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Research Article
Eight new species of the spider genus Pimoa (Araneae, Pimoidae) from Tibet, China
expand article infoXiaoqing Zhang, Tianqi Lan§, Lei Nie|, Shuqiang Li
‡ Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
§ Shenyang Normal University, Liaoning, China
| Hebei University, Baoding, China
Open Access

Abstract

Eight new species of the spider genus Pimoa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943 are described from Tibet, China: P. cona Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. duiba Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. lemenba Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♀), P. mainling Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. nyingchi Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. rongxar Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), P. samyai Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), and P. yadong Zhang & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀). The DNA barcodes of the eight new species are documented.

Keywords

Asia, description, diagnosis, taxonomy

Introduction

The spider family Pimoidae Wunderlich, 1986 contains 45 species in four genera: Nanoa Hormiga, Buckle & Scharff, 2005, Pimoa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943, Putaoa Hormiga & Tu, 2008, and Weintrauboa Hormiga, 2003 (Li 2020). Pimoa, with the type species Pimoa hespera (Gertsch & Ivie, 1936) described from the USA, is the most species-rich genus in Pimoidae, with 33 described species prior to the current study. The genus is distributed on the west coast of the USA from Washington to California, the western Mediterranean (Alps and Cantabrian Mountains), and Asia (Himalaya to Beijing) (Mammola et al. 2016; Zhang and Li 2019; WSC 2020). Nine species are already known from China: Pimoa anatolica Hormiga, 1994, P. binchuanensis Zhang & Li, 2019, and P. lihengae Griswold, Long & Hormiga, 1999 from Yunnan Province; P. lata Xu & Li, 2009, P. reniformis Xu & Li, 2007, P. trifurcata Xu & Li, 2007, and P. wanglangensis Yuan, Zhao & Zhang, 2019 from Sichuan Province; P. clavata Xu & Li, 2007 from caves in the city of Beijing; and P. xinjianensis Zhang & Li, 2019 from three caves in Hunan Province (Griswold et al. 1999; Hormiga 1994a; Xu and Li 2007; Xu and Li 2009; Yuan et al. 2019; Zhang and Li 2019). In the present paper, eight new pimoids from Tibet, China are described.

Materials and methods

Specimens were examined with a LEICA M205C stereomicroscope. Images were captured with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera (7.1 megapixels) mounted on an Olympus SZX12 dissecting microscope and assembled using Helicon Focus 3.10.3 image stacking software (Khmelik et al. 2006). Epigynes and male palps were examined after dissection from the spiders’ bodies. The left palps were illustrated unless otherwise noted. Epigynes were removed and treated in a warmed 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution.

All measurements were obtained using a LEICA M205C stereomicroscope and are given in millimeters. We put legs and the body of the spider on the objective table of stereomicroscope and measured the length by a ruler in the eyepiece. Eye sizes were measured as the maximum diameter from either dorsal or frontal views. Leg measurements are shown as total length (femur, patella + tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). The terminology used in the text and the figure legends follows Hormiga (1994a). Distribution maps were generated using ArcView GIS (ESRI) software.

Abbreviations used in this paper and in the figure legends:

ALE anterior lateral eye;

AME anterior median eye;

AME-ALE distance between AME and ALE;

AME-AME distance between AMEs;

AS alveolar sclerite;

C conductor;

CDP cymbial denticulate process;

CO copulatory opening;

DP dorsal plate of the epigyne;

E embolus;

FD fertilization duct;

MA median apophysis;

P paracymbium;

PCS pimoid cymbial sclerite;

PEP pimoid embolic process;

PLE posterior lateral eye;

PME posterior median eye;

PME-PLE distance between PME and PLE;

PME-PME distance between PMEs;

S spermatheca;

T tegulum;

VP ventral plate of epigyne.

DNA barcodes were obtained for the eight new species by amplifying and sequencing a partial fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) using primers LCO1490-oono (5’-CWACAAAYCATARRGATATTGG-3’) (Folmer et al. 1994; Miller et al. 2010) and HCO2198-zz (5’-TAAACTTCCAGGTGACCAAAAAATCA-3’) (Folmer et al. 1994; Zhao and Li 2017). For additional information on extraction, amplification, and sequencing procedures, see Wang et al. (2008). All sequences were checked for validity using BLAST and are deposited in GenBank. The accession numbers are provided in Table 1.

Table 1.

Voucher specimen information.

Species GenBank accession number Sequence length Collection locality
Pimoa cona sp. nov. MT373707 654bp Cona, Lhoka, Tibet, China
Pimoa duiba sp. nov. MT373708 654bp Duopozhang and Aza, Lhoka, Tibet, China
Pimoa lemenba sp. nov. MT373706 654bp Cona, Lhoka, Tibet, China
Pimoa mainling sp. nov. MT373710 654bp Mainling, Nyingchi, Tibet, China
Pimoa nyingchi sp. nov. MT373713 654bp Lulang, Nyingchi, Tibet, China
Pimoa rongxar sp. nov. MT373712 654bp Dinggyê, Shigatse, Tibet, China
Pimoa samyai sp. nov. MT373711 654bp Samyai Town, Lhoka, Tibet, China
Pimoa yadong sp. nov. MT373709 654bp Yadong, Shigatse, Tibet, China

Taxonomy

Family Pimoidae Wunderlich, 1986

Pimoa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943

Pimoa: Chamberlin and Ivie 1943: 9; Hormiga 1994a: 4; Hormiga and Lew 2014: 1; Mammola et al. 2016: 1.

Type species

Labulla hespera Gertsch & Ivie, 1936, from California, USA.

Diagnosis and description

See Chamberlin and Ivie 1943; Gertsch and Ivie 1936; Griswold et al. 1998; Hormiga 1994a; Hormiga 1994b.

Pimoa cona Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 1, 2, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♂ (IZCAS-Ar40310), China, Tibet, Lhoka, Cona County, Senmuzha Scenic Area, 27.83°N, 91.73°E, elevation ca. 2845 m, 10.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg. Paratypes: 1♂2♀ (IZCAS-Ar40311-40313), same data as holotype; 1♂1♀ (IZCAS-Ar40314-40315), Cona County, Yelang Valley, 27.87°N, 91.81°E, elevation ca. 3379 m, 13.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The male of Pimoa cona sp. nov. resembles P. nematoides Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 71, figs 285–289) and P. sinuosa Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 67, figs 256–265) but can be distinguished by the large pimoid cymbial sclerite that is subdistally wide and distally pointed (Fig. 1B, vs. small and distally curved in P. nematoides; vs. slender and distally blunt in P. sinuosa); distinguished from P. nematoides by the long tibia, ca. 1/2 of the cymbial length (Fig. 1A–C, vs. short tibia, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length); distinguished from P. sinuosa by an embolus that begins at the 2:00 o’clock position (Fig. 1B, vs. an embolus that begins at the 5:30 o’clock position). The female of P. cona resembles P. sinuosa (see Hormiga 1994a: 67, figs 266–284) but can be distinguished by the pair of oval spermathecae (Fig. 2A, vs. subtriangular spermathecae) and by the subdistally narrow dorsal plate (Fig. 2C, vs. subdistally wide).

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 7.24. Carapace 3.59 long, 2.95 wide. Abdomen 3.65 long, 2.18 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.18, ALE 0.20, PME 0.19, PLE 0.17; AME-AME 0.14, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.16, PME-PLE 0.18. Leg measurements: I: 33.34 (9.36, 10.19, 9.94, 3.85); II: 32.52 (9.25, 10.13, 9.87, 3.27); III: 20.92 (6.16, 6.36, 6.35, 2.05); IV: – (7.95, –, –, –). Habitus as in Fig. 2E. Carapace brownish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands. Legs brownish with black annulations, especially distinct on legs III and IV. Palp (Fig. 1A–C): patella short, ca. 1/2 of tibial length, with one retrolateral macroseta; tibia long, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length, with several macrosetae and a dorsal process; paracymbium short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length, finger-shaped; pimoid cymbial sclerite large, subdistally wide and distally sharp, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length; cymbial denticulate process short and distally pointed, with more than 15 cuspules; median apophysis slender; conductor indistinct; pimoid embolic process with two short and sharp branches distally; embolus long and thin, longer than pimoid embolic process, beginning at the 2:00 o’clock position; embolic tooth absent.

Figure 1. 

Left palp of Pimoa cona sp. nov., holotype A prolateral view B ventral view C retrolateral view. Abbreviations: AS = alveolar sclerite; CDP = cymbial denticulate process; E = embolus; MA = median apophysis; P = paracymbium; PCS = pimoid cymbial sclerite; PEP = pimoid embolic process; T = tegulum. Scale bar: equal for A–C.

Female (paratype): Total length 9.62. Carapace 3.72 long, 3.01 wide. Abdomen 5.90 long, 4.10 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.18, ALE 0.22, PME 0.19, PLE 0.21; AME-AME 0.14, AME-ALE 0.21, PME-PME 0.17, PME-PLE 0.20. Leg measurements: I: 27.83 (7.76, 9.17, 7.82, 3.08); II: 24.80 (6.79, 8.20, 6.99, 2.82); III: 17.56 (5.38, 5.51, 4.81, 1.86); IV: 22.31 (6.73, 7.37, 5.90, 2.31). Habitus as in Fig. 2F, G. Carapace brownish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands and a short vertical band medially. Legs brownish with black annulations, especially distinct on legs III and IV. Epigyne (Fig. 2A–D): triangular; ventral plate broad, length subequal to width; dorsal plate narrow, with a blunt point; copulatory openings distinct; spermathecae oval, separated by ca. 1/3 width of spermatheca; fertilization ducts membranous, anteriorly oriented.

Figure 2. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa cona sp. nov., female paratype and male holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E male habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, dorsal view G female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for F and G.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Pimoa duiba Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 3, 4, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♂ (IZCAS-Ar40316), China, Tibet, Lhoka, Duopozhang Town, Duiba Village, 29.37°N, 91.70°E, elevation ca. 4095 m, 14.VIII.2019, X. Zhang, Z. Bai and J. Liu leg. Paratypes: 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar40317), same data as holotype; 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar40318), Lhoka, Aza Town, Beside the stream behind Zonggongbu Cave, 29.37°N, 91.32°E, elevation ca. 4537 m, 29.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The male of Pimoa duiba sp. nov. resembles P. samyai sp. nov. (Fig. 12A–C) and P. trifurcata (see Xu and Li 2007: 496, figs 48–54) but can be distinguished by the short and distally blunt cymbial denticulate process (Fig. 3B, vs. relatively long and distally narrow in P. samyai and P. trifurcata); distinguished from P. samyai by the nearly V-shaped pimoid cymbial sclerite (Fig. 3B, vs. nearly L-shaped); distinguished from P. trifurcata by the pimoid embolic process without a trifurcate apex (Fig. 3A–C, vs. with a trifurcate apex). The female of P. duiba also resembles P. samyai sp. nov. (Fig. 13A–D) and P. trifurcata (see Xu and Li 2007: 496, figs 55–61) but can be distinguished by the short distance between the spermathecae (Fig. 4A, vs. separated by ca. 1/2 the width of a spermatheca in P. samyai and P. trifurcata); distinguished from P. samyai by having a spermatheca that is wider than long (Fig. 4A, vs. longer than wide); distinguished from P. trifurcata by the medially narrow dorsal plate (Fig. 4C, vs. medially relatively wide).

Figure 3. 

Left palp of Pimoa duiba sp. nov., holotype A prolateral view B ventral view C retrolateral view. Abbreviations: AS = alveolar sclerite; C = conductor; CDP = cymbial denticulate process; E = embolus; MA = median apophysis; P = paracymbium; PCS = pimoid cymbial sclerite; PEP = pimoid embolic process; T = tegulum. Scale bar: equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 5.26. Carapace 2.18 long, 1.86 wide. Abdomen 3.08 long, 1.73 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.12, ALE 0.13, PME 0.12, PLE 0.12; AME-AME 0.07, AME-ALE 0.11, PME-PME 0.10, PME-PLE 0.14. Leg measurements: I: 23.84 (6.60, 7.95, 6.73, 2.56); II: 21.79 (5.90, 7.24, 6.34, 2.31); III: 16.16 (4.62, 5.45, 4.49, 1.60); IV: 19.41 (5.51, 6.15, 5.83, 1.92). Promargin of chelicerae with three teeth, retromargin with two teeth. Habitus as in Fig. 4E. Carapace yellowish with slightly darker lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands. Legs brownish without black annulations. Palp (Fig. 3A–C): patella short, ca. 1/2 of tibial length, with a single retrolateral macroseta; tibia long, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length, with several macrosetae and a dorsal process; paracymbium short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length, hook-shaped; pimoid cymbial sclerite nearly V-shaped, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length; cymbial denticulate process short and distally blunt, with more than five cuspules; median apophysis slender; conductor distinct; pimoid embolic process distally pointed, longer than embolus; embolus beginning at the 7:00 o’clock position, with short slender spine proximally; embolic tooth absent.

Figure 4. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa duiba sp. nov., female paratype and male holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E male habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, dorsal view G female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for F and G.

Female (paratype): Total length 6.85. Carapace 2.56 long, 2.11 wide. Abdomen 4.29 long, 3.27 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.12, ALE 0.16, PME 0.10, PLE 0.15; AME-AME 0.09, AME-ALE 0.15, PME-PME 0.09, PME-PLE 0.17. Leg measurements: I: 21.47 (6.15, 6.73, 6.03, 2.56); II: 19.55 (5.38, 6.67, 5.38, 2.12); III: 15.20 (4.62, 4.81, 4.10, 1.67); IV: 19.23 (5.51, 6.22, 5.45, 2.05). Promargin of chelicerae with three teeth, retromargin with two teeth. Habitus as in Fig. 4F, G. Carapace brownish with slightly darker lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves indistinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands. Legs brownish without black annulations. Epigyne (Fig. 4A–D): triangular; ventral plate broad, length subequal to width; dorsal plate longer than wide, nearly tongue-shaped; copulatory openings distinct; spermathecae nearly round with short distance between them; fertilization ducts yellowish, anteriorly oriented.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Pimoa lemenba Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 5, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♀ (IZCAS-Ar40319), China, Tibet, Lhoka, Cona County, Lemenba Town, 17–20 km section from Lewang Bridge to Liulian Highway, 27.80°N, 91.77°E, elevation ca. 3706 m, 5.VI.2016, J. Wu leg.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The species resembles Pimoa sinuosa Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 67, figs 266–284) but can be distinguished by the pair of round spermathecae which are close together (Fig. 5A, vs. separated by ca. 1/2 the width of a spermatheca), by the medially wide dorsal plate (Fig. 5C, vs. medially relatively narrow), and by the abdomen with the vertical band not extending to the distal part (Fig. 5E, vs. vertical band absent).

Figure 5. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa lemenba sp. nov., female holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E female habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, ventral view G female habitus, lateral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for E–G.

Description

Female (holotype): Total length 8.59. Carapace 3.40 long, 2.88 wide. Abdomen 5.19 long, 3.46 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.20, PME 0.19, PLE 0.18; AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.19, PME-PME 0.14, PME-PLE 0.22. Leg measurements: I: – (7.12, –, –, –); II: – (6.47, –, –, –); III: missing; IV: missing. Habitus as in Fig. 5E–G. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse bands and a vertical band not extending to distal part. Legs brownish with black annulations. Epigyne (Fig. 5A–D): ventral and dorsal plates broad, length subequal to width; copulatory openings distinct; spermathecae round, close to each other; fertilization ducts crystalline, anteriorly oriented.

Male: unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Pimoa mainling Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 6, 7, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♂ (IZCAS-Ar40320), China, Tibet, Nyingchi, Mainling County, along the way from Zhagonggou Scenic Area to Ganlu Cave, 29.16°N, 94.23°E, elevation ca. 3440 m, 27.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg. Paratypes: 2♀ (IZCAS-Ar40321-Ar40322), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The male of Pimoa mainling sp. nov. resembles P. binchuanensis (see Zhang and Li 2019: 3, figs 1, 2) but can be distinguished by the distally curved and nearly hook-shaped pimoid cymbial sclerite (Fig. 6B, vs. medially curved and nearly U-shaped). The male of P. mainling also resembles P. crispa Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 63, figs 233–238; Hormiga 1994b: fig 1A, B) but can be distinguished by a distally narrow cymbial denticulate process with few cuspules (Fig. 6B, vs. distally wide cymbial denticulate process with many cuspules). The female of P. mainling resembles P. crispa Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 63, figs 239–247) but can be distinguished by the distance between the pair of spermathecae which is ca. 1/3 the width of a spermatheca (Fig. 7A, vs. shorter distance between spermathecae) and by the funnel-shaped epigyne, which is distally straight and long (Fig. 7A–D, vs. triangular epigyne).

Figure 6. 

Left palp of Pimoa mainling sp. nov., holotype A prolateral view B ventral view C retrolateral view. Abbreviations: AS = alveolar sclerite; C = conductor; CDP = cymbial denticulate process; E = embolus; MA = median apophysis; P = paracymbium; PCS = pimoid cymbial sclerite; PEP = pimoid embolic process; T = tegulum. Scale bar: equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 5.06. Carapace 2.56 long, 2.18 wide. Abdomen 2.50 long, 2.05 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.16, ALE 0.17, PME 0.13, PLE 0.17; AME-AME 0.13, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.10, PME-PLE 0.16. Leg measurements: I: 25.38 (6.99, 8.40, 7.49, 2.50); II: – (5.90, –, –, –); III: 13.52 (4.17, 4.23, 3.65, 1.47); IV: 16.79 (5.19, 5.38, 4.55, 1.67). Habitus as in Fig. 7E. Carapace brownish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands. Legs brownish with black annulations, especially distinct on legs III and IV. Palp (Fig. 6A–C): patella short, ca. 1/3 of tibial length, with one retrolateral macroseta; tibia almost the same length as cymbium, with several macrosetae and a dorsal process; paracymbium short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length, hook-shaped; pimoid cymbial sclerite distally curved, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length; cymbial denticulate process short, distally narrow and blunt, with more than ten cuspules; median apophysis slender; conductor distinct; pimoid embolic process long, slightly wider distally; embolus beginning at the 7:30 o’clock position; embolic tooth absent.

Figure 7. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa mainling sp. nov., female paratype and male holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E male habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, dorsal view G female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for F and G.

Female (paratype): Total length 8.78. Carapace 3.40 long, 3.01 wide. Abdomen 5.38 long, 4.55 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.19, PME 0.19, PLE 0.20; AME-AME 0.15, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.17, PME-PLE 0.21. Leg measurements: I: 21.22 (6.15, 7.37, 5.58, 2.12); II: 18.33 (5.32, 6.22, 4.74, 2.05); III: 13.14 (4.17, 4.10, 3.40, 1.47); IV: – (5.06, 5.51, 4.42, –). Habitus as in Fig. 7F, G. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands. Legs brownish with distinct black annulations on all legs. Epigyne (Fig. 7A–D): funnel-shaped; ventral and dorsal plates narrow; copulatory openings distinct; spermathecae nearly oval, separated by ca. 1/3 width of spermatheca; fertilization ducts membranous, anteriorly oriented.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Pimoa nyingchi Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 8, 9, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♂ (IZCAS-Ar40323), China, Tibet, Nyingchi, near Lunang Town, 29.94°N, 94.80°E, elevation ca. 2615 m, 25.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg. Paratypes: 1♂2♀ (IZCAS-Ar40324-Ar40326), same data as holotype; 2♂2♀ (IZCAS-Ar40327-Ar40330), Nyingchi, Near Sejila Pass, 29.56°N, 94.57°E, elevation ca. 3764 m, 26.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The male of Pimoa nyingchi sp. nov. resembles P. reniformis (see Xu and Li 2007: 493, figs 36–41) but can be distinguished by the long, distally flat and wide pimoid cymbial sclerite (Fig. 8B, vs. narrow and distally curved) and by the relatively large and wide paracymbium (Fig. 8B, C, vs. small and narrow). The female of P. nyingchi also resembles P. reniformis (see Xu and Li 2007: 493, figs 42–47) but can be distinguished by a pair of small, oval spermathecae (Fig. 9C, vs. large and kidney-shaped) and by the broad dorsal plate (Fig. 9C, vs. narrow dorsal plate).

Figure 8. 

Left palp of Pimoa nyingchi sp. nov., holotype A prolateral view B ventral view C retrolateral view. Abbreviations: AS = alveolar sclerite; C = conductor; CDP = cymbial denticulate process; E = embolus; MA = median apophysis; P = paracymbium; PCS = pimoid cymbial sclerite; PEP = pimoid embolic process; T = tegulum. Scale bar: equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 7.05. Carapace 3.59 long, 3.01 wide. Abdomen 3.46 long, 2.44 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.17, PME 0.18, PLE 0.16; AME-AME 0.14, AME-ALE 0.16, PME-PME 0.15, PME-PLE 0.18. Leg measurements: I: 28.08 (7.63, 8.91, 8.01, 3.53); II: 16.92 (5.89, 5.26, 3.78, 1.99); III: 16.73 (5.00, 5.19, 4.62, 1.92); IV: 14.10 (5.45, 4.23, 2.95, 1.47). Habitus as in Fig. 9E. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse bands. Legs brownish with distinct black annulations on all legs. Palp (Fig. 8A–C): patella short, almost the same length as tibia, with one retrolateral macroseta; tibia short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length, with several macrosetae and a dorsal process; paracymbium short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length, hook-shaped; pimoid cymbial sclerite long, distally flat and wide, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length; cymbial denticulate process short, distally wide and bent inward, with more than 20 cuspules; median apophysis slender; conductor distinct; pimoid embolic process almost the same length as embolus; embolus beginning at the 3:00 o’clock position; embolic tooth absent.

Figure 9. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa nyingchi sp. nov., female paratype and male holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E male habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, dorsal view G female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for F and G.

Female (paratype): Total length 9.49. Carapace 3.27 long, 2.88 wide. Abdomen 6.22 long, 4.68 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.19, ALE 0.20, PME 0.19, PLE 0.20; AME-AME 0.14, AME-ALE 0.12, PME-PME 0.15, PME-PLE 0.17. Leg measurements: I: 20.76 (6.09, 6.79, 5.38, 2.50); II: 17.49 (5.06, 5.89, 4.68, 1.86); III: – (3.97, –, –, –); IV: 16.34 (5.06, 5.58, 4.42, 1.28). Habitus as in Fig. 9F, G. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands. Legs brownish with distinct black annulations on all legs. Epigyne (Fig. 9A–D): triangular; ventral plate broad, length subequal to width; dorsal plate wide medially and pointed distally; copulatory openings indistinct; spermathecae oval, close to each other; fertilization ducts laterally oriented.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Pimoa rongxar Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 10, 11, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♂ (IZCAS-Ar40331), China, Tibet, Shigatse, Dinggyê County, Rongxar Town, Woods by the river, 28.07°N, 86.37°E , elevation ca. 3520 m, 29.VII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg. Paratype: 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar40332), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The male of Pimoa rongxar sp. nov. resembles P. reniformis (see Xu and Li 2007: 493, figs 36–41) and P. thaleri Trotta, 2009 (see Trotta 2009: 1404, fig. 1) but can be distinguished by the large, long and subdistally wide pimoid cymbial sclerite (Fig. 10B, vs. small and narrow in P. reniformis; vs. short and medially wide in P. thaleri); distinguished from P. reniformis by the long palpal tibia, ca. 1/2 of the cymbial length (Fig. 10A–C, vs. palpal tibia short, ca. 1/3 of the cymbial length); distinguished from P. thaleri by the pimoid embolic process which is longer than the embolus (Fig. 10B, vs. a pimoid embolic process that is almost the same length as the embolus). The female of P. rongxar resembles P. indiscreta Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 66, figs 248–255) but can be distinguished by a pair of nearly round spermathecae (Fig. 11A, vs. nearly oval) and by the laterally oriented pair of fertilization ducts (Fig. 11A–D, vs. medially oriented fertilization ducts).

Figure 10. 

Left palp of Pimoa rongxar sp. nov., holotype A prolateral view B ventral view C retrolateral view. Abbreviations: AS = alveolar sclerite; C = conductor; CDP = cymbial denticulate process; E = embolus; MA = median apophysis; P = paracymbium; PCS = pimoid cymbial sclerite; PEP = pimoid embolic process; T = tegulum. Scale bar: equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 3.97. Carapace 2.50 long, 1.92 wide. Abdomen 1.47 long, 1.86 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.12, ALE 0.14, PME 0.16, PLE 0.14; AME-AME 0.14, AME-ALE 0.15, PME-PME 0.11, PME-PLE 0.11. Leg measurements: I: 19.23 (5.26, 6.22, 5.19, 2.56); II: 16.79 (4.55, 5.38, 4.62, 2.24); III: 11.48 (3.27, 3.46, 3.21, 1.54); IV: 14.16 (3.97, 4.55, 4.04, 1.60). Habitus as in Fig. 11E. Carapace brownish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen dark gray. Legs brownish with distinct black annulations on all legs. Palp (Fig. 10A–C): patella short, ca. 1/2 of tibial length, with a single retrolateral macroseta; tibia long, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length, with several macrosetae and a dorsal process; paracymbium short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length; pimoid cymbial sclerite large, long and subdistally wide, slightly shorter than cymbial length; cymbial denticulate process short, distally narrow, with more than ten cuspules; median apophysis slender; conductor distinct; pimoid embolic process longer than embolus, abruptly narrowing; embolus beginning at the 5:30 o’clock position; embolic tooth absent.

Female (paratype): Total length 7.63. Carapace 3.78 long, 2.95 wide. Abdomen 3.85 long, 2.63 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.20, PME 0.18, PLE 0.17; AME-AME 0.13, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.18, PME-PLE 0.21. Leg measurements: I: 24.29 (6.67, 8.14, 6.60, 2.88); II: 22.50 (6.35, 7.44, 6.15, 2.56); III: 17.38 (5.19, 5.58, 4.62, 1.99); IV: 20.77 (6.15, 6.86, 5.58, 2.18). Habitus as in Fig. 11F, G. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen yellowish with black marks. Legs yellowish with distinct black annulations on all legs. Epigyne (Fig. 11A–D): triangular; ventral plate broad, length subequal to width; dorsal plate narrow, longer than wide; copulatory openings distinct; spermathecae nearly round, separated by ca. 1/4 width of spermatheca; fertilization ducts yellowish, laterally oriented.

Figure 11. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa rongxar sp. nov., female paratype and male holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E male habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, dorsal view G female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for F and G.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Pimoa samyai Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 12, 13, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♂ (IZCAS-Ar40333), China, Tibet, Lhoka, Samyai Town, along the way to Qingpu Practice Cave, 29.38°N, 91.55°E, elevation ca. 4231 m, 15.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg. Paratypes: 1♂1♀ (IZCAS-Ar40334-Ar40335), same data as holotype; 2♀ (IZCAS-Ar40336-Ar40337), Lhoka, Aza Town, along the way to Zonggongbu Cave, 29.37°N, 91.32°E, elevation ca. 4389 m, 14.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The male of Pimoa samyai sp. nov. resembles P. binchuanensis (see Zhang and Li 2019: 3, figs 1, 2) and P. crispa Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 63, figs 233–238; Hormiga 1994b: fig. 1A, B) but can be distinguished by the short and distally narrow cymbial denticulate process (Fig. 12B, vs. long and distally wide in P. binchuanensis; vs. distally wide in P. crispa); distinguished from P. binchuanensis by the nearly L-shaped pimoid cymbial sclerite (Fig. 12B, vs. nearly U-shaped); distinguished from P. crispa by a palpal tibia that is ca. 1/2 of the cymbial length (Fig. 12A–C, vs. tibia almost the same length as cymbium). The female of P. samyai resembles P. crispa Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 63, figs 239–247) and P. indiscreta Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 66, figs 248–255) but can be distinguished by the distance between the pair of spermathecae which is ca. 1/2 the width of a spermatheca (Fig. 13C, vs. separated by ca. 1/4 the width of a spermatheca in P. crispa and P. indiscreta) and by the distally wide dorsal plate (Fig. 13C, vs. distally narrow in P. crispa and P. indiscreta).

Figure 12. 

Left palp of Pimoa samyai sp. nov., holotype A prolateral view B ventral view C retrolateral view. Abbreviations: AS = alveolar sclerite; C = conductor; CDP = cymbial denticulate process; E = embolus; P = paracymbium; PCS = pimoid cymbial sclerite; PEP = pimoid embolic process; T = tegulum. Scale bar: equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 6.92. Carapace 3.33 long, 2.63 wide. Abdomen 3.59 long, 2.31 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.16, ALE 0.17, PME 0.15, PLE 0.16; AME-AME 0.14, AME-ALE 0.14, PME-PME 0.16, PME-PLE 0.19. Leg measurements: I: 31.92 (8.85, 10.06, 9.74, 3.27); II: 31.40 (8.33, 9.94, 9.99, 3.14); III: 19.81 (5.83, 6.03, 5.96, 1.99); IV: 25.77 (7.31, 8.27, 7.88, 2.31). Habitus as in Fig. 13E. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands. Legs brownish with black annulations, especially distinct on legs III and IV. Palp (Fig. 12A–C): patella short, ca. 1/2 of tibial length, with one retrolateral macroseta; tibia long, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length, with several macrosetae and a dorsal process; paracymbium short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length, hook-shaped; pimoid cymbial sclerite nearly L-shaped, ca. 1/2 of cymbial length; cymbial denticulate process short and distally narrow, with more than ten cuspules; median apophysis indistinct; conductor distinct; pimoid embolic process pointed distally, longer than embolus; embolus beginning at the 5:30 o’clock position; embolic tooth absent.

Figure 13. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa samyai sp. nov., female paratype and male holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E male habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, dorsal view G female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for F and G.

Female (paratype): Total length 10.51. Carapace 4.81 long, 3.46 wide. Abdomen 5.70 long, 4.42 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.20, PME 0.19, PLE 0.19; AME-AME 0.16, AME-ALE 0.17, PME-PME 0.17, PME-PLE 0.23. Leg measurements: I: 31.73 (8.91, 10.51, 9.04, 3.27); II: 28.59 (7.95, 9.49, 8.14, 3.01); III: 20.19 (5.83, 6.54, 5.83, 1.99); IV: 26.85 (7.88, 8.97, 7.50, 2.50). Habitus as in Fig. 13F, G. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen yellowish with black parts. Legs brownish with distinct black annulations on all legs. Epigyne (Fig. 13A–D): triangular; ventral plate broad, length subequal to width; dorsal plate longer than wide, nearly tongue-shaped; copulatory openings distinct; spermathecae nearly oval, separated by ca. 1/2 width of spermatheca; fertilization ducts anteriorly oriented.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Pimoa yadong Zhang & Li, sp. nov .

Figures 14, 15, 16

Type material

Holotype : ♂ (IZCAS-Ar40338), China, Tibet, Shigatse, Yadong County, along the way to the Qing Dynasty Customs Site, 27.42°N, 88.92°E, elevation ca. 2953 m, 6.VIII.2018, X. Zhang and J. Liu leg. Paratype: 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar40339), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality.

Diagnosis

The male of Pimoa yadong sp. nov. resembles P. nematoides Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 71, figs 285–289) and P. sinuosa Hormiga, 1994 (see Hormiga 1994a: 67, figs 256–265) but can be distinguished by the wide and subtriangular pimoid cymbial sclerite (Fig. 14B, vs. proximally wide, distally narrow and curved in P. nematoides; vs. slender and distally blunt and curved in P. sinuosa), by the long palpal tibia, ca. 2 times longer than the cymbium (Fig. 14A–C, vs. short tibia, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length in P. nematoides and P. sinuosa). The female of P. yadong resembles P. sinuosa (see Hormiga 1994a: 67, figs 266–284) and P. cona sp. nov. (Fig. 2) but can be distinguished by a pair of nearly round spermathecae that are almost touching one another (Fig. 15A, vs. elliptic and separated spermathecae in P. cona; vs. subtriangular and separated spermathecae in P. sinuosa) and by the dorsal plate which extends beyond the ventral plate (Fig. 15C, vs. a dorsal plate shorter than the ventral plate in P. nematoides and P. sinuosa).

Figure 14. 

Left palp of Pimoa yadong sp. nov., holotype A prolateral view B ventral view C retrolateral view. Abbreviations: AS = alveolar sclerite; CDP = cymbial denticulate process; E = embolus; MA = median apophysis; P = paracymbium; PCS = pimoid cymbial sclerite; PEP = pimoid embolic process; T = tegulum. Scale bar: equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 8.46. Carapace 4.04 long, 3.27 wide. Abdomen 4.42 long, 2.95 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.21, ALE 0.19, PME 0.18, PLE 0.20; AME-AME 0.13, AME-ALE 0.18, PME-PME 0.17, PME-PLE 0.19. Leg measurements: I: – (11.60, –, –, –); II: – (10.13, –, –, –); III: 24.42 (7.18, 7.56, 7.18, 2.50); IV: – (8.91, 9.94, 9.04, –). Habitus as in Fig. 15E. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with slightly yellowish transverse bands. Legs brownish with black annulations, especially distinct on legs III and IV. Palp (Fig. 14A–C): patella long, ca. 1/2 of tibial length; tibia long, ca. 2 times longer than cymbium, with several macrosetae and a dorsal process; paracymbium short, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length; pimoid cymbial sclerite wide and subtriangular, ca. 1/3 of cymbial length; cymbial denticulate process short and distally pointed, with more than five cuspules; median apophysis slender; conductor indistinct; pimoid embolic process pointed distally, almost the same length as embolus; embolus beginning at the 2:00 o’clock position; embolic tooth absent.

Figure 15. 

Epigyne and habitus of Pimoa yadong sp. nov., female paratype and male holotype A epigyne, ventral view B schematic course of internal duct system, ventral view C vulva, dorsal view D schematic course of internal duct system, dorsal view E male habitus, dorsal view F female habitus, dorsal view G female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CO = copulatory opening; DP = dorsal plate of the epigyne; FD = fertilization duct; S = spermatheca; VP = ventral plate of epigyne. Scale bars: equal for F and G.

Female (paratype): Total length 11.86. Carapace 4.55 long, 3.85 wide. Abdomen 7.31 long, 5.38 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.19, ALE 0.22, PME 0.21, PLE 0.22; AME-AME 0.19, AME-ALE 0.26, PME-PME 0.24, PME-PLE 0.28. Leg measurements: I: 43.08 (11.60, 14.04, 12.82, 4.62); II: 34.30 (10.58, 8.91, 11.09, 3.72); III: 24.30 (7.44, 7.69, 6.86, 2.31); IV: – (9.42, –, –, –). Habitus as in Fig. 15F–G. Carapace yellowish with black lateral margins; thoracic fovea and radial grooves distinct; sternum brownish. Abdomen black with yellowish transverse chevron bands and vertical band not extending to the distal part. Legs brownish with black annulations, especially distinct on legs III and IV. Epigyne (Fig. 15A–D): subtriangular; ventral plate broad, length subequal to width; dorsal plate narrowing distally, extending beyond the ventral plate; copulatory openings distinct; spermathecae round, close to each other; fertilization ducts laterally oriented.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality, Tibet, China (Fig. 16).

Figure 16. 

Distribution of Pimoa species from Asia. Red dots represent new species, green dots represent previously described species. 1 P. anatolica 2 P. binchuanensis 3 P. clavata 4 P. cona sp. nov. 5 P. crispa 6 P. duiba sp. nov. 7 P. gandhii 8 P. indiscreta 9 P. lata 10 P. lemenba sp. nov. 11 P. lihengae 12 P. mainling sp. nov. 13 P. nematoides 14 P. nyingchi sp. nov. 15 P. reniformis 16 P. rongxar sp. nov. 17 P. samyai sp. nov. 18 P. sinuosa 19 P. thaleri 20 P. trifurcata 21 P. wanglangensis 22 P. xinjianensis 23 P. yadong sp. nov.

Discussion

As a relict group, pimoids are ideal organisms for biogeographic study (Wang et al. 2008). Wang et al. (2008) estimated the divergence time of the North American and Asian species of Pimoa was approximately 110 Ma, and suggested that the discontinuous distribution was probably a consequence of the break-up of Laurasia. Mammola et al. (2016) inferred that European pimoids probably originated in the alpine region as a result of range contractions following dramatic climatic changes in the Alps after the mid Miocene.

Based on our spider collections in the last years, we have found that many Pimoa species have colonized in the southern region of the Tibetan Plateau. This study describes eight new species, yielding a total of 17 Pimoa species from China. However, this is only the tip of the iceberg of Chinese Pimoa species, and more new species will be reported with further collections. Phylogeographic analysis of Pimoidae from China will be conducted when the majority of Pimoa species appear to be recorded.

Acknowledgments

We are deeply grateful to Dimitar Dimitrov (Bergen, Norway), Gustavo Hormiga (Washington D.C., USA), and Daniele Polotow (Campinas, Brazil) for providing constructive comments during the review process. Sarah Crews kindly checked the language. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to Shuqiang Li (NSFC-31530067).

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