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New species of bone-eating worm Osedax from the abyssal South Atlantic Ocean (Annelida, Siboglinidae)
expand article infoYoshihiro Fujiwara, Naoto Jimi§, Paulo Y.G. Sumida|, Masaru Kawato, Hiroshi Kitazato
‡ Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
§ Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
| University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
¶ Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Open Access

Abstract

A new species of bone-eating annelid, Osedax braziliensis sp. n., found in a sunken whale carcass at a depth of 4,204 m at the base of the São Paulo Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Brazilian coast is described. The organism was retrieved using the human-occupied vehicle Shinkai 6500 during the QUELLE 2013 expedition. This is the 26th species of the genus and the first discovery from the South Atlantic Ocean, representing the deepest record of Osedax worldwide to date. This species morphologically resembles Osedax frankpressi but is distinguished by the presence of a yellow bump or patch behind the prostomium and its trunk length. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using three genetic markers (COI, 16S, and 18S) showed that O. braziliensis sp. n. is distinct from all other Osedax worms reported and is a sister species of O. frankpressi.

Keywords

Polychaeta, São Paulo Ridge, taxonomy, whale-fall ecosystem

Introduction

Whale falls provide an extensive food supply to the oligotrophic deep-sea environments and harbour a unique biological assemblage, which is considered a “whale-fall ecosystem” (Smith et al. 1989, 2015). This ecosystem is known to be chemosynthesis-based, similar to hydrothermal vent and hydrocarbon seep ecosystems, but dynamic succession has been reported (Smith and Baco 2003). Numerous scavengers such as deep-sea sharks, hagfish, and small crustaceans devour the soft whale tissues when the carcasses reach the deep-sea floor (mobile-scavenger stage) (Smith and Baco 2003). After consumption of most soft tissues, organically enriched sediments and exposed bones are colonised by dense assemblages of opportunistic polychaetes and crustaceans (enrichment opportunist stage) (Smith and Baco 2003). Reducing chemicals such as sulphide are produced through anaerobic bacterial decomposition of organic materials in bones and support chemoautotrophs and chemoautotrophic symbiont-harbouring invertebrates as energy sources of primary production (sulphophilic stage) (Smith and Baco 2003). After the depletion of organic materials in the whale bones, the exhausted bones are thought to act as colonisation substrata primarily for suspension feeders (reef stage) but have never been observed in situ (Smith and Baco 2003).

One of the most unique organisms that has appeared in the whale-fall environment is an annelid polychaete of genus Osedax Rouse, Goffredi & Vrijenhoek, 2004 (Annelida, Siboglinidae), commonly known as bone-eating worms, discovered in whale carcasses in Monterey Bay (Rouse et al. 2004). Unlike other siboglinids, Osedax lack a discrete trophosome, the organ housing symbiotic bacteria in vestimentiferans and pogonophorans (Rouse et al. 2004). Instead, female Osedax possesses a vascularised “root” system penetrating the bone marrow (Rouse et al. 2004). Osedax worms are believed to acquire nutrition from the bones through their roots (Tresguerres et al. 2013, Miyamoto et al. 2017). Intracellular heterotrophic bacteria localise in the roots, but their role remains unclear (Goffredi et al. 2014). Surprisingly, all the visible worms are female, and the males are dwarfs, with the exception of one species (Rouse et al. 2015). Morphological characterisation of Osedax has been minimal thus far. The body size, palp colour, presence/absence of pinnules and their location on palps, presence/absence of oviduct and its length, and root form are examples of the limited characteristics used for species identification (Vrijenhoek et al. 2009).

To the best of our knowledge, 25 Osedax species have been described to date, and some additional undescribed species were reported from the West and East Pacific, North and South Atlantic, Mediterranean, Sub-Antarctic, and Antarctic (Rouse et al. 2004, Glover et al. 2005, Fujikura et al. 2006, Braby et al. 2007, Fujiwara et al. 2007, Goffredi et al. 2007, Rouse et al. 2008, Vrijenhoek et al. 2008, Vrijenhoek et al. 2009, Glover et al. 2013, Amon et al. 2014, Rouse et al. 2015, Taboada et al. 2015, Sumida et al. 2016, Rouse et al. 2018). Two species, i.e., Osedax rubiplumus Rouse, Goffredi & Vrijenhoek, 2004 and Osedax frankpressi Rouse, Goffredi & Vrijenhoek, 2004, were first described from the bones of a grey whale carcass at a depth of 2,891 m in Monterey Bay, California, in 2004 (Rouse et al. 2004). Osedax mucofloris Glover, Källström, Smith & Dahlgren, 2005 and Osedax japonicus Fujikura, Fujiwara & Kawato, 2006 were reported from environments with relatively shallow water at depths of 125 m in Swedish waters and 220 m near Japan, respectively (Glover et al. 2005, Fujikura et al. 2006). Osedax antarcticus Glover, Wiklund, Taboada, Avila, Cristobo, Smith, Kemp, Jamieson & Dahlgren, 2013, Osedax crouchi Amon, Wiklund, Dahlgren, Copley, Smith, Jamieson & Glover, 2014, Osedax deceptionensis Taboada, Cristobo, Avila, Wiklund & Glover, 2013, Osedax nordenskjoeldi Amon, Wiklund, Dahlgren, Copley, Smith, Jamieson & Glover, 2014, and Osedax rogersi Amon, Wiklund, Dahlgren, Copley, Smith, Jamieson & Glover, 2014 were described from the Antarctic Ocean at depths between 10 and 1,446 m (Glover et al. 2013, Amon et al. 2014, Taboada et al. 2015). Osedax roseus and Osedax priapus were reported from Monterey Bay, and the latter showed some unique morphological features, i.e., only two palps (four are typical) and no male dwarfism (Rouse et al. 2008, 2015). Recently, 14 species from Monterey Bay were simultaneously described (Rouse et al. 2018). Additionally, the genomes of several undescribed species were sequenced and deposited in the international nucleotide sequence databases.

In 2013, the Iatá-Piúna Expedition, a collaborative scientific cruise between Japan and Brazil, was conducted within the framework of the around-the-world research cruise Quelle 2013 (Quest for the Limit of Life) of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) using the HOV Shinkai 6500 (Sumida et al. 2016). A sunken whale carcass was discovered at a depth of 4,204 m at the base of the São Paulo Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean (Sumida et al. 2016). This was the first record of a natural whale fall in the deep Atlantic Ocean (Sumida et al. 2016). Forty-one benthic taxa including many new species were documented from the carcass in which galatheid crabs, Rubyspira gastropods, and polychaete annelids were dominant (Silva et al. 2015, Sumida et al. 2016, Shimabukuro et al. 2017a, 2017b). The skeleton belonged to an Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) and was composed of nine caudal vertebrae, four of which were colonised by Osedax worms (Sumida et al. 2016, Alfaro-Lucas et al. 2017). Vertebrae not colonised by Osedax were well preserved and in a highly sulphophilic stage with chemosynthetic bacterial mats and numerous epifaunal organisms that fed on them. In contrast, vertebrae colonised by Osedax were heavily degraded and did not exhibit evidence of a sulphophilic stage, harbouring a distinct epifaunal assemblage (Alfaro-Lucas et al. 2017). A molecular phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial COI sequences showed that the Osedax species from the São Paulo Ridge did not match any other sequences previously reported; therefore, the specimen was thought to be a new species.

Here we report a new species of Osedax collected from the South Atlantic at the deepest point recorded for this genus. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic characteristics are described.

Materials and methods

Specimen collection

Whale vertebrae harbouring Osedax worms were collected at a depth of 4,204 m at the base of the São Paulo Ridge (28°31.12'S, 41°39.41'W), southwest Atlantic Ocean during the HOV Shinkai 6500 dives on April 24, 2013 (dive #1334), and April 26, 2013 (dive #1336), in the YK13-04 leg1 cruise using R/V Yokosuka (Figs 12). Upon recovery, the bones were immediately transferred to fresh chilled seawater (4 °C). Osedax worms were carefully removed from the bones under an on-board microscope just after the bone retrieval.

Figure 1. 

Sampling location of Osedax braziliensis sp. n. Solid star indicates the sampling location where a whale carcass was discovered at a depth of 4,204 m.

Figure 2. 

Whale skeleton discovered at a depth of 4,204 m in the South Atlantic Ocean. A Sunken whale skeleton of the Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Seven vertebrae are visible in this field of view. Osedax braziliensis sp. n. had colonised the first two bones on the right B Close-up view of a vertebra colonized by O. braziliensis sp. n. Galatheid crabs (Munidopsis spp.), amphipods (Stephonyx sp.), and gastropods (Rubyspira sp.) were also seen on and around the bones.

Treatment for electron microscopic observation

Whole bodies of Osedax worms (n = 21) were fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde in filtered seawater for 24 h and preserved in filtered seawater with 10 mM sodium azide at 4 °C. Samples were then washed in filtered seawater and fixed with 2% osmium tetroxide in filtered seawater for 2 h at 4 °C. For scanning electron microscopic observation, each sample was rinsed with distilled water and incubated with 1% aqueous tannic acid (pH 6.8) for 1 h for conductive staining. These samples were again washed with distilled water and treated with 1% aqueous osmium tetroxide for 1 h. The worms were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and critical point-dried using a JCPD-5 critical point dryer (JEOL, Akishima, Japan). The samples were coated with osmium using a POC-3 osmium plasma coater (MEIWAFOSIS Co., Osaka, Japan). The coated tissues were then observed using a JSM-6700F field-emission scanning electron microscope (JEOL) at an acceleration voltage of 5 kV.

DNA preparation

DNA was extracted from the root tissues of nine the Osedax worms. To reduce surface contaminants, each tissue sample was thoroughly washed in autoclaved and filtered (0.22 µm) seawater. DNA extraction from tissue samples was conducted separately using the DNeasy Tissue Kit (Qiagen Japan, Tokyo, Japan), following the instruction provided by the manufacturer.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning, and sequencing

PCR amplifications were conducted using an Ex Taq PCR kit (TaKaRa, Kyoto, Japan) for three different molecular markers: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S rRNA (16S), and 18S rRNA (18S). Two oligonucleotide primers (0.2 µM each) and <1 µg of DNA template were added to the reaction mixtures. Thermal cycling was performed as follows: denaturing at 96 °C for 20 s, annealing at 55 °C for 45 s, and extension at 72 °C for 2 min for a total of 35 cycles. The oligonucleotide primer sequences used for the PCR amplification are shown in Table 1. The molecular sizes of the PCR products were confirmed with 1.2% Agarose S (Nippon Gene, Toyama, Japan) gel electrophoresis. The PCR products were purified using the Wizard SV Gel and PCR Clean-Up System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The DNA sequencing reaction was performed using a BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Specific primers for each gene were used in sequencing reactions according to the manufacturer’s recommended procedure (Table 1). Sequencing was performed using an ABI PRISM 3100 genetic analyser (Applied Biosystems).

List of primers used for PCR and sequencing.

Primer Target gene Sequence (5'–3') Application Reference
P_CO1f COI TCMACTAATCAYAARGAYATTGGNAC PCR, Sequencing Nelson and Fisher (2000)
P_CO1r COI CCDCCTAGWCCTARRAARTGTTGNGG PCR, Sequencing Nelson and Fisher (2000)
Euk_42F 18S rRNA CTCAARGAYTAAGCCATGCA PCR, Sequencing Takishita et al. (2007)
Euk_1520R 18S rRNA CYGCAGGTTCACCTAC PCR, Sequencing Takishita et al. (2007)
Euk_555F 18S rRNA AGTCTGGTGCCAGCAGCCGC Sequencing (internal) Takishita et al. (2007)
Euk_555R 18S rRNA GCGGCTGCTGGCACCAGACT Sequencing (internal) (Complement of Euk_555F) Modified from Takishita et al. (2007)
Euk_1269R 18S rRNA AAGAACGGCCATGCACCAC Sequencing (internal) Takishita et al. (2007)
16SarL 16S rRNA CGCCTGTTTAACAAAAACAT PCR, Sequencing Palumbi et al. (2000)
16SbrH 16S rRNA CCGGTCTGAACTCAGATCACGT PCR, Sequencing Palumbi et al. (2000)

Phylogenetic analysis

Partial sequences of the COI, 16S, and 18S genes were analysed using the gapped-BLAST search algorithm (Altschul et al. 1997, Benson et al. 2000) to estimate the degree of similarity to other related sequences. Additional sequences of siboglinids for phylogenetic analyses were obtained from the non-redundant nucleotide sequence database of the DNA Data Bank of Japan (Kodama et al. 2018) (Table 2). Sequences were aligned using CLUSTAL X (Larkin et al. 2007), followed by automatic editing of the resulting alignments using the GBLOCKS program for all the genetic markers under the options allowing smaller final blocks, gap positions within the final blocks, and less strict flanking positions (Castresana 2000, Talavera and Castresana 2007). The alignments (34 OTUs / 3,112 bp in total) are available upon request from the corresponding author. The maximum likelihood (ML) analysis was performed using the RAxML-VI-HPC program (Stamatakis 2006). Evolutionary models for each marker (GTR + γ) were separately estimated using KAKUSAN4 software (Tanabe 2007). The ML bootstrap analyses (1,000 replicates, -f option) were constructed as in the model and using the settings described earlier in this section.

List of operational taxonomic units included in the phylogenetic analysis, together with accession numbers in DDBJ.

Taxon COI 16S rRNA 18S rRNA
Lamellibrachia columna DQ996645 FJ347646 FJ347679
Riftia pachyptila KJ789166 KP119573 KP119591
Sclerolinum brattstromi KJ789167 FJ347645 FJ347680
Osedax antarcticus KF444422 KF444418 KF444420
Osedax braziliensis sp. n. LC381421 LC381422 LC381424
Osedax bryani JX280610 KP119580 KP119593
Osedax crouchi KJ598038 KJ598032 KJ598035
Osedax deceptionensis KT860545 KF444419 KF444421
Osedax docricketts FJ347626 FJ347650 FJ347688
Osedax frankpressi FJ347607 FJ347658 FJ347682
Osedax jabba FJ347638 FJ347647 FJ347693
Osedax japonicus FM998111 LC381423 FM995535
Osedax knutei FJ347635 FJ347648 FJ347692
Osedax lehmani EU223323 FJ347660 FJ347689
Osedax lonnyi FJ347643 FJ347651 FJ347695
Osedax mucofloris KJ806976 N.A. AY941263
Osedax nordenskjoeldi KJ598033 KJ598033 KJ598036
Osedax packardorum FJ347629 FJ347661 FJ347690
Osedax priapus KP119564 KP119575 KP119594
Osedax randyi FJ347615 FJ347659 FJ347684
Osedax rogersi KJ598040 KJ598034 KJ598037
Osedax roseus FJ347609 FJ347657 FJ347683
Osedax rubiplumus EU852488 FJ347656 FJ347681
Osedax ryderi KP119563 KP119574 KP119597
Osedax sigridae FJ347642 FJ347655 FJ347694
Osedax talkovici FJ347621 FJ347654 FJ347685
Osedax tiburon FJ347624 FJ347653 FJ347687
Osedax ventana EU236218 FJ347652 FJ347686
Osedax westernflyer FM998110 FJ347649 FJ347691
Osedax sp. 'MB16' JX280612 KP119581 KP119592
Osedax sp. 'mediterranea' KT860548 KT860551 KT860550
Osedax sp. 'sagami3' FM998081 N.A. FM995537
Osedax sp. 'sagami4' FM998082 N.A. FM995541
Osedax sp. 'sagami5' FM998083 N.A. FM995539

COI genetic distance

Minimum genetic distances based on Kimura 2 parameters (K2P) model were calculated between Osedax species using MEGA7 software (Kumar et al. 2016). These distances were calculated using the COI alignment used in the phylogenetic analyses without gaps.

Systematics

Family Siboglinidae Caullery, 1914

Genus Osedax Rouse, Goffredi & Vrijenhoek, 2004

Osedax braziliensis sp. n.

Figures 3, 4 New Japanese name: Burajiru-honekuihanamushi

Osedax sp. nov.: Sumida et al. 2016: 1–6, figs 3–4, Table 1. Osedax: Alfaro-Lucas et al. 2017: 1–9, fig. 2B.

Type material

Holotype: NMST-Pol H-685, trunk 14 mm long, 2 mm wide, female, 4,203 m depth, 26 April 2013, collected by YF, DDBJ No. LC381421, LC381422, LC381424. Paratypes (14 specimens): NSMT-Pol P-686–690 and JAMSTEC-1130038806, 1130039105, 1130039113, 1130039116, 1130039146, 1130039163, 11 specimens, female, 24 and 26 April 2013, collected by YF, DDBJ No. LC381777, LC381766, LC381767, LC381768, LC381769, LC381771; JAMSTEC-1130057454, 1130057457, 1130057458, 3 specimens, male, 26 April 2013, collected by YF.

Type locality

São Paulo Ridge, Brazil, 4,204 m depth.

Diagnosis

Trunk length long. Gelatinous hemispherical tube encases trunk and base of palps. Yellow bump or patch present (absent in some specimens). Pinnules on inner margin of palps. Root lobulated without branching.

Description

Genetic data (COI, 16S, and 18S) deposited in DDBJ (LC106303, LC381421, LC381422, LC381424, and LC381765LC381787). Trunk length up to 22 mm, width at collar 0.5 mm, reddish purple while alive and whitish after fixation (Fig. 3A–C); gelatinous hemispherical tube encases trunk and base of palps, 1–2 mm thick, contains eggs and dwarf males (Fig. 3A, C). Prostomium whitish while alive, present at top of trunk. Yellow bump or patch present behind prostomium: this yellow bump or patch size varies among individuals, biggest bump reaches top of trunk, and is absent in some specimens (Fig. 3D–F). Crown consists of four palps; palps about 1.5 mm length, red colour while alive with two whitish stripes on the inner side, fused for about 30% of length; pinnules on inner margin of palps, about 50–250 µm, 7–8 pinnules in transverse rows (Figs 3A, C, 4B, C). Oviduct free to base, adjoined to the trunk at opposite side of prostomium region, reaching up to 20–30% of palp length (Fig. 4C). Ovisac whitish; trunk–ovisac junction about 15% of trunk length, light green while alive (Fig. 3B). Root lobulated without branching, yellow greenish while alive and whitish after fixation; intracellular symbiotic bacteria in root tissue (Fig. 3B). Eggs about 150 µm diameter (n = 20), whitish while alive (Fig. 3B).

Figure 3. 

Photographs of unfixed Osedax braziliensis sp. n. A Palps (pa), trunk (tr) and a gelatinous hemispherical tube (tu) B lateral view of palps (pa), trunk (tr), ovary (o), and root (r) C ventral view of palps (pa) with pinnules (pi) and trunk (tr). Dwarf males (m) inhabit a gelatinous tube (tu), and D ventro-lateral view of an individual possessing a yellow bump (b) present behind prostomium E Ventral view of holotype (NMST-Pol H-685) possessing a yellow patch (pt) F Ventral view of an individual without yellow bump.

Dwarf male about 250 µm in length (n = 20), fusiform, whitish while alive, prostomium and pygidium rounded, no appendage organs; posterior hooks present, two pairs (5–7 hooks per bundle) arranged in three rows (Figs 3C, 4D).

Figure 4. 

Scanning electron micrographs of Osedax braziliensis sp. n. A Ventro-lateral view of bump (b) B lateral view of palps (pa) with pinnules (pi), and C dorsal view of palps (pa) and oviduct (od) D Dwarf male taken from the tube of a female.

Etymology

This species is named after the type locality, Brazil. This name is an adjective used as a substantive in the genitive case.

Distribution

Only known from a whale carcass of the type locality. São Paulo Ridge, off Brazilian coast, 4,204 m depth.

Phylogenetic analysis

The final lengths of the aligned sequences were 1,004 bp (COI), 486 bp (16S), and 1,604 bp (18S). The phylogenetic position of O. braziliensis sp. n. determined from our ML analysis recovered, with total support, a distinct species from that of all other Osedax species reported (Fig. 5). The six Osedax clades proposed by Rouse et al. (2018) were recovered. The phylogenetic analysis showed that O. braziliensis sp. n. falls into Clade IV, and is a sister species of O. frankpressi known from Monterey Bay at depths between 1,820 m and 2,898 m (Fig. 5).

Figure 5. 

Phylogenetic placement of Osedax braziliensis sp. n. based on nucleotide sequences on the concatenated COI, 16S, and 18S markers, using maximum likelihood. Scale bar represents 0.1 nucleotide substitutions per sequence position. Only bootstrap values greater than 50 are shown for each branch. Osedax braziliensis sp. n. is boxed.

Remarks

This species resembles Osedax frankpressi in the pinnules distributed only at the inner margin of palps, lobulated root structure without branching, gelatinous hemispherical tube, and dwarf males (Rouse et al. 2004). However, it can be discriminated from O. frankpressi by the presence of the yellow bump or patch behind the prostomium, trunk length, and genetic data. In O. braziliensis sp. n., the yellow bump or patch was present in some specimens including holotype, and the trunk length is long (6–22 mm), whereas in O. frankpressi, the bump or patch is absent in all specimens, and the trunk length is shorter (4.5 mm). COI genetic distances between O. braziliensis sp. n. and O. frankpressi are 0.111–0.117, which are greater than intraspecific values in O. braziliensis sp. n. (0.001–0.006). Genetic distances between O. braziliensis and the rest of the Osedax taxa for the COI ranged from 0.117 to 0.236 (Table 3).

COI divergence values (Kimura 2 parameters) between Osedax species and OTUs.

OTU 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
1 Osedax frankpressi
2 Osedax sp. ‘sagami8’ 0.230
3 Osedax tiburon 0.206 0.188
4 Osedax sp. ‘sagami7’ 0.207 0.221 0.241
5 Osedax knutei 0.238 0.167 0.231 0.230
6 Osedax sp. ‘sagami4’ 0.193 0.214 0.214 0.162 0.212
7 Osedax mucofloris 0.198 0.224 0.209 0.204 0.190 0.214
8 Osedax antarcticus 0.209 0.209 0.218 0.235 0.211 0.201 0.255
9 Osedax talkovici 0.225 0.219 0.234 0.244 0.214 0.220 0.220 0.267
10 Osedax randyi 0.207 0.219 0.244 0.006 0.233 0.165 0.209 0.231 0.238
11 Osedax crouchi 0.209 0.213 0.180 0.178 0.196 0.177 0.203 0.205 0.221 0.180
12 Osedax sp. ‘MB16’ 0.207 0.230 0.253 0.057 0.219 0.178 0.212 0.240 0.236 0.059 0.175
13 Osedax sigridae 0.192 0.198 0.190 0.214 0.207 0.207 0.230 0.212 0.215 0.208 0.188 0.217
14 Osedax lehmani 0.193 0.229 0.211 0.178 0.223 0.175 0.178 0.264 0.202 0.175 0.200 0.175 0.195
15 Osedax ventana 0.193 0.187 0.165 0.217 0.196 0.208 0.225 0.221 0.220 0.222 0.155 0.222 0.207 0.228
16 Osedax roseus 0.172 0.209 0.201 0.209 0.230 0.168 0.206 0.196 0.226 0.201 0.222 0.211 0.201 0.191 0.203
17 Osedax lonnyi 0.230 0.187 0.236 0.206 0.204 0.185 0.227 0.168 0.233 0.208 0.188 0.200 0.209 0.222 0.201 0.195
18 Osedax braziliensis sp. n. 0.117 0.203 0.203 0.184 0.211 0.217 0.196 0.193 0.236 0.183 0.206 0.190 0.187 0.217 0.198 0.170 0.214
19 Osedax rubiplumus 0.190 0.211 0.222 0.195 0.230 0.161 0.230 0.206 0.224 0.203 0.183 0.203 0.203 0.190 0.228 0.185 0.193 0.211
20 Osedax rogersi 0.230 0.187 0.236 0.206 0.204 0.185 0.227 0.168 0.233 0.208 0.188 0.200 0.209 0.222 0.201 0.195 0.000 0.214 0.193
21 Osedax sp. ‘mediterranea’ 0.214 0.241 0.212 0.206 0.264 0.217 0.241 0.259 0.203 0.201 0.227 0.190 0.155 0.206 0.230 0.192 0.238 0.199 0.241 0.238
22 Osedax packardorum 0.201 0.216 0.208 0.185 0.237 0.170 0.181 0.258 0.191 0.177 0.219 0.199 0.201 0.082 0.219 0.196 0.227 0.219 0.196 0.227 0.196
23 Osedax bryani 0.209 0.213 0.180 0.178 0.196 0.177 0.203 0.205 0.221 0.180 0.000 0.175 0.188 0.200 0.155 0.222 0.188 0.206 0.183 0.188 0.227 0.219
24 Osedax nordenskjoeldi 0.203 0.190 0.002 0.244 0.230 0.217 0.209 0.218 0.237 0.246 0.177 0.255 0.188 0.214 0.163 0.204 0.238 0.201 0.220 0.238 0.214 0.211 0.177
25 Osedax westernflyer 0.233 0.004 0.188 0.221 0.170 0.211 0.224 0.212 0.222 0.219 0.216 0.230 0.200 0.229 0.193 0.206 0.193 0.205 0.211 0.193 0.244 0.216 0.216 0.190
26 Osedax ryderi 0.209 0.213 0.180 0.178 0.196 0.177 0.203 0.205 0.221 0.180 0.000 0.175 0.188 0.200 0.155 0.222 0.188 0.206 0.183 0.188 0.227 0.219 0.000 0.177 0.216
27 Osedax sp. ‘sagami6’ 0.193 0.175 0.185 0.238 0.152 0.219 0.203 0.203 0.225 0.233 0.175 0.224 0.221 0.236 0.153 0.222 0.178 0.198 0.220 0.178 0.233 0.224 0.175 0.183 0.177 0.175
28 Osedax jabba 0.228 0.172 0.222 0.203 0.206 0.251 0.195 0.238 0.228 0.209 0.216 0.228 0.222 0.241 0.188 0.220 0.213 0.208 0.243 0.213 0.227 0.227 0.216 0.219 0.172 0.216 0.206
29 Osedax docricketts 0.198 0.172 0.183 0.236 0.157 0.219 0.206 0.206 0.225 0.230 0.170 0.227 0.218 0.233 0.148 0.222 0.176 0.201 0.220 0.176 0.236 0.222 0.170 0.180 0.175 0.170 0.008 0.203
30 Osedax priapus 0.217 0.191 0.186 0.206 0.210 0.180 0.230 0.211 0.231 0.209 0.160 0.195 0.155 0.195 0.183 0.198 0.178 0.211 0.219 0.178 0.175 0.227 0.160 0.184 0.196 0.160 0.191 0.198 0.188
31 Osedax sp. ‘sagami5’ 0.193 0.214 0.207 0.222 0.204 0.206 0.212 0.228 0.226 0.222 0.198 0.224 0.122 0.203 0.209 0.217 0.219 0.203 0.198 0.219 0.183 0.214 0.198 0.204 0.217 0.198 0.212 0.214 0.207 0.180
32 Osedax sp. ‘sagami3’ 0.196 0.206 0.242 0.209 0.219 0.181 0.217 0.220 0.186 0.201 0.206 0.209 0.211 0.194 0.234 0.187 0.224 0.199 0.176 0.224 0.214 0.202 0.206 0.242 0.209 0.206 0.229 0.238 0.229 0.241 0.225
33 Osedax japonicus 0.201 0.238 0.220 0.175 0.236 0.172 0.173 0.216 0.204 0.172 0.188 0.165 0.206 0.149 0.206 0.185 0.211 0.188 0.203 0.211 0.206 0.141 0.188 0.223 0.238 0.188 0.213 0.213 0.211 0.201 0.200 0.212
34 Osedax deceptionensis 0.214 0.230 0.236 0.273 0.235 0.271 0.246 0.234 0.221 0.273 0.242 0.270 0.209 0.233 0.236 0.241 0.236 0.211 0.250 0.236 0.239 0.233 0.242 0.236 0.236 0.242 0.243 0.261 0.240 0.240 0.248 0.251 0.230

Acknowledgements

We thank all the participants of the Iatá-Piúna Expedition, the captain and crew of the R/V Yokosuka, and the operation team of HOV Shinkai 6500 for organising the cruise and conducting the diving research and sampling. We also thank Mr Katsuyuki Uematsu (Marine Work Japan, Ltd.) for SEM observations and Ayaka Takayama and Yoshimi Umezu (JAMSTEC) for research assistance. PYGS benefitted from a BIOTA FAPESP Grant number 2011/50185-1. We would additionally like to thank Editage (www.editage.jp) for English language editing.

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