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Annotated checklist for stony corals of American Sāmoa with reference to mesophotic depth records
expand article infoAnthony D. Montgomery§, Douglas Fenner|, Robert J. Toonen
‡ University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Kāneʻohe, United States of America
§ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, United States of America
| NOAA Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Regional Office, Pago Pago, American Samoa
Open Access

Abstract

An annotated checklist of the stony corals (Scleractinia, Milleporidae, Stylasteridae, and Helioporidae) of American Sāmoa is presented. A total of 377 valid species has been reported from American Sāmoa with 342 species considered either present (251) or possibly present (91). Of these 342 species, 66 have a recorded geographical range extension and 90 have been reported from mesophotic depths (30–150 m). Additionally, four new species records (Acanthastrea subechinata Veron, 2000, Favites paraflexuosus Veron, 2000, Echinophyllia echinoporoides Veron & Pichon, 1980, Turbinaria irregularis Bernard, 1896) are presented. Coral species of concern include species listed under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of threatened species. Approximately 17.5% of the species present or possibly present are categorized as threatened by IUCN compared to 27% of the species globally. American Sāmoa has seven ESA-listed or ESA candidate species, including Acropora globiceps (Dana, 1846), Acropora jacquelineae Wallace, 1994, Acropora retusa (Dana, 1846), Acropora speciosa (Quelch, 1886), Fimbriaphyllia paradivisa (Veron, 1990), Isopora crateriformis (Gardiner, 1898), and Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846. There are two additional species possibly present, i.e., Pavona diffluens (Lamarck, 1816) and Porites napopora Veron, 2000.

Keywords

Helioporidae, mesophotic coral ecosystems, Milleporidae, new records, Scleractinia, Stylasteridae, WoRMS, World List of Scleractinia

Introduction

American Sāmoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States and lies between Hawaiʻi and New Zealand in the Southern Pacific Ocean (Figure 1). The Samoan Archipelago includes American Sāmoa, which consists of five high islands (Tutuila, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Olosega, and Taʻū), one low island (Swains Island), and an atoll (Rose), and the Independent state of Sāmoa at the west end of the archipelago with the two high islands (Upola and Savaiʻi) and eight smaller islands. Tonga lies approximately 900 km to the southwest and Tuvalu lies approximately 1,400 km to the northwest.

Figure 1. 

Map of American Sāmoa. A map of American Sāmoa showing its proximity to Independent Sāmoa and the distances between all the island groups (in green) and shallow (< 150 meter depth) banks (in purple) within the territory.

Coral reef research has been conducted in American Sāmoa since the early 1900s with work analyzing the growth rate of coral reefs and reporting the World’s second stony coral transect (Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Mayor 1918). Since then, there has been a series of studies around the territory documenting its coral communities (Hoffmeister 1925; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Maragos et al. 1994) including coral species checklists (Lamberts 1983; Birkeland 2001, 2007a, 2007b; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011). While there have been several papers looking at the coral species of American Sāmoa, most are not peer-reviewed and none to date have considered the mesophotic zone explicitly. This has led to a large amount of documentation on the coral diversity across the territory, but not in a comprehensive manner that analyzes all available data and the scale of evidence for a complete coral species presence.

Previously referred to as deep coral reefs or the coral reef twilight zone (Pyle 1996, 1998, 2000), mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) are well defined in the literature: “Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) are characterized by the presence of light-dependent corals and associated communities that are typically found at depths ranging from 30 to 40 m and extending to over 150 m in tropical and subtropical regions. The dominant communities providing structural habitat in the mesophotic zone can be comprised of coral, sponge, and algal species” (Hinderstein et al. 2010). Previously thought to be marginal habitats, MCEs have been hypothesized as potential refugia for shallow water corals under the ‘deep reef refugia’ hypothesis (DRRH) (Glynn 1996; Hughes and Tanner 2000; Riegl and Piller 2003; Bak et al. 2005; Kahng et al. 2010; Bongaerts et al. 2010; Tenggardjaja et al. 2014; Holstein et al. 2015). Others have argued that MCEs host different communities of species, and make unlikely refugia from a warming ocean (Hurley et al. 2016; Smith et al. 2016; Bongaerts et al. 2017; Semmler et al. 2017). Bongaerts et al. (2010) reviewed the current literature regarding the DRRH for Caribbean reefs and concluded that the DRRH is more likely to apply to “depth generalist” species and may serve a greater importance in the upper range of MCEs (30–60 m). This was later exemplified on a Pacific reef in Okinawa, where the coral Seriatopora hystrix Dana, 1846 was extirpated from shallow water, and later discovered in an upper MCE at depths of 35 to 47 m (Sinniger et al. 2013). Here, we provide a notation for each species reported to be within the mesophotic zone in order to provide a common baseline on species occurrence.

The biogeography of corals has only been studied in the last few decades (Stehli and Wells 1971) with species level comparisons in the last two decades. Corals of the World (CoTW; Veron et al. (2019) recognizes 833 valid zooxanthellate scleractinian species globally and does not include the azooxanthellate dendrophylliid corals (Cairns 2001; Arrigoni et al. 2014) as well as the cave dwelling Leptoseris troglodyta Hoeksema, 2012 (Hoeksema 2012a). The World List of Scleractinia (WLS) reports 1,610 valid species with approximately half of those being zooxanthellate, hermatypic species (Hoeksema and Cairns 2019). Broad-scale biogeographic studies require regional-scale data that can be traced back to a consistent taxonomy (Veron 1995). The most comprehensive biogeographic analysis of scleractinians has been completed by Veron et al. (2015) and CoTW (Veron 2000; Veron et al. 2019). Together, these studies show a pattern of highest diversity in the Coral Triangle with decreasing diversity towards the north, east, and south (Hoeksema 2007; Veron et al. 2015). The ecoregion described by Veron et al. (2019) that includes American Sāmoa is the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion and includes the island groups of Tuvalu, Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna, Tonga, Niuē, and the Sāmoa Archipelago. Veron et al. (2019) reports this ecoregion has 313 reef coral species, while the neighboring ecoregions range from 16 to over 500 coral reef species and the Coral Triangle with 627 coral reef species (Table 1; Veron et al. 2019).

Table 1.

Zooxanthellate, reef-dwelling scleractinian species richness for the ecoregions surrounding American Sāmoa based on Veron et al. (2019).

Ecoregion Number of species
Coral Triangle 627
Bismarck Sea, New Guinea 538
Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea 523
Solomon Islands and Bougainville 516
New Caledonia 439
Fiji 395
Caroline Islands, Micronesia 395
Vanuatu 391
Pohnpei and Kosrae, Micronesia 384
Coral Sea 378
Kiribati west, Gilbert Islands 316
Sāmoa, Tuvalu, Tonga 313
Marshall Islands 309
Great Barrier Reef south 308
Kiribati, north-east Line Islands 194
Cook Islands, central Pacific 181
Kiribati central, Phoenix Islands 178
Society Islands, French Polynesia 176
Austral Islands, French Polynesia 153
Tuamotu Archipelago west, central Pacific 117
Kiribati, south-east Line Islands 112
Tuamotu Archipelago south-east and Pitcairn Islands 104
Hawaii east 58
Johnston Atoll, north central Pacific 37
Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 23
Kermadec Islands, south Pacific 16

In order to make available the vast history of work completed in American Sāmoa, we present a detailed annotated analysis for the reported shallow and mesophotic stony coral species including scleractinian, milleporid, stylasterid, and helioporid species. This analysis presents the information in an open, transparent manner that allows the reader to judge any particular observation over and beyond our analysis. The goal of this study is to provide a foundation for a thorough species list for the Territory of American Sāmoa with a mechanism that allows the reader to trace back to the original recording of the species. This mechanism will allow different interpretations of the taxonomy, confidence of a species observation, or future analyses of species presence to be re-analyzed or questioned easily. Further, we believe this type of approach to a species checklist on a small regional scale can provide a valuable contribution to broader scale biogeographic analyses as discussed by Veron (1995).

Materials and methods

Species occurrences in the study area were recorded from all available literature (Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; Dahl and Lamberts 1977; USACE 1980; Dahl 1981; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hoeksema 1989; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Green et al. 1999; Mundy and Green 1999; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Wolstenholme et al. 2003; Cornish and DiDonato 2004; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Fenner et al. 2008; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Forsman and Birkeland 2009; Forsman et al. 2009; Bare et al. 2010; Benzoni et al. 2010; Kenyon et al. 2010, 2011; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; AM 2018; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018; NMNH 2018; Creuwels 2019; Gross 2019; Montgomery et al. 2019; Paulay and Brown 2019). Each appearance of a species name was recorded with as much information as available including the exact spelling of the species name, identification qualifiers (e.g., cf., aff., ?, etc.), survey type, island, species location (e.g., site name, transect label, etc.), the reference of the appearance, if the species was referenced to a different source and its reference, and any other general notes or information. This information was collected in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and imported into R where the data were validated. All unique species names were cross-referenced with valid accepted names in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) through their REST webservice (http://www.marinespecies.org/rest/). Names were queried for exact matches and missing matches were queried for fuzzy matches based on the Taxamatch algorithm (Rees 2014). Remaining names were queried again with older generic names (e.g., Madrepora instead of Acropora). All remaining names were retained as used.

Additional data validation steps included the elimination of duplicate returns from WoRMS, examining each individual fuzzy match return and dubious names, and standardizing nomenclature for unaccepted name explanations. The classification was updated based on the accepted valid name of a species and added to all records from the WoRMS database. Finally, any missing names that were unable to be matched with WoRMS records were added individually.

The checklist is arranged by species presence determination and then by order and alphabetically by family, genus and species for each valid name. Each species record starts with listing the valid species name as accepted in WoRMS (WoRMS Editorial Board 2018). The valid name is hyperlinked to the WoRMS species taxa webpage followed by the species authority and AphiaID. Under each valid name, species names as appeared in the literature are reported followed by the species authority and AphiaID. Species names that have grammatical misspellings are labeled with [sic]. If the species was a synonym, then it was labeled as a heterotypic or homotypic synonym. We use the term ‘homotypic synonym’ to refer to cases where the same species epithet is combined with different genera, and ‘heterotypic synonym’ in cases where different species epithets are regarded as subjective junior synonyms. While the terms ‘objective synonym’ and ‘subjective synonym’ are technically defined within the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) Code to mean essentially the same (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/index.jsp?booksection=glossary&nfv=true), in our experience the term ‘objective synonym’ is most commonly used in cases of different species epithets that share the same type specimen (e.g., replacement names). Therefore, we believe the terms ‘homotypic synonym’ and ‘heterotypic synonym’ are more appropriate in the present context, which is consistent with how these terms are most commonly used for taxonomic purposes. Each species name is followed by the references that used that exact name and spelling. The references are separated into first-hand accounts labeled as reported and second or more hand accounts labeled as referenced.

All names (valid and synonymies) according to the World List of Scleractinia (Hoeksema and Cairns 2019) were cross-referenced with the accepted names by Veron et al. (2019), Wallace (1999), and Wallace et al. (2012) to provide the reader with a potentially different view of the species and highlight any differences. Any name that matched a name accepted by Wallace (1999) or Wallace et al. (2012) was noted by CCW. Any name that matched a name accepted by Veron et al. (2019) was notated as CoTW. The notation also provides a hyperlink to the factsheet available on the CoTW webpage (http://www.coralsoftheworld.org/page/home/). Veron et al. (2019) is an electronic source that has evolved from the printed worldwide overview of reef-dwelling Scleractinia by Veron (2000), while Hoeksema and Cairns (2019) is based on published taxonomic revisions of various scleractinian families and genera, partly based on molecular analyses and/or on the re-examination of type specimens and other museum material (Wallace 1999; Wallace et al. 2007, 2012; Hoeksema 2009, 2012a, 2012b, 2014; Benzoni et al. 2010, 2011, 2012a, 2014; Gittenberger et al. 2011; Huang et al. 2011, 2014a, 2014b, 2016; Budd et al. 2012; Arrigoni et al. 2014, 2015, 2016a, 2016b, 2017, 2018a; Kitano et al. 2014; Schmidt-Roach et al. 2014; Terraneo et al. 2016, 2017).

After all names and references are listed, we include our determination of the species presence in American Sāmoa. This determination was split into five categories: present, possibly present, uncertain, not likely present, and not present. This determination was made largely on the type of evidence available including the amount of references, the type of reference, the evidence the reference includes (e.g., in situ observation, photographic, sample identified, or type specimen), and taxonomic and identification certainty. The species presence determination is followed by information on the highest level of evidence available to support the species presence. Additionally, the annotation includes the reported species distribution within American Sāmoa as reported by the literature, the nearest confirmed ecoregion for the species presence according to Veron et al. (2019), the direction of a potential geographic range extension, the evidence of species vulnerability as documented by the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of threatened species (IUCN 2018) as assessed by Carpenter et al. (2008) and the US Endangered Species Act (ESA), and the depths and associated references for corals reported from mesophotic depths. Finally, we provide notes that discuss our justification of a species presence determination, other evidence not already listed, or other noteworthy comments. Each IUCN note is hyperlinked to the IUCN Red List species information webpage (http://www.iucnredlist.org/).

Species listed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the ESA are notated with the symbol 𝒯 for threatened and 𝒞 for candidate listing. The species status as listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is noted as Critically Endangered (CE), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC), Data Deficient (DD), and Not Evaluated (NE).

Museum name abbreviations

AM Austalian Museum, New South Wales, Australia

BPBM Bernice P Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaiʻi

CRED Coral Reef Ecosystem Division, NOAA, Honolulu, Hawaiʻi

DMWR Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Pago Pago, American Sāmoa

NMNH US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

QM Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia

Datasets

The data underpinning the analyses reported in this paper are deposited in the GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (Citation: Montgomery A, Toonen R, Fenner D (2019) Annotated checklist for Stony Corals of American Samoa and Mesophotic Depth Records. https://doi.org/10.15468/07opwe).

Checklist

Present

Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834

Subclass Hexacorallia Haeckel, 1896

Order Scleractinia Bourne, 1900
Family Acroporidae Verrill, 1902
Genus Acropora Oken, 1815

Acropora abrotanoides (Lamarck, 1816) (207083) CoTW CCW

Acropora abratanoides (Lamarck, 1816) (207083) [sic]. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Acropora abrotanioides (Lamarck, 1816) (207083) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora abrotanoides (Lamarck, 1816) (207083). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora abrotenoides (Lamarck, 1816) (207083) [sic]. Reported – Work and Rameyer 2002.

Acropora danai (Milne Edwards, 1860) (206990) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1995; Mundy 1996; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006.

Acropora irregularis (Brook, 1892) (206993) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

Acropora rotumana (Gardiner, 1898) (207001) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997.

Acropora tutuilensis Hoffmeister, 1925 (430656) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Kenyon et al. 2010; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location (synonym Acropora tutuilensis). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species has four synonyms with Acropora tutuilensis Hoffmeister, 1925 accepted as a valid species by Veron et al. (2019) and as a synonym of A. abrotanoides by Wallace (1999) and Wallace et al. (2012) suggesting some ambiguity in species identifications and species boundaries.

Acropora aculeus (Dana, 1846) (206991) CoTW CCW

Acropora aculeus (Dana, 1846) (206991). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; QM 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Acropora acuminata (Verrill, 1864) (207020) CoTW CCW

Acropora acuminata (Verrill, 1864) (207020). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by C Wallace). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – This is not an easy species to identify in the field. Photographic evidence from Corals NPAS (2016) is inconclusive, but a specimen identified by C Wallace is in the QM.

Acropora anthocercis (Brook, 1893) (207024) CoTW CCW

Acropora anthocercis (Brook, 1893) (207024). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland 2007a; QM 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by J Wolstenholme). Distribution – Ofu. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Acropora aspera (Dana, 1846) (207011) CoTW CCW

Acropora aspera (Dana, 1846) (207011). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Mundy 1996; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Birkeland et al. 2013; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Acropora cribripora Dana, 1846 (741197) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924b.

Acropora hebes (Dana, 1846) (367984) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – Randall and Myers (1983) accepted Acropora hebes (Dana, 1846) as a valid species while Veron et al. (2019), Wallace (1999), and Wallace et al. (2012) did not.

Acropora austera (Dana, 1846) (207052) CoTW CCW

Acropora austera (Dana, 1846) (207052). CoTW CCW Reported – Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Bare et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; AM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925; DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora austera cf. (Dana, 1846) (207052). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – The photo of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to show a specimen of Acropora pagoensis Hoffmeister, 1925.

Acropora batunai Wallace, 1997 (288187) CoTW CCW

Acropora batunai Wallace, 1997 (288187). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityVU.

Acropora carduus (Dana, 1846) (288189) CoTW CCW

Acropora carduus (Dana, 1846) (288189). CoTW CCW Reported – Craig et al. 2001; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora prolixa (Verrill, 1866) (1261651) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Acropora cerealis (Dana, 1846) (207016) CoTW CCW

Acropora ceralis (Dana, 1846) (207016) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Acropora cerealis (Dana, 1846) (207016). CoTW CCW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora cerealis cf. (Dana, 1846) (207016). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora cerialis (Dana, 1846) (207016) [sic]. Reported – Mundy 1996. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Acropora cymbicyathus (Brook, 1893) (207109) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

Acropora symbicyathus (Brook, 1893) (207109) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora chesterfieldensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288191) CoTW CCW

Acropora chesterfieldensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288191). CoTW CCW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Ofu/Olosega. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species is documented by clear photographic evidence (Fenner 2018) to support its presence in American Sāmoa.

Acropora clathrata (Brook, 1891) (207075) CoTW CCW

Acropora clathrata (Brook, 1891) (207075). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; Bare et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora complanata (Brook, 1893) (207071) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora vasiformis (Brook, 1893) (207073) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora cytherea (Dana, 1846) (207095) CoTW CCW

Acropora arcuata (Brook, 1892) (207089) heterotypic synonym. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

Acropora armata (Brook, 1892) (206992) heterotypic synonym. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

Acropora corymbosa (Lamarck, 1816) (207018) possible heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; BPBM 2018.

Acropora cytharea (Dana, 1846) (207095) [sic]. Reported – Mundy 1996. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Acropora cytherea (Dana, 1846) (207095). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; AM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora reticulata (Brook, 1892) (207021) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Acropora reticulata cf. (Brook, 1892) (207021) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Acropora symmetrica (Brook, 1891) (207005) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Sāmoa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – The photo of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrect.

Acropora digitifera (Dana, 1846) (207045) CoTW CCW

Acropora digitifera (Dana, 1846) (207045). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Wolstenholme et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora digitifera ? (Dana, 1846) (207045). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora digitifera cf. (Dana, 1846) (207045). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 2003.

Acropora leptocyathus (Brook, 1891) (207025) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Lamberts 1983; BPBM 2018. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925; Green et al. 1997.

Acropora schmitti ? Wells, 1950 (288245) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora schmitti Wells, 1950 (288245) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Acropora wardii Verrill, 1902 (740141) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – This species includes the synonym Acropora schmitti Wells, 1950 that is recognized by Veron et al. (2019), but not by Wallace (1999) nor Wallace et al. (2012). Randall and Myers (1983) recognized Acropora wardii Verrill, 1902 as a valid species that appears to be different from A. digitifera.

Acropora divaricata (Dana, 1846) (207106) CoTW CCW

Acropora divaricata (Dana, 1846) (207106). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; QM 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by C Wallace). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – This species has been reported by several studies with one of them providing photographic evidence (Corals NPAS 2016) and one specimen report by C Wallace from QM (2018). The coral documented by Corals NPAS (2016) is an uncertain identification. This species can be difficult to identify, but based on the identification by C Wallace we conclude that this species is present.

Acropora donei Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288198) CoTW CCW

Acropora akajimensis cf. Veron, 1990 (288183) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

Acropora akajimensis Veron, 1990 (288183) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora donei ? Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288198). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora donei Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288198). CoTW CCW Reported – Craig et al. 2001; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Montgomery and D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and TongaSāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 41 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). NotesAcropora akajimensis is a synonym of A. donei, but Veron et al. (2019) recognize A. akajimensis as a valid species while Wallace (1999) and Wallace et al. (2012) do not. The A. akajimensis reported in Montgomery et al. (2019) was based on a skeletal analysis of a sample that matched the description of A. akajimensis very closely, and not A. donei. A. donei is neat and tidy with the radial corallites and branches being relatively blunt and relatively uniform in thickness. A. akajimensis appears much more jagged and disorganized, with pointy corallites and branches. More taxonomic research is needed for these species. The nearest confirmed ecoregion for A. akajimensis is New Caledonia (Veron et al. 2019).

Acropora eurystoma (Klunzinger, 1879) (207108) CoTW CCW

Acropora eurystoma (Klunzinger, 1879) (207108). CoTW CCW Reported – NMNH 2018.

Acropora pagoenis Hoffmeister, 1925 (411144) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Acropora pagoensis Hoffmeister, 1925 (411144) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type (synonym Acropora pagoensis). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Red Sea north-central. Geographical range extension – Southeast. Notes – In Hoffmeisterʻs (1925) original description of A. pagoensis, he cites it as similar to A. eurystoma. However, Wallace (1999) and Veron et al. (2019) consider this species a probable synonym of Acropora tenuis (Dana, 1846). All citations have used the name A. pagoensis except for NMNH (2018) in which one specimen from American Sāmoa was identified by S Cairns as A. eurystoma. Hoffmeister (1925) further states this species is distinctive from A. eurystoma. We consider A. eurystoma present based on A. pagoensis being synonymized under A. eurystoma, however, we believe A. pagoensis may be a valid species and A. eurystoma is not likely a valid name for the American Sāmoa observations. Veron et al. (2019) and Wallace (1999) consider this species to be endemic to the Red Sea. We believe more taxonomic investigation into this species is warranted, which should include colonies collected from American Sāmoa.

Acropora gemmifera (Brook, 1892) (207097) CoTW CCW

Acropora gemmifera (Brook, 1892) (207097). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Wolstenholme et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora gemmifera cf. (Brook, 1892) (207097). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and TongaSāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora globiceps (Dana, 1846) (430645) CoTW CCW

Acropora globiceps (Dana, 1846) (430645). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Acropora globiceps ? (Dana, 1846) (430645). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora globiceps cf. (Dana, 1846) (430645). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Vulnerability – 𝒯, VU. Notes – Fenner (this study) has examined the type specimens of Acropora humilis (Dana, 1846) and A. globiceps. All colonies examined (including the ones within the DMWR collection) belong clearly to A. globiceps. The name A. globiceps was forgotten until Wallace (1999) and Veron (2000) used it again. It appears likely that all reports of A. humilis from the Samoan Archipelago are actually A. globiceps.

Acropora granulosa (Milne Edwards, 1860) (207093) CoTW CCW

Acropora granulosa (Milne Edwards, 1860) (207093). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora granulosa cf. (Milne Edwards, 1860) (207093). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Acropora hyacinthus (Dana, 1846) (207044) CoTW CCW

Acropora conferta (Quelch, 1886) (207107) heterotypic synonym. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

Acropora hyacanthus (Dana, 1846) (207044) [sic]. Reported – BPBM 2018.

Acropora hyacinthus (Dana, 1846) (207044). CoTW CCW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora surculosa (Dana, 1846) (207085) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora surculosa cf. (Dana, 1846) (207085) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Coles et al. 2003; DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – While Wallace (1999) and Veron et al. (2019) concur that Acropora surculosa (Dana, 1846) is a synonym of A. hyacinthus, Randall and Myers (1983) considered A. surculosa to be valid. Randall (1995) reports both A. surculosa and A. hyacinthus from Palau. Colonies in American Sāmoa fit the type of A. surculosa (examined by D Fenner) and appears to be different from A. hyacinthus. Acropora surculosa has smaller colonies with longer cone-shaped branchlets that more often appear to be fused or with multiple branch tips with long tentacles out during the day, while A. hyacinthus has larger colonies with shorter cylindrical branchlets that donʻt fuse or have multiple branch tips with much smaller tentacles if exposed during the day. Photographs show A. surculosa to have significant variation in both Guam (www.guamreeflife.com) and American Sāmoa. More research should pursue the potential for species distinction between these two species.

Acropora intermedia (Brook, 1891) (207035) CoTW CCW

Acropora intermedia (Brook, 1891) (207035). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; BPBM 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora vanderhorsti Hoffmeister, 1925 (741178) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 37 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – This species has also been called Acropora nobilis (Dana, 1846). Wallace (1999) describes the relationship between A. intermedia, Acropora robusta (Dana, 1846), and A. nobilis.

Acropora jacquelineae Wallace, 1994 (288212) CoTW CCW

Acropora jacquelineae Wallace, 1994 (288212). CoTW CCW Reported – Fenner 2018. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

Acropora jacquilinae Wallace, 1994 (288212) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Vulnerability – 𝒯, VU. Notes – There have been only two references that report this species, but T Hughes also reports seeing it on Taʻū (T Hughes, pers. comm.). An examination of an A. jacquelineae sample by D Luck concluded that it was not this species based on the fact that the axials were slightly smaller than reported in Wallace (1999) and that there were many small radial corallites while Wallace (1999) reported there are very few such radials in this species (Luck 2013). Examination of skeletal photographs in Wallace (1999) clearly show that corallites in most of the colony indeed have very few radials, but corallites near the edge of the colony have many radials. The sample analyzed by D Luck was taken from the edge of the colony by D Fenner and D Luck likely did not realize that the sample was taken from the edge. Given that this species is listed as threatened under the ESA, careful attention has been paid to the presence of this species and we believe the evidence in hand is sufficient to conclude its presence in American Sāmoa albeit likely as a rare species.

Acropora latistella (Brook, 1892) (207039) CoTW CCW

Acropora latistella /azurea (Brook, 1892) (207039). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora latistella (Brook, 1892) (207039). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora latistella ? (Brook, 1892) (207039). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 42 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Acropora listeri (Brook, 1893) (207057) CoTW CCW

Acropora listeri (Brook, 1893) (207057). CoTW CCW Reported – DiDonato et al. 2006; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; QM 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Acropora listeri cf. (Brook, 1893) (207057). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by C Wallace). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – A photographic record exists for this species (Corals NPAS 2016); however, this may be incorrectly identified. In addition, there is a single specimen reported by QM (2018) identified by C Wallace.

Acropora longicyathus (Milne Edwards, 1860) (207114) CoTW CCW

Acropora longicyathus (Milne Edwards, 1860) (207114). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora syringodes (Brook, 1892) (207014) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

Acropora syringoides (Brook, 1892) (207014) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Sāmoa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora lutkeni Crossland, 1952 (206994) CoTW CCW

Acropora lutkeni cf. Crossland, 1952 (206994). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora lutkeni Crossland, 1952 (206994). CoTW CCW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Corals NPAS 2016; QM 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by C Wallace). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. NotesQM (2018) reports this species identified by C Wallace.

Acropora microclados (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207101) CoTW CCW

Acropora assimilis Brook, 1892 (741262) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – NMNH 2018.

Acropora microclados (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207101). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Acropora microclados ? (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207101). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – The photographic record by Corals NPAS (2016) is incorrect, but there are multiple other specimen reports.

Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207023) CoTW CCW

Acropora convexa cf. (Dana, 1846) (367986) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Acropora millepora (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207023). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland 2007a; Birkeland et al. 2013; BPBM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora millepora cf. (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207023). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora prostrata (Dana, 1846) (207084) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Acropora prostrata ? (Dana, 1846) (207084) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora squamosa Brook, 1892 (741205) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Acropora monticulosa (Brüggemann, 1879) (207103) CoTW CCW

Acropora monticulosa (Brüggemann, 1879) (207103). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Coles et al. 2003; Wolstenholme et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Acropora muricata (Linnaeus, 1758) (207007) CoTW CCW

Acropora arbuscula (Dana, 1846) (207003) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Acropora formosa gracilis (Dana, 1846) (207036) heterotypic synonym. Reported – NMNH 2018.

Acropora formosa var. brachiata (Dana, 1846) (207036) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Acropora formosa var. gracilis (Dana, 1846) (207036) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Acropora formosa var. gracilis aff. (Dana, 1846) (207036) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924b.

Acropora formosa (Dana, 1846) (207036) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924a; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Mundy and Green 1999; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006.

Acropora formosa cf. (Dana, 1846) (207036) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Acropora gracilis (Dana, 1846) (207060) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

Acropora muricata (Linnaeus, 1758) (207007). CoTW CCW Reported – Mayor 1924a; Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Birkeland et al. 2013; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Acropora nana (Studer, 1879) (207100) CoTW CCW

Acropora azura Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288186) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Corals NPAS 2016.

Acropora azurea Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288186) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Mundy 1996; Fenner et al. 2008. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora nana /valida (Studer, 1879) (207100). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora nana (Studer, 1879) (207100). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora nana cf. (Studer, 1879) (207100). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Acropora nasuta (Dana, 1846) (207009) CoTW CCW

Acropora canaliculata (Klunzinger, 1879) (1262051) heterotypic synonym. Reported – NMNH 2018.

Acropora nasuta (Dana, 1846) (207009). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Bare et al. 2010; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; AM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora nasuta cf. (Dana, 1846) (207009). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Acropora palmerae Wells, 1954 (207049) CoTW CCW

Acropora palmera Wells, 1954 (207049) [sic]. Reported – Corals NPAS 2016.

Acropora palmerae Wells, 1954 (207049). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Acropora palmeri Wells, 1954 (207049) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. NotesWallace (1999) and Veron (2000) point out that this species has no differences in corallites or coenosteum with Acropora robusta (Dana, 1846), only the differences in colony shape (almost all branches versus almost all encrusting). This raises the question if these two are separate species or not.

Acropora paniculata Verrill, 1902 (207008) CoTW CCW

Acropora panicualta Verrill, 1902 (207008) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora paniculata Verrill, 1902 (207008). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 41 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – The photographic record by Corals NPAS (2016) is incorrect, but there are multiple specimen reports.

Acropora polystoma (Brook, 1891) (207050) CoTW CCW

Acropora massawensis von Marenzeller, 1907 (207004) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Acropora polystoma (Brook, 1891) (207050). CoTW CCW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Acropora pulchra (Brook, 1891) (207015) CoTW CCW

Acropora pulchra (Brook, 1891) (207015). CoTW CCW Reported – Mayor 1924b; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora pulchra ? (Brook, 1891) (207015). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora retusa (Dana, 1846) (430653) CoTW CCW

Acropora retusa (Dana, 1846) (430653). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by C Wallace). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Vulnerability – 𝒯, VU. Notes – The photographic record by Corals NPAS (2016) is incorrect, but Fenner (2018) shows clear evidence of its presence in addition to the QM (2018) specimen identified by C Wallace.

Acropora robusta (Dana, 1846) (207000) CoTW CCW

Acropora cuspidata (Dana, 1846) (872427) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Acropora nobilis (Dana, 1846) (207090) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

Acropora nobilis ? (Dana, 1846) (207090) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora pacifica (Brook, 1891) (207033) heterotypic synonym. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

Acropora paxilligera (Dana, 1846) (872424) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora pinguis Wells, 1950 (207070) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Acropora pinquis aff. Wells, 1950 (207070) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Acropora pinquis Wells, 1950 (207070) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Acropora robusta (Dana, 1846) (207000). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Green and Hunter 1998; DiDonato et al. 2006; Bare et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora robusta ? (Dana, 1846) (207000). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora robusta cf. (Dana, 1846) (207000). CoTW CCW Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Acropora smithi (Brook, 1893) (368476) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Sāmoa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. NotesAcropora nobilis has been synonymized with A. robusta by Wallace (1999) and accepted by Veron et al. (2019). Fenner has examined its type of A. nobilis in NMNH and agrees with Veron et al. (2019). Many reports of A. intermedia and A. nobilis in American Sāmoa may actually be A. intermedia. The photographic record by Corals NPAS (2016) is incorrect. However, given that multiple specimens have been identified from American Sāmoa, we believe that this species is present in American Sāmoa.

Acropora samoensis (Brook, 1891) (207055) CoTW CCW

Acropora samoensis (Brook, 1891) (207055). CoTW CCW Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora samoensis ? (Brook, 1891) (207055). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora samoensis aff. (Brook, 1891) (207055). CoTW CCW Reported – Mayor 1924b.

Acropora samoensis cf. (Brook, 1891) (207055). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – The type locality of this species is “Sāmoa Islands.” This could be either American Sāmoa or Independent Sāmoa. These two political entities are parts of the same archipelago, and thus many species present in one are likely in the other. The photographic record by Corals NPAS (2016) is incorrect.

Acropora secale (Studer, 1878) (207080) CoTW CCW

Acropora diversa (Brook, 1891) (207054) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Acropora diversa cf. (Brook, 1891) (207054) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora quelchi (Brook, 1893) (207022) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997.

Acropora quelchi cf. (Brook, 1893) (207022) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora secale (Studer, 1878) (207080). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora secale cf. (Studer, 1878) (207080). CoTW CCW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropra secale /valida/kimbiensis (Studer, 1878) (207080) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – This species is tough to identify in situ, but based on multiple specimens of this species and its synonyms we believe this species to be present.

Acropora selago (Studer, 1879) (207040) CoTW CCW

Acropora delicatula (Brook, 1891) (207082) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Birkeland et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora insignis Nemenzo, 1967 (288211) possible heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018.

Acropora selago (Studer, 1879) (207040). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. NotesVeron (2000) indicates that A. insignis is quite different from A. selago, which has more appressed radial corallites that are labellate and A. insignis has a distinctive coloration. This makes this species easy to distinguish in the water. Given the dispute with this synonym, more work should be conducted to look at the species variation in this group. Randall & Myers (1983) and Randall (1995, 2003) consider Acropora deliculata (Brook, 1891) a valid species.

Acropora solitaryensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288248) CoTW CCW

Acropora solitaryensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288248). CoTW CCW Reported – QM 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Vanuatu and Cook Islands, central Pacific. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 44 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – This species is confirmed by multiple specimen reports (QM 2018, Montgomery et al. 2019).

Acropora speciosa (Quelch, 1886) (430655) CoTW CCW

Acropora rambleri (Bassett-Smith, 1890) (207088) possible heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora rayneri Brook, 1892 (751726) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – BPBM 2018.

Acropora speciosa (Quelch, 1886) (430655). CoTW CCW Reported – Bare et al. 2010; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji and Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions. Vulnerability – 𝒯, VU. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Acropora tenuis (Dana, 1846) (207105) CoTW CCW

Acropora africana (Brook, 1893) (207063) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Acropora tenuis (Dana, 1846) (207105). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – The photographic record by Corals NPAS (2016) is incorrect, but there are multiple specimen reports.

Acropora teres (Verrill, 1866) (288255) CoTW taxon inquirendum

Acropora teres (Verrill, 1866) (288255). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland 2007a; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora teres cf. (Verrill, 1866) (288255). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Marshall Islands and Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Geographical range extension – Southeast. VulnerabilityDD. NotesAcropora teres (Verrill, 1886) has not been recorded in American Sāmoa since Hoffmeister (1925) and Lamberts (1983), except for Birkeland (2007a). The observations by Birkeland (2007a) in Ofu Lagoon concerned preliminary identifications without verification making the present record unverifiable. Given that there have been multiple specimen reports documenting this species, it is possible that this species has been extirpated and is no longer present in American Sāmoa.

Acropora valida (Dana, 1846) (207072) CoTW CCW

Acropora valida (Dana, 1846) (207072). CoTW CCW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; NMNH 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora valida aff. (Dana, 1846) (207072). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora valida cf. (Dana, 1846) (207072). CoTW CCW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994.

Acropora variabilis (Klunzinger, 1879) (207028) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; BPBM 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora variabilis aff. (Klunzinger, 1879) (207028) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora verweyi Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288263) CoTW CCW

Acropora verweyi cf. Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288263). CoTW CCW Reported – Mundy 1996. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Acropora verweyi Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288263). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by C Wallace). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Genus Alveopora Blainville, 1830

Alveopora allingi Hoffmeister, 1925 (207192) CoTW

Alveopora allingi Hoffmeister, 1925 (207192). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Corals NPAS 2016; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 31, 35 m depth (Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983). Notes – American Sāmoa is the type locality of this species.

Alveopora tizardi Bassett-Smith, 1890 (207195) CoTW

Alveopora tizardi Bassett-Smith, 1890 (207195). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

Alveopora tizardi cf. Bassett-Smith, 1890 (207195). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Vanuatu. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species has skeletal features very similar to A. excelsa, but is nodular instead of horizontal branches.

Alveopora verrilliana Dana, 1846 (207201) CoTW

Alveopora verriliana Dana, 1846 (207201) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Alveopora verrilliana Dana, 1846 (207201). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Kenyon et al. 2010; BPBM 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Alveopora viridis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833 (207203) CoTW

Alveopora virdis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833 (207203) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Alveopora viridis Quoy & Gaimard, 1833 (207203). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Caroline Islands, Micronesia. Geographical range extension – Southeast. VulnerabilityNT.

Genus Astreopora Blainville, 1830

Astreopora cucullata Lamberts, 1980 (287943) CoTW

Astreopora cuccullata Lamberts, 1980 (287943) [sic]. Reported – BPBM 2018.

Astreopora cucullata Lamberts, 1980 (287943). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – American Sāmoa is the type locality of this species.

Astreopora gracilis Bernard, 1896 (207124) CoTW

Astreopora gracilis Bernard, 1896 (207124). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Astreopora gracilis cf. Bernard, 1896 (207124). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Astreopora gracillis Bernard, 1896 (207124) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Astreopora listeri Bernard, 1896 (207125) CoTW

Astreopora listera Bernard, 1896 (207125) [sic]. Reported – Corals NPAS 2016.

Astreopora listeri Bernard, 1896 (207125). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 53 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Astreopora myriophthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207128) CoTW

Astrcopora myriopthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207128) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Astreopora eliptica Yabe & Sugiyama, 1941 (430659) heterotypic synonym. Reported – DMWR 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Astreopora elliptica Yabe & Sugiyama, 1941 (430659) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Astreopora microphthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207128) [sic]. Reported – Fenner et al. 2008.

Astreopora myriophthalma /listeri (Lamarck, 1816) (207128). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Astreopora myriophthalma /suggesta (Lamarck, 1816) (207128). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Astreopora myriophthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207128). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Astreopora myriopthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207128) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993; Green and Hunter 1998.

Astreopora profunda Verrill, 1872 (207126) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, South Bank, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Astreopora randalli Lamberts, 1980 (207127) CoTW

Astreopora randalli Lamberts, 1980 (207127). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Coles et al. 2003; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 42 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Astreopora scabra Lamberts, 1982 (430660) CoTW

Astreopora scabra Lamberts, 1982 (430660). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityLC.

Astreopora suggesta Wells, 1954 (287948) CoTW

Astreopora suggesta Wells, 1954 (287948). CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Genus Isopora Studer, 1879

Isopora brueggemanni (Brook, 1893) (730688) CoTW CCW

Acropora brueggemanni (Brook, 1893) (207067) homotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Birkeland 2007a. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora bruggemanni (Brook, 1893) (207067) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Acropora bruggemanni cf. (Brook, 1893) (207067) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Isopora brueggemanni (Brook, 1893) (730688). CoTW CCW Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – Live colonies are fairly distinctive.

Isopora crateriformis (Gardiner, 1898) (730691) CoTW CCW

Acropora carterformis (Gardiner, 1898) (288193) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Acropora carteriformis (Gardiner, 1898) (288193) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Acropora craterformis (Gardiner, 1898) (288193) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora crateriformis (Gardiner, 1898) (288193) homotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Bare et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Isopora crateriformis (Gardiner, 1898) (730691). CoTW CCW Reported – CRED 2011; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018; Paulay and Brown 2019. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Vulnerability – 𝒯, VU. NotesWallace (1999) and Veron (2000) note that the only difference between this species and Isopora cuneata (Dana, 1846) is colony shape. Isopora crateriformis is encrusting while I. cuneata is cuneate to branching. Fenner has found only the encrusting/plate shape of I. crateriformis in American Sāmoa. Isopora crateriformis is abundant to dominant in shallow reef slopes on southwest Tutuila.

Isopora palifera (Lamarck, 1816) (730686) CoTW CCW

Acropora paiifera (Lamarck, 1816) (207037) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Acropora palifera (Lamarck, 1816) (207037) homotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Isopora palifera (Lamarck, 1816) (730686). CoTW CCW Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; QM 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Genus Montipora Blainville, 1830

Montipora aequituberculata Bernard, 1897 (207144) CoTW

Montipora aequituberculata ? Bernard, 1897 (207144). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Montipora aequituberculata Bernard, 1897 (207144). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Montipora aquituberculata Bernard, 1897 (207144) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Montipora composita Crossland, 1952 (759845) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Montgomery and D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 34 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Montipora berryi Hoffmeister, 1925 (869368)

Montipora berryi Hoffmeister, 1925 (869368). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. NotesVeron et al. (2019) consider this a possible synonym of Montipora informis Bernard, 1897.

Montipora caliculata (Dana, 1846) (287696) CoTW

Montipora caliculata /foveolata (Dana, 1846) (287696). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Montipora caliculata (Dana, 1846) (287696). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Montipora capitata (Dana, 1846) (287697) CoTW

Montipora capitata (Dana, 1846) (287697). CoTW Reported – Corals NPAS 2016; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Montgomery and D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji and Kiribati, south-east Line Islands. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – While its presence is supported by a sample, more analysis should be done by a comparison with samples from Hawaii. Also, see note for Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck, 1816).

Montipora efflorescens Bernard, 1897 (207163) CoTW

Montipora efflorescens ? Bernard, 1897 (207163). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Montipora efflorescens Bernard, 1897 (207163). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Montipora trabeculata Bernard, 1897 (759819) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – This species is difficult to identify.

Montipora ehrenbergi Verrill, 1872 (207155)

Montipora ehrenbergi Verrill, 1872 (207155). Reported – USACE 1980.

Montipora ehrenbergii Verrill, 1872 (207155) [sic]. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Green et al. 1997; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. NotesVeron et al. (2019) believe this species is a probable synonym of Montipora hispida (Dana, 1846).

Montipora foliosa (Pallas, 1766) (207182) CoTW

Montipora acutata Bernard, 1897 (759840) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Montipora foliosa (Pallas, 1766) (207182). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Montipora pulcherrima Bernard, 1897 (759835) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Montipora pulcherrima cf. Bernard, 1897 (759835) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Montipora scutata Bernard, 1897 (759840) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (synonym Montipora acutata identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Montipora foveolata (Dana, 1846) (207133) CoTW

Montipora foveolata (Dana, 1846) (207133). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Montipora foveolata cf. (Dana, 1846) (207133). CoTW Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Montipora socialis Bernard, 1897 (207173) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

Montipora socislis Bernard, 1897 (207173) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Montipora grisea Bernard, 1897 (287709) CoTW

Montipora grisea Bernard, 1897 (287709). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Mundy and Green 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 53 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Montipora incrassata (Dana, 1846) (287714) CoTW

Montipora incrassata (Dana, 1846) (287714). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Fenner 2018.

Montipora incrassita cf. (Dana, 1846) (287714) [sic]. Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Manuʻa Islands, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 33 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Montipora informis Bernard, 1897 (207186) CoTW

Montipora informis Bernard, 1897 (207186). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Montipora informis cf. Bernard, 1897 (207186). CoTW Reported – Hunter et al. 1993; DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora marshallensis Wells, 1954 (1263761)

Montipora marshallensis Wells, 1954 (1263761). Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. NotesVeron et al. (2019) believe this name is probably synonymous with Montipora crassituberculata Bernard, 1897. It has otherwise not been reported from American SāmoA Lamberts (1983) reported this species to be rare and Birkeland et al. (1987) reported this species from a single site in 1979.

Montipora spumosa (Lamarck, 1816) (207138) CoTW

Montipora spumosa (Lamarck, 1816) (207138). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora tuberculosa (Lamarck, 1816) (207156) CoTW

Montipora tuberculosa (Lamarck, 1816) (207156). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – The photograph of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) is too blurry for identification, and seems unlikely to be correct.

Montipora turgescens Bernard, 1897 (207142) CoTW

Montipora turgescens ? Bernard, 1897 (207142). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Montipora turgescens Bernard, 1897 (207142). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Mundy and Green 1999; Craig et al. 2001; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora turtlensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (287731) CoTW

Montipora turtlensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (287731). CoTW Reported – Work and Rameyer 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Montipora vaughani Hoffmeister, 1925 (430668)

Montipora vaughani Hoffmeister, 1925 (430668). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. VulnerabilityDD. Notes – This species is easily identified but has one difference with M. foveolata, i.e., rows of corallites that are closer together within rows and farther apart between rows. However, some colonies have areas like this and other areas like M. foveolata. Veron et al. (2019) believe this species is probable synonym of M. foveolata.

Montipora venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207139) CoTW

Montipor venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207139) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Montipora venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207139). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Montipora verrilli Vaughan, 1907 (207136) CoTW

Montipora verilli Vaughan, 1907 (207136) [sic]. Reported – CRED 2011. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Montipora verrilli auaensis Vaughan, 1907 (207136). Reported – NMNH 2018.

Montipora verrilli var. auaensis Hoffmeister, 1925 (1262050). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925.

Montipora verrilli cf. Vaughan, 1907 (207136). CoTW Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Montipora verrilli Vaughan, 1907 (207136). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Green et al. 1997; Coles et al. 2003; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

Montipora verrillii Vaughan, 1907 (207136) [sic]. Reported – Corals NPAS 2016.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityDD. Notes – There appears to be no reliable way to distinguish this species from Montipora patula Verrill, 1870 in spite of claims (Fenner 2005). More analysis of this species and M. patula is needed to determine which species is valid. The latter has not been reported from American Sāmoa.

Family Agariciidae Gray, 1847
Genus Gardineroseris Scheer & Pillai, 1974

Gardineroseris planulata (Dana, 1846) (207274) CoTW

Gardineroseris plantuata (Dana, 1846) (207274) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Gardineroseris planulata (Dana, 1846) (207274). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Gardineroseris ponderosa (Gardiner, 1905) (766561) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Gardinoseris planulata (Dana, 1846) (207274) [sic]. Reported – Green and Hunter 1998; Fenner et al. 2008.

Pavona planulata cf. (Dana, 1846) (1263640) homotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Genus Leptoseris Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849

Leptoseris explanata Yabe & Sugiyama, 1941 (207289) CoTW

Leptoseris explanata Yabe & Sugiyama, 1941 (207289). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Leptoseris foliosa Dinesen, 1980 (207286) CoTW

Leptoseris foliosa ? Dinesen, 1980 (207286). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Leptoseris foliosa Dinesen, 1980 (207286). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996; Kenyon et al. 2010; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Leptoseris gardineri (van der Horst, 1922) (207284) CoTW

Leptoseris gardineri (van der Horst, 1922) (207284). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Leptoseris gardineri cf. (van der Horst, 1922) (207284). CoTW Reported – NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 49, 50 m depth (Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983).

Leptoseris incrustans (Quelch, 1886) (207279) CoTW

Leptoseris incrustans (Quelch, 1886) (207279). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Leptoseris mycetoseroides Wells, 1954 (207283) CoTW

Leptoseris mycetoceroides Wells, 1954 (207283) [sic]. Reported – Green and Hunter 1998.

Leptoseris mycetoseroides cf. Wells, 1954 (207283). CoTW Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Leptoseris mycetoseroides Wells, 1954 (207283). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Leptoseris scabra Vaughan, 1907 (207282) CoTW

Leptoseris scabra ? Vaughan, 1907 (207282). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Leptoseris scabra cf. Vaughan, 1907 (207282). CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

Leptoseris scabra Vaughan, 1907 (207282). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30, 52 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019).

Leptoseris solida (Quelch, 1886) (207290) CoTW

Leptoseris solida (Quelch, 1886) (207290). CoTW Reported – NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Luck). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji and Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions. VulnerabilityLC.

Leptoseris tubulifera Vaughan, 1907 (207288) CoTW

Leptoseris tubulifera Vaughan, 1907 (207288). CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Montgomery). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 52 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Leptoseris yabei (Pillai & Scheer, 1976) (207287) CoTW

Leptoseris yabei (Pillai & Scheer, 1976) (207287). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Genus Pavona Lamarck, 1801

Pavona bipartita Nemenzo, 1979 (289199) CoTW

Pavona bipartita Nemenzo, 1979 (289199). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Pavona chiriquiensis Glynn, Maté & Stemann, 2001 (289200) CoTW

Pavona chiriquensis Glynn, Maté & Stemann, 2001 (289200) [sic]. Reported – Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018.

Pavona chiriquiensis Glynn, Maté & Stemann, 2001 (289200). CoTW Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – See note on Pavona varians Verrill, 1864.

Pavona clavus (Dana, 1846) (207318) CoTW

Pavona clavus (Dana, 1846) (207318). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Pavona lilacaea (Klunzinger, 1879) (207297) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This is a distinctive species but corallites are near identical to P. bipartita.

Pavona decussata (Dana, 1846) (207320) CoTW

Pavona decussata (Dana, 1846) (207320). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Pavona decussata ? (Dana, 1846) (207320). CoTW Reported – NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Pavona divaricata (Lamarck, 1816) (207311)

Pavona divaricata (Lamarck, 1816) (207311). Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Sāmoa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. Notes – The coral in the photograph of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrectly identified and should be Pavona frondifera (Lamarck, 1816). Veron et al. (2019) consider Pavonia divaricata Lamarck, 1816 as a synonym of P. frondifera.

Pavona duerdeni Vaughan, 1907 (207315) CoTW

Pavona duerdeni Vaughan, 1907 (207315). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Pavona explanulata (Lamarck, 1816) (207306) CoTW

Pavona explanata (Lamarck, 1816) (207306) [sic]. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Pavona explanulata (Lamarck, 1816) (207306). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Pavona explanulata cf. (Lamarck, 1816) (207306). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Pavona frondifera (Lamarck, 1816) (207307) CoTW

Pavona frondifera (Lamarck, 1816) (207307). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Pavona gigantea Verrill, 1869 (289201) CoTW

Pavona gigantea cf. Verrill, 1869 (289201). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Pavona gigantea Verrill, 1869 (289201). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Marshall Islands and Galapagos Islands. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions, significant geographical range extension. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Pavona maldivensis (Gardiner, 1905) (207309) CoTW

Pavona maldivensis (Gardiner, 1905) (207309). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Pavona pollicata Wells, 1954 (207299) heterotypic synonym. Reported – BPBM 2018; NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Pavona minuta Wells, 1954 (207317) CoTW

Pavona minuta Wells, 1954 (207317). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Pavona varians Verrill, 1864 (207303) CoTW

Pavona varians aff. Verrill, 1864 (207303). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Pavona varians cf. Verrill, 1864 (207303). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994.

Pavona varians Verrill, 1864 (207303). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30, 53 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – Some earlier identifications prior to and shortly after 2001 of this species likely concern P. chiriquiensis because its name was not available or not well known since 2001. However, some reported observations of Pavona spp. included potential variations of P. varians (Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003).

Pavona venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207301) CoTW

Pavona venosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207301). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – The identification of a photographed specimen of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrect and should be Coscinaraea columna (Dana, 1846).

Family Astrocoeniidae Koby, 1890
Genus Stylocoeniella Yabe & Sugiyama, 1935

Stylocoeniella armata (Ehrenberg, 1834) (206950) CoTW

Stylocoenia armata (Ehrenberg, 1834) (206950) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Stylocoeniella aramta (Ehrenberg, 1834) (206950) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Stylocoeniella armata (Ehrenberg, 1834) (206950). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Stylocoeniella guentheri (Bassett-Smith, 1890) (206948) CoTW

Stylocoenia guntheri (Bassett-Smith, 1890) (206948) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Stylocoeniella guentheri (Bassett-Smith, 1890) (206948). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Family Coscinaraeidae Benzoni, Arrigoni, Stefani & Stolarski, 2012
Genus Coscinaraea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Coscinaraea columna (Dana, 1846) (207256) CoTW

Coscinaraea collumna (Dana, 1846) (207256) [sic]. Reported – Craig et al. 2001; Fenner et al. 2008; DMWR 2018.

Coscinaraea column (Dana, 1846) (207256) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Coscinaraea columna (Dana, 1846) (207256). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Coscinarea columna (Dana, 1846) (207256) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1995; Fenner et al. 2008.

Coscinerea columna (Dana, 1846) (207256) [sic]. Reported – Mayor 1924b; Coles et al. 2003. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Coscinaraea exesa (Dana, 1846) (287938) CoTW

Coscinaraea exesa (Dana, 1846) (287938). CoTW Reported – Green and Hunter 1998; Kenyon et al. 2010; Fenner 2018.

Coscinarea exesa (Dana, 1846) (287938) [sic]. Reported – CRED 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Family Dendrophylliidae Gray, 1847
Genus Endopsammia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Endopsammia regularis (Gardiner, 1899) (289894)

Endopsammia regularis (Gardiner, 1899) (289894). Reported – DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. Notes – This species was collected by D Fenner and identified by S Cairns at the NMNH. Based on the evidence of a collected sample, we accept the presence of this species in American Sāmoa.

Genus Tubastraea Lesson, 1829

Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 (291251)

Tubastraea aurea (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) (367759) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b.

Tubastraea coccinea Lesson, 1829 (291251). Reported – DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Tubastrea coccinea Lesson, 1829 (291251) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. Mesophotic record – 45 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Tubastraea diaphana (Dana, 1846) (291252)

Dendrophyllia diaphana Dana, 1846 (210747) homotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983.

Tubastraea diaphana (Dana, 1846) (291252). Reported – NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available.

Genus Turbinaria Oken, 1815

Turbinaria frondens (Dana, 1846) (207506) CoTW

Turbinarea frondens ? (Dana, 1846) (207506) [sic]. Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Turbinaria frondens (Dana, 1846) (207506). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Turbinaria frondens cf. (Dana, 1846) (207506). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Turbinaria irregularis Bernard, 1896 (207505) CoTW

Turbinaria irregularis Bernard, 1896 (207505). CoTW Reported – This paper (Figure 2d).

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species is presented here as a new record (Figure 2d).

Turbinaria mesenterina (Lamarck, 1816) (207511) CoTW

Turbinaria mesenterina (Lamarck, 1816) (207511). CoTW Reported – Green and Hunter 1998; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Turbinaria peltata (Esper, 1794) (207512) CoTW

Turbinaria peltata (Esper, 1794) (207512). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, South Bank, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 30, 49 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019).

Turbinaria reniformis Bernard, 1896 (207507) CoTW

Turbinarea reniformis Bernard, 1896 (207507) [sic]. Reported – Coles et al. 2003. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Turbinaria reniformis Bernard, 1896 (207507). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Turbinaria veluta Bernard, 1896 (767034) possible heterotypic synonym. Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner and J Wolstenholme). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Turbinaria stellulata (Lamarck, 1816) (207510) CoTW

Turbinaria stellulata (Lamarck, 1816) (207510). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Green and Hunter 1998; DiDonato et al. 2006; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 51 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Family Diploastreidae Chevalier & Beauvais, 1987
Genus Diploastrea Matthai, 1914

Diploastrea heliopora (Lamarck, 1816) (207417) CoTW

Diploastrea heliopora (Lamarck, 1816) (207417). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Cornish and DiDonato 2004; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Gross 2019; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 43 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – This species is relatively easy to identify.

Family Euphylliidae Alloiteau, 1952
Genus Euphyllia Dana, 1846

Euphyllia glabrescens (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) (207617) CoTW

Euphyllia glabrescens (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821) (207617). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – Identification of this species requires both skeleton shape and tentacle shape.

Genus Fimbriaphyllia Veron & Pichon, 1980

Fimbriaphyllia paradivisa (Veron, 1990) (1048080)

Euphyllia paradivisa Veron, 1990 (207615) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Vulnerability – 𝒯. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – The identification of this species is well documented by photographic evidence and is a conclusive identification. Identification of this species requires both skeleton shape and tentacle shape.

Genus Galaxea Oken, 1815

Galaxea astreata (Lamarck, 1816) (207368) CoTW

Galaxea astreata (Lamarck, 1816) (207368). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Galaxea clavus Dana, 1846 (207367) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767) (207366) CoTW

Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767) (207366). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Creuwels 2019; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Galaxee fascicularia (Linnaeus, 1767) (207366) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Galaxia fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767) (207366) [sic]. Reported – Mayor 1924a.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Family Fungiidae Dana, 1846
Genus Ctenactis Verrill, 1864

Ctenactis crassa (Dana, 1846) (288875) CoTW

Ctenactis crassa (Dana, 1846) (288875). CoTW Reported – Bare et al. 2010; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Herpetoglosa simplex (Gardiner, 1905) (211417) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Herpetoqlosa simplex (Gardiner, 1905) (211417) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Ctenactis echinata (Pallas, 1766) (216132) CoTW

Ctenactis echinata (Pallas, 1766) (216132). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Bare et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Fungia echinata (Pallas, 1766) (367892) homotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Genus Cycloseris Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849

Cycloseris costulata (Ortmann, 1889) (207325) CoTW

Cycloseris costulata (Ortmann, 1889) (207325). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 35 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Cycloseris fragilis (Alcock, 1893) (716448)

Cycloseris fragilis (Alcock, 1893) (716448). Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010.

Cycloseris patelliformis (Boschma, 1923) (207329) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Fungia fragilis (Alcock, 1893) (207333) homotypic synonym. Reported – Hoeksema 1989; NMNH 2018.

Fungia patelliformis Boschma, 1923 (716681) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924a; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 33, 30 m depth (Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983). NotesVeron et al. (2019) name this species Diaseris fragilis Alcock, 1893.

Cycloseris tenuis (Dana, 1846) (207324) CoTW

Cycloseris tenuis (Dana, 1846) (207324). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji and Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion.

Cycloseris vaughani (Boschma, 1923) (207327) CoTW

Cycloseris vaughani (Boschma, 1923) (207327). CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

Cycloseris vaughani cf. (Boschma, 1923) (207327). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 47 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – Other mesophotic records are known from eastern Indonesia, eastern Australia and Easter Island (Hoeksema 2012c; Muir et al. 2018; Hoeksema et al. 2019).

Genus Danafungia Wells, 1966

Danafungia horrida (Dana, 1846) (716608)

Fungia danae Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (716867) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016.

Fungia danai Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207343) heterotypic synonym, wrong species spelling. CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Mundy 1996; Coles et al. 2003. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Fungia horrida Dana, 1846 (207355) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Fungia klunzingeri cf. Döderlein, 1901 (207354) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Fungia klunzingeri Döderlein, 1901 (207354) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fenner et al. 2008; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Fungia valida Verrill, 1864 (207358) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Maragos et al. 1994.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (synonym Fungia klunzingeri identified by D Fenner), Multiple photographic records. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 39 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Danafungia scruposa (Klunzinger, 1879) (716609)

Fungia scruposa Klunzinger, 1879 (207340) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Genus Fungia Lamarck, 1801

Fungia fungites (Linnaeus, 1758) (207350) CoTW

Fungia fungites (Linnaeus, 1758) (207350). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hoeksema 1989; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Genus Halomitra Dana, 1846

Halomitra pileus (Linnaeus, 1758) (207361) CoTW

Halomitra pileus (Linnaeus, 1758) (207361). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Genus Herpolitha Eschscholtz, 1825

Herpolitha limax (Esper, 1797) (207363) CoTW

Herpolitha limax (Esper, 1797) (207363). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Herpolitha weberi cf. (van der Horst, 1921) (411207) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30, 47 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019). NotesVeron et al. (2019) report this species is distinguishable from H. weberi only when they co-occur, although they were synonymized by Hoeksema (1989) who considered the two dredged fragmented type specimens of H. weberi to represent a deep-water ecomorph of H. limax. It is possible that the specimens identified by Veron (2000) are thick, juvenile specimens and therefore do not show the character of full-grown corals while the types are very thin and from deeper (maybe silty) substrates (B Hoeksema pers. comm.). More work should be done on these two species.

Genus Lithophyllon Rehberg, 1892

Lithophyllon concinna (Verrill, 1864) (716645)

Fungia concinna Verrill, 1864 (207353) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Fungia conncina Verrill, 1864 (207353) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Fenner et al. 2008.

Lithophyllon concinna (Verrill, 1864) (716645). Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Lithophyllon repanda (Dana, 1846) (716653)

Fungia repanda Dana, 1846 (207359) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hoeksema 1989; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Genus Lobactis Verrill, 1864

Lobactis scutaria (Lamarck, 1801) (716542)

Fungia scutaria Lamarck, 1801 (207341) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hoeksema 1989; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Fungis scutaria Lamarck, 1801 (207341) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Lobactis scutaria (Lamarck, 1801) (716542). Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 39 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – This species is relatively easy to identify.

Genus Pleuractis Verrill, 1864

Pleuractis granulosa (Klunzinger, 1879) (716549)

Fungia gransulosa Klunzinger, 1879 (207348) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Fungia granulosa Klunzinger, 1879 (207348) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Pleuractis granulosa (Klunzinger, 1879) (716549). Reported – Creuwels 2019; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 30, 44 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019).

Pleuractis gravis (Nemenzo, 1955) (716550)

Fungia gravis Nemenzo, 1955 (288853) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji and Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion.

Pleuractis moluccensis (Van der Horst, 1919) (716545)

Fungia molluccensis Van der Horst, 1919 (207337) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Fungia moloccensis Van der Horst, 1919 (207337) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Fungia moluccensis Van der Horst, 1919 (207337) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Hoeksema 1989; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018.

Pleuractis moluccensis (Van der Horst, 1919) (716545). Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – Manuʻa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 48 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Pleuractis paumotensis (Stutchbury, 1833) (716547)

Fungia paumotensis Stutchbury, 1833 (207339) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Genus Polyphyllia Blainville, 1830

Polyphyllia novaehiberniae (Lesson, 1831) (289231) CoTW

Lithactinia novaehiberniae Lesson, 1831 (717282) homotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Polyphyllia novae-hiberniae (Lesson, 1831) (289231) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Polyphyllia novaehibernae (Lesson, 1831) (289231) [sic]. Reported – Fenner 2018.

Polyphyllia novaehiberniae (Lesson, 1831) (289231). CoTW Reported – NMNH 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Polyphyllia novohibernae (Lesson, 1831) (289231) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Genus Sandalolitha Quelch, 1884

Sandalolitha dentata Quelch, 1884 (291009) CoTW

Sandalolitha dentata Quelch, 1884 (291009). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

Sandalothia dentata Quelch, 1884 (291009) [sic]. Reported – Bare et al. 2010.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 47 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Sandalolitha robusta (Quelch, 1886) (291010) CoTW

Sandalolitha robusta (Quelch, 1886) (291010). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Sandolitha robusta (Quelch, 1886) (291010) [sic]. Reported – Coles et al. 2003. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by J Wolstenholme). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, South Bank, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 39 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Family Lobophylliidae Dai & Horng, 2009
Genus Acanthastrea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Acanthastrea brevis Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (430639) CoTW

Acanthastrea brevis cf. Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (430639). CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

Acanthastrea brevis Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (430639). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Acanthastrea echinata (Dana, 1846) (207384) CoTW

Acanthastrea echinata (Dana, 1846) (207384). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 39 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Acanthastrea hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1834) (288878) CoTW

Acanthastrea hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1834) (288878). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – This species is documented by clear photographic evidence (Fenner 2018) to support the record of its presence in American Sāmoa.

Acanthastrea subechinata Veron, 2000 (288885) CoTW

Acanthastrea subechinata Veron, 2000 (288885). CoTW Reported – This paper (Figure 2a).

Figure 2. 

New scleractinian records for American Sāmoa. a Acanthastrea subechinata Veron, 2000 b Favites paraflexuosus Veron, 2000 c Echinophyllia echinoporoides Veron & Pichon, 1980 d Turbinaria irregularis Bernard, 1896. Photographs by D Fenner.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Ofu, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – This species is presented here as a new record (Figure 2a).

Genus Echinomorpha Veron, 2000

Echinomorpha nishihirai (Veron, 1990) (289877) CoTW

Echinomorpha nishihirai (Veron, 1990) (289877). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Genus Echinophyllia Klunzinger, 1879

Echinophyllia aspera (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207370) CoTW

Echinophyllia aspera (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207370). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Echinopora aspera (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (766286) homotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30, 40 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019).

Echinophyllia echinoporoides Veron & Pichon, 1980 (287973) CoTW

Echinophyllia echinoporoides Veron & Pichon, 1980 (287973). CoTW Reported – This paper (Figure 2c).

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species is presented here as a new record (Figure 2c).

Genus Lobophyllia de Blainville, 1830

Lobophyllia agaricia (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (888135)

Symphyllia agaricia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (288082) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Lobophyllia corymbosa (Forskål, 1775) (207391) CoTW

Lobophyllia corymbosa (Forskål, 1775) (207391). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Lobophyllia costata (Dana, 1846) (207393)

Lobophyllia costata (Dana, 1846) (207393). Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. NotesLamberts (1983) reported this species as common. Veron et al. (2019) report this species as a synonym of Lobophyllia hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1834).

Lobophyllia hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207392) CoTW

Lobophyllia hemprichi (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207392) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993; Green and Hunter 1998.

Lobophyllia hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207392). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Mundy and Green 1999; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identifier unknown). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 48 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Lobophyllia ishigakiensis (Veron, 1990) (888146)

Acanthastrea ishigakiensis Veron, 1990 (288879) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Lobophyllia recta (Dana, 1846) (888140)

Symphillia recta (Dana, 1846) (207399) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – CRED 2011.

Symphyllia nobilis (Dana, 1846) (207396) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; NMNH 2018.

Symphyllia recta (Dana, 1846) (207399) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Genus Oxypora Saville-Kent, 1871

Oxypora crassispinosa Nemenzo, 1979 (288351) CoTW

Oxypora crassispinosa Nemenzo, 1979 (288351). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 47 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – This species sensu Veron (2000) appears to be different, suggesting the original description and type need to be examined.

Oxypora lacera (Verrill, 1864) (207374) CoTW

Oxypora lacera (Verrill, 1864) (207374). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Mundy and Green 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 43 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Family Merulinidae Verrill, 1865
Genus Astrea Lamarck, 1801

Astrea annuligera Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (762420) CoTW

Astrea annuligera Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (762420). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018.

Montastraea annuligera (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (207484) homotypic synonym. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

Montastrea annuligera (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (764065) homotypic synonym, wrong genus spelling. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Mundy 1996; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Astrea curta Dana, 1846 (762421) CoTW

Astrea curta Dana, 1846 (762421). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

Montastraea curta (Dana, 1846) (207481) homotypic synonym. Reported – Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

Montastrea curta (Dana, 1846) (764064) homotypic synonym, wrong genus spelling. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Orbicella curta Dana, 1846 (766045) homotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 42 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Genus Caulastraea Dana, 1846

Caulastraea furcata Dana, 1846 (289577)

Caulastrea furcata Dana, 1846 (207412) wrong genus spelling. CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Caulastrea furreata Dana, 1846 (207412) [sic] wrong genus spelling. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by J Wolstenholme). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Genus Coelastrea Verrill, 1866

Coelastrea palauensis (Yabe & Sugiyama, 1936) (762428)

Goniastrea palauenis (Yabe & Sugiyama, 1936) (207458) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Green and Hunter 1998.

Goniastrea palauensis (Yabe & Sugiyama, 1936) (207458) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – New Caledonia. Geographical range extension – East. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Genus Cyphastrea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Cyphastrea chalcidicum (Forskål, 1775) (207415) CoTW

Cyphastrea chalcidicum (Forskål, 1775) (207415). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Cyphastrea chalcidium (Forskål, 1775) (207415) [sic]. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Cyphastrea chalcidium ? (Forskål, 1775) (207415) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Cyphastrea microphthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207416) CoTW

Cyphastrea gardineri cf. Matthai, 1914 (766209) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Cyphastrea microphthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207416). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Cyphastrea micropthalma (Lamarck, 1816) (207416) [sic]. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Cyphastrea micropthalma cf. (Lamarck, 1816) (207416) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 33, 35 m depth (Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983).

Genus Dipsastraea Blainville, 1830

Dipsastraea favus (Forskål, 1775) (718748)

Dipsastraea favus (Forskål, 1775) (718748). Reported – NMNH 2018.

Favia favulus (Forskål, 1775) (207435) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Favia favus (Forskål, 1775) (207435) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by S Cairns). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Dipsastraea laxa (Klunzinger, 1879) (758235)

Dipsastraea laxa (Klunzinger, 1879) (758235). Reported – Gross 2019.

Favia laxa (Klunzinger, 1879) (207430) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Dipsastraea matthaii (Vaughan, 1918) (758240)

Dipsastraea matthaii (Vaughan, 1918) (758240). Reported – NMNH 2018; Gross 2019.

Favia matthai ? Vaughan, 1918 (207437) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Favia matthai Vaughan, 1918 (207437) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Green and Hunter 1998; Corals NPAS 2016.

Favia matthaii Vaughan, 1918 (207437) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Dipsastraea pallida (Dana, 1846) (758233)

Dipsastraea pallida (Dana, 1846) (758233). Reported – NMNH 2018; Gross 2019.

Favia pallida (Dana, 1846) (207440) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Dipsastraea rotumana (Gardiner, 1899) (758237)

Dipsastraea rotumana (Gardiner, 1899) (758237). Reported – NMNH 2018; Gross 2019.

Favia rotumana (Gardiner, 1899) (207438) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Favites rotumana (Gardiner, 1899) (207438) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Dipsastraea speciosa (Dana, 1846) (758219)

Dipsastraea speciosa (Dana, 1846) (758219). Reported – NMNH 2018.

Favia speciosa (Dana, 1846) (207425) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Dipsastraea truncata (Veron, 2000) (758228)

Favia truncatus Veron, 2000 (288076) homotypic synonym, wrong species spelling. CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Ofu/Olosega. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion.

Genus Echinopora Lamarck, 1816

Echinopora gemmacea (Lamarck, 1816) (207418) CoTW

Echinopora gemmacea (Lamarck, 1816) (207418). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Paulay and Brown 2019. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Echinopora gemmacea ? (Lamarck, 1816) (207418). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – The photographed specimen in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to belong to Echinopora hirsutissima Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849.

Echinopora hirsutissima Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (207420) CoTW

Echinopora hirsutissima ? Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (207420). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Echinopora hirsutissima Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (207420). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner and J Wolstenholme). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Echinopora lamellosa (Esper, 1795) (207421) CoTW

Echinopora lamellosa (Esper, 1795) (207421). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Echinopra lamellosa (Esper, 1795) (207421) [sic]. Reported – CRED 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Favites abdita (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207449) CoTW

Favites abdita (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207449). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Gross 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Favites chinensis (Verrill, 1866) (207451) CoTW

Favites chinensis (Verrill, 1866) (207451). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Favites chinesis (Verrill, 1866) (207451) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland 2007a. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Favites flexuosa (Dana, 1846) (207444) CoTW

Favites flexuosa (Dana, 1846) (207444). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Favites halicora (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207447) CoTW

Favia halicora (Ehrenberg, 1834) (765790) homotypic synonym. Reported – Green and Hunter 1998.

Favites halicora (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207447). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; NMNH 2018; Gross 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Favites halicora cf. (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207447). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Favites paraflexuosus Veron, 2000 (288822)

Favites paraflexuosus Veron, 2000 (288822). Reported – This paper (Figure 2b).

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Ofu, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Geographical range extension – East. Notes – This species is presented here as a new record (Figure 2b). Veron et al. (2019) recognize the spelling of this species as Favites paraflexuosa Veron, 2000 even though the spelling was corrected in ICZN (2011).

Favites pentagona (Esper, 1795) (207446) CoTW

Favites pentagona (Esper, 1795) (207446). CoTW Reported – Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b.

Favites pentagonia (Esper, 1795) (207446) [sic]. Reported – CRED 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Genus Goniastrea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Goniastrea edwardsi Chevalier, 1971 (207466) CoTW

Goniastrea edwardsi Chevalier, 1971 (207466). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Goniastrea edwardsii Chevalier, 1971 (207466) [sic]. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Goniastrea favulus (Dana, 1846) (288026) CoTW

Goniastrea favulus (Dana, 1846) (288026). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; Gross 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Goniastrea favulus ? (Dana, 1846) (288026). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Goniastrea favulus cf. (Dana, 1846) (288026). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – The photographed specimen of this species in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrectly identified and should be Goniastrea pectinata (Ehrenberg, 1834).

Goniastrea minuta Veron, 2000 (288027) CoTW

Goniastrea minuta ? Veron, 2000 (288027). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Goniastrea minuta Veron, 2000 (288027). CoTW Reported – DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – New Caledonia. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityNT.

Goniastrea pectinata (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207464) CoTW

Goniastrea pectinata /retiformis (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207464). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Goniastrea pectinata (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207464). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Goninstrea pectinata (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207464) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – The photographed specimen of this species in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrectly identified and should be Goniastrea retiformis (Lamarck, 1816).

Goniastrea retiformis (Lamarck, 1816) (207461) CoTW

Goniastrea retifirmis (Lamarck, 1816) (207461) [sic]. Reported – Mundy 1996.

Goniastrea retifonnis (Lamarck, 1816) (207461) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Goniastrea retiformis (Lamarck, 1816) (207461). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Cornish and DiDonato 2004; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Goniastrea retortiformis (Lamarck, 1816) (207461) [sic]. Reported – NMNH 2018.

Goniostrea retiformis (Lamarck, 1816) (207461) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – The photographed specimen of this species in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrectly identified and is likely a Porites sp.

Goniastrea stelligera (Dana, 1846) (763067)

Favia stelliger (Dana, 1846) (207441) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Work and Rameyer 2002.

Favia stelligera (Dana, 1846) (207441) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Goniastrea stelligera (Dana, 1846) (763067). Reported – NMNH 2018; Gross 2019; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 43 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Genus Hydnophora Fischer von Waldheim, 1807

Hydnophora exesa (Pallas, 1766) (207403) CoTW

Hydnophora exaesa (Pallas, 1766) (207403) [sic]. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Hydnophora exesa (Pallas, 1766) (207403). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Hydrophora exesa (Pallas, 1766) (207403) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 30, 38 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019).

Hydnophora microconos (Lamarck, 1816) (207402) CoTW

Hydnophora microconnos (Lamarck, 1816) (207402) [sic]. Reported – CRED 2011.

Hydnophora microconos grade rigida (Lamarck, 1816) (207402). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925.

Hydnophora microconos (Lamarck, 1816) (207402). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924a; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997, 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Hydnophora microconus (Lamarck, 1816) (207402) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993; Green and Hunter 1998.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Hydnophora rigida (Dana, 1846) (207406) CoTW

Hydnophora rigida (Dana, 1846) (207406). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by J Wolstenholme). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – The photographed coral of this species in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrectly identified.

Genus Leptoria Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Leptoria phrygia (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207477) CoTW

Leptoria phrygia /gracilis (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207477). Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Leptoria phrygia grade gracilis cf. (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207477). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925.

Leptoria phrygia (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207477). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Leptoria phyrgia (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207477) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Leptoria phyrygia (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207477) [sic]. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Leptoria tenuis (Dana, 1846) (367855) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 30, 42 m depth (Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019).

Genus Merulina Ehrenberg, 1834

Merulina ampliata (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207407) CoTW

Merulina ampliata (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207407). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Mundy and Green 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Merulina vaughani Van der Horst, 1921 (758411) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Birkeland et al. 1987; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 42 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Merulina scabricula Dana, 1846 (289198) CoTW

Merulina scabicula Dana, 1846 (289198) [sic]. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

Merulina scabricula Dana, 1846 (289198). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 39 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – Some taxonomic disagreement exists for this genus as Huang et al. (2014) recognize Paraclavarina as a synonym of Merulina while Veron et al. (2019) do not.

Genus Mycedium Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851

Mycedium elephantotus (Pallas, 1766) (207373) CoTW

Mycedium elephantotum (Pallas, 1766) (207373) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Mycedium elephantotus (Pallas, 1766) (207373). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Mycedium robokaki Moll & Best, 1984 (287735) CoTW

Mycedium robokakai Moll & Best, 1984 (287735) [sic]. Reported – Fenner 2018.

Mycedium robokaki Moll & Best, 1984 (287735). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Manuʻa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityLC.

Genus Oulophyllia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Oulophyllia crispa (Lamarck, 1816) (207485) CoTW

Oulophyllia crispa /bennettae (Lamarck, 1816) (207485). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Oulophyllia crispa (Lamarck, 1816) (207485). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Genus Paragoniastrea Huang, Benzoni & Budd, 2014

Paragoniastrea russelli (Wells, 1954) (817179)

Favites russell (Wells, 1954) (207454) [sic] homotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Favites russelli (Wells, 1954) (207454) homotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Genus Platygyra Ehrenberg, 1834

Platygyra contorta Veron, 1990 (289205) CoTW

Platygyra contorta Veron, 1990 (289205). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Platygyra daedalea (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207489) CoTW

Meandra esperi (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (1262040) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983.

Platygyra dadaelea (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207489) [sic]. Reported – Fenner et al. 2008.

Platygyra daedala (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207489) [sic]. Reported – Work and Rameyer 2002.

Platygyra daedalea (esperi) (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207489). Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010.

Platygyra daedalea (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207489). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Platygyra daedallea (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207489) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Platygyra rustica (Dana, 1846) (411248) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Platygyrus daedalea (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (207489) [sic]. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Platygyrus rustica (Dana, 1846) (411248) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Platygyra lamellina (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207487) CoTW

Meandra lamellina Ehrenberg, 1834 (1262039) homotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925.

Platygyra lamellina (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207487). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Platygyra lamellina ? (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207487). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Platygyrus lamellina (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207487) [sic]. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Platygyra pini Chevalier, 1975 (207490) CoTW

Platygyia pini Chevalier, 1975 (207490) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Platygyra pini Chevalier, 1975 (207490). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Platygyra sinensis (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (207486) CoTW

Platygyra sinensis (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (207486). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – The photographed coral of this species in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be uncertain, but there are multiple other reports of this species.

Genus Scapophyllia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Scapophyllia cylindrica Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (291024) CoTW

Scapophyllia cylindrica Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849 (291024). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Family Plesiastreidae Dai & Horng, 2009
Genus Plesiastrea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Plesiastrea versipora (Lamarck, 1816) (207494) CoTW

Pleasiastrea versipora (Lamarck, 1816) (207494) [sic]. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

Plesiastrea veripora (Lamarck, 1816) (207494) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Plesiastrea versipora (Lamarck, 1816) (207494). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Olosega, Rose Atoll, South Bank, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 43 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Family Pocilloporidae Gray, 1840
Genus Pocillopora Lamarck, 1816

Pocillopora ankeli Scheer & Pillai, 1974 (430671) CoTW

Pocillopora ankeli Scheer & Pillai, 1974 (430671). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Geographical range extension – Southeast. VulnerabilityVU.

Pocillopora brevicornis Lamarck, 1816 (206951) CoTW

Pocillopora brevicornis Lamarck, 1816 (206951). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Kenyon et al. 2010; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997.

Pocillopora setcheli Hoffmeister, 1925 (206967) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Corals NPAS 2016.

Pocillopora setchelli cf. Hoffmeister, 1925 (206967) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Pocillopora setchelli Hoffmeister, 1925 (206967) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

Pocillopora setichelli Hoffmeister, 1925 (206967) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location (synonym Pocillopora setchelli). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) (206953) CoTW

Pocillipora damicornis var. cespitosa (Linnaeus, 1758) (206953) [sic]. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925.

Pocillopora damicomis (Linnaeus, 1758) (206953) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Pocillopora damicornis caespitosa Dana, 1846 (545628). Reported – Mayor 1924b; NMNH 2018.

Pocillopora damicornis var. bulbosa (Linnaeus, 1758) (206953). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925.

Pocillopora damicornis var. cespitosa Dana, 1846 (818848). Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) (206953). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924a; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Cornish and DiDonato 2004; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019; Paulay and Brown 2019. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 50 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – See note for P. acuta.

Pocillopora elegans Dana, 1846 (206956) CoTW

Pocillopora elegans ? Dana, 1846 (206956). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Pocillopora elegans Dana, 1846 (206956). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Coles et al. 2003; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Rose Atoll, Swains, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Pocillopora grandis Dana, 1846 (206952)

Pocillopora edouxi Milne Edwards, 1860 (206958) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Fenner et al. 2008.

Pocillopora eydouxi cf. Milne Edwards, 1860 (206958) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980.

Pocillopora eydouxi Milne Edwards, 1860 (206958) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Pocillopora eydoxi Milne Edwards, 1860 (206958) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Pocillopora grandis Dana, 1846 (206952). Reported – QM 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Pocillopora ligulata Dana, 1846 (206959) CoTW

Pocillopora ligulata Dana, 1846 (206959). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846 (206964) CoTW

Pocillopora meandrina cf. Dana, 1846 (206964). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

Pocillopora meandrina Dana, 1846 (206964). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Pocillopora meandrioa Dana, 1846 (206964) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, South Bank, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. Vulnerability – 𝒞, LC.

Pocillopora verrucosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (206954) CoTW

Pocillopora danae cf. Verrill, 1864 (206963) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

Pocillopora danae Verrill, 1864 (206963) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Pocillopora verrucosa (Ellis & Solander, 1786) (206954). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 48 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Pocillopora woodjonesi Vaughan, 1918 (289252) CoTW

Pocillopora woodjonesi Vaughan, 1918 (289252). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; QM 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Pocillopora woodjonsi Vaughan, 1918 (289252) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Genus Seriatopora Lamarck, 1816

Seriatopora hystrix Dana, 1846 (206973) CoTW

Seriatopora angulata Klunzinger, 1879 (206971) heterotypic synonym. Reported – BPBM 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

Seriatopora hystrix Dana, 1846 (206973). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Genus Stylophora Schweigger, 1820

Stylophora pistillata Esper, 1797 (206982) CoTW

Stylophora mordax (Dana, 1846) (206981) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Itano and Buckley 1988; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

Stylophora mordax cf. (Dana, 1846) (206981) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Stylophora pistiliata Esper, 1797 (206982) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Stylophora pistillata Esper, 1797 (206982). CoTW Reported – Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Bare et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Birkeland et al. 2013; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Stylophora pistllata Esper, 1797 (206982) [sic]. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 50 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – Eight species or forms of Stylophora are found in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Stylophora spp. decrease in number from west to east and only the especially thick-branched and non-red-tinged form of Stylophora pistillata Esper, 1797 has made it to American Sāmoa.

Family Poritidae Gray, 1840
Genus Goniopora de Blainville, 1830

Goniopora columna Dana, 1846 (207221) CoTW

Goniopora collumna Dana, 1846 (207221) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Goniopora columna Dana, 1846 (207221). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityNT.

Goniopora fruticosa Saville-Kent, 1891 (288272) CoTW

Goniopora fruiticosa Saville-Kent, 1891 (288272) [sic]. Reported – Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018.

Goniopora fruticosa Saville-Kent, 1891 (288272). CoTW Reported – DiDonato et al. 2006; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Goniopora pandoraensis Veron & Pichon, 1982 (288275) CoTW

Goniopora pandaorensis Veron & Pichon, 1982 (288275) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Vanuatu. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityLC.

Goniopora somaliensis Vaughan, 1907 (207212) CoTW

Goniopora somaliensis cf. Vaughan, 1907 (207212). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019.

Goniopora somaliensis Vaughan, 1907 (207212). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Mundy 1996; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 47 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Porites annae Crossland, 1952 (288886) CoTW

Porites annae Crossland, 1952 (288886). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Forsman et al. 2009; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Porites arnaudi Reyes-Bonilla & Carricart-Ganivet, 2000 (288888) CoTW

Porites arnaudi cf. Reyes-Bonilla & Carricart-Ganivet, 2000 (288888). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Porites arnaudi Reyes-Bonilla & Carricart-Ganivet, 2000 (288888). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – Aunuʻu, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Clipperton Atoll, east Pacific. Geographical range extension – Southwest, Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted this species in the Society Islands, French Polynesia indicating it exists further west than Clipperton Atoll. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 49 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Porites cylindrica Dana, 1846 (207229) CoTW

Porites andrewsi Vaughan, 1918 (207252) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; BPBM 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997.

Porites capricornis Rehberg, 1892 (760262) heterotypic synonym. Reported – NMNH 2018.

Porites cylindrica ? Dana, 1846 (207229). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Porites cylindrica Dana, 1846 (207229). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Mundy and Green 1999; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Cornish and DiDonato 2004; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Forsman et al. 2009; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Porties cylindrica Dana, 1846 (207229) [sic]. Reported – Maragos et al. 1995.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Porites evermanni Vaughan, 1907 (288900) CoTW

Porites evermanni Vaughan, 1907 (288900). CoTW Reported – Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Aunuʻu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – New Caledonia and Kiribati west, Gilbert Islands. Geographical range extension – East and Southeast. VulnerabilityDD.

Porites horizontalata Hoffmeister, 1925 (207237) CoTW

Porites horizontalata cf. Hoffmeister, 1925 (207237). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Porites horizontalata Hoffmeister, 1925 (207237). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Porites horizontallata Hoffmeister, 1925 (207237) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Synaraea horizontalata Hoffmeister, 1925 (207237) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Mesophotic record – 33, 30 m depth (Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983).

Porites latistellata Quelch, 1886 (869070) CoTW

Porites latistella Quelch, 1886 (288906) wrong species spelling. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Vanuatu and Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions.

Porites lichen Dana, 1846 (207228) CoTW

Porites lichen /randalli ? Dana, 1846 (207228). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Porites lichen Dana, 1846 (207228). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Forsman et al. 2009; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Porties lichen Dana, 1846 (207228) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983).

Porites lobata Dana, 1846 (207225) CoTW

Porites lobata /lutea Dana, 1846 (207225). Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Porites lobata forma nodulosa Dana, 1846 (207225). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Porites lobata nodulosa Dana, 1846 (207225). Reported – NMNH 2018.

Porites lobata aff. Dana, 1846 (207225). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980.

Porites lobata cf. Dana, 1846 (207225). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Cornish and DiDonato 2004; DMWR 2018.

Porites lobata Dana, 1846 (207225). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Forsman et al. 2009; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – The photo of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be uncertain.

Porites lutea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246) CoTW

Porites arenosa (Esper, 1797) (207241) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Porites lutea /evermanni Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Porites lutea haddoni Vaughan, 1918 (994051). Reported – NMNH 2018.

Porites lutea var. haddoni aff. Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246). Reported – Mayor 1924b.

Porites lutea var. haddoni Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246). Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Porites lutea ? Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Porites lutea aff. Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; USACE 1980.

Porites lutea cf. Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Porites lutea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Forsman et al. 2009; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Porites var. haddoni Vaughan, 1918 (760256) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980.

Porties lutea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207246) [sic]. Reported – Maragos et al. 1995.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 30 m depth (Lamberts 1983). Notes – The septal pattern of P. evermanni and P. lutea are essentially identical (Fenner 2005). Colonies of P. lutea collected and analyzed molecularly from American Sāmoa fell into three distinct clades that included colonies identified as P. evermanni (Forsman et al. 2009). The type specimen of P. lutea has not been examined, and E Turak (pers. comm.) indicates that the label on the presumed type in the Paris Natural History Museum may have been moved from a different skeleton. Thus, there are significant taxonomic challenges for this species and more work needed to sort the differences.

Porites monticulosa Dana, 1846 (367816) CoTW

Porites monticulosa Dana, 1846 (367816). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Swains, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species is very similar to Porites rus (Forskål, 1775). The type specimen of P. monticulosa in the Yale Peabody Museum is a short, thick, rounded column. It can be reliably separated from P. rus in many locations in the Pacific, including American Sāmoa and Hawaii (Fenner 2005). However, there are no reliable microscopic features that distinguish it from P. rus and the species concept sensu Veron (2000) and Veron et al. (2019).

Porites murrayensis Vaughan, 1918 (207232) CoTW

Porites murraensis Vaughan, 1918 (207232) [sic]. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Porites murrayensis ? Vaughan, 1918 (207232). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Porites murrayensis Vaughan, 1918 (207232). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Porites randalli Forsman & Birkeland, 2009 (758221) CoTW

Porites randalli Forsman & Birkeland, 2009 (758221). CoTW Reported – Forsman and Birkeland 2009; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Paulay and Brown 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Type specimen location. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga.

Porites rus (Forskål, 1775) (207231) CoTW

Porites convexa (Verrill, 1864) (207230) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Coles et al. 2003; BPBM 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003.

Porites faustinoi Hoffmeister, 1925 (207239) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; NMNH 2018.

Porites rus (Forskål, 1775) (207231). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Cornish and DiDonato 2004; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Porites undulata (Verrill, 1864) (207243) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Synaraea faustino Hoffmeister, 1925 (207239) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Synaraea undulata Klunzinger, 1879 (760291) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 47 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). NotesVeron et al. (2019) report P. faustinoi as a synonym of P. horizontalata.

Porites stephensoni Crossland, 1952 (288915) CoTW

Porites stephensoni Crossland, 1952 (288915). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Vanuatu. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – This is a small, distinctive, massive species that only lives on reef flats and is not difficult to identify.

Genus Stylaraea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851

Stylaraea punctata (Linnaeus, 1758) (212178) CoTW

Stylaraea punctata (Linnaeus, 1758) (212178). CoTW Reported – Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Birkeland et al. 2013; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Stylarea punctata (Linnaeus, 1758) (212178) [sic]. Reported – Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityDD.

Family Psammocoridae Chevalier & Beauvais, 1987
Genus Psammocora Dana, 1846

Psammocora contigua (Esper, 1794) (207267) CoTW

Psammacora contigua (Esper, 1794) (207267) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Psammocora contigua tutuilensis (Esper, 1794) (207267). Reported – NMNH 2018.

Psammocora contigua var. maldivensis (Esper, 1794) (207267). Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925.

Psammocora contigua var. tutuilensis Hoffmeister, 1925 (869367). Reported – Hoffmeister 1925. Referenced – Green et al. 1997.

Psammocora contigua (Esper, 1794) (207267). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Psammocora obtusangula cf. (Lamarck, 1816) (287783) heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Psammocora digitata Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207260) CoTW

Psammocora digitata Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207260). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Vanuatu. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – This species forms massive colonies, which can be very large, and not columnar. Historically, reports under P. digitata should be considered Psammocora haimiana Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851, and vice versa (Benzoni et al. 2010; Veron et al. 2019). However, the name P. haimiana has never been reported in American Sāmoa. See note on P. haimiana.

Psammocora nierstraszi Van der Horst, 1921 (207261) CoTW

Psammacora nietstraszi Van der Horst, 1921 (207261) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Psammocora neirstraszi Van der Horst, 1921 (207261) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Birkeland 2007b.

Psammocora nierstraszi aff. Van der Horst, 1921 (207261). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Psammocora nierstraszi Van der Horst, 1921 (207261). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Psammocora nierstrazi Van der Horst, 1921 (207261) [sic]. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 47 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Psammocora profundacella Gardiner, 1898 (207271) CoTW

Psammacora superficialis Gardiner, 1898 (207270) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; CRED 2011.

Psammocora profundacella Gardiner, 1898 (207271). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Fenner et al. 2008; Benzoni et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Psammocora profundicella Gardiner, 1898 (207271) [sic]. Reported – Green and Hunter 1998; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

Psammocora samoaensis Hoffmeister, 1925 (718645) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – NMNH 2018.

Psammocora samoensis Hoffmeister, 1925 (718645) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Green et al. 1997. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003.

Psammocora superficiales Gardiner, 1898 (207270) [sic] heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Psammocora superficialis /nierstraszi Gardiner, 1898 (207270) heterotypic synonym. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Psammocora superficialis Gardiner, 1898 (207270) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Benzoni et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 48 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – See note for P. haimiana for more details.

Scleractinian genera incertae sedis
Genus Leptastrea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849

Leptastrea bewickensis Veron, Pichon & Best, 1977 (287822) CoTW

Leptastrea bewickensis ? Veron, Pichon & Best, 1977 (287822). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Leptastrea bewickensis Veron, Pichon & Best, 1977 (287822). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – The photo of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrect and may be another Leptastrea sp.

Leptastrea bottae (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (207476) CoTW

Leptastrea bottae (Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849) (207476). CoTW Reported – Lamberts 1983.

Leptastrea immersa Klunzinger, 1879 (207473) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – New Caledonia and Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions. VulnerabilityNT. NotesLamberts (1983) reported this species as rare, and Birkeland et al. (1987) reported it from three sites as the synonym L. immersa.

Leptastrea pruinosa Crossland, 1952 (207472) CoTW

Leptastrea pruinosa ? Crossland, 1952 (207472). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Leptastrea pruinosa Crossland, 1952 (207472). CoTW Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identifier unknown). Distribution – Aunuʻu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 32 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). Notes – The color/tissue seen on living colonies makes identification from photographs easier than from skeleton. The species is documented by both specimens and photographs.

Leptastrea purpurea (Dana, 1846) (207470) CoTW

Leptastrea purpurea (Dana, 1846) (207470). CoTW Reported – Mayor 1924a, 1924b; Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003, 2013; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Mundy 1996; Green et al. 1997; Green and Hunter 1998; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Dahl and Lamberts 1977; Dahl 1981; Green et al. 1997, 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Letpastrea purpurea (Dana, 1846) (207470) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Letpastrea purpurea cf. (Dana, 1846) (207470) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 52 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Leptastrea transversa Klunzinger, 1879 (207474) CoTW

Leptastrea transversa Klunzinger, 1879 (207474). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner and J Wolstenholme). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 34 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Genus Pachyseris Milne Edwards & Haime, 1849

Pachyseris gemmae Nemenzo, 1955 (288721) CoTW

Pachyseris gemmae Nemenzo, 1955 (288721). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Pachyseris rugosa (Lamarck, 1801) (207292) CoTW

Pachyseris carinata Brüggemann, 1879 (766851) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Pachyseris rugosa (Lamarck, 1801) (207292). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Green and Hunter 1998; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Pachyseris speciosa (Dana, 1846) (207293) CoTW

Pachyseris levicollis (Dana, 1846) (207294) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Pachyseris speciosa (Dana, 1846) (207293). CoTW Reported – Hoffmeister 1925; USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016; BPBM 2018; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018; NMNH 2018; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Mesophotic record – 33, 30, 52 m depth (Hoffmeister 1925; Lamberts 1983; Montgomery et al. 2019).

Genus Plerogyra Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848

Plerogyra simplex Rehberg, 1892 (287848) CoTW

Plerogyra simplex Rehberg, 1892 (287848). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Fiji. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityNT.

Plerogyra sinuosa (Dana, 1846) (207498) CoTW

Plerogyra sinuosa (Dana, 1846) (207498). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Subclass Octocorallia Haeckel, 1866
Order Helioporacea Bock, 1938
Family Helioporidae Moseley, 1876
Genus Heliopora de Blainville, 1830

Heliopora coerulea (Pallas, 1766) (210725)

Heliopora coerulca (Pallas, 1766) (210725) [sic]. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993.

Heliopora coerulea (Pallas, 1766) (210725). Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Craig et al. 2001; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Helipora coerulea (Pallas, 1766) (210725) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, South Bank, Swains, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. VulnerabilityVU.

Class Hydrozoa Owen, 1843
Order Anthoathecata Cornelius, 1992
Family Milleporidae Fleming, 1828
Genus Millepora Linnaeus, 1758

Millepora dichotoma Forskål, 1775 (210733)

Millepora dichotoma cf. Forskål, 1775 (210733). Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

Millepora dichotoma Forskål, 1775 (210733). Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Craig et al. 2001; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. VulnerabilityLC.

Millepora exaesa Forsskål, 1775 (210728)

Millepora exaesa Forsskål, 1775 (210728). Reported – Green et al. 1997; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Millepora exesa Forsskål, 1775 (210728) [sic]. Reported – DMWR 2018.

Millepora tuberosa Boschma, 1966 (210732) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Coles et al. 2003; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. VulnerabilityLC. NotesMillepora exaesa is yellow-brown with occasional light green or pink, encrusts rubble, can have larger bumps, and found in lagoons. The synonym Millepora tuberosa Boschma, 1966 is purple encrusting sheets on hard substrate that can grow quite large and is found on slopes. Skeletons can easily be confused, but live colonies are distinguishable. For taxonomic details, see Randall and Cheng (1984). We believe that the taxonomy of this group needs to be revised and that the synonym M. tuberosa Boschma, 1966 may deserve to be resurrected for specimens outside the Red Sea (Arrigoni et al. 2018b). The photographed specimen of this species reported in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to have an incorrect identification and should be Millepora platyphylla Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1834.

Millepora intricata Milne Edwards, 1860 (210727)

Millepora intricata Milne Edwards, 1860 (210727). Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Millepora murrayi Quelch, 1884 (292201) possible heterotypic synonym. Reported – DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016; DMWR 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by D Fenner). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – Colonies of M. intricata have less obvious ogives while the synonym Millepora murrayi Quelch, 1884 has very obvious ogives, which are downward curving branches with upward growing branches on the upper edge. Fenner has seen M. intricata in the Philippines which could be mistaken for M. murrayi. Razak and Hoeksema (2003) were correct that the colonies reported from Indonesia were M. intricata, but it is possible that M. murrayi is also present and valid. We believe this group needs to be revisited and the synonym M. murrayi may deserve to be resurrected. For more taxonomic details, see Randall and Cheng (1984).

Millepora platyphylla Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1834 (210730)

Millepora platyphylla cf. Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1834 (210730). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Millepora platyphylla Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1834 (210730). Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Itano and Buckley 1988; Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994, 1995; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Craig et al. 2001; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016; Fenner and Sudek 2016; BPBM 2018; Fenner 2018. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Millepora platyphyllia cf. Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1834 (210730) [sic]. Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

American Sāmoa status – Present. Evidence – Multiple specimen reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Rose Atoll, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. VulnerabilityLC.

Possibly present

Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834

Subclass Hexacorallia Haeckel, 1896

Order Scleractinia Bourne, 1900
Family Acroporidae Verrill, 1902
Genus Acropora Oken, 1815

Acropora bushyensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (206999) CoTW CCW

Acropora bushiensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (206999) [sic]. Reported – Mundy 1996. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora bushyensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (206999). CoTW CCW Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single report. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – New Caledonia. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora echinata (Dana, 1846) (207069) CoTW CCW

Acropora echinata (Dana, 1846) (207069). CoTW CCW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; BPBM 2018. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identifier unknown). Distribution – Ofu/Olosega, Sāmoa Islands, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – This species is reported in American Sāmoa based on four specimens labeled as A. echinata in the BPBM collection. However, the specimens listed at BPBM do not show documentation about the person that provided the identification. The referenced reports are based on Maragos et al. (1994) except for Hoffmeister (1925), which references this species presence in the Sāmoa Islands from Brook (with uncertain location). Based on the limited observations and the lack of a confirmed identification in the BPBM collection, we consider this species as possibly present in American Sāmoa.

Acropora elseyi (Brook, 1892) (207113) CoTW CCW

Acropora elseyi (Brook, 1892) (207113). CoTW CCW Reported – Craig et al. 2001; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species was reported by Craig et al. (2001) and photo-documented in Corals NPAS 2016 (2016). Craig et al. (2001) reported this coral outside a belt transect area during surveys in the Ofu pools indicating this species has a low abundance. DiDonato et al. (2006) references to Craig et al. (2001), but the referenced document of this species in Lovell and McLardy (2008) could not be located. This species is similar to A. carduus. Based on these limited observations and its close similarity to another species, we determined this species as possibly present in American Sāmoa.

Acropora glauca (Brook, 1893) (207017) CoTW CCW

Acropora glauca (Brook, 1893) (207017). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – The identity of the photographed specimen in Corals NPAS (2016) appears to be incorrect and should be A. clathrata.

Acropora horrida (Dana, 1846) (207006) CoTW CCW

Acropora horrida (Dana, 1846) (207006). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Craig et al. 2001; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

Acropora horrida ? (Dana, 1846) (207006). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Acropora kirstyae Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288215) CoTW CCW

Acropora kirstyae Veron & Wallace, 1984 (288215). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – Ofu, Rose Atoll. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – New Caledonia. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) strongly predicted the presence of this species in the Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga ecoregion. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – This species is fairly distinctive.

Acropora loripes (Brook, 1892) (207074) CoTW CCW

Acropora loripes (Brook, 1892) (207074). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora rosaria (Dana, 1846) (207029) possible heterotypic synonym. CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002. Referenced – Hoffmeister 1925.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Sāmoa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Acropora microphthalma (Verrill, 1870) (207046) CoTW CCW

Acropora microphthalma (Verrill, 1870) (207046). CoTW CCW Reported – Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Acropora micropthalma (Verrill, 1870) (207046) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland 2007a. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. NotesVeron et al. (2019) report this species is readily confused with other Acropora species with a staghorn-like form. Wallace (1999) reports this species is difficult to distinguish from Acropora muricata (Linnaeus, 1758). Despite the limited number of observations of this species and the difficulty in its identification, we believe that the photographic record from Corals NPAS (2016) is plausible evidence of its presence.

Acropora sarmentosa (Brook, 1892) (288244) CoTW CCW

Acropora sarmentosa (Brook, 1892) (288244). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – Taʻū. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. NotesAcropora sarmentosa is very distinctive and reported to be common by Veron et al. (2019). Given it has been reported by so few papers, we label this species as possibly present. Acropora verweyi Veron & Wallace, 1984 is somewhat similar and present.

Acropora spicifera (Dana, 1846) (207087) CoTW CCW

Acropora spicefera (Dana, 1846) (207087) [sic]. Reported – USACE 1980.

Acropora spicifera (Dana, 1846) (207087). CoTW CCW Reported – Lamberts 1983; Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. NotesAcropora spicifera is a difficult species to identify in situ, but a sample has been identified by A Lamberts. Veron et al. (2019) report this species to be uncommon outside Australia.

Acropora squarrosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207053) CoTW CCW

Acropora squarrosa (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207053). CoTW CCW Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983; Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b.

Acropora squarrosa cf. (Ehrenberg, 1834) (207053). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Madagascar north. Geographical range extension – East although Veron et al. (2019) stated this species distribution was uncertain due to taxonomic uncertainties, significant geographical range extension. VulnerabilityLC. NotesAcropora squarrosa is a Red Sea and western Indian Ocean species, and both Wallace (1999) and Veron (2000) report that it is endemic to the Red Sea. Based on a sample identified by A Lamberts and in situ reports (Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994), we believe that this species is possibly present. However, caution may be warranted on this species due to the later work not available to Lamberts (1983), Birkeland et al. 1987, and Maragos et al. (1994).

Acropora striata (Verrill, 1866) (207081) CoTW CCW

Acropora striata (Verrill, 1866) (207081). CoTW CCW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – Manuʻa Islands, Ofu. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Acropora subglabra (Brook, 1891) (288250) CoTW CCW

Acropora subglabra (Brook, 1891) (288250). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single report. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species is similar to A. echinata and A. carduus.

Acropora valenciennesi (Milne Edwards, 1860) (206995) CoTW CCW

Acropora splendida Nemenzo, 1967 (740875) heterotypic synonym. Reported – USACE 1980; Lamberts 1983.

Acropora valenciennesi (Milne Edwards, 1860) (206995). CoTW CCW Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single specimen report (identified by A Lamberts). Distribution – American Sāmoa, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Acropora vaughani Wells, 1954 (288262) CoTW CCW

Acropora vaughani Wells, 1954 (288262). CoTW CCW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Acropora yongei Veron & Wallace, 1984 (207032) CoTW CCW

Acropora yongei /pulchra Veron & Wallace, 1984 (207032). Reported – DMWR 2018.

Acropora yongei ? Veron & Wallace, 1984 (207032). CoTW CCW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Acropora yongei Veron & Wallace, 1984 (207032). CoTW CCW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Mundy 1996; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Genus Alveopora Blainville, 1830

Alveopora excelsa Verrill, 1864 (289255) CoTW

Alveopora excelsa Verrill, 1864 (289255). CoTW Reported – Montgomery et al. 2019.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Raja Ampat, Papua. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityEN. Mesophotic record – 52 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019). NotesAlveopora species can be difficult to identify from photographs or even skeletons.

Alveopora spongiosa Dana, 1846 (207198) CoTW

Alveopora spongiosa ? Dana, 1846 (207198). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

Alveopora spongiosa cf. Dana, 1846 (207198). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002.

Alveopora spongiosa Dana, 1846 (207198). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Montgomery et al. 2019. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Mesophotic record – 46 m depth (Montgomery et al. 2019).

Alveopora superficialis Pillai & Scheer, 1976 (207199)

Alveopora superficiales Pillai & Scheer, 1976 (207199) [sic]. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Birkeland 2007b.

Alveopora superficialis Pillai & Scheer, 1976 (207199). Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Coles et al. 2003. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. NotesVeron et al. (2019) consider this species a synonym of A. spongiosa.

Genus Astreopora Blainville, 1830

Astreopora explanata Veron, 1985 (287944)

Astreopora explanata Veron, 1985 (287944). Reported – Maragos et al. 1994. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single report. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. Notes – This species is considered a synonym of A. expansa by Veron et al. (2019).

Astreopora incrustans Bernard, 1896 (207131) CoTW

Astreopora incrustans Bernard, 1896 (207131). CoTW Reported – NMNH 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single specimen report (Identifier unknown). Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityVU.

Astreopora ocellata Bernard, 1896 (207123) CoTW

Astreopora ocellata Bernard, 1896 (207123). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Fisk and Birkeland 2002. Referenced – Birkeland 2007a, 2007b.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – Manuʻa Islands, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – New Caledonia. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species is subtly different from A. myriophthalma.

Genus Isopora Studer, 1879

Isopora cuneata (Dana, 1846) (730687) CoTW CCW

Acropora cuneata (Dana, 1846) (206997) homotypic synonym. Reported – Hunter et al. 1993; Maragos et al. 1994; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Isopora cuneata (Dana, 1846) (730687). CoTW CCW Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – See note of I. crateriformis.

Genus Montipora Blainville, 1830

Montipora angulata (Lamarck, 1816) (287691) CoTW

Montipora angulata (Lamarck, 1816) (287691). CoTW Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single report. Distribution – Rose Atoll. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Solomon Islands and Bougainville. Geographical range extension – East. VulnerabilityVU. Notes – This species was only reported by Kenyon et al. (2010) from Rose Atoll, and is reported to be very rare (Veron et al. 2019).

Montipora calcarea Bernard, 1897 (287695)

Montipora calcarea Bernard, 1897 (287695). Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. VulnerabilityVU. NotesVeron et al. (2019) consider this species unresolved and M. calcarea sensu Veron (2000) as an undefined separate species.

Montipora conicula Wells, 1954 (1263760)

Montipora conicula Wells, 1954 (1263760). Reported – Coles et al. 2003; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Not available. Notes – This species has been reported by two sources, but there is no photo-documentation or collection material available for this species. However, both sources for this species are from well-known coral experts, so we accept this species presence in American Sāmoa. Veron et al. (2019) consider this species unresolved.

Montipora corbettensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (287701) CoTW

Montipora corbettensis Veron & Wallace, 1984 (287701). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Montipora danae Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207152) CoTW

Montipora danae Milne Edwards & Haime, 1851 (207152). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora digitata (Dana, 1846) (207185) CoTW

Montipora digitata (Dana, 1846) (207185). CoTW Reported – Green and Hunter 1998.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single report. Distribution – Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – Hunter and Green (1998) reported this species with an occasional abundance at two sites.

Montipora effusa (Dana, 1846) (207169) CoTW

Montipora effusa (Dana, 1846) (207169). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Vanuatu and Society Islands, French Polynesia. Geographical range extension – Between two disjunct ecoregions. VulnerabilityNT.

Montipora floweri Wells, 1954 (287707) CoTW

Montipora floweri Wells, 1954 (287707). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora hispida (Dana, 1846) (207164) CoTW

Montipora hispida (Dana, 1846) (207164). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Maragos et al. 1994; Green et al. 1997; Birkeland and Belliveau 2000; Fenner et al. 2008; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. Notes – This species has a distinctive colony morphology of thin plates and columns.

Montipora hoffmeisteri Wells, 1954 (287713) CoTW

Montipora hoffmeisteri cf. Wells, 1954 (287713). CoTW Reported – Coles et al. 2003.

Montipora hoffmeisteri Wells, 1954 (287713). CoTW Reported – USACE 1980; Birkeland et al. 1987, 2003; Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora lobulata Bernard, 1897 (207141) CoTW

Montipora lobulata Bernard, 1897 (207141). CoTW Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2003; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Kenyon et al. 2011.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityVU.

Montipora millepora Crossland, 1952 (207190) CoTW

Montipora millepora Crossland, 1952 (207190). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora mollis Bernard, 1897 (207137) CoTW

Montipora mollis Bernard, 1897 (207137). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora monasteriata (Forskål, 1775) (207153) CoTW

Montipora monasteriata (Forskål, 1775) (207153). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1995; Mundy 1996; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC.

Montipora nodosa (Dana, 1846) (287719) CoTW

Montipora nodosa (Dana, 1846) (287719). CoTW Reported – Mundy 1996; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Work and Rameyer 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Fenner et al. 2008; Kenyon et al. 2010; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

Montipora nodosa cf. (Dana, 1846) (287719). CoTW Reported – DMWR 2018.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Aunuʻu, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT. Notes – Corals in some published photographs of this species (Veron 2000) appear to be incorrectly identified, showing no papillae between lumps, while this species has papillae between lumps. The photographs appear to be of Montipora turgescens Bernard, 1897. Identifications based on Veron (2000) may be of Montipora turgescens Bernard, 1897 due to this error.

Montipora peltiformis Bernard, 1897 (207180) CoTW

Montipora peltiformis Bernard, 1897 (207180). CoTW Reported – Fisk and Birkeland 2002; DiDonato et al. 2006; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Single photographic record. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Montipora undata Bernard, 1897 (207167) CoTW

Montipora colei Wells, 1954 (759740) heterotypic synonym. Reported – Birkeland et al. 1987. Referenced – Birkeland 2007b.

Montipora undata Bernard, 1897 (207167). CoTW Reported – Kenyon et al. 2010. Referenced – Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple reports. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Rose Atoll, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityNT.

Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck, 1816) (207146) CoTW

Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck, 1816) (207146). CoTW Reported – Maragos et al. 1994; Mundy 1996; Green and Hunter 1998; Craig et al. 2001; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Birkeland et al. 2003; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a; Kenyon et al. 2010; CRED 2011; Corals NPAS 2016. Referenced – Green et al. 1999; Fisk and Birkeland 2002; Coles et al. 2003; DiDonato et al. 2006; Birkeland 2007a, 2007b; Lovell and McLardy 2008.

American Sāmoa status – Possibly present. Evidence – Multiple photographic records. Distribution – American Sāmoa, Manuʻa Islands, Ofu, Ofu/Olosega, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Taʻū, Tutuila. Nearest confirmed ecoregion – Sāmoa, Tuvalu, and Tonga. VulnerabilityLC. NotesMontipora capitata has commonly been reported as M. verrucosa, especially in Hawaii (Fenner 2005).

Family Agariciidae Gray, 1847
Genus Coeloseris Vaughan, 1918

Coeloseris mayeri Vaughan, 1918 (207613) CoTW

Coeloseris mayeri Vaughan, 1918 (207613). CoTW Reported –