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Research Article
Two new species of the planthopper genus Tenguna Matsumura, 1910, with a key to all species (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Dictyopharidae)
expand article infoYan-Li Zheng§, Lin Yang, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Xu-Qiang Luo§
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
§ Guizhou Education University, Guiyang, China
Open Access

Abstract

Two new species of the genus Tenguna Matsumura, 1910, Tenguna kuankuoshuiensis sp. n., Tenguna plurijuga sp. n., collected from China, are described and illustrated, photographs of the new species are provided together. A key is given to identify all the known species of Tenguna.

Keywords

Dictyopharidae, distribution, new species, planthopper, taxonomy

Introduction

The planthopper genus Tenguna was established by Matsumura in 1910 based on a single species, Tenguna watanabei Matsumura, from Taiwan, China. Song and Liang (2007) reviewed this genus and added the second species, T. medogensis, from China. In this paper, two new species, T. kuankuoshuiensis sp. n., T. plurijuga sp. n., are described and illustrated. Photographs of the adults of the new species are presented.

Materials and methods

The morphological terminology and measurements used in this study follow Yang and Yeh (1994) and Song and Liang (2007). Material examined here is deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC). Dry specimens were used for the observations, descriptions, and illustrations. Genital segments of the examined specimens were macerated in boiling solution of 10% NaOH and drawn from preparations in glycerin jelly under a Leica MZ12.5 stereomicroscope. Color pictures for adult habitus were obtained by a KEYENCE VHX-1000 system. Illustrations were scanned with Canon Cano Scan LiDE 200 and imported into Adobe Photoshop CS6 for labeling and plate composition. Terminology of morphology, genital characters, and measurements follow Song and Liang (2013).

The following abbreviations are used in the text:

BL body length (from apex of cephalic process to tip of fore wings);

HL head length (from apex of cephalic process to base of eyes);

HW head width (including eyes);

FWL forewing length;

GUGC Guizhou University, Guiyang, China.

Taxonomy

Tenguna Matsumura, 1910

Figs 1–13, 14–18, 19–32, 33–37

Tenguna Matsumura, 1910: 104; Song and Liang 2007: 59.

Type species

Tenguna watanabei Matsumura, 1910 (original designation).

Diagnosis

Genus diagnostic characters: general color green or yellowish green (in death); vertex with median carina distinct and complete, lateral margins sub-parallel at base, slightly sinuate in front of eyes, then gradually narrowing to arrowhead at apex; pronotum with distinct median carina and two obscure lateral discal carinae, elevated only anteriorly; fore femur with one minute, short and blunt spine near apex; aedeagus with a pair of processes apically and phallobase with pairs of membranous lobes apically.

Distribution

Southern China (Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang).

Key to the species of the genus Tenguna based on males

1 Vertex narrow and long, ratio of length to width is greater than 2.4 2
Vertex broad and short, ratio of length to width is not greater than 2.4 3
2 Pygofer posterior margin with distinct, posteriorly directed process near apex in lateral view; phallobase with 2 pairs of membranous lobes at apex Tenguna medogensis
Pygofer posterior margin with not distinct, posteriorly directed process near apex in lateral view (Fig. 27); phallobase with 3 pairs of membranous lobes at apex (Figs 11–13) Tenguna kuankuoshuiensis sp. n.
3 Aedeagus with 1 pair of equally long processes apically, processes with apex acute, sclerotized and pigmented. Phallobase sclerotized and pigmented at base, with 3 pairs of membranous lobes at apex Tenguna watanabei
Aedeagus (Figs 30–32) with 1 pair of unequally long processes apically, processes with apex acute, sclerotized and pigmented. Phallobase sclerotized and pigmented at base, with numerous membranous lobes at apex Tenguna plurijuga sp. n.

Tenguna kuankuoshuiensis sp. n.

Figs 1–13, 14–18

Measurements

♂, BL: 13.1–14.1 mm; HL: 1.7–1.8 mm; HW: 1.5–1.6 mm; FWL: 9.9–10.3 mm. ♀, BL: 15.2–16.3 mm; HL: 1.8–1.9 mm; HW: 1.6–1.8 mm; FWL: 12.3–12.9 mm.

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Tenguna medogensis, but can be distinguished from phallobase. The former with three pairs of membranous lobes at apex, the latter with two pairs of membranous lobes at apex.

Description

General color green; carinae on cephalic process, frons, pronotum and mesonotum, and parts of veins on forewings, dark green; rostrum with extreme apex blackish; hind tibia with lateral and apex black-tipped spines .

Cephalic process (Figs 1–5) relatively short, a little upturned, ratio length to length of pronotum and mesonotum combined 0.6. Vertex (Figs 1–3, 5) with lateral margins carinate, sub-parallel at base, slightly sinuate in front of eyes, then gradually narrowing to arrowhead at apex, ratio of length to width between eyes 2.8. Frons (Fig. 4) elongate, median carina complete and elevated, length 2.6 times long than width. Pronotum (Figs 1–3) distinctly shorter than mesonotum medially in the middle line, median carina distinct, lateral carina obscure, ratio length to length approx. 0.2:1. Forewings (Figs 1, 6) with Sc+R, M and Cu all branched apically; stigma distinct, with 3–5 cells. Legs moderately long; fore femur not flattened and dilated, with one minute, short, blunt spine near apex; hind tibia with 6–7 lateral black-tipped spines and eight apical black-tipped teeth.

Figures 1–13.

Tenguna kuankuoshuiensis sp. n. 1 male, holotype 2 female 3 Head and thorax, dorsal view 4 Frons and clypeus, ventral view 5 Head and pronotum, lateral view 6 Forewing 7 Hind wing 8 Pygofer and anal tube, dorsal view 9 Pygofer and parameres, ventral view 10 Genitalia, lateral view 11 Aedeagus, lateral view 12 Aedeagus, ventral view 13 Aedeagus, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1–7 2 mm; 8–13 0.5 mm.

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Figs 8–10) wider ventrally than dorsally, posterior margin with a blunt process, ventral margin depressed to accommodate anal tube (Fig. 8). Parameres (Figs 8, 9) large, distinctly broadening towards apex in lateral view (Fig. 8), posterior margin straight, upper margin with dorsally directed, black-tipped process near middle, with ventrally directed, hook-like process near sub-middle on outer upper edge. Anal tube (Figs 8, 10) oval in dorsal view, ratio length to width approx. 2.0:1. Aedeagus (Figs 11–13) with one pair of special long endosomal processes, processes with apex acute, sclerotized and pigmented. Phallobase sclerotized and pigmented at base, with three pairs of membranous lobes at apex: the dorsal lobe large and the ventral lobe with small lobe in lateral view (Fig. 11), two pairs of large lobes in dorsal view (Fig. 12), three pairs of lobes and numerous small spines on it in ventral view (Fig. 13).

Female genitalia. Anal tube (Fig. 15) round and large in dorsal view, ratio length to width at middle nearly 1.0. First valvula (Fig. 16) sclerotized with six different sized teeth in lateral view. Second valvulae (Fig. 17) triangular, symmetrical in ventral view, connected at base and separated from 1/5 base. Third valvula (Fig. 18) with two sclerotized lobes, lateral lobe with six long spines at apex.

Figures 14–18.

Tenguna kuankuoshuiensis sp. n. 14 Genitalia ventral view of female 15 Genitalia dorsal view of female 16 First valvulae (lateral view) 17 Second valvulae (ventral view) 18 Third valvulae (lateral view). Scale bars 0.5 mm.

Type material

Holotype ♂, China, Guizhou, Kuankuoshui, Qing gang tang hui long county. 17.VIII. 2010, Lihu. Paratypes, 1♂2♀♀, same to Holotype; 9♂♂5♀♀, China, Guizhou, Fanjing mountain, 27.VII. 2001, Lizizhong.

Etymology

This new species is named for the holotype occurrence in “Kuankuoshui”, Guizhou province in southwestern China.

Tenguna plurijuga sp. n.

Figs 19–32, 33–37

Measurements

♂, BL: 14.9 mm; HL: 2.1 mm; HW: 1.6 mm; FWL: 11.4 mm. ♀, BL: 15.2–16.7 mm; HL: 2.2–2.5 mm; HW: 1.6–1.8 mm; FWL: 11.6–12.3 mm.

Diagnosis

This species can be distinguished from other species from aedeagus and phallobase. The aedeagus with pair of unequal long processes apically; phallobase with numerous membranous lobes at apex.

Description

General color and external characters as the Tenguna kuankuoshuiensis sp. n.

Cephalic process (Figs 19–24) relatively short, a little upturned, ratio length to length of pronotum and mesonotum combined 0.7. Vertex (Figs 19–22, 24) with lateral margins carinate, sub-parallel at base, slightly sinuate in front of eyes, then gradually narrowing to arrowhead at apex, ratio of length to width between eyes 2.3. Frons (Fig. 23) elongate, median carina complete and elevated, length 3.0 times long than width. Pronotum (Figs 21, 24) distinctly shorter than mesonotum medially in the middle line, median carina distinct, lateral carina obscure, ratio length to length approx. 0.2:1. Forewings (Figs 19, 20, 25) with Sc+R, M and Cu all branched apically; stigma distinct, with five cells. Legs narrow and moderately long; fore femur with one minute, short, blunt spine near apex; hind tibia with six lateral black-tipped spines and eight apical black-tipped teeth.

Figures 19–32.

Tenguna plurijuga sp. n. 19 male, holotype 20 Same, female 21 Head and pronotum, lateral view 22 Head and thorax, dorsal view 23 Frons and clypeus, ventral view 24 Head and pronotum, lateral view 25 Forewing 26 Hind wing 27 Pygofer and anal tube, dorsal view 28 Pygofer and parameres, ventral view 29 Genitalia, lateral view 30 Aedeagus, lateral view 31 Aedeagus, ventral view 32 Aedeagus, dorsal view. Scale bars 19–26 = 2 mm; 27–32 0.5mm.

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Figs 27–29) wider ventrally than dorsally, posterior margin with a blunt process, ventral margin depressed to accommodate anal tube. Parameres (Figs 27, 28) large, distinctly broadening towards apex in lateral view (Fig. 27), posterior margin straight, upper margin with dorsally directed, black-tipped process near middle, with ventrally directed, hook-like process near sub-middle on outer upper edge. Anal tube (Figs 27, 29) oval in dorsal view, ratio length to width 2.0:1. Aedeagus (Figs 30–32) with one pair of unequal long processes apically, processes with apex acute, sclerotized and pigmented. Phallobase sclerotized and pigmented at base, with numerous membranous lobes at apex.

Female genitalia. Anal tube (Fig. 34) round and large in dorsal view, ratio of length to width at middle approx. 0.7. First valvula (Fig. 35) sclerotized with seven differently sized teeth in lateral view. Second valvulae (Fig. 36) triangular, symmetrical in ventral view, connected at base and separated from 1/5 base. Third valvula (Fig. 37) with 2 sclerotized lobes, lateral lobe with 4 long spines at apex.

Figures 33–37.

Tenguna plurijuga sp. n. 33 Genitalia ventral view of female 34 Genitalia dorsal view of female 35 First valvulae (lateral view) 36 Second valvulae (ventral view) 37 Third valvulae (lateral view). Scale bars 0.5 mm.

Type material

Holotype ♂, China, Guizhou, Institute of Entomology. XII. 2008, Light trap, Zhangyubo. Paratypes, 6♀♀, data same as holotype.

Etymology

This new species is named for the Greek word “plurijuga” referring to aedeagus with numerous membranous lobes at apex.

Discussion

The discovery of two new species broadens our knowledge of the morphology and biogeography of the genus. The two new species both occur in Guizhou, China. This may be due to the climate of Guizhou, warm and humid, subtropical humid monsoon, and minimal temperature changes. All described species are distributed in the Palearctic and Oriental regions.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Program of Science and Technology Innovation Talents Team, Guizhou Province (No. 20144001), and Special Foundation for Excellent Young Scientist of Guizhou Province (No. [2015]21), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41563007) and the Governor Fund of Guizhou Province (No. [2012] 80), and Scientific research fund project of Guizhou Education University (2015BS012), and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of Guizhou (20107005).

References

  • Matsumura S (1910) Monographie der Dictyophorinen Japans. Transactions of the Sapporo Natural History Society 3: 99–113. [In German]
  • Song ZS, Liang AP (2007) A new species of the Oriental planthopper genus Tenguna Matsumura, 1910 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Dictyopharidae) from Xizang, China. Zootaxa 1439: 57–64. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1439.1.3
  • Yang C-T, Yeh W-B (1994) Nymphs of Fulgoroidea (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) with descriptions of two new species and notes on adults of Dictyopharidae. Chinese Journal of Entomology, Special Publication 8: 1–187.