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Research Article
A synopsis of centipedes in Brazilian caves: hidden species diversity that needs conservation (Myriapoda, Chilopoda)
expand article infoAmazonas Chagas-Jr, Maria Elina Bichuette§
‡ Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil
§ Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

This study revises centipede fauna found in Brazilian caves, focusing on troglomorphic taxa and emphasizing conservation status. We present 563 centipede specimens from 274 caves across eleven Brazilian states. Of these, 22 records were derived from existing literature and 252 are newly collected. Specimens represent four orders, ten families, 18 genera, and 47 morphospecies. Together, the cave records represent 21 % of Brazil’s centipede fauna. Scolopendromorpha was the most representative order (41 %), followed by Geophilomorpha (26 %), Scutigeromorpha (23 %), and Lithobiomorpha (10 %). Six species were found only in caves, with four considered troglobitic. The distribution of Cryptops iporangensis, the first Brazilian troglobitic centipede species to be discovered, was expanded to other three caves. Cryptops spelaeoraptor and Cryptops iporangensis are two troglobitic species considered Vulnerable and Endangered, respectively, according to the IUCN Red List. Main threats to Brazilian caves are mining, hydroelectric projects, water pollution, and unregulated tourism.

Keywords

Brazil, cave fauna, Geophilomorpha, Lithobiomorpha, Scolopendromorpha, Scutigeromorpha

Introduction

Centipedes are predatory terrestrial arthropods found in numerous habitats on all continents except Antarctica. More than 3,300 species are distributed across five extant orders and one extinct order. Centipedes are nocturnal and present in diverse microhabitats, including soil, decaying trunks, leaf litter, subterranean galleries, and termite mounds; they have also adapted to widespread environments such as grasslands, deserts, caves, and seashores (Lewis 1981). However, little is known about cave-dwelling centipedes despite how commonly members of these taxa are found in subterranean environments. Within Brazilian fauna alone, cave records exist for four chilopod orders, but very few reports are available regarding obligate cave organisms.

In Europe, approximately 50 troglobitic lithobiomorph species are distributed in caves from Spain, Italy, Romania, and nearly all countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Negrea and Minelli 1994, Culvier and Shear 2012). In Africa, only two cave species have been reported: Lithobius chickerensis Verhoeff, 1936 (from Morocco and Algeria) and Eupolybothrus kahfi Stoev & Akkari, 2010 (from Tunisia) (Negrea and Minelli 1994, Stoev et al. 2010). Within the troglobitic Geophilomorpha order, the Geophilidae family is represented by two species: Geophilus persephones Foddai & Minelli, 1999 from France (Fodаai and Minelli 1999) and Geophilus hadesi Stoev, Akkari, Komericki, Edgecombe & Bonato, 2015 from Croatia (Stoev et al. 2015), while the Ballophilidae family is represented by one species: Ityphilus cavernicolus Matic, Negrea & Fundora Martinez, 1977 from Cuba (Matic et al. 1977, Lewis 1981). Most troglobitic scolopendromorphs belong to the genera Cryptops Leach 1815 (nine species) (Matic et al. 1977, Zapparoli 1990, Negrea and Minelli 1994, Edgecombe 2005, 2006, Ázara and Ferreira 2013, 2014a) and Newportia (five species) (Negrea et al. 1973, Chagas-Jr and Shelley 2003, Schileyko 2013, Ázara and Ferreira 2013, 2014b). One Cryptops species was recorded in Spain (C. longicornis Ribaut, 1915), one in the Canary Islands (C. vulcanicus Zapparoli, 1990), one in Italy (C. umbricus Verhoeff, 1931), two in Australia (C. roeplainsensis Edgecombe, 2005 and C. camoowealensis Edgecombe, 2006), and four in the neotropics (C. cavernicolus Matic, Negrea & Fundora Martinez, 1977 and C. troglobius Matic, Negrea & Fundora Martinez, 1977 from Cuba; C. iporangensis Ázara & Ferreira, 2013 and C. spelaeoraptor Ázara & Ferreira, 2014 from Brazil). In contrast, Newportia is less common, with five currently known troglobitic species: N. leptotarsis Negrea, Matic & Fundora-Martinez, 1973 from Cuba; N. troglobia Chagas-Jr & Shelley, 2003 from Mexico; N. stoevi Schileyko, 2013 from Puerto Rico; as well as N. spelaea Ázara & Ferreira, 2014 and N. potiguar Ázara & Ferreira, 2014 from Brazil. Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus Chagas-Jr & Bichuette, 2015 was also recorded as the first troglobitic species of Scolopocryptops Newport, 1845 in Brazil. Finally, Thalkethops grallatrix Crabill, 1960 was the only representative of Thalkethops Crabill, 1960 found in Carlsbad Cave, New Mexico, USA (Negrea and Minelli 1994).

Cave centipedes (unidentified scutigeromorph and scolopendromorph species) were first recorded in Brazil at the start of the 1980s. These records were mainly from limestone caves in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Dessen et al. 1980, Chaimowicz 1984, Godoy 1986, Trajano 1987, Trajano and Gnaspini-Netto 1991a, b, Gnaspini and Trajano 1994) or from sandstone caves in Pará state (Trajano and Moreira 1991). Unidentified lithobiomorph species have also been observed in limestone caves from southeastern Brazil (Gnaspini-Netto 1989). These records have all been compiled by Pinto-da-Rocha (1995) in one publication on Brazilian cave fauna. Subsequent records include Geophilidae species from the Alto Ribeira karst area, São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, as well as the first sightings of Cryptops and lithobiomorphs from iron caves in Pará and Minas Gerais, respectively (Trajano and Bichuette 2010). A recently published faunistic inventory recorded centipedes from caves in the Serra da Bodoquena karst area, middle Paraguay River basin, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Medeiros et al. 2014). However, these specimens were only tentatively identified to the class level.

Brazil has a high potential for subterranean fauna, with over 15,000 known limestone, sandstone, quartzite, igneous, iron ore, and shale caverns (Canie 2016). However, most caves are not included in conservation units (e.g., parks) or special environmental-protection programs. Despite the large number of potential habitats, relatively few obligate cave-dwelling centipedes are known from Brazil.

Although the description of five troglobitic species within the past ten years has improved our knowledge regarding Brazilian cave centipedes, we still do not fully understand centipede species distribution and the status of their cave habitats. To address this issue, here an annotated list of centipedes from Brazilian caves is presented, including distribution data, taxonomical notes, and considerations for conservation.

Materials and methods

Data were obtained from two sources: (1) literature searchers and (2) scientific collections at the following locations:

MNRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;

MZUSP Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil;

UFSCAR Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil;

UFMT Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Of the 563 recorded specimens, 267 were identified at species level (seven specimens from the literature), 221 at genus level, 53 at family level, and 22 at order level. Most specimens from scientific collections (296) did not allow precise identification, but were still useful as indicators of species distribution and guides for future collection. This high number of unidentified species was due to two major reasons: 1) inadequate conservation in ethanol (resulting in damage such as lacking the ultimate pair of legs); 2) the danger of desiccation precluding analysis of intra– and interspecific variation among existing specimens, given the lack of back-up samples. Materials were identified through visual inspection in the field, then captured with forceps and brushes, without the aid of traps or attractive baits. Part of the material comes from the authors’ collections and donations from environmental consulting firms.

Geographic coordinates were taken from specimen labels and the database of the Laboratório de Estudos Subterrâneos (Universidade Federal de São Carlos). Maps were prepared in Qgis 2.18 (QGIS 2017).

Subsequent descriptions of each taxon include the following information: published records, material examined with repositories, specimen count, localities, collection date and collector/s (when available), taxonomic notes, distribution, habitat/microhabitat (related to the cave records), as well as conservation considerations, when appropriate. Furthermore, vegetation type, cave lithology, geomorphological group, and/or karst area are presented per species/morphospecies, in addition to being recorded on the map.

When possible, the centipedes were classified according to the three ecological-evolutionary categories of cave fauna: troglobites (obligatory subterranean populations); troglophiles (populations well established in caves and epigean habitats, with individuals regularly commuting between the two), and trogloxenes (populations inhabit caves but leave to complete life cycles) (Barr 1968). Troglobites generally present troglomorphisms (characteristics linked to life in permanent darkness), with the most common being reduction (or lack) of eyes and body pigmentation (Christiansen 1962, Trajano 1993). “Accidentals” are individuals that can survive temporarily in caves but are not considered a cave faunal category.

Results

Centipedes were recorded in 274 caves across eleven states (Figures 1 and 2). Analyzed data include 22 records from the literature and 252 new samples (from scientific collections, monitoring projects, and donated material).

Figure 1. 

Map of Brazil showing the distribution of centipedes in different lithologies and geomorphological groups.

Figure 2. 

Map of Brazil showing the distribution of centipedes per regions. A Secondary map of Pará state: Altamira region B Secondary map of Pará state: Parauapebas and Canaã dos Carajás region C Secondary map of Goiás and Bahia states D Secondary map of Minas Gerais state E Secondary map of São Paulo state.

Class Chilopoda

Order Scutigeromorpha Pocock, 1895

Family Pselliodidae Chamberlin, 1921

Genus Sphendononema Verhoeff, 1904

Sphendononema guildingii (Newport, 1845)

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N5E 02, Gruta N5E 09, Gruta N5S 20, (MNRJ) 4 spec, 22.iii–03.iv.2005, Andrade, R. & Arnone, IS; Gruta N5S 02, Gruta N5S 06, (MNRJ) 4 spec, 03–13.v.2005, Andrade, R. & Arnone, I; Gruta S11C 14, Gruta S11D 96, Gruta S11D 01, Gruta S11B 49, Gruta S11B 23, Gruta S11D 12, Gruta S11B 13, Gruta S11A 26, Gruta S11A 26, Gruta S11C 08, Gruta S11D 39, Gruta S11D 55, Gruta S11 D10, (MNRJ) 26 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N1 22, Gruta N1 37, Gruta N1 173, Gruta N1 25, Gruta N1 37, (MNRJ) 11 spec, 28.ix–03.x.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N5S 37 CL; Gruta N4E 14 AF; Gruta N4E 10AF; Gruta N5S 8AF; Gruta N5S 5 8AF; Gruta N5S 21AF; Gruta N4E 26AF; Gruta N4E 61CL; Gruta N4E 26 CL; Gruta N4E 61 AF; Gruta N5S 8 CL; (MNRJ) 18 spec, 07–12.x.2008, Andrade, R. et al.; Gruta GEM 1578 CL, (MNRJ) 3 spec, 17–24.x.2008; Curionópolis (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta SL 74 CL, (MNRJ) 4 spec, 17–24.x.2008, Andrade, R. et al.; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta NV 06, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 22–28.ii.2005, Andrade, R., Arnone, I.; Gruta S11C 0124, Gruta S11C 0147, Gruta S11C 0153, (UFMT) 4 spec, 01–08.viii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Caverna ST 0068, (UFMT) 1 spec, 26.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone and Shale: Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; Abrigo Paratizinho, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 04.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM. GOIÁS: São Domingos (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa São Mateus-Imbira III, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 11.vii.1988, Gregeo UnB, Vendramini, G.; (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 13.ii.2012, Bichuette, ME.; Lapa Angélica, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 20.iv.2011 and (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 21.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME.; (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 31.x.2012, Bichuette, ME.; Caverna Sumidouro I, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 25.iv.2012 and (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.vi.2012, von Schimonsky, DM., Gallão, JE., Fernandes, CS; Formosa (Cerrado), Limestone: Buraco das Araras, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.x.2011, Vidal, G.M.; Mambaí (Cerrado), Limestone: Gruta Judite, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 01.v.2013, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Rizzato, PP., Borghezan, R.; Gruta Pasto de Vacas, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.v.2013, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Rizzato, PP., Borghezan, R.; MATO GROSSO: Nobres (Cerrado), Limestone: Toca da Serra Rica, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 04.v.2015, Bichuette, ME., Chagas-Jr, A., Nunes, GA.; Toca do Sorvete, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.v.2015, Bichuette, ME., Chagas-Jr, A., Nunes, GA.; Mato Grosso DO SUL: Bonito (Cerrado), Limestone: Gruta São Mateus, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 26.vi.2012, Cordeiro, LM., Borghezan, R.; SERGIPE: Japaratuba (“Restinga” – Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation), Limestone: Caverna Casa do Caboclo, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 19.x.2014, Bichuette, ME.; Simão Dias (Caatinga), Limestone: Toca da Raposa, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 19.x.2014, Bichuette, ME.; BAHIA: Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruna das Três Cobras, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 10.ix.2008, Bichuette, ME.; Gruna Google, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 13.ix.2008, Bichuette, ME.; Gruna Vila Nova, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 26.vii.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Rizzato, PP.; Gruna das Três Cobras, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.v.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; Caverna Bem Bom, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 28.xi.2015, Gallão, JE., Bichuette, ME.; Andaraí (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Sandstone: Gruna dos Torras, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.i.2007, Bichuette, ME.; Coribe (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruna do Enfurnado, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, ix.2007, Trajano, E., Sansone, D.; MINAS GERAIS: Januária (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Gruta do Janelão, (UFSCAR) 5 spec, 22.vii.2012, Bichuette, ME.; Itacarambi (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Lapa do Branco I, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, vi.2014 by Monte, BGO.; Lapa do Cipó, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 10.iv.2015, Gallão, JE., Monte, BGO and (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 26.viii.2014, Bolfarini, MP., Monte, BGO.; Caverna Troncos, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 11.iv.2015, Gallão, JE., Monte, BGO.; SÃO PAULO: Altinópolis (Cerrado and Semidecidous seasonal forest), Sandstone: Gruta Itambé, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.vi.2011, Bichuette, ME.; Caverna Olho de Cabra, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.viii.2016, Gallo, JS., Mello, RV, Ferro, JP.

Taxonomic notes

Sphendononema guildingii is among the most common centipedes in Brazilian caves. Two specimens from Caverna Casa do Caboclo in Sergipe state, northeastern Brazil exhibit different tergal pigmentation patterns and might not be conspecifics of S. guildingii.

Distribution

This species is widespread in Brazil, found in almost all states, except Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Classified as a troglophile, S. guildingii was observed in limestone, quartzitic, sandstone, and iron ore caves.

Habitat

Cave (rocky substrate).

Conservation

Despite its wide distribution, the species is under threat because mining and/or hydroelectrical projects are affecting numerous cave habitats (e.g., in Pará and Minas Gerais states). Combined with their low-medium abundance and the lack of ecological or molecular studies, protection for this species should be considered.

Family Scutigeridae Gervais, 1847

Genus Thereuoquima Bücherl, 1949

Thereuoquima admirabilis Bücherl, 1949

Published records

None.

Material examined

SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest): Caverna Santana, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 16–20.ix.2011, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; SANTA CATARINA: Florianópolis (“Restinga” – Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation), Granite: Caverna da Água Corrente, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 29–30.ix.2016, Gallão, JE., Xavier, P.; Caverna da Água Corrente, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 01.v.2016, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Lee, D., Xavier, P.

Distribution

Thereuoquima is a monotypic genus exclusive to Brazil described from Ilha da Queimada Pequena island in São Paulo (Bücherl 1949). Compared with S. guildingii, T. admirabilis is rarely found outside caves, suggesting that it is troglophilic. Its range is restricted to São Paulo, Paraná, and Santa Catarina, indicating a more temperate distribution. This study presents the first record of Thereuoquima admirabilis in limestone and granitic caves from São Paulo and Santa Catarina (south Brazil), respectively.

Habitat

Rocky and unconsolidated substrate.

Conservation

The species’ restricted distribution must be considered for conservation purposes; caves from Santa Catarina are not legally protected and urban expansion is a major threat.

Order Lithobiomorpha

Family Henicopidae

Genus Lamyctes Meinnert, 1868

Lamyctes spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Curionópolis (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta SL 89 CL, Gruta SL 74 CL, (MNRJ) 2 spec, 17–24.x.2008, Andrade, R.; MATO GROSSO: Nobres (Cerrado), Limestone: Toca do Sorvete, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.v.2015, Bichuette, ME., Chagas-Jr, A., Nunes, GA.; BAHIA: Andaraí (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Sandstone: Gruna Canal da Fumaça, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14.iv.2014, Gallão, JE.; Iuiu (Caatinga): Lapa do Baixão, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.x.2014, Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna Bem Bom, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 28.xi.2015, Gallão, JE., Bichuette, ME.; MINAS GERAIS: Presidente Olegário (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Limestone: Lapa Zé de Sidinei, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14.vi.2014, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 20.i.2014, and (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 24.i.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 09.ix.2014, Zepon, T., (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 16.iv.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Damasceno, GF.; Lapa do Moacir, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.iv.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 20.i.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA.; Itabirito (“Canga”– heterogeneous flora), Iron Ore: Gruta VL 03 Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 18–25.iv.2007, Andrade, R.; Mariana (“Campos rupestres”): Gruta do Centenário, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 11.viii.2012, Senna-Horta, L.; SÃO PAULO: Apiaí/ Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta do Minotauro, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14–16.ix. 2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Gruta da Santa, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 26–30.iii.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Arapeí (Atlantic Rainforest): Gruta Rio do Capitão Mor 1, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.ii.2013, Gallão, JE.; Ribeirão Grande (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Caverna Cherol, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 09.vii.2006, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.; Caverna Cherol, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 15.iv.2014, Bolfarini, MP.; Caverna Córrego Principal, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 09.xi.2014, Bolfarini, MP.; Caverna Felício, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 15.v.2015, Bolfarini, MP.; Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta da Água Suja, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 13–20.iv.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Gruta Areias de Cima, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, x.2003 and (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xii.2003 by Bessi, R.; (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.iv.1990, Trajano, E.; Gruta Casa de Pedra, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 21.iv.1991 and (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 29.iv.1990, Trajano, E.; Caverna Alambari de Baixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 22.iii.1986, Trajano, E.; Caverna Temimina, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 26.ix.1988, Trajano, E.; Caverna Betari de Baixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.ix.1989, Trajano, E.; Caverna Arataca, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 28.iii.1991 by Trajano, E.; Caverna Laje Branca, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.viii.2013 Bichuette, ME.; Caverna Passoca de Baixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.viii.2013 Bichuette, ME.

Taxonomic notes

Little is known about Brazilian lithobiomorph taxonomy. All specimens examined here belong to Lamyctes (Henicopidae), a diverse genus with around 42 species distributed worldwide. In Brazil, only two species have been observed: L. adisi Zalesskaja 1994 and L. emarginatus (Newport, 1844). The former is endemic to Manaus and only found in Tarumã-Mirim Igapó of the Rio Negro region (Adis 1992, Zalesskaja 1994, Foddai et al. 2002). The latter is an exotic species, now widely distributed in Brazil in addition to being known from Europe, North America, Greenland, Tasmania, and New Zealand.

Distribution

Only a few records of lithobiomorphs are available for Brazil in the literature, mainly stemming from the Amazonian and Atlantic Forests in the southeast. Bücherl (1942) described sightings of Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Bahia state. This species was originally identified by Brölemann (1909). However, Bücherl (1942) suggests that the specimen in that publication was not L. forficatus, but an unknown introduced lithobiomorph. Here, we recorded Lamyctes specimens in several caves from Pará, Mato Grosso, Bahia, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo.

Habitat

The genus appeared common in caves of different lithologic characteristics, including limestone, quartzitic, iron, and sandstone, but was preferentially found in limestone caves; no sightings have been recorded for granitic caves. This preference is corroborated by additional records of unidentified lithobiomorphs in limestone caves from Minas Gerais and São Paulo in southeastern Brazil (Gnaspini-Netto 1989, Gnaspini and Trajano 1994, Trajano 1987, Trajano and Gnaspini-Netto 1991a, Pinto-da-Rocha 1995). Certain substrates also seem to be preferred, specifically guano piles, wet clay, or wet vegetal debris. This observation suggests that the genus either favors wet organic substrates (possibly because their potential prey also occurs in such habitats) or is intolerant to dry substrates.

Order Scolopendromorpha Pocock, 1895

Family Scolopendridae Newport, 1844

Subfamily Scolopendrinae Newport, 1844
Genus Cormocephalus Newport, 1844

Cormocephalus impressus Porat, 1876

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Abrigo Assurini, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.

Distribution

Cormocephalus impressus is distributed in the Antilles, Peru, Ecuador, and Brazil (Bücherl 1942, 1974). This species has been observed in northern, central, and western Brazil, but a unique specimen from one cave in the Amazonian region strongly suggests that C. impressus is an accidental species in Brazilian caves.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – sand).

Conservation

Cormocephalus impressus is under threat locally due to the construction of a huge hydroelectrical dam in the Altamira region (Belo Monte) that will flood Abrigo Assurini (M.E. Bichuette, pers. comm.).

Genus Rhoda Meinert, 1886

Rhoda thayeri Meinert, 1886

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 16, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.

Distribution

This species is only known from Belém, Pará, and here we provide the first record of its occurrence in an iron ore cave of Parauapebas. Mining projects are extremely frequent in this region. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Unknown.

Genus Scolopendropsis Brandt, 1841

Scolopendropsis bahiensis (Brandt, 1841)

Published records

None.

Material examined

MINAS GERAIS: Diamantina (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Quartzite: Lapa dos Pombos, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.ix.2013, Fonseca-Ferreira, R.

Distribution

A species exclusive to Brazil, S. bahiensis is usually found in the semi-arid regions of Bahia and Minas Gerais. This study recorded its occurrence for the first time in a quartzitic cave from Minas Gerais. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate, under rocks).

Scolopendropsis sp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Caverna ST 0022, (UFMT) 1 spec, 02.ii.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental.

Distribution

The species was found only in a single iron ore cave from Pará. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Unknown.

Conservation

Due to heavy impact from mining, the region must be considered in conservation projects. As the species appears to be novel, more samples are needed for detailed taxonomical studies.

Genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758

Scolopendra viridicornis Newport, 1844

Published records

None.

Material examined

GOIÁS: São Domingos (Cerrado), Limestone: Caverna Bezerra, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.vi.2012, Bichuette, ME.; BAHIA: São Desidério (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Gruta do Catão, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.xi.2012, Bichuette, ME.; Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna Furna do Fim do Morro do Parafuso, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013, Rocha, KG.; MINAS GERAIS: Itacarambi (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Gruta Olhas d’ Água, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.x.2013, Bichuette, ME.

Distribution

A widespread species in Brazil (Bücherl 1942), S. viridicornis is more common in the north, northeastern, central, western, and southeastern regions. The four specimens recorded here were from limestone caves; no data exist regarding its occurrence in other lithologies. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Cave (rocky substrate, under rocks and trunks).

Subfamily Otostigminae
Genus Otostigmus Porat, 1876
Subgenus Dactylotergitius Verhoeff, 1937

Otostigmus (Dactylotergitius) caudatus Brölemann, 1902

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Abrigo da Gravura, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 08.vii.2009, Bichuette, ME.; Nanoabrigo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 13.v.2011 by Gallão, JE.; SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta dos Paiva, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.iii.2014, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.

Distribution

This species is widely distributed from Brazil to northeast Argentina (Chagas-Jr et al. 2007). Though more common in southeast Brazil, it has also been found in the central, northeastern, and northern regions. Our records place the species in sandstone caves from Pará and in one limestone cave from São Paulo. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Cave (under rocks).

Conservation

Even with these few records, the wide distribution suggests that this species is not under threat. However, their range in Pará is located within the boundaries of a large hydroelectrical dam (Belo Monte) (M.E. Bichuette, per. obs.), suggesting the possibility of a local threat.

Subgenus Parotostigmus Pocok, 1896

Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) amazonae Chamberlin, 1914

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Caverna ST 0054, (UFMT) 1 spec, 29.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental.

Distribution

This species is typical of northern and western regions, in the states of Amazonas, Pará, and Mato Grosso. Only one occurrence in a cave (iron ore from Pará) was recorded, suggesting that the species is accidental.

Habitat

Unknown.

Conservation

The species’ wide distribution implies that it is not under threat, but the caves of Canaã dos Carajás are part of mining projects.

Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) muticus Karsch, 1888

Published records

None.

Material examined

MINAS GERAIS: Itacarambi (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Lapa da Onça, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 06.vi.2014, Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Monte, BGO.; Lapa do Mogno, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 12.iv.2015, Gallão, JE., Monte, BGO.

Distribution

Otostigmus muticus was recorded in the northern regions of Amazonas and Pará (Schileyko 2002), the extreme west of northeast Maranhão, as well as in the western and central regions of Mato Grosso and Goiás (Chagas-Jr 2012). Specimens were collected from limestone caves in a transitional xeric area of Cerrado and Caatinga (northern Minas Gerais) as well as in southeastern Bahia. The species is likely troglophilic.

Habitat

Unconsolidated substrate, under rocks.

Conservation

This species is not considered threatened due to its wide distribution and the fact that Lapa do Mogno cave, a major habitat, is legally protected as part of the Peruaçu Caves National Park (PCNP) in Minas Gerais.

Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) tibialis Brölemann, 1902

Published records

None.

Material examined

SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta da Água Suja, (UFSCAR) 4 spec, 13–20.iv.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Caverna Guaxica, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.iii.2014, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; SANTA CATARINA: Florianópolis (“Restinga” – Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation), Granite: Abrigo Saco dos Limões, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 01.v.2016, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Lee, D., Xavier, P.; Caverna da Água Corrente, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 01.v.2016, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Lee, D., Xavier, P.

Distribution

This species is widely distributed in Brazil, primarily ranging from the central regions and extending southward to Santa Catarina. Also well represented in southeastern and southern Brazil (Chagas-Jr 2012), O. tibialis was recorded in limestone and granitic caves of São Paulo and Santa Catarina, respectively. The species is probably troglophilic.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate, under rocks).

Conservation

Though widely distributed, the population inhabiting caves of Santa Catarina may be under local threat from urban expansion because there is no relevant legal protection. The species’ cave habitats in São Paulo are, however, located inside state parks.

Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) tidius Chamberlin, 1914

Published records

None.

Material examined

MINAS GERAIS: Diamantina (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Quartzite: Lapa dos Pombos, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.ix.2013, Fonseca-Ferreira, R.

Distribution

Otostigmus tidius is distributed in the central and northern Brazilian states of Tocantins, Mato Grosso, and Goiás, as well as in the Federal District (Brasília) (Chagas-Jr 2012). We provide a new record for the species in Minas Gerais. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – sand).

Conservation

Otostigmus tidius occurs in a mined cave and is under local threat.

Otostigmus (Parotostigmus)spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta NV 06, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 22–28.ii.2005, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.; Gruta S11C 0153, (UFMT) 1 spec, 01.viii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Caverna ST 0003, (UFMT) 1 spec, 21.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM.; GOIÁS: São Domingos (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa São Bernardo I, (UFSCAR) 1 spec,19.v.2015, Gallão, JE., Paula, CCP.; MATO GROSSO: Nobres (Cerrado), Limestone: Toca do Sorvete, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.v.2015, Bichuette, ME., Chagas-Jr, A., Nunes, GA.; MATO GROSSO DO SUL: Bodoquena (Cerrado), Limestone: Gruta Dente de Cão , (UFMT) 1 spec, 29.iv.2006; BAHIA: Central (Caatinga), Limestone: Toca do Pinguim, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.viii.2015; Gruta da Catedral, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 19.viii.2015; Andaraí (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Sandstone: Gruna Rio dos Pombos, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 10.xii.2015; Catolés (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Sandstone: Gruna Jambreiro, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 12.iv.2015, Bichuette, ME.; MINAS GERAIS: Itacarambi (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Lapa do Cipó, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 05.vi.2014, Gallão, JE.; SANTA CATARINA: Florianópolis (“Restinga” – Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation), Granite: Abrigo Saco dos Limões, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 01.v.2016, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Lee, D., Xavier, P.

Taxonomic notes

Some specimens lack the ultimate pair of legs, a trait used for species-level identification. Other specimens are different from all described species and are likely to be novel, requiring further examination.

Distribution

Most specimens recorded herein are from limestone caves of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bahia, and Minas Gerais states. However, some occurrences were reported for iron ore, sandstone, and granitic caves of Pará, Bahia, and Santa Catarina, respectively. Several new occurrences (e.g., at Chapada Diamantina, Bahia) were noted in this study, important for understanding the distribution of cave centipedes.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate).

Conservation

Iron ore and granitic caves from Pará and Santa Catarina are under threat from large iron-mining projects and urban expansion, respectively.

Genus Rhysida Wood, 1862

Rhysida brasiliensis Kraepelin, 1903

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira, (UFSCAR) 1 spec,15.xii.2010, Gallão, JE., and (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., Schimonsky, DM.

Distribution

Among the five Brazilian species of the genus, R. brasiliensis is known from southeastern Brazil (Bücherl 1942). New specimens from this study were collected in one sandstone cave of Pará, expanding the species’ record. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – sand).

Conservation

The Pedra da Cachoeira cave is located within the boundaries of a huge planned hydroelectrical project (Belo Monte) (M.E. Bichuette, per. obs.). Thus, the species is likely to be threatened on a local scale.

Family Cryptopidae Kohlrausch, 1881

Subfamily Cryptopinae Kohlrausch, 1881
Genus Cryptops Leach, 1815
Subgenus Cryptops Leach, 1815

Cryptops (Cryptops) spelaeoraptor Ázara & Ferreira, 2014

Published records

(Ázara and Ferreira 2014a).

Material examined

None.

Distribution

Cryptops spelaeoraptor is exclusive to Brazilian caves and only known from the type locality, found in Toca do Gonçalo Cave of Campo Formoso, Bahia. (Ázara and Ferreira 2014a).

Habitat

Cave (under rock, humid substrate).

Conservation

This species is classified as Vulnerable (VU) in the Red List of Brazilian Threatened Fauna (MMA 2016). Toca do Gonçalo Cave has no legal protection from Brazilian environmental agencies. Because it is a rare locale containing water in a semi-arid region, the cave is currently under severe threat from the efforts of local farmers to uncover water resources. Protective measures are urgently required, including monitoring of cave populations and the creation of a conservation unit.

Subgenus Trigonocryptops Verhoeff, 1906

Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) galatheae Meinert, 1886

Published records

None.

Material examined

SÃO PAULO: Ribeirão Grande (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Caverna Felício, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 15.v.2015, Bolfarini, MP.; SANTA CATARINA: Florianópolis (“Restinga” – Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation), Granite: Gruta Pedras Grandes, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 01.v.2016, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Lee, D., Xavier, P.

Distribution

This species is widely distributed throughout southern South America. In Brazil, C. galatheae is present in all southern states and in São Paulo (Bücherl 1940, 1942). The new records corroborate this distribution and suggest a preference for temperate regions. The species was recorded in one limestone cave and one granitic cave of São Paulo and Santa Catarina, respectively. It is a candidate troglophilic species, but more data are necessary to confirm this categorization.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate).

Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iheringi Brölemann, 1902

Published records

None.

Material examined

SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Bairro da Serra, Gruta Ressurgência das Areias de Água Quente, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, vii.1979, Nelson.

Distribution

This species is very common in southeastern and southern Brazil. Cryptops iheringi are present in the cities of São Paulo and Curitiba, the former in the downtown area and the latter in home gardens (under or in plant pots) or in landfills (Chagas-Jr et al. 2014). Here we present a record from a limestone cave in São Paulo.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – humid substrate).

Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iporangensis Ázara & Ferreira, 2013

Published records

(Ázara and Ferreira 2013).

Material examined

SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta Monjolinho, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 09.x.1995, Trajano, E.; and (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 09.v.2005, Trajano, E.; Caverna Alambari de Baixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, collected in 02.x.2012, Bichuette, ME.; Caverna Santana, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 01.i.2012, Bichuette, ME.

Distribution

Cryptops iporangensis was described based on a single specimen collected in Ressurgência das Areias de Água Quente Cave, Iporanga, São Paulo. Additional records extend its distribution to three more caves in the Alto Ribeira karst area, suggesting that the species is not endemic to a single cave system or rare, as previously proposed (Ázara and Ferreira 2013). Troglobitic species.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – humid clay, under rocks).

Conservation

New data reinforce the necessity of collections in other caves before establishing cave category (troglobitic, troglophilic, or trogloxene), as these classifications can affect subsequent decisions related to species distribution. For example, C. iporangensis was classified as Endangered (EN) (MMA 2016) in the Red List of Brazilian Threatened Fauna because available data suggested that the species was restricted to the Areias cave system. A reevaluation of threat category based on our new data is necessary. Two of the three caves with new C. iporangensis records are in limestone outcrops that are not part of the Areias cave system. These outcrops are isolated by non-soluble rocks that limit dispersal of terrestrial cave fauna (Trajano et al. 2016). Furthermore, the species’ cave category should be reviewed given that troglomorphism is not definite.

Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) hephaestus Ázara & Ferreira, 2013

Published records

(Ázara and Ferreira 2013).

Material examined

Itabirito (“Canga”– heterogeneous flora), Iron Ore: Gruta VL 11, Gruta VL 14, all in Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 18–25.iv.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta VL 13, Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 2 spec, 18–25.iv.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta VL 31, Gruta VL 32, all in Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 3–20.xi.2007, Andrade, R.

Distribution

Cryptops hephaestus is known from three iron ore caves of the “Quadrilátero Ferrífero” (Iron Quadrangle) in Minas Gerais, one in Mariana municipality and the other two in Itabirito municipality. The latter two caves are close to each other, whereas the former is at least 50 km away. Here, we identified six more specimens from five caves of the Itabirito region. These new records and distributional data (see below) strongly suggest that C. hephaestus inhabits areas outside the caves or are present in other caves near the two municipalities. Indeed, the species has no marked troglomorphic traits and should be considered troglophilic.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated habitat).

Conservation

Cryptops hephaestus occur in caves that are within iron mining areas, severely threatening the species. Urgent conservation action (e.g., monitoring cave fauna) is therefore necessary. The species has not been included in the latest Red List of Brazilian Threatened Fauna (MMA 2016).

Cryptops spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Caverna Sugiro-Roncador, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 02.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM.; Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM.; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta S11C 0060, (UFMT) 1 spec, 05.ix.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Gruta S11C 0139, (UFMT) 1 spec, 11.viii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; MATO GROSSO: Nobres (Cerrado), Limestone: Toca da Serra Rica, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 04.v.2015, Chagas-Jr, A., Bichuette, ME.; BAHIA: Andaraí (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Sandstone: Gruna Parede Vermelha, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.x.2010, Bichuette, ME., Rantin, B., Gallão, JE.; Gruna do Cantinho, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 01.iv.2013, Bichuette, ME., von Schimonsky, DM., Gallão, JE.; Gruna Esbirro de Quina, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 20.x.2014, Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; São Desidério (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Caverna Baixa Fria, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.xi.2011, Bichuette, ME.; Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruna da Altina, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 27.xi.2015, Gallão, JE., Bichuette, ME.; Gruna Valdecir, (UFSCAR) 4 spec, 31.v.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; Gruna Água Fina, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.v.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna do Urutau, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013; Abismo do Lixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013; Caverna da Presa II, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, ix.2013; Abismo dos Morcegos, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013, Rocha, KG.; Caverna da Presa II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013;xi.2014, Gallão, JE., Bolfarini, MP., Rosendo, MJ., Moreira, R.; Abismo do Entupido, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013; Abismo do Entupido, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xi.2014, Gallão, JE., Bolfarini, MP., Rosendo, MJ., Moreira, R.; MINAS GERAIS: Presidente Olegário (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Limestone: Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.1.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA.; Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 13.iv.2014, Bichuette, ME., Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Ribeiro, IA.; Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.xi.2013, Bichuette, ME., Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Ribeiro, IA.; Montes Claros (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa da Botina, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 20.v.2016, Gallão, JE., Zepon, T., von Schimonsky, DM.; Itacarambi (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Lapa da Onça, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.vi.2014, Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Monte, BGO.; Gruta Olhos d’ Água, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.x.2013, Bichuette, ME.; São Roque de Minas (Cerrado), Limestone: Gruta do Zeferino I, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 07.ix.2009, Bichuette, ME.; Pains (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Limestone: Caverna D19, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 02.xi.2005, Bichuette, ME.; Caverna C13, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.xi.2005, Bichuette, ME.; Diamantina (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Quartzite: Caverna Tromba D’ Anta, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 08.ix.2013, Fonseca-Ferreira, R.; Itabirito (“Canga”– heterogeneous flora), Iron Ore: Gruta VL 02, Gruta VL 08, Gruta VL10, all in Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 3 spec, 18–25.iv.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta VL 03, Gruta VL 60, all in Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 4 spec, 18–25.iv.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta VL 36 in Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 3–20.xi.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta VL 18 Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ)1 spec, iv.2008, Andrade, R.; SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Caverna Morro Preto, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.ix.2012, Bichuette, M.E.; Caverna Alambari de Baixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.x.2012, Bichuette, M.E.; Gruta Betari de Baixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 22.vii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Rizzato, PP., Fernandes, CS.; Gruta das Aranhas, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14.vii.2008, Bichuette, ME.; Gruta da Água Suja, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 16–20.ix.2010 Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Apiaí/Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta Mãozinha, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14–16.ix.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Gruta Espírito Santo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 08–13.ix.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.

Taxonomic notes

Cryptops is a common scolopendromorph genus in Brazil but also has worldwide distribution. The genus occurs in caves from Brazil, Spain, Australia, and Cuba (Ribaut 1915, Zapparoli 1990, Edgecombe 2005, 2006, Matic et al. 1977). Most Cryptops species recorded in Brazilian caves are troglobitic. As observed for some Otostigmus records, several specimens lacked the ultimate pair of legs or were damaged juveniles, making precise identification difficult. At least seven new troglobitic species are currently under study. They are listed here for their important in clarifying cave centipede distribution.

Distribution

Most specimens are from limestone caves of Mato Grosso, Bahia, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. The remainder are from iron ore and sandstone caves of Pará (northern Brazil), as well as iron ore caves of Minas Gerais (southeastern Brazil). The caves in both states are affected by major iron mining projects, while or hydroelectrical construction also affects caves in Pará.

Family Scolopocryptopidae Pocock, 1896

Subfamily Scolopocryptopinae Pocock, 1896
Genus Scolopocryptops Newport, 1844

Scolopocryptops ferrugineus macrodon (Kraepelin, 1903)

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone and Shale: Caverna Sugiro-Roncador, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 02.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM.; Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, xii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; SÃO PAULO: Altinópolis (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Sandstone: Caverna Pratinha, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 31.x.2016, Gallo, JS., Mello, RV., Ferro, JP.

Distribution

Sympatric with S. miersii, S. ferrugineus macrodon is widely distributed from northern to southern Brazil. Our records indicated occurrence only in sandstone caves from Pará and São Paulo. An accidental species.

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – sand, under rocks).

Scolopocryptops melanostoma Newport, 1845

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Shale: Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xii.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.

Distribution

The most widespread scolopocryptopid, S. melanostoma is a Gondwanan species occurring in the Neotropical, Indo-Malay, and Pacific Island regions (Chagas-Jr 2010). In Brazil, records place the species primarily in the southeast, but it also occurs in Amapá and Pará. The species was sighted in the Leonardo da Vinci shale cave from the latter state. Accidental in caves.

Habitat

Cave (under rocks).

Conservation

The shale cave is located within the boundaries of the Belo Monte hydroelectrical dam and is under threat.

Scolopocryptops miersii Newport, 1845

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N5E 06, Gruta N5E 10, (MNRJ) 2 spec, 22.iii–03.iv.2005, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.; Gruta N4WS 11 , (MZUSP) 2 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 14, Gruta N4WS 13, Gruta N4E 21, (MZUSP) 3 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 26, (MZUSP) 2 spec, Gruta N4E 33, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 08–12.ii.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N1 170 Pereira, (MNRJ) 2 spec, 28.iv–03.x.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N1 64, Gruta N1 22 Fael, Gruta N1 02, and Gruta N1 103, (MNRJ) 4 spec, 28.ix–03.x.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N1 20 and Gruta N1 75, (MNRJ) 4 spec, 28.ix–03.x.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta GE 1578 CL Tarzan, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 17–24.x.2008, Andrade, R.; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, xii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 03.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM.; Caverna Sugiro-Roncador, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM.; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta S11C 0058, (UFMT) 1 spec, 27.viii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Gruta S11C 0153, (UFMT) 1 spec, 01.viii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Caverna ST 0041, (UFMT) 1 spec, 23.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; GOIÁS: Mambaí (Cerrado), Limestone: Gruta da Tarimba, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.iv.2013, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Rizzato, PP., Borghezan, R.; MATO GROSSO: Nobres (Cerrado), Limestone: Toca Ronco do Bugio, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 22.ix.2015, Chagas-Jr, A., Bichuette, ME.; BAHIA: Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruna das Três Cobras, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.v.2012, Bichuette, ME., São Desidério, Caverna Baixa Fria, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.ix.2011, Bichuette, ME.; MINAS GERAIS: Montes Claros (Cerrado), Limestone: Fenda do Anfiteatro I, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 22.v.2016, Gallão, JE., Zepon, T., von Schimonsky, DM.; Lapa do Beija Flor, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 21.v.2016, Gallão, JE., Zepon, T., von Schimonsky, DM.; SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta do Monjolinho, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 09.x.2005, Trajano, E.

Distribution

The most widely distributed Scolopocryptops in Brazil, S. miersii is found in iron ore and sandstone caves of Pará. More commonly, it occurs in limestone and sandstone caves of the central, western, northeast, and southeast regions.

Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus Chagas-Jr & Bichuette, 2015

Published records

(Chagas-Jr and Bichuette 2015).

Material examined

BAHIA: Andaraí (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Sandstone: Gruna Parede Vermelha, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 11.ii.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Giupponi, A.; Gruna Lava Pé, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 10.iv.2014, (UFSCAR) 2 spec,10.iii.2013, and (UFSCAR) 1 spec, vii.2016, Gallão, JE.; (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 10.iii.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Giupponi, A.

Remarks

Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus is a troglobitic species, morphologically close to S. miersii and S. ferrugineus macrodon, but is distinguished by troglomorphic features, including depigmentation, long appendages (locomotory and ultimate legs), and thin cuticle (Chagas-Jr and Bichuette 2015).

Distribution

This troglobitic species is likely endemic to Bahia, being only known from siliciclastic (sandstone) caves of the Igatu region (Chapada Diamantina). Its distributional area there is approximately 10 km2 (Chagas-Jr and Bichuette 2015).

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – sand).

Conservation

A second troglobitic centipede species occurs in the same region (unpublished data, Chagas-Jr), corroborating the hypothesis of an area high in cave-invertebrate diversity (Gallão and Bichuette 2015). Within this region, at least 20 endemic troglobitic species are distributed in a 25 km2 area. Although the region is within the Chapada Diamantina National Park (CDNP), small-scale illegal mining persists in the Igatu region and serves as the main threat to cave fauna.

Subfamily Newportiinae Pocock, 1896

Genus Newportia Gervais, 1847
Subgenus Newportia Gervais, 1847

Newportia (Newportia) ernstiernsti Pocock, 1891

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N5E 03, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 22.iii–03.iv.2005, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.; Gruta N4E 02, (MZUSP) 1 spec, Gruta N4E 09, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 61, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 08–12.ii.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta S11B 13, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N1 15 Mangangá Flona Carajás, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 28.ix–03.x.07, Andrade, R.; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Shale: Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.

Distribution

This is a well-known Newportia species occurring on several Antilles islands and in northern South America. In Brazil specifically, N. ernsti ernsti has been observed in Amazonas, Pará, and Mato Grosso (Schileyko and Minelli 1999). Cave records follow the species’ distribution pattern, with occurrence in iron ore and sandstone caves of Pará.

Newportia (Newportia) ernstifossulata Bücherl, 1942

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta S11C 0002, (UFMT) 1 spec, 04.viii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Gruta S11C 0135, (UFMT) 1 spec, 05.viii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Caverna ST 0034, (UFMT) 1 spec, 04.ii.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental.

Distribution

Newportia ernsti fossulata is known from the northern Brazilian state of Pará (Bücherl 1942, Schileyko and Minelli 1999) and the western state of Mato Grosso (Schileyko and Minelli 1999). Occurrence records are from three iron ore caves that are part of major mining projects in Pará. Accidental in caves.

Newportia (Newportia) lasia Chamberlin, 1921

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 33, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 08–12.ii.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N5E 08, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 22.iii–03.iv.2005, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.

Distribution data

This species is known from Guyana, northern Brazil (Amazonas region) and Paraguay (Schileyko and Minelli 1999). Both iron ore caves in which N. lasia occurred were within a large iron mining project of Pará. Accidental in caves.

Newportia (Newportia) phoreta Chamberlin, 1950

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 005, (UFMT) 1 spec, 13.ii.2014, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Gruta N4E 26, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 08–12.ii.2007, Andrade, R.

Distribution

Newportia phoreta is known from observations in Venezuela (Schileyko and Minelli 1999) and Colombia (Chagas-Jr et al. 2014), with the current study being the first Brazilian record. The species was found in only two iron ore caves from Pará, both part of a large huge iron mining project.

Conservation

The new record and restricted distribution in Brazil put the species under a high level of local threat within the Carajás region.

Newportia (Newportia) potiguar Ázara & Ferreira, 2014

Published records

(Ázara and Ferreira 2014b).

Material examined

None.

Taxonomic notes

Newportia potiguar is a recently described species, with two small specimens characterized by marked troglomorphism: elongation of the ultimate legs (half of the body length) and antennae, cuticle sclerotization, as well as reduced pigmentation (Ázara and Ferreira 2014b). (Even without the latter characteristic, the former two traits are sufficient for troglomorphic characterization) Indeed, juveniles of the troglobitic S. troglocaudatus are completely pale, even in the appendages (Chagas-Jr and Bichuette 2015). Therefore, the character of reduced pigmentation should be investigated in other juvenile centipedes to properly interpret its application as a troglomorphic trait. Newportia potiguar resembles N. brevipes Pocock, 1891, but is closely related to N. stolli (Pocock, 1896) based on morphology of the ultimate and locomotory legs. The former exhibits four spinous processes on the prefemur and two on the femur; the latter has ventral, lateral, and tarsal spurs (Ázara and Ferreira 2014b). Distinct from N. stolli, N. potiguar has posterior transverse sutures on tergite 1 and paramedian sutures on tergite 2. Although considered a troglobitic species, no collections were conducted outside the cave to confirm this categorization.

Distribution

This species is known only from two limestone caves of Rio Grande do Norte, a semi-arid state in northeastern Brazil (Ázara and Ferreira 2014b).

Habitat

Cave (under rocks – humid substrate).

Conservation

The caves are not under legal protection. Primary threats are exploration for petroleum and illegal limestone extraction. Newportia potiguar was not evaluated in the last Red List of Brazilian Threatened Fauna (MMA 2016).

Newportia (Newportia) spelaea Ázara & Ferreira, 2014

Published records

(Ázara and Ferreira 2014b).

Material examined

None.

Taxonomic notes

The small body size suggests that the specimen was a juvenile. Thus, more collections are necessary to confirm diagnostic characters and cave category.

Distribution

Newportia spelaea is known only from a single specimen from Toca do Gonçalo, a limestone cave in the semi-arid, northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. The species is classified as troglobitic, but few collections were conducted outside the cave to confirm this categorization.

Habitat

Cave (humid substrate).

Conservation

Toca do Gonçalo has no legal protection from Brazilian environmental agencies and is under severe threat by local people for the water resources within. Newportia spelaea was not evaluated in the Red List of Brazilian Threatened Fauna (MMA 2016).

Newportia (Newportia)spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 22, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 32, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 22.iii–03.iv.2006, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.; Gruta GEM 154 CL Tarzan, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 17–24.x.2008, Andrade, R.; Gruta S11A 12, ((MNRJ) 1 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 30, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 08 12.ii.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 11, (MZUSP) 2 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Caverna ST 0030 (4), (UFMT) 1 spec, 04.ii.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 03.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME.; Abrigo do Abutre, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 11.iv.2009, Bichuette, ME.; Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., von Schimonsky, DM.; Caverna Sugiro-Roncador, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.iv.2011, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Pedroso, DR., Schimonsky, DM.; MATO GROSSO: Nobres (Cerrado), Limestone: Duto do Quebó, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.ix.2015, Chagas-Jr, A., Bichuette, ME.; CEARÁ: Crato (Caatinga), Limestone: Pedra Fedorena, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 15.vii.2002, Trajano, E., Bichuette, ME., Souza, L.; BAHIA: Paripiranga (Cattinga), Limestone: Caverna do Alto do Morro da Candeia, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xi.2014, Gallão, JE., Bolfarini, MP., Rosendo, MJ., Moreira, R.

Taxonomic notes

These specimens were damaged or lacked the ultimate pair of legs, precluding proper identification. They likely belong to more than one morphospecies. Mitochondrial sequence data might be a useful alternative for identifying Newportia species because it can accurately classify damaged specimens (Edgecombe et al. 2015). These damaged specimens are listed for clarification of cave-centipede distribution.

Distribution

The genus Newportia is widely distributed in the Neotropics, from central Mexico, through the Greater/Lesser Antilles, and occupying almost all of South America down to Uruguay. Records are from iron ore caves of Pará, sandstone caves of Mato Grosso, as well as limestone caves of Ceará and Bahia.

Subgenus Tidops Chamberlin, 1915

Newportia (Tidops) balzanii Silvestri, 1895

Published records

None.

Material examined

GOIÁS: São Domingos (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa São Bernardo I, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.v.2015, Gallão, JE., Paula, CCP; Lapa São Bernardo II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 21.v.2015, Bichuette, ME.; Mambaí (Cerrado), Limestone: Gruta da Tarimba, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.iv.2013, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Rizzato, PP., Borghezan, R.; BAHIA: Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna das Moscas, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, in xi.2014, Gallão, JE., Bolfarini, MP., Rosendo, MJ., Moreira, R.; Central (Caatinga):, Limestone Gruta do Tonho, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.ii.2015, Gallão, JE., Bichuette, ME.; MINAS GERAIS: Itacarambi (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Gruta Olhos d’Água, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.x.2013, Bichuette, ME.; Lapa do Branco I, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, vi.2014, Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Monte, BGO; Lapa do Mogno, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 12.iv.2015, Gallão, JE., Monte, BGO.; Lapa Mina d’Água, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 10.iv.2015, Gallão, JE., Monte, BGO.

Distribution

This species is distributed in central, western, and southwestern South America, encompassing Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay (Chagas-Jr 2011). Records in Brazil originate from Tocantins, Goiás, and São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. The new data presented here place the species in limestone caves of Goiás, Bahia, and Minas Gerais, extending its distribution to two more states.

Newportia (Tidops) nisargani (Chagas-Jr, 2011)

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 0036, (UFMT) 1 spec, 14.ii.2014, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta S11C 0102, (UFMT) 1 spec, 03.xi.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Caverna ST 0037, (UFMT) 1 spec, 25.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; BAHIA: Carinhanha (Caatinga): Gruna Água Fina, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.v.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; MINAS GERAIS: Montes Claros (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa do Ninho, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.v.2016 by Gallão, JE., Zepon, T., von Schimonsky, DM.

Distribution

This species is known from the states of Amazonas, Pará, and Bahia. Observed in iron ore caves from Pará, as well as in limestone caves of Bahia and Minas Gerais (the latter rarely), N. nisargani distribution has now increased to southeastern Brazil. Despite intensively sampling, only one specimen was recorded from Minas Gerais, in a cave of the Montes Claros municipality.

Newportia (Tidops) simus Chamberlin, 1950

Published records

None.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone: Abrigo da Gravura, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 08.vii.2009, Bichuette, M.E.

Distribution

This species is known from Grenada, Lesser Antilles, and Brazil (Santarém, Pará). The current study noted its occurrence in a sandstone cave from Pará (Altamira region).

Habitat

Cave (unconsolidated substrate – sand).

Conservation

This cave was flooded by the Belo Monte reservoir.

Newportia (Tidops)spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta S11C 0007, (UFMT) 1 spec, 04.viii.2015 by BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; MINAS GERAIS: Caeté (“Canga”– heterogeneous flora), Iron Ore: Gruta da Piedade, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 15.xii.2012, Bichuette, ME., Faria, LE., Gallão, JE., Rocha, A., Fonseca, T..

Distribution

Newportia (Tidops) is a typical newportiine from South America, with some records in the Lesser Antilles. Unidentified specimens in this study were collected from iron ore and limestone caves of Pará and Minas Gerais, respectively. Records are included to clarity cave-centipede distribution.

Geophilomorpha Pocock, 1895

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N5S S652, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 30.1–30.iv.2012, Andrade, R.; Gruta N5S S642, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 30.1–30.iv.2012, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 12, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 16, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; MATO GROSSO DO SUL: Bonito (Cerrado), Limestone: Gruta João Arruda, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 21.vii.1991, Trajano, E.; BAHIA: Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Abismo da Bezerra, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xi.2014, Gallão, JE.; Ourolandia (Caatinga), Limestone: Toca da Nicinha, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.vi.2015, von Schimonsky, DM.; Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruna Valdecir, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 31.v.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; MINAS GERAIS: Presidente Olegário (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Limestone: Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 10.vi.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA.; (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 30.xi.2013, Bichuette, ME., Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Ribeiro, IA.; (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 13.iv.2014, Bichuette, ME., Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Ribeiro, IA.; Lapa do Moacir, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.iv.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Damasceno, GF.; Caeté (“Canga”– heterogeneous flora), Iron Ore: Gruta da Piedade, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 07.vi.2013, Bichuette, ME., Faria, LE., Gallão, JE., Rocha, A., Fonseca, T.; Itabirito (“Canga”– heterogeneous flora), Iron Ore: Gruta VL 15 Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 18–25.iv.07, Andrade, R.; SÃO PAULO: Apiaí/Iporanga (Atlatinc Rainforest), Limestone: Caverna Arataca, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 08–13.ix.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Gruta Toca dos Meninos, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14 16.ix.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Caverna do Couto, 1 spec, 13–20.iv.2009 Pellegatti-Franco, F.

Distribution

The distribution of Brazilian geophilomorphs remains poorly understood. A few early and mid-twentieth-century studies on Brazilian centipedes reported geophilomorphs (Brölemann 1909; Chamberlin 1914, Bücherl, 1940, 1942), but more recent studies tended to focus on Amazonian fauna (Calvanese and Brescovit 2017, Foddai et al. 2002, Pereira 2012, 2013, Pereira et al. 1994, 1995, 2000). The first geophilomorph records in Brazilian caves are from limestone caves in Mato Grosso do Sul (Dessen et al. 1980) and São Paulo (Gnaspinni and Trajano 1994, Trajano 1987). Unidentified geophilomorphs examined here expands their distribution to iron ore caves from Pará and Minas Gerais, as well as to limestone caves of Mato Grosso do Sul, Bahia, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. Records are included to clarify centipede distribution.

Ballophilidae Cook, 1896

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 22 CL, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 7–12.x.2008, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 08, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 32, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 08–12.ii.2007, Andrade, R.; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta NV 09, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 22–28.ii.2006, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.; Gruta S11C 0060, (UFMT) 1 spec, 05.ix.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Caverna ST 0054, (UFMT) 1 spec, 29.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; GOIÁS: São Domingos (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa São Bernardo II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.v.2015, Bichuette, ME.; BAHIA: Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna do Alto do Morro da Candeia, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 25.xi.2014, Gallão, JE., Bolfarini, MP., Rosendo, MJ., Moreira, R.; Furna Sem Nome, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xi.2014, Gallão, JE., Bolfarini, MP., Rosendo, MJ., Moreira, R.; MINAS GERAIS: Itabirito (“Canga”– heterogeneous flora), Iron Ore: Gruta VL 32 Mina Várzea do Lopes, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 3–20.xi.07, Andrade, R.

Taxonomic notes

These specimens were only identified to the family level because some were juveniles, while others were damaged or possibly unknown species that should be examined in greater detail.

Distribution

Brazil (specifically Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro states) has eight Ballophilidae species from the genera Ityphilus Cook, 1899 and Taeniolinum Pocock, 1894 (Bonato et al. 2016). This study is the first to report ballophilid species in Brazilian caves. Most known Brazilian species in this family are from the Amazonian Forest, except Ityphilus bonatoi Pereira, 2013 from the Atlantic Rainforest of Rio de Janeiro. This study presents further records in caves of Pará (iron ore), Minas Gerais (iron ore), as well as Goiás and Bahia (limestone caves).

Genus Ityphilus Cook, 1899

Ityphilus spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 0026, (UFMT) 1 spec, 22.i.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Caverna ST 0054, (UFMT) 1 spec, 29.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; BAHIA: Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna do Alto do Morro da Candeia, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013, Rocha, KG.

Distribution

Ityphilus is the most species-rich and widespread ballophilid genera in the Neotropics (Pereira 2013). Seven species were recorded in Brazil, six from the Amazonian Forest (Amazonas), and one from the Atlantic Rainforest (Rio de Janeiro). Here, Ityphilus was observed for the first time in caves iron caves of Pará and a limestone cave of Bahia).

Geophilidae Leach, 1815

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta S11D 64, (MNRJ) 6 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N5S 18, (MNRJ) 1spec, 22.iii–03.iv.2005, Andrade, R., Arnone, IS.; Gruta N4E 16, (MZUSP) 1spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N5S 37 CL, (MNRJ) 1spec, 7–12.x.2008, Andrade, R.; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Caverna ST 0041, (UFMT) 1spec, 23.i.2016, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Curionópolis (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta SL 74 CL, (MNRJ) 1spec, 17–24.x.2008, Andrade, R.; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Sandstone and Shale: Abrigo Assurini, (UFSCAR) 1spec, xii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14.iv.2009, Bichuette, ME.; SERGIPE: Japaratuba (“Restinga” – Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation), Limestone: Caverna Casa do Caboclo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.x.2014, Bichuette, ME.; MINAS GERAIS: Presidente Olegário (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Limestone: Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 13.iv.2014, Bichuette, ME., Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Ribeiro, IA.

Taxonomic notes

With nearly 560 species representing 100 genera, Geophilidae is a highly diverse family of Geophilomorpha, distributed worldwide (Bonato 2011). Brazil is known to have nine geophilid species from four genera: Hyphydrophilus Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 (two species), Ribautia Brölemann, 1909 (five species), Schizonampa Chamberlin, 1914 (one species), and Sogona Chamberlin, 1912 (one species). Specimens in the current study were only identified to the family level because some were juveniles, while others damaged or potentially unknown species that require further detailed investigation.

Distribution

One Brazilian Geophilidae occurrence was recorded in the Alto Ribeira karst area of São Paulo, but the genus was not defined (Trajano and Bichuette 2010). Here, we recorded specimens from iron ore and sandstone caves in Pará, as well as from limestone caves of Sergipe and Minas Gerais, extending the family’s distribution to northeastern (Sergipe) and southeastern Brazil (Minas Gerais).

Genus Hyphydrophilus, Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994

Hyphydrophilus spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 0037, (UFMT) 1 spec, 14.ii.2014, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Gruta N4WS 17, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta S11 B13E, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.

Distribution

Two valid species of Hyphydrophilus species are known so far: H. adisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 and H. projectus Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000, both from the Amazonian Forest (Amazonas). We now add a record in iron ore caves from Pará, increasing the genus’ distribution down to the southern Amazonian region.

Genus Ribautia Brölemann, 1909

Ribautia spp.

Material examined

BAHIA: Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna Bem Bom, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.xii.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; MINAS GERAIS: Januária (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Gruta do Janelão, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, 22.vii.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., Rizzato, PP.; SÃO PAULO: Apiaí/Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta Mãozinha, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 26–30.iii.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Gruta Espírito Santo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 08–13.ix.2010, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta da Água Suja, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 16–20.ix.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Caverna do Couto, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 16–20.ix.2009, Pellegatti-Franco, F.; Gruta Areias de Cima, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 25.ix.1989, Trajano, E.; Gruta Areias de Cima, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.iv.1990, Trajano, E.; Gruta Casa de Pedra, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.iv.1990, Trajano, E.; Caverna Ressurgência das Areias de Água Quente, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 15.vi.1991, Trajano, E.; Caverna Laje Branca, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.iv.1992, Trajano, E.; Caverna Guaxica, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 03.iii.2014, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.

Distribution

There are five species of Ribautia in Brazil, all from the state of Amazonas (Bonato et al. 2016). Our records increased Ribautia distribution to northeastern and southeastern Brazil, all in limestone caves from Bahia, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo.

Conservation

No major threats affect the relevant caves. Those in Minas Gerais and São Paulo are within conservation units (Peruaçu Caves National Park and Alto Ribeira Touristic State Park, respectively). However, the Serra do Ramalho region (Carinhanha, Bahia) is among the most important areas for troglobitic fauna in Brazil (ME Bichuette in preparation), but the area remains legally unprotected. Further, due to the potential for ore extraction (e.g., niobium), international mining companies are prospecting the region.

Genus Schizonampa Chamberlin, 1914

Schizonampa sp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Shale: Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.xii.2010, Gallão, JE.

Distribution

Only one Schinozampa record exists for Brazil (Schinozampa mani Chamberlin, 1914), in Pará (Chamberlin 1914). Our records confirm the genus’ presence in this state, based on a specimen from a sandstone cave of Altamira, Pará. However, this specimen is not conspecific with S. mani and may be a novel species that requires further investigation.

Oryidae Cook, 1896

Material examined

SÃO PAULO: Apiaí/Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Gruta do Minotauro, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 14–16.ix.2010, Pellegatti-Franco, F.

Distribution

Four Oryidae species are known from Brazil, all belonging to two genera: Orphnaeus Meinert, 1870 and Notiphilides Latzel, 1880. Oryid species have also been found to the north (Bücherl 1940, 1942, Calvanese and Brescovit 2017) (Amazonas), northeast (Rio Grande do Norte), and southeast (Minas Gerais and São Paulo states) (Bücherl 1940, 1942).

Genus Orphnaeus Meinert, 1870

Orphnaeus spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N4E 0057, (UFMT) 1 spec, 25.vii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; BAHIA: Andaraí (“Campos rupestres” highland heterogeneous vegetation on rocks), Sandstone: Gruna sem nome, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.x.2014, Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; Gruna Lava Pé, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 23.x.2014, Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.

Distribution

The two Brazilian species (O. brasilianus Humbert & Saussure, 1879) was recorded in Rio Grande do Norte and Mato Grosso, and (O. porosus Verhoeff, 1937) was recorded in Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Bücherl 1942, Bonato et al. 2016). This study presents the first occurrence of this genus in Brazilian caves.

Schendylidae Cook, 1896

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N5S S652, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 30.1–30.iv.2012, Andrade, R.; Gruta N5S N701, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 30.1–30.iv.2012, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 13, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Shale: Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 08.vii.2009, Pedroso, DR.; GOIÁS: São Domingos (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa São Vicente II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.iv.2016, Bichuette, ME.; Mambaí, Gruta da Tarimba, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 29.iv.2013, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM., Rizzato, PP., Borghezan, R.; BAHIA: Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Caverna do Escondido, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013, Rocha, KG.; Caverna do Alto do Morro da Candeia, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013, Rocha, KG; (UFSCAR) 1 spec, xi.2014, Gallão, JE., Bolfarini, MP., Rosendo, MJ., Moreira, R.; Ourolandia (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruta da Fazenda Caldeirão, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.vi.2015, von Schimonsky, DM.; Itaetê (Caatinga), Limestone: Lapa do Bode, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 21.x.2014, Gallão, JE.; Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruna Valdecir, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 31.v.2012, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE.; MINAS GERAIS: Itacarambi (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Gruta Olhos d’ Água, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 25.iii.2014, Monte, BGO.; Presidente Olegário (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Limestone: Lapa do Moacir, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 17.iv.2014, Zepon, T., Resende, LPA.; Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 22.vii.2012, Bichuette, ME.; Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 13.iv.2014, Bichuette, ME., Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Ribeiro, IA.; SÃO PAULO: Iporanga (Atlantic Rainforest), Limestone: Caverna Alambari de Baixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 02.x.2012, Bichuette, M.E.; Gruta Casa de Pedra, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.iv.1990, Trajano, E.; Caverna Passoca de Cima, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 03.viii.2013, Bichuette, ME.; SANTA CATARINA: Florianópolis (“Restinga” – Atlantic Forest and coastal vegetation), Granite: Gruta da Laje, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29–30.ix.2016, Gallão, JE., Xavier, P.

Distribution

Schendylidae is the most diverse geophilomorph family in Brazil, with 22 species distributed across two genera, Pectiniunguis Bollman, 1889 (six species) and Schendylops Cook, 1899 (16 species). Brazilian Schendylidae are mainly found in the north (Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará) and in the southeast (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro). Records also exist from the northeastern state of Paraíba and in the southern state of Santa Catarina (Bonato et al. 2016). Our materials expanded the family’s range to Goiás (central Brazil) and Bahia (northeastern Brazil). No schendylid species was previously known from Brazilian caves, but we identified specimens in iron ore, sandstone, and shale caves (Pará), limestone caves (Goiás, Bahia, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo), and a granitic cave (Santa Catarina).

Genus Schendylops Cook, 1899

Schendylops spp.

Material examined

PARÁ: Parauapebas (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta N5S 37 CL, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 07–12.x.2008, Andrade, R. et al.; Gruta N4E 05, (MZUSP) 2 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta S11B 11, (MNRJ) 9 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta S11D 64, (MNRJ) 4 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta S11 B13E, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 23.viii–02.ix.2007, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4WS 17, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 20.x–01.xi.2006, Andrade, R.; Gruta N5S 10 CL, (MNRJ) 2 spec, 7–12.x.2008, Andrade, R.; Gruta N4E 33, (MZUSP) 1 spec, 08–12.ii.2007, Andrade, R.; Canaã dos Carajás (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta S11C 0203 0214, (UFMT) 3 spec, 31.vii.2015, BioEspeleo Consultoria Ambiental; Altamira (Equatorial Rainforest), Shale: Caverna Leonardo da Vinci, (UFSCAR) 3 spec, xii.2010, Bichuette, ME., Gallão, JE., von Schimonsky, DM.; Curionópolis (Equatorial Rainforest and “Campos Rupestres”), Iron Ore: Gruta SL 74CL, (MNRJ) 1 spec, 17–24.x.2008, Andrade, R.; GOIÁS: São Domingos (Cerrado), Limestone: Lapa São Bernardo II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 19.v.2015, Bichuette, ME.; Lapa São Vicente II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.iv.2016, Bichuette, ME.; Lapa Terra Ronca II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 01.x.2012, Gallão, JE.; Lapa Angélica, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 29.iv.2011, Gallão, JE.; Lapa São Vicente II, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 06.iv.2016, Bichuette, ME.; BAHIA: Paripiranga (Caatinga), Limestone: Abismo do Lixo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, ix.2013, Rocha, KG.; Carinhanha (Caatinga), Limestone: Gruna da Altina, (UFSCAR) 5 spec, 27.xi.2015, Bichuette, ME.; MINAS GERAIS: Presidente Olegário (Cerrado and Semideciduous seasonal forest), Limestone: Lapa da Fazenda São Bernardo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, in 30.xi.2013, Bichuette, ME., Zepon, T., Resende, LPA., Ribeiro, IA.; Monjolos (Cerrado), Limestone: Toca do Geraldo, (UFSCAR) 1 spec, 30.x.14, Fonseca-Ferreira, R.; Januária (Cerrado-Caatinga transition), Limestone: Gruta do Janelão, (UFSCAR) 2 spec, 22.vii.2012, Bichuette, ME.

Distribution

Over 60 Schendylops species exist worldwide, but only 16 species have been found in Brazil, with none previously known to inhabit Brazilian caves. Most Schendylops species are from the Amazonia (Foddai et al. 2002) and Atlantic Rainforests in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Santa Catarina (Bücher 1940, 1942). Some species also occur in northeastern Brazil (Paraíba) (Bücher 1940, 1942). Here, we recorded Schendylops in iron ore and sandstone caves from Pará, as well as limestone caves from Goiás, Bahia, and Minas Gerais. Thus, the genus’ distribution was extended to central Brazil, Minas Gerais, and Bahia.

Discussion

Distribution of Brazilian cave centipedes

The 563 centipede specimens recorded from 274 caves were assigned to four orders, ten families, 18 genera, and 47 morphospecies. Of the latter, 30 were identified to the species level, 12 to genus level, four to family level, and one to order level (Tables 1 and 2, Figure 3). Scolopendromorpha represents 41% of the centipede specimens, followed by Geophilomorpha (26%), Scutigeromorpha (23%), and Lithobiomorpha (10%) (Table 1). These records represent 21% of the Brazilian centipede fauna.

Figure 3. 

Centipedes from Brazilian caves in loco. A Sphendononema guildingii from limestone caves of Serra do Ramalho, Bahia state (A. Gambarini) B Sphendononema sp. from sandstone caves of Igatu, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia state (E.C. Igual) C Scolopocryptops miersii from limestone caves of Serra do Ramalho, Bahia state (A. Gambarini) D Otostigmus tibialis from granitic caves of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state (M.E. Bichuette) E Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus from Igatu, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia state (E.C. Igual) F Ribautia sp. from a limestone cave of Peruaçu, Minas Gerais state (P.P. Rizzato).

Number of records of centipedes from Brazilian caves considering family, genera, species, and morphospecies.

Order Family Genera Species Morphospecies Total specimens
Scutigeromorpha 2 2 2 2 128
Lithobiomorpha 1 1 1 59
Scolopendromorpha 3 9 28 33 231
Geophilomorpha 4 6 11 145
Total 10 18 30 47 563

The scutigeromorph centipedes were represented by Sphendononema guildingii and Thereuoquima admirabilis, respectively belonging to the Pselliodidae and Scutigeridae families. Scolopendridae, Cryptopidae, and Scolopocryptopidae represented the order Scolopendromorpha. The scolopendrid family was represented by six genera: Cormocephalus, Rhoda, Scolopendropsis, Scolopendra, Otostigmus, and Rhysida; cryptopids by only one genus (Cryptops); and the scolopocryptopids by two genera: Scolopocryptops and Newportia. The genera Cormocephalus, Rhoda, Scolopendropsis, Scolopendra, and Rhysida were each represented by one species. Newportia, Otostigmus, Cryptops, and Scolopocryptops were represented by nine, five, five, and four species, respectively. Therefore, Newportia is the most representative genus in Brazilian caves. Moreover, Sphendononema, Cryptops, Scolopocryptops, Lamyctes, Newportia, Schendylops, and Otostigmus genera were the most abundant centipedes collected in Brazilian caves, each with 31–123 individuals. Except Ribautia (16 specimens), other genera (Thereuoquima, Cormocephalus, Rhoda, Scolopendropsis, Scolopendra, Rhysida, Itiphylus, Hyphydrophilus, Schizonampa, and Orphnaeus) were less well represented, with fewer than six specimens each. Sphendononema guildingii is by far the most common species found in caves, followed by Scolopocryptops miersii, Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus, and Newportia balzanii. Owing to specimen issues (damage, lacking the ultimate pair of legs), the genus Cryptops had 54 unidentified specimens. However, the few well-preserved Cryptops specimens seem to represent seven unknown species that require further study.

Distribution per lithology – sampling gaps represent distribution gaps

Cave centipedes are distributed in six different lithological types in Brazil (limestone, sandstone, quartzite, granite, iron ore, and shale). Limestone caves contained 43 % of the specimens (Figure 4a–d); iron ore caves contained 41 % (Figure 4i, j, k, l); sandstone caves, 10 % (Figures 4f and g); quartzite caves, 2 % (Figure 4e); granitic caves, 2 % (Figure 4h); and shale caves, 2 % (Table 2). Despite higher sampling effort due to historical projects that have continued and intensified the late 1970s, limestone caves did not possess more centipedes than iron ore caves. However, centipede distribution in limestone caves is significantly higher than in the remaining lithologies (sandstone, quartzite, granite, and shale).

Figure 4. 

Outcrops and caves from Brazil with centipede records. A Limestone outcrops with pastures from Peruaçu region, Minas Gerais state. Cerrado (savannah-like vegetation) interspersed with Caatinga (xerophitic vegetation) (M.E. Bichuette) B Limestone outcrops with pastures from Serra do Ramalho, Bahia state. Caatinga (xerophitic vegetation) (M.E. Bichuette) C Atlantic Rainforest and limestone outcrops from Alto Ribeira, São Paulo state (M.E. Bichuette) D Alto Ribeira cave entrance, São Paulo state (M.E. Bichuette) E Quartizite outcrops with “Campo rupestre” vegetation from Diamantina, Minas Gerais state (M.E. Bichuette) F Sandstone cave from Igatu, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia state (E.C. Igual) G Sandstone outcrop from Igatu, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia state (J.E. Gallão) H Granite outcrop and Atlantic Rainforest from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state (J.E. Gallão) I Iron ore outcrop with Cerrado from Caeté, Minas Gerais state (M.E. Bichuette) J Iron ore cave from Caeté, Minas Gerais state (M.E. Bichuette) K, L Iron ore caves and Canga vegetation from Canaã dos Carajás, Pará state (A. Coelho).

Distribution and number of records of centipedes from Brazilian caves per lithology. An asterisk (*) denotes species found exclusively in caves.

Taxon Lithology Total
Limestone Sandstone Quartzite Granite Shale Iron ore
Sphendononema guildingii 40 6 1 76 123
Thereuoquima admirabilis 1 4 5
Lamyctes sp. 38 1 2 18 59
Cormocephalus impressus 1 1
Rhoda thayeri 1 1
Scolopendropsis bahiensis 1 1
Scolopendropsis sp. 1 1
Scolopendra viridicornis 5 5
Otostigmus (Dactylotergitius) caudatus 1 2 3
Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) amazonae 1 1
Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) muticus 4 4
Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) tibialis 5 2 7
Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) tidius 1 1
Otostigmus sp. 8 2 1 1 3 15
Rhysida brasiliensis 3 3
*Cryptops (Cryptops) spelaeoraptor 1 1
Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) galatheae 1 3 4
Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iheringi 1 1
*Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) iporangensis 5 4
*Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) hephaestus 9 3
Cryptops sp. 32 7 2 14 61
Scolopocryptops ferrugineus macrodon 5 2 7
Scolopocryptops melanostoma 1 1
Scolopocryptops miersii 8 6 3 24 41
*Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus 12 12
Newportia (Newportia) ernsti ernsti 1 6 7
Newportia (Newportia) ernsti fossulata 3 3
Newportia (Newportia) lasia 2 2
Newportia (Newportia) phoreta 2 2
*Newportia (Newportia) potiguar 2 2
*Newportia (Newportia) spelaea 1 1
Newportia (Tidops) balzanii 11 11
Newportia (Tidops) nisargani 2 3 5
Newportia (Tidops) simus 1 1
Newportia (Tidops) sp. 3 6 8 17
Newportia (Tidops) sp. 2 2
Geophilomorpha fam. gen. sp. 16 6 22
Ballophilidae gen. sp. 5 7 12
Ityphilus sp. 1 2 3
Geophilidae gen. sp. 4 2 1 11 18
Hyphydrophilus sp. 3 3
Ribautia sp. 16 16
Schizonampa sp. 2 2
Oryiidae gen. sp. 1 1
Orphnaeus sp. 2 1 3
Schendylidae gen. sp. 17 1 1 3 22
Schendylops sp. 15 3 25 43
TOTAL 244 55 10 9 14 231 563

Some cave types remain neglected. Sandstone caves were eventually sampled during the 1980s and 1990s, but collection efforts only began in earnest during 2007–2009 (M.E. Bichuette pers. obs). Similarly, granitic caves were sampled in the 1980s and 1990s, but new field explorations only began in 2012 (continuing to date). Quartzite caves were likewise only explored starting from 2012.

The high number of records observed in iron ore caves comes from collections in the last 12 years; they are associated with environmental consulting firms that survey regions for potential iron exploitation, mainly in Minas Gerais and Pará. However, other cave lithologies, even in regions with small sampling effort, contained more species/morphospecies (Figure 5). For example, the cave with the most records was the Leonardo da Vinci shale cave (Pará), a poorly sampled lithology. This cave was explored in the 1980s (Trajano and Moreira 1991) and recently (2008 and 2009) by the MEB team, resulting in nine centipede species. In contrast, the Areias cave system from the Alto Ribeira karst area (São Paulo) is the best-studied cave in Brazil, with systematic collections since the 1980s, and was second in centipede species count (Figure 5). These results reinforce the fact that multiple factors should be considered when discussing distribution, rarity, and ecological patterns in cave fauna.

Figure 5. 

Total records per region and respectively richer caves. Lithologies: IRON, Iron ore; LIM, Limestone; SAN, Sandstone; Sh, Shale; GRA, Granitic; QUA, Quartzitic. States: PA, Pará; SP, São Paulo; MG, Minas Gerais; SE, Sergipe; BA, Bahia; CE, Ceará; SC, Santa Catarina; MT, Mato Grosso; MS, Mato Grosso do Sul; RN, Rio Grande do Norte.

Such factors include replicated sampling effort, cave representativeness in terms of outcrops/massifs, paleoclimatic events, and biogeographical histories. The scutigeromorph S. guildingii and the lithobomorph Lamyctes spp. were recorded in most lithologies, except granite and shale. The scolopendromorphs of the genera Otostigmus and Cryptops were recorded in five lithologies, except shale. Scolopocryptops occurs in four lithologies (except quartzite and granite), with some species (e.g., S. troglocaudatus) preferring sandstone cave and others (S. ferrugineus macrodon) preferring sandstone or shale caves. Most Newportia species were found in only one type of lithology. Newportia ernsti fossulata, N. lasia, and N. phoreta were recorded in iron ore caves, while N. potiguar, N. spelaea, and N. balzanii were in limestone caves. Newportia nisargani was the only exception, recorded in both limestone and iron ore caves. Geophilomorph morphospecies were recorded in five lithologies, except quartzite. Genera Hyphydrophilus and Ribautia were only recorded in iron ore and limestone caves, respectively. The family Schendylidae is the most widespread geophilomorph group, occurring in four lithologies, except sandstone and quartzite.

Importantly, we only had partial access to materials collected in Brazilian caves, because some specimens (e.g., those collected for environmental licensing) are not deposited in official collections or lacked voucher numbers. Therefore, our current results should be considered preliminary.

Troglobitic centipedes from Brazil and conservation considerations

Six Brazilian centipede species from Cryptops, Newportia, and Scolopocryptops were considered troglobitic by previous studies.

Cryptops hephaestus was recorded in three iron ore caves of Itabirito (Minas Gerais), two of them near each other, and the third farther away (Ázara and Ferreira 2013). Over 100 caves occur between these three caves and are poorly sampled. We examined 15 specimens from 12 caves of the Itabirito region; five were determined as C. hephaestus, but the remainder (juvenile or damaged individuals) were simply Cryptops sp. These new records suggest that C. hephaestus may occur outside caves, changing its categorization to troglophile. Alternatively, it may be a widely distributed troglobite.

Cryptops iporangensis was described on the basis of a single specimen from the Ressurgência das Areias de Água Quente cave, which is close to be not part of the Alto Ribeira Touristic State Park (PETAR), Iporanga, São Paulo. This species seemed to be rare in the region, with an occurrence range of <5,000 km2 (based on a map of the Areias cave system). Parts of the Areias caves are not within the protected state park. Thus, deforestation around the cave and unregulated tourist activity may negatively affect the cave itself. Because of these considerations, the species is currently categorized as Endanger. Our new records located this species in three other caves of PETAR, extending its distribution to other outcrops. We therefore suggest a review of C. iporangensis conservation status before the Red List of Brazilian Threatened Fauna is next updated.

Cryptops spelaeoraptor was recorded in the Caatinga phytophysiognomy, from a unique limestone cave of Bahia (Toca do Gonçalo). The species show marked troglomorphic traits, such as long trunk, antennae, and legs, as well as a high density of long setae on the cephalic plate plus the first three antennal articles (Ázara and Ferreira 2014a). The species also seems to be rare, because only one individual was collected after multiple several visits. The cave is located in an extremely dry site, and the species’ presence outside cave is very unlikely.

Two records of troglobitic species were obtained from Newportia. Newportia spelaea was found in Toca do Gonçalo (never outside) and presented marked troglomorphic traits. Newportia potiguar was described from multiple caves located in Rio Grande do Norte, suggesting a wider distribution than previously thought. Although Ázara and Ferreira (2014b) considered the two Newportia species as true troglobites, due to marked troglomorphic traits and exclusivity in cave habitats, some characters (e.g., long ultimate legs, pronounced depigmentation, and reduced cuticle sclerotization) are actually characteristic of Newportia juveniles. The N. spelaea and N. potiguar specimens could potentially be juveniles given their body lengths were 19 and 24 mm in body length, respectively. Therefore, the troglobitic status of both species must be reviewed. Additional collections, including epigean ones, are necessary for proper assignment of the species to an ecological-evolutionary category.

The fifth troglobitic centipede belongs to the genus Scolopocryptops and was recently described for sandstone caves from Bahia. Scolopocryptops troglocaudatus is the second troglobitic species of this genus to be found in Brazil and presents at least three robust troglomorphic characters: extremely long ultimate legs (exceeding 2/3 of the body length: 26.2 mm), long antennae, and reduced cuticle sclerotization (Chagas– Jr and Bichuette 2015). This species is known from 12 specimens distributed across four sandstone caves of Chapada Diamantina (Igatu region). Several well-sampled (including replicates) limestone caves are also nearby (Gallão and Bichuette 2015). However, since the beginning of sampling in 2006, no S. troglocaudatus specimens have been recorded inside or outside of these limestone caves. We therefore conclude that S. troglocaudatus is troglobitic species endemic to sandstone caves from the Igatu region.

Of the 15 myriapod species in the List of Brazilian Threatened Fauna, three are centipedes: Scolopendropsis duplicata Chagas-Jr, Edgecombe & Minelli 2008, Cryptops spelaeoraptor, and Cryptops iporangensis (the latter two both troglobitic) (MMA 2016). The first is categorized as Vulnerable and the remainder as Endanger.

Acknowledgements

First and foremost, we thank all of the people who have collected centipedes in caves since the 1970s, contributing to our knowledge of this taxon in Brazil. We also thank E. Trajano for donating a portion of the materials and for valuable information regarding several species and caves. We thank J.E. Gallão, D.M. von Schimonsky, and G.A. Nunes for their assistance in organizing the database and site coordinates. Additionally, we are grateful to M.K. Gemael for preparing the maps, as well as to A. Coelho, A. Gambarini, E.C. Igual, J.E. Gallão, and P.P. Rizzato for taking photographs. ACJ and MEB were supported by funding from the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, projects 2008/08910–8 and 2008/05678–7) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, fellowship 303715/2011–1 and project 457413/2014–0). Collection permits to MEB were granted by the Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBIO), Fundação Florestal do Estado de São Paulo (FF) and Secretaria de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos (SEMARH/Goiás). A special thanks to Grupo Bambuí de Pesquisas Espeleológicas (GBPE) and Grupo Pierre Martin de Espeleologia (GPME) for their support in sharing information about the caves and their fauna. We also thank our invaluable field guides F. P. de Jesus (Boqueirão do Maxixe), J. A. dos Santos (PETAR), R. H. Santos (Terra Ronca, Goiás), and R. C. dos Santos (“Xiquinho” from Igatu). C.S. Fernandes is thanked for comments in a previous draft of this work. Special thanks to Pavel Stoev, Marzio Zapparoli, and Nesrine Akkari for considerably improving the final draft of this work.

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