yunnan MW736548 MW736553 N/A N/A Present study
carnealis SYSULEP0044 Guizhou MG739573 MG739585 MG739597 MG739608 Chen et al. 2018
SYSULEP0186 Yunnan MW736549 MW736554 MW736557 MW728366 Present study
Sclerocona acutella SYSULEP0152 Macau MG739577 MG739589 MG739601 MG739612 Chen et al. 2018
Euclasta stoetzneri SYSULEP0334 Shannxi MT738696 MT734412 MT724335 MT734404 Zhang et al. 2020

The sequences were aligned using Clustal W (Thompson et al. 1994) in MEGA 6 (Tamura et al. 2013) with default settings. The aligned matrix was corrected by eye. Gaps were treated as missing data. Phylogenetic analyses were inferred using Bayesian inference (BI) method in MrBayes 3.2.6 (Ronquist et al. 2012) and maximum likelihood (ML) in RAxML 8.2.10 (Stamatakis 2014). BI analysis was run with independent parameters for the COI, the 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA gene partitions under the GTR + G model, the EF-1α gene partition under the GTR + G + I model, as suggested by jModelTest 0.1.1 (Posada 2008). Two independent runs, each with four Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, were performed for 20 million generations sampled every 1000th generation. The first 25% trees were discarded as burn-in, and posterior probabilities (PP) were determined from remaining trees. ML analysis was executed under the GTR + G model for all gene partitions and with 1000 iterations for the bootstrap test. The pairwise Kimura 2-Parameter ( K2P) distances between species were calculated from the COI gene using MEGA 6 (Tamura et al. 2013).

Results

Phylogenetic relationships

The concatenated dataset of four genes consisted of 2511 nucleotide positions (658 for COI, 463 for 16S rRNA, 619 for 28S rRNA, and 771 for EF-1α). Both BI and ML analyses of the concatenated dataset inferred congruent topologies with only subtle differences in posterior probability and bootstrap values probability (Fig. 1). The monophyly of Loxoneptera is strongly supported in BI but weakly supported in ML (PP = 0.93, BS = 65). Eumorphobotys is in a sister group position to Loxoneptera with robust support (PP = 1.00, BS = 100).

Figure 1. 

Phylogenetic hypothesis inferred from Bayesian inference. Numbers on branches indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities and ML bootstrap values, respectively.

The results of the current phylogenetic analyses support that the undescribed species (here named as L. rectacerosa sp. nov.) should be placed in Loxoneptera, and that L. carnealis (Swinhoe, 1895) comb. nov. and L. medialis (Caradja, 1925) comb. nov. should be transferred from Calamochrous Lederer, 1863 to Loxoneptera. Within the genus, L. medialis + L. rectacerosa form a sister group with robust support (PP = 1.00, BS = 99), while L. carnealis is the sister group to L. medialis + L. rectacerosa (PP = 1.00, BS = 100). Loxoneptera albicostalis is associated with the clade L. carnealis + (L. medialis + L. rectacerosa), although with relatively low support (PP = 0.78, BS = 52). Loxoneptera hampsoni is the first-diverging species with strong support in the BI analysis (PP = 0.93), but with relatively low support in the ML analysis (BS = 65).

Pairwise distances of the barcoding region (COI) are given in Table 2. The genetic distances between Loxoneptera and other genera range from 7.7% (Eumorphobotys) to 12.4% (Sclerocona). Interspecific genetic distances within Loxoneptera range from 4.2% (L. medialis to L. rectacerosa) to 11.2% (L. hampsoni to L. carnealis), while intraspecific genetic distances in Loxoneptera range from 0 % (L. medialis) to 0.3% (L. carnealis).

Table 2.

Pairwise distance of the COI barcoding region based on Kimura-2-parameter model.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 LEP0046 Eumorphobotys eumorphalis
2 LEP0047 Eumorphobotys eumorphalis 0.000
3 LEP0042 Eumorphobotys concavuncus 0.072 0.072
4 LEP0175 Eumorphobotys concavuncus 0.070 0.070 0.006
5 LEP0043 Eumorphobotys horakae 0.078 0.078 0.068 0.066
6 LEP0172 Eumorphobotys horakae 0.074 0.074 0.068 0.066 0.003
7 LEP0166 Loxoneptera hampsoni 0.096 0.096 0.112 0.106 0.119 0.119
8 LEP0174 Loxoneptera hampsoni 0.096 0.096 0.112 0.106 0.119 0.119 0.000
9 LEP0162 Loxoneptera albicostalis 0.087 0.087 0.091 0.091 0.107 0.103 0.087 0.087
10 LEP0096 Loxoneptera medialis 0.087 0.087 0.094 0.092 0.099 0.098 0.090 0.090 0.077
11 LEP0171 Loxoneptera medialis 0.087 0.087 0.092 0.090 0.099 0.097 0.092 0.092 0.077 0.002
12 LEP0173 Loxoneptera medialis 0.087 0.087 0.092 0.090 0.099 0.097 0.092 0.092 0.077 0.002 0.000
13 LEP0170 Loxoneptera rectacerosa 0.077 0.077 0.089 0.090 0.101 0.099 0.099 0.099 0.080 0.044 0.042 0.042
14 LEP0044 Loxoneptera carnealis 0.101 0.101 0.103 0.107 0.118 0.118 0.112 0.112 0.080 0.067 0.065 0.065 0.082
15 LEP0186 Loxoneptera carnealis 0.101 0.101 0.103 0.105 0.117 0.117 0.108 0.108 0.077 0.064 0.062 0.062 0.079 0.003
16 LEP0152 Sclerocona acutella 0.099 0.099 0.113 0.113 0.119 0.119 0.108 0.108 0.108 0.106 0.104 0.104 0.102 0.124 0.124
17 LEP0334 Euclasta stoetzneri 0.106 0.106 0.118 0.118 0.135 0.135 0.111 0.111 0.118 0.106 0.104 0.104 0.101 0.115 0.115 0.118

Taxonomic account

Loxoneptera Hampson, 1896

Loxoneptera Hampson, 1896: 405. Type species: Loxoneptera carnealis Hampson, 1896, by original designation.

Diagnosis

In external appearance, the species of Loxoneptera are similar to species of Eumorphobotys Munroe & Mutuura, 1969 in the long and porrect labial palpus, the usually concolorous wings with no obvious pattern and the straight termen of forewing, but can be best distinguished by the triangular uncus, the rod-shaped dorsal projection of transtilla bearing long and thick hair at the apex, and the hook-shaped ventral sella in the male genitalia. In the female genitalia, the ductus bursae of Loxoneptera is shorter and stouter than that of Eumorphobotys. These two genera are also different in the shape of the signum, if present a nearly rhomboid signum with connected carina, or reduced into a keel-like carina in Loxoneptera, and a narrowly rhomboid signum with carina interrupted in Eumorphobotys. Eighth sternite in males of Loxoneptera is slightly sclerotised, with two slender and sclerotised anterolateral processes.

Description

Head. Frons oblique, slightly protruding. Vertex with moderately raised scales projecting between antennae. Labial palpus ~ 2–2.5 × eye diameter; second segment obliquely upward, third segment long and porrect. Maxillary palpus small. Thorax. Legs unmodified usually, outer spur 1/3 to 1/2 the length of inner spur, sometimes outer spur minute. Wings. Forewing elongated triangular, termen obliquely straight to slightly curved; discal cell ~ 1/2 length of wing, R1 from ~ 3/4 of anterior margin of cell, R3 and R4 stalked to more than half of R4, R5 free from anterior angle of cell, parallel to stalked R3+R4 at base, then diverging, discocellular veins concavely curved, M1 close to R5 at base, free from discocellular veins and close to anterior angle of cell, M2, M3 and CuA1 from posterior angle of cell, CuA2 from 4/5 of the posterior margin of cell, 1A faintly sinuate to tornus; 2A forming complete loop and distally recurved before joining 1A; usually only with orbicular and reniform stigmata, sometimes no pattern. Hindwing fan-shaped, termen rounded; discal cell less than half length of wing, Sc+R1 and Rs anastomosed to half of Rs, discocellulars concave, M2, M3 and CuA1 from posterior angle of discal cell, CuA2 from 4/5 of the posterior margin of cell; without obviously spot. Abdomen. Eighth sternite in male with two slender and sclerotised anterolateral processes, pointed or slightly stout (Fig. 14).

Male genitalia. Uncus triangular, glabrous or with few hair-like setae. Tegumen trapezoid. Saccus nearly triangular. Transtilla with developed ventral process, extending a rod-shaped projection dorsad, usually long, curved, and slender, and terminal part with many long hairs. Valva tongue-shaped; dorsal sella membranous, ventral sella usually with a hook-shaped, strongly sclerotised process, dorso-distal sella presented as a sclerite and usually extended as a long, hook-shaped, sclerotised process; editum absent or not obvious; sacculus broad. Juxta with basal part rivet-shaped, remainder usually with two long and slender bifid arms. Phallus tubular, vesica with spine-shaped cornuti and sometimes deciduous cornuti.

Female genitalia. Ovipositor lobes flat, densely setose. Anterior apophyses longer than posterior apophyses. Antrum sclerotised, cup-shaped or bowl-shaped; colliculum well developed and sclerotised; ductus seminalis entering near anterior end of colliculum; ductus bursae short and stout, almost as long as length of corpus bursae; corpus bursae oval, appendix bursae oval or absent, signum nearly rhomboid, with a carina not interrupted in middle, sometimes signum reduced into a carina, sometimes absent.

Distribution

China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia.

Key to species of Loxoneptera

1 Forewing reddish brown; hindwing black-brown in male, with a triangular patch presented near the posterior angle of cell 2
Forewing colour paler, not reddish brown; hindwing pale yellow, triangular patch absent 3
2 Costal band of forewing white, fringe white and with basal 1/4 black-brown (Fig. 4), a small triangular indentation presented on the 1/3 of posterior margin in male; ventral sella with a long hook-shaped process; vesica without cornutus (Fig. 16) L. albicostalis
Costal band of forewing brown, fringe pale yellow and with basal half black-brown (Fig. 5), posterior margin of male smooth; ventral sella with a relatively short and stick-like process; vesica with a horn-shaped, strongly sclerotised cornutus apically (Fig. 17) L. crassiuncata
3 Forewing with pale yellow stripes between veins, posterior margin with a small triangular indentation and a group of black-brown scales in male (Fig. 2); juxta medially concave inwardly (Fig. 15) L. hampsoni
Forewing without pale yellow stripe between veins, posterior margin arc-shaped, without indentation and a group of black-brown scales in male; juxta normal 4
4 Distal part of phallus with a long and pointed spine, longer than the length of phallus (Fig. 18) L. carnealis
Distal part of phallus without spine, or spine shorter than the length of phallus 5
5 Distal part of juxta with a strongly sclerotised and narrowly triangular process (Fig. 19) L. triangularis
Distal part of juxta without process 6
6 Distal end of phallus densely decorated with short spines (Fig. 22) L. pentasaris
Distal end of phallus not decorated with short spines 7
7 Dorsal margin of valva forming a break angle subapically (Fig. 20) L. rectacerosa
Dorsal margin of valva without break angle 8
8 Dorsal margin of valva convex, dorso-distal sella extended outwards and not beyond the end of valva (Fig. 21) L. medialis
Dorsal margin of valva somewhat concave, dorso-distal sella extended ventrad and beyond the ventral margin of valva 9
9 Forewing with a stripe along posterior margin of cell (Fig. 13); ventral-distal wall of phallus weakly sclerotised and obliquely extended into a process (Fig. 25) L. dichroma
Forewing absent stripe on posterior margin of cell; wall of phallus not sclerotised 10
10 Distal part of phallus with a heavily sclerotised, spiny and thumb-shaped cornutus (Fig. 24) L. brevipalpis
Distal part of phallus with a weakly sclerotised, slice-shaped cornutus (Fig. 23) L. bipunctalis

Loxoneptera hampsoni Chen & Zhang, nom. nov.

Figs 2, 3, 15, 26

Loxoneptera carnealis Hampson, 1896: 406, fig. 219 (a junior secondary homonym of Notaspis carnealis Swinhoe, 1895). TL: India (Sikkim). TD: NHMUK.

Material examined

Type material. Type ♂, Sikkim, O. Müller [Coll.], Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9752 (NHMUK).

Figures 2–9. 

Adults of Loxoneptera spp. 2 L. hampsoni nom. nov., male (Tibet) 3 L. hampsoni nom. nov., female (Hainan) 4 L. albicostalis, male (Yunnan) 5 L. crassiuncata sp. nov., paratype, male (Yunnan) 6 L. carnealis, male (Yunnan) 7 L. triangularis sp. nov., holotype, male (Yunnan) 8 L. rectacerosa sp. nov., holotype, male (Yunnan) 9 L. medialis, male (Guangdong). Scale bars: 5.0 mm.

Figures 10–13. 

Adults of Loxoneptera spp. 10 L. pentasaris, holotype, male (India) 11 L. bipunctalis, type, male (India) 12 L. brevipalpis, holotype, male (India) 13 L. dichroma, type, male (India). Scale bars: 5.0 mm.

Other material examined. China. Hainan: 1♂, Mt. Limushan, 5.V.2011, leg. Zhang Dandan & Yang Lijun; 1♂1♀, Mt. Limushan, 6.V.2011, leg. Zhang Dandan & Yang Lifeng, genitalia slide no. SYSU0117 (♂), no. SYSU0130 (♀); 1♂1♀, Mt. Limushan, 19.17°N, 109.73°E, alt. 662 m, 20.V.2013, leg. Li Jinwei, genitalia slide no. SYSU0929 (♂), no. SYSU0991 (♀), molecular voucher no. LEP0166 (♂), no. LEP0174 (♀). Yunnan: 2♂, Mengla, Xishuangbanna, 4, 6.X.2004, leg. R. L. Kitching, genitalia slide no. FCEL0003 (FCEL). Tibet: 1♂, 80K, Medog County, 29.66°N, 95.49°E, alt. 2059 m, 8.VIII.2017, leg. Qi Mujie & Yang Xiaofei (NKU); 1♀, Beibeng Village, Medog County, 29.24°N, 95.17°E, alt. 987 m, 12.VIII.2017, leg. Qi Mujie & Yang Xiaofei (NKU); 1♀, Beibeng Village, Medog County, 29.25°N, 95.18°E, alt. 810 m, 15.VIII.2017, leg. Qi Mujie & Yang Xiaofei (NKU).

Diagnosis

Loxoneptera hampsoni is easily distinguished from other Loxoneptera species as follows: forewing with distinct, black-brown and point-like orbicular and reniform stigmata, bearing pale yellow stripes between veins, and veins with ochre-brown scales forming streaks; dorsal sella with a long and slender rod-shaped extension in the male genitalia.

Redescription

Head. Frons brown, with white lateral bands. Vertex brown, mixed with some white erected scales. Labial palpus dark brown, with white scales on ventral side. Maxillary palpus brown. Antennae brown. Thorax. Dorsal side, patagia and tegula yellowish brown, ventral side grey white. Foreleg yellowish brown, dorsal tarsus grey white; ventral femur and tibia of midleg and hindleg grey white, others pale yellow. Wings. Wingspan 29.0–36.0 mm. Forewing termen straight, a small triangular indentation presented on 1/3 of posterior margin in male, and with a group of black-brown scales; yellowish brown, mixed with ochre-brown scales, pale yellow stripes presented between veins, and veins covered with ochre-brown scales forming streaks; orbicular stigma appearing as a black point, reniform stigma black, small and round; fringe white, basal 1/5 black-brown. Hindwing in male black-brown on terminal area, remaining areas pale yellow, a triangular patch present near posterior angle of cell, slightly concave and densely covered with pale brown scales; in female pale yellow, mixed with ochre-brown scales on termen; fringe brown in male, pale yellow in female. Abdomen. Dorsal side of abdomen black-brown, ventral side grey white; 5th abdominal segment with a group of pale yellow scales on each side in male; sternite VIII in male slightly sclerotised with two pointed anterolateral processes.

Male genitalia (Fig. 15). Uncus somewhat wide and short, distally narrowly rounded, without setae. Saccus narrow. Dorsal projection of transtilla relatively thick and slightly curved, ~ 1/2 length of costa, distally bearing hair almost as long as projection. Valva with dorsal margin slightly concave, ventral margin nearly paralleled with dorsal margin, apex truncate; costa wide; dorsal sella membranous, rod-shaped, rather slender, and fragile; ventral sella sclerotised, with a somewhat straight, hook-shaped process; dorso-distal sella with a pointed process extended beyond ventral margin of valva; sacculus broad. Juxta heart-shaped, middle part concave inwardly, with wide arms. Phallus with vesica bearing two groups of spine-shaped cornuti, one longer and curved, another short and straight.

Figures 14–19. 

14 The sternite VIII in male of L. albicostalis 15–19 Male genitalia of Loxoneptera spp. 15 L. hampsoni nom. nov., Hainan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0929) 16 L. albicostalis, Yunnan (genitalia slide no. ZDD12108) 17 L. crassiuncata sp. nov., Yunnan (genitalia slide no. FCEL0010) 18 L. carnealis, Guizhou (genitalia slide no. SYSU0165) 19 L. triangularis sp. nov., Yunnan (genitalia slide no. FCEL0004). Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Figures 20–25. 

Male genitalia of Loxoneptera spp. 20 L. rectacerosa sp. nov., Yunnan (genitalia slide no. ZDD12059) 21 L. medialis, Guangdong (genitalia slide no. SYSU0987) 22 L. pentasaris, India (Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9747) 23 L. bipunctalis, India (Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9750) 24 L. brevipalpis, India (Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9748) 25 L. dichroma, India (Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9749). Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Female genitalia (Fig. 26). Anterior apophyses 1.5 × as long as posterior apophyses. Lamella postvaginalis with weakly sclerotised transversely wrinkles, with dense and tiny spines; lamella antevaginalis with two curved and sclerotised notches. Antrum weakly sclerotised, cup-shaped, width 3 × as long as length; colliculum well developed and heavily sclerotised, expanded in middle part, length of colliculum ~ 1/3 of ductus bursae; ductus bursae slightly longer than length of corpus bursae; corpus bursae oval, appendix bursae arising from lateral side, small; signum broadly rhomboid, maximal length less than half width of corpus bursae, carina well-developed, laterally bearing with dense tiny spines, other two arms short and stout.

Figures 26–28. 

Female genitalia of Loxoneptera spp. 26 L. hampsoni nom. nov., Hainan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0991) 27 L. carnealis, Yunnan (genitalia slide no. SYSU0985) 28 L. medialis, Guangdong (genitalia slide no. SYSU0990). Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Distribution

China (Hainan, Yunnan, Tibet), India.

Etymology

The species is renamed after the last name of George Hampson, who proposed the genus Loxoneptera in 1896.

Remarks

According to the characters of the male and female genitalia, Calamochrous carnealis (Swinhoe, 1895) is transferred to Loxoneptera in this paper, which creates a secondary homonym of Loxoneptera carnealis Hampson, 1896, the type species of Loxoneptera. The specific name of Loxoneptera carnealis Hampson, 1896 is not valid, therefore we give it a new replacement name, i.e., Loxoneptera hampsoni nom. nov.

Loxoneptera albicostalis Swinhoe, 1906

Figs 4, 14, 16

Loxoneptera albicostalis Swinhoe, 1906: 415.

Material examined

Type material. Type ♂, Padang, W. Sumatra, Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9753 (NHMUK).

Other material examined. China. Yunnan: 1♂, Jingpo Village, Nabang, Yingjiang Country, 24.71°N, 97.39°E, alt. 231 m, 2.VIII.2013, leg. Teng Kaijian et al., genitalia slide no. ZDD12108 (NKU).

Diagnosis

In appearance, Loxoneptera albicostalis is extremely similar to L. crassiuncata and Eumorphobotys horakae Chen & Zhang, 2018 in the wing shape, the clean reddish brown forewing and the dark brown hindwing, but can be distinguished by the whiter costa of both wings, a group of dark brown scales on the posterior margin of forewing, and a group of scales on each side of the 5th abdominal segment in male. The underside of forewing in L. albicostalis is smoky brown, while that of E. horakae is pale yellow from anterior margin of cell to posterior margin. The male genitalia resemble that of L. crassiuncata but can be differentiated by the shorter and stouter uncus, the relatively longer and slender dorsal projection of transtilla, nearly triangular dorsal sella, the long and hook-shaped process of the ventral sella, as well as the absence of the spine-shaped cornutus in phallus.

Redescription

Head. Frons brown. Vertex brown, mixed with some yellow erected scales. Labial palpus dark brown, with white scales on ventral side. Maxillary palpus brown. Antennae yellowish brown. Thorax. Dorsal side, patagia and tegula brown, ventral side grey white. Legs pale yellow to grey white; hindleg basal outer spur 1/5 of basal inner spur. Wings. Wingspan 32.0–36.0 mm. Forewing wide, reddish brown, without pattern; costal area white, mixed with pale brown scales at apex; termen straight; a small triangular indentation presented on the 1/3 of posterior margin in male, and with a group of black-brown scales; fringe white, with basal 1/4 black-brown. Hindwing black-brown, costa area pale yellow; a triangular patch presented near the posterior angle of cell, densely covered with pale brown scales; fringe black-brown. Underside smoky dark brown on forewing, and pale brown on posterior margin area. Abdomen. Dorsal side black-brown, ventral side grey white; abdominal segment V with a group of dark scales on each side in male; sternite VIII in male slightly sclerotised with two pointed anterolateral processes.

Male genitalia (Fig. 16). Uncus wide and short, distally broadly rounded, with few hair-like setae. Saccus rounded. Dorsal projection of transtilla relatively thick and slightly curved, ~ 1/3 length of costa, distally bearing hairs longer than projection. Valvae with dorsal margin slightly straight, ventral margin sinuated, apex narrowly rounded; costa narrow; dorsal sella membranous with several setae, nearly triangular; ventral sella with a long, hook-shaped, and sclerotised process; dorso-distal sella bearing a short sclerotised process distally; sacculus broad, extended dorsad a triangular protrusion in middle. Juxta shield-shaped, middle part weakly sclerotised. Phallus slowly narrow to end, vesica mostly granulated.

Female genitalia. Unknown.

Distribution

China (Yunnan), Indonesia (Sumatra), Malaysia.

Remarks

The forewing colour of the type material of Loxoneptera albicostalis is pale yellow tinged with some reddish brown scales and differs from the specimen collected in China. No obvious difference could be found in the male genitalia between the type specimen and the Chinese specimen.

Loxoneptera crassiuncata Chen & Zhang, sp. nov.

Figs 5, 17

Material examined

Type material. Holotype, ♂, China: Yunnan: Mengla, Xishuangbanna, 4.IX.2004, leg. R. L. Kitching, genitalia slide no. FCEL0010 (FCEL). Paratypes: China: Yunnan: 1♂, Mengla, Xishuangbanna, 28.IX.2004, leg. R. L. Kitching; 1♂, Mengla, Xishuangbanna, 29.IX.2004, leg. R. L. Kitching, genitalia slide no. FCEL0012 (FCEL).

Diagnosis

Loxoneptera crassiuncata is similar to L. albicostalis in reddish brown forewing colour but male specimens can be distinguished by the unbroken posterior margin of forewing (without a small triangular indentation), without a group of black-brown scales, and abdominal segment V without a group of dark scales. In the male genitalia, it can be differentiated by the longer and slender uncus, the shorter and stouter dorsal projection of transtilla, the slender and rod-shaped dorsal sella, the relatively shorter and slightly curved process of the ventral sella, as well as the presence of a horn-shaped cornutus in phallus.

Description

Head. Frons brown. Vertex brown. Labial palpus brown, with white scales on ventral side. Maxillary palpus brown, broadened distally with scales. Antennae dark brown. Thorax. Dorsal side, patagia and tegula brown, ventral side grey white. Legs yellowish white or pale yellow, dorsal of midlegs and hindlegs yellowish brown; hindleg with basal outer spur 1/4 of inner spur. Wings. Wingspan 29.0–31.0 mm. Forewing wide, termen nearly straight; reddish brown, brown at basal half of posterior portion, costal band brown, without pattern; fringe pale yellow, basal half and the posterior angle black-brown. Underside greyish brown. Hindwing black-brown, pale yellow on anterior margin; a triangular patch presented near the posterior angle of cell, the margin of triangular patch with pale yellow scales and the outer margin dentate; fringe black-brown. Underside greyish brown. Abdomen. Dorsal side of abdomen brown, ventral side pale yellow; sternite VIII in male slightly sclerotised with two pointed anterolateral processes.

Male genitalia (Fig. 17). Uncus slightly narrow, distally narrowly rounded, with several setae. Saccus narrow. Dorsal projection of transtilla rather thick and straight, ~ 1/4 length of costa, distally bearing setae ~ 2 × length of projection. Valva with dorsal margin slightly concave, ventral margin nearly parallel with dorsal margin, and apex slightly truncate; costa narrow; dorsal sella membranous, long and slender, rod-shaped and fragile; ventral sella with a stick-like and strongly sclerotised process; dorso-distal sella with a short stick-like process, pointed apically; sacculus broad, extended dorsad with a triangular protrusion in the middle. Juxta with basal part narrow, two arms rather broad. Phallus stout, vesica with a horn-shaped and strongly sclerotised cornutus apically.

Female genitalia. Unknown.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin crassi- (thick) and uncatus (horn-shaped), referring to the shape of cornuti in the phallus.

Loxoneptera carnealis (Swinhoe, 1895), comb. nov.

Figs 6, 18, 27

Notaspis carnealis Swinhoe, 1895: 302.

Calamochrous carnealis (Swinhoe): Hampson, 1896: 420.

Material examined

Type material. Type ♂, Khasi Hills., 95-224, Cherra Punji (NHMUK). Syntype: 1♂, Cherra Punji, Swinhoe Coll., Brit. Mus. 1926-239 (NHMUK).

Other material examined. China. Guangdong: 6♂, Shimentai Reserve, Yingde, 27.V.2012, leg. Yang Lijun & Jia Qianju. Guizhou: 1♂, Maolan Reserve, 25.13°N, 107.87°E, alt. 797 m, 12.VII.2013, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0165, molecular voucher no. LEP0044; 1♀, Banzhai Village, Maolan Reserve, 25.23°N, 108.03°E, alt. 530 m, 11.VIII.2018, leg. Zheng Meiling et al. (NKU). Yunnan: 6♂, Baihualing Reserve, Baoshan, alt. 1520 m, 12–13.VIII.2007, leg. Zhang Dandan, genitalia slide no. LJW12064, no. LJW12098; 2♂1♀, Tropical Botanical Garden, Xishuangbanna, 21.92°N, 101.27°E, alt. 606 m, 22.XI.2017, leg. Chen Kai & Liu Qingming, genitalia slide no. SYSU0986 (♂), no. SYSU0985 (♀), molecular voucher no. LEP0186; 1♂, Tropical Botanical Garden, Xishuangbanna, alt. 550 m, 13.III.2014, leg. Zhang Zhenguo, molecular voucher no. LEP0169 (NKU); 2♂, Mengla, 1000 m, 11–12.VII.2012, leg. Kitching & Ashton, genitalia slide no. FCEL0005 (FCEL).

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Loxoneptera triangularis in appearance, but can be distinguished by the following characters: forewing mixed with reddish brown scales, a distinct dark brown stripe appearing near posterior angle of cell; apex of hindwing with a dark brown patch; dorso-distal sella with a hook-shaped process; distal end of phallus with a spine-shaped process, longer than phallus length.

Redescription

Head. Frons pale reddish brown, with white lateral bands. Vertex pale brown, mixed with some reddish brown erect scales. Labial palpus reddish brown, with white scales on ventral side. Maxillary palpus reddish brown, broadened distally with scales. Antennae yellowish brown. Thorax. Dorsal patagia and tegula ochre-brown, ventral side grey-white. Legs pale yellow to grey-white; hindleg basal outer spur 2/5 of basal inner spur. Wings. Wingspan 22.0–29.0 mm. Forewing yellowish brown, densely mixed with reddish brown scales; dark brown from costal margin to posterior margin of cell; costal margin white; orbicular stigma appearing as a black-brown point, reniform stigma black, appearing as a thick streak on discocellulars; a distinct dark brown stripe appearing near posterior angle of cell; fringe black-brown. Hindwing pale yellow, apex with a dark brown patch; fringe pale yellow. Underside of forewing pale yellow, black-brown from costal margin to posterior margin of cell. Abdomen. Dorsal side of abdomen black-brown, ventral side grey white; sternite VIII in male slightly sclerotised with two pointed anterolateral processes.

Male genitalia (Fig. 18). Uncus long, triangular, distally narrowly rounded, with few hair-like setae. Saccus rounded. Dorsal projection of transtilla relatively slender and slightly curved, ~ 3/4 length of costa, distally bearing hair ~ 1/2 length of projection, basal 1/3 broad. Valva with dorsal margin slightly convex, ventral margin sinuated, apex narrowly rounded; costa narrow; dorsal sella membranous with several setae, nearly rectangular; ventral sella with short, finger-shaped, and weakly sclerotised process; dorso-distal sella bearing a hook-shaped, strongly sclerotised process, basal broad with two small spins; sacculus broad. Juxta with basal part narrow, two arms long and slender, pointed apically. Phallus short, distal part with a long and pointed spine, slightly curved, as long as the length of phallus.

Female genitalia (Fig. 27). Anterior apophyses 1.5 × as long as posterior apophyses. Antrum weakly sclerotised, cup-shaped; colliculum well developed, length of colliculum ~ 2/7 of ductus bursae; basal ductus seminalis expanded and sclerotised; ductus bursae short and stout, as long as length of corpus bursae; corpus bursae oval, without appendix bursae and signum.

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Guizhou, Yunnan), India.

Loxoneptera triangularis Chen & Zhang, sp. nov.

Figs 7, 19

Material examined

Type material. Holotype, ♂, China: Yunnan: Mengla, Xishuangbanna, 7.X.2004, leg. R. L. Kitching, genitalia slide no. FCEL0004 (FCEL). Paratype: China: Yunnan: 1♂, Mengla, Xishuangbanna, 4.X.2004, leg. R. L. Kitching.

Diagnosis

Externally, Loxoneptera triangularis resembles L. carnealis in the wing shape, but can be distinguish by the smaller wings, and costal and posterior areas of hindwing dark brown. In the male genitalia, it can be differentiated by the process on the dorso-distal sella with a strongly sclerotised stick, distal part of juxta with a strongly sclerotised and narrowly triangular process, and distal phallus with a relatively short and hook-shaped spine.

Description

Head. Frons pale yellow, with white lateral bands, basal white bands mixed with reddish brown scales. Vertex pale yellow. Labial palpus reddish brown, ventral side with white scales. Maxillary palpus reddish brown, broadened distally with scales. Antennae yellowish brown. Thorax. Dorsal side, patagia and tegula yellowish brown, mixed with reddish brown scales, ventral side grey white. Legs pale yellow. Wings. Wingspan 23.0–25.0 mm. Forewing pale yellow, termen dark brown, as well as from costal margin to posterior margin of cell, apex mixed with reddish brown scales; orbicular stigma weak, appearing as a dark brown point, reniform stigma black-brown and weak; fringe dark brown. Underside of forewing black from costal margin to posterior margin of cell. Hindwing pale yellow between CuA2 and M2, remainders dark brown, without pattern, fringe yellow brown. Abdomen. Dorsal side of abdomen pale brown, ventral side grey white; sternite VIII in male slightly sclerotised with two stout anterolateral processes.

Male genitalia (Fig. 19). Uncus long and slender, distally narrowly rounded, with few hair-like setae. Saccus rounded. Dorsal projection of transtilla relatively slender and slightly curved, approximately as long as length of costa, distally bearing hair ~ 1/4 length of projection, basal 1/3 broad. Valva with dorsal margin slightly convex, ventral margin sinuated, apex narrowly rounded; costa slightly curved; dorsal sella membranous, with several setae, ventral sella with a small, hook-shaped and sclerotised process, narrow and pointed apically; dorso-distal sella with a long, stick-like, strongly sclerotised process, broad at terminal part, then pointed at apex; sacculus broad. Juxta shield-shaped, strongly sclerotised, distal part broad, with a strongly sclerotised and narrowly triangular process. Phallus long, distal end with a long and hook-shaped spine, narrow and pointed apically.

Female genitalia. Unknown.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Etymology

The specific name derived from the Latin triangularis, referring to the triangular process in the end of juxta.

Loxoneptera rectacerosa Chen & Zhang, sp. nov.

Figs 8, 20

Material examined

Type material. Holotype, ♂, China: Yunnan: Yexianggu, Xishuangbanna, 22.17°N, 100.87°E, alt. 762 m, 18.VII.2014, leg. Teng Kaijian et al., genitalia slide no. ZDD12059, molecular voucher no. LEP0170 (NKU).

Diagnosis

Loxoneptera rectacerosa resembles L. medialis in wing pattern, but the forewing of L. rectacerosa is brown from the costal margin to posterior margin of the cell, and white on costal margin, whereas it is pale yellow in L. medialis. In the male genitalia, dorsal margin of valva of L. rectacerosa makes a turn in the end, forming a distinct obtuse subapical angle; the process of the dorso-distal sella is smaller and shorter than that of L. medialis; distal end of phallus has a small and triangular sclerite, vesica is just with a group of spines.

Description

Head. Frons pale yellow, with white lateral bands. Vertex pale yellow. Labial palpus brown, with white scales on ventral side. Maxillary palpus brown, broadened distally with scales. Antennae yellowish brown. Thorax. Dorsal side, patagia and tegula yellowish brown, ventral side grey white. Legs white to yellowish white. Wings. Wingspan 29.0 mm. Forewing brown, mixed with reddish brown scales, costal margin white, posterior area pale yellow; orbicular stigma weak, appearing as a dark brown point, reniform stigma absent; fringe black-brown. Hindwing pale yellow, without any spot, apex mixed with a few pale brown scales. Underside of forewing black on cell. Abdomen. Dorsal side of abdomen pale brown, ventral side grey white; sternite VIII in male slightly sclerotised with two stout anterolateral processes.

Male genitalia (Fig. 20). Uncus long and slender, distally narrowly rounded, with few hair-like setae. Saccus rounded. Dorsal projection of transtilla relatively slender and slightly curved, ~ as long as length of costa, distally bearing hair ~ 1/4 length of projection, basal 1/3 broad. Valva with dorsal margin slightly convex, ventral margin sinuated, apex slightly pointed; costa straight, and making a turn on 1/5 of the end, forming a break angle on dorsal margin of valva subapically; dorsal sella membranous, with several setae; ventral sella with a hook-shaped and strongly sclerotised process, narrow and pointed apically; dorso-distal sella with a short and weakly sclerotised process; sacculus broad. Juxta with basal part narrow, two arms long and slender, pointed apically. Phallus long and slightly curved, distal end with a semi-circular sclerite, vesica with a group of short, straight, spine-shaped cornuti.

Female genitalia. Unknown.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Etymology

The specific name derived from the Latin rect- (straight) and arcerosus (spine-shaped), referring to the shape of cornuti in phallus.

Loxoneptera medialis (Caradja, 1925), comb. nov.

Figs 9, 21, 28

Calamochrous medialis Caradja, 1925: 363.

Material examined

Type material. Holotype, ♂, Canton, Type, Car.[adja], Gen. Praep.[Prep.] EGM 3 (MGAB).

Other material examined. China. Guangdong: 1♂, Dongmei Village, Potou District, Zhanjiang, 10.IV.2016, leg. Li Zhiqiang & Li Jun, genitalia slide no. SYSU0987, molecular voucher no. LEP0171; 1♀, Liuzhang Village, Beihe Country, Leizhou, 9.IV.2016, leg. Li Zhiqiang & Li Jun, genitalia slide no. SYSU0990, molecular voucher no. LEP0173. Hainan: 1♂, Jianling Reserve, 18.87°N, 110.27°E, alt. 143 m, 8.IX.2013, leg. Chen Xiaohua, genitalia slide no. SYSU0180, molecular voucher no. LEP0096.

Diagnosis

The wing shape of Loxoneptera medialis is similar to L. rectacerosa but can be distinguished by the light yellow forewing and costal margin. In the male genitalia, it can be distinguished by longer spinous process on dorso-distal sella, distal end of phallus with a small and pointed spine, and vesica with two groups of short, spine-shaped cornuti.

Redescription

Head. Frons pale yellow, with white lateral bands. Vertex pale yellow. Labial palpus pale yellow, with white scales on ventral side. Maxillary palpus pale yellow, mixed with white scales, broadened distally with scales. Antennae yellowish brown. Thorax. Dorsal side, patagia and tegula yellowish brown, ventral side grey white. Legs yellowish white. Wings. Wingspan 25.0–30.0 mm. Forewing pale yellow, costal and terminal areas reddish brown; orbicular stigma weak, dark brown, reniform stigma weak, black-brown, appearing as a thick line on discocellulars; a weak, dark-brown stripe appearing between M2 and CuA1; fringe black-brown. Hindwing pale yellow, termen mixed with brown scales, without pattern. Underside of forewing pale yellow, without any spot. Abdomen. Dorsal side of abdomen black-brown, ventral side grey white; sternite VIII in male slightly sclerotised with bifurcate anterolateral processes.

Male genitalia (Fig. 21). Uncus long and slender, distally narrowly rounded, with few hair-like setae. Saccus rounded. Dorsal projection of transtilla relatively slender and slightly curved, approximately as long as length of costa, distally bearing hair ~ 1/3 length of projection, basal 1/3 broad. Valva with dorsal margin slightly convex, ventral margin sinuated, apex slightly pointed; costa slightly curved; dorsal sella appearing as a broad, slightly curved and stick-like sclerite, with several setae; ventral sella sclerotised, with a long, straight and stick-like process, narrow and pointed apically, apex slightly curved; dorso-distal sella with a pointed, hook-like, and strongly sclerotised process, as long as the process on ventral sella. Sacculus broad. Juxta with basal part narrow, two arms long and slender, pointed apically. Phallus short, basal 1/2 broad, distal end with a small pointed spine, and vesica with two groups of short, spine-shaped cornuti.

Female genitalia (Fig. 28). Anterior apophyses 1.5 × as long as posterior apophyses; lamella postvaginalis trapezoidal and strongly sclerotised, with distinct transversely wrinkles, covered with dense and tiny spines; lamella antevaginalis strongly sclerotised, appearing as a small, triangular sclerite, covered with many dense and tiny spines. Antrum strongly sclerotised, cup-shaped; colliculum well developed and strongly sclerotised; ductus bursae short and stout, ~ 1/2 length of corpus bursae; corpus bursae oval, signum weak, reduced into a long carina, laterally bearing with some tiny spines, without appendix bursae.

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Hainan).

Loxoneptera pentasaris (Meyrick, 1932), comb. nov.

Figs 10, 22

Calamochrous pentasaris Meyrick, 1932: 317.

Material examined

Type material. Holotype, ♂, [India] Datarpur, Hoshiarpur. Officer-in-charge, 21.12.1927, Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9747 (NHMUK).

Diagnosis

Wingspan 28.0 mm. Loxoneptera pentasaris is best distinguished from other Loxoneptera species by greyish ochreous forewing with a white costal band, and without pattern. In the male genitalia, this species is similar to L. medialis in the shape of dorsal projection of transtilla, ventral sella and valva, but can be distinguished by the triangular dorsal sella, process of dorso-distal sella extending ventrad, distal margin of phallus densely decorated with short spines.

Distribution

India.

Loxoneptera bipunctalis (Hampson, 1912), comb. nov.

Figs 11, 23

Calamochrous bipunctalis Hampson, 1912: 1269.

Material examined

Type material. Type ♂, S. India, Palani Hills [Palnis], Campbell 1907.365, Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9750 (NHMUK).

Diagnosis

Wingspan 34.0 mm. In appearance, Loxoneptera bipunctalis is best distinguished from other Loxoneptera species by pale ochreous yellow forewing, two blackish orbicular stigmata, and interrupted postmedial line of forewing. In the male genitalia, this species is similar to L. brevipalpis and L. dichroma but can be distinguished by the longer process of dorso-distal sella and the weakly sclerotised, slice-shaped cornutus of phallus.

Distribution

India.

Loxoneptera brevipalpis (Snellen, 1890), comb. nov.

Figs 12, 24

Calamochrous brevipalpis Snellen, 1890: 599.

Material examined

Type material. Holotype, ♂, Sikkim, O. Möller, Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9748 (NHMUK).

Diagnosis

Wingspan 33.0 mm. This species is distinguished by dull luteous forewing suffused with ochreous scales and bearing indistinct orbicular and reniform stigmata, lustrous hindwing suffused with grey scales along the costa. In the male genitalia, this species is similar to L. dichroma in the shape of the dorsal projection of the transtilla, ventral sella and valva, as well as by the process of dorso-distal sella extended ventrad and beyond the ventral margin of valva. Loxoneptera brevipalpis can be distinguished by the thick and heavily sclerotised process of dorso-distal sella, and the heavily sclerotised, spiny, thumb-shaped cornutus.

Distribution

India (Sikkim).

Loxoneptera dichroma (Moore, 1888), comb. nov.

Figs 13, 25

Ebulea dichroma Moore, 1888: 223.

Calamochrous dichroma (Moore): Snellen, 1890: 599.

Anania dichroma (Moore): Nuss et al. 2003–2021, Global Information System on Pyraloidea.

Material examined

Type material. Type ♂, Darjeeling [Darjiling], Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 9749 (NHMUK).

Diagnosis

Wingspan 34.0 mm. This species can be distinguished by having a brown stripe along posterior margin of the discal cell in forewing, and ventral-distal wall of phallus is weakly sclerotised and obliquely extended into a process.

Distribution

India.

Discussion

The monophyly of Loxoneptera is strongly supported by the results of the molecular analysis. The dorsal projection of the transtilla in the male genitalia is a putative synapomorphy for the genus. It is shared by eleven species of Loxoneptera and can be used to separate them from most other pyraustine genera. In addition, two provisional infrageneric groups of the species of Loxoneptera are recognised by proportional lengths of the dorsal projection of the transtilla with its distal hair. The tree topology (Fig. 1) supports this morphological trait: L. rectacerosa is more closely related to L. medialis and L. carnealis (all bearing a relatively short hair, < 1/2 length of the dorsal projection of the transtilla) than to L. albicostalis and L. hampsoni (both bearing a relatively long hair, as long as or longer than the dorsal projection of the transtilla). Based on the proportional length of the dorsal projection of the transtilla with its distal hair, we additionally place L. triangularis and L. crassiuncata, as well as L. pentasaris, L. bipunctalis, L. brevipalpis, and L. dichroma (not included in the molecular analysis because no fresh specimen could be accessed) in their respective subgroups: L. triangularis, L. bipunctalis, L. brevipalpis, L. dichroma, and L. pentasaris resemble L. rectacerosa, L. medialis, and L. carnealis by the relatively short hair on the dorsal projection of the transtilla, while L. crassiuncata resembles L. albicostalis and L. hampsoni by the relatively long hair. The relationships among all these species need further study on more nucleotide sequences and freshly collected specimens.

After examining three specimens of Calamochrous chilonalis (the type species of Calamochrous) deposited in NHMUK, we confirm that it is quite different from those Loxoneptera species formerly placed in Calamochrous. Among these specimens, one is the paratype of which the abdomen was lost; the other two, collected in Minca, Colombia, were dissected and identified by Dr Koen V. N. Maes (Pyralidae Brit. Mus. Slide No. 762 male, 19967 female). Morphologically, C. chilonalis differs from Loxoneptera species by the relatively narrow forewing with arch termen, the conical, densely setose uncus, the narrowly triangular transtilla, the scale-like editum, as well as the long and slender ductus bursae. Maes (pers. comm.) also mentioned that Calamochrous species are restricted to the Nearctic region, while Loxoneptera species are distributed in the Oriental region.

Acknowledgements

Grateful thanks to Prof. Houhun Li (Nankai University, China) and Prof. Akihiro Nakamura (Forest Canopy Ecology Lab, Yunnan, China) for the loan of some specimens, to Dr. David Lees and Dr. Geoff Martin (both Natural History Museum, United Kingdom) and Dr. Mihai Stănescu (“Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Romania) for helping to access specimens deposited at their institutions. We are also grateful to Dr. Robert B. Angus (Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom) for critical reviews of the manuscript and for linguistic assistance. This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31672330), Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People of Republic of China (2015FY210300).

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