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Research Article
A preliminary account of the fly fauna in Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve, Saudi Arabia, with new records and biogeographical remarks (Diptera, Insecta)
expand article infoMagdi S. El-Hawagry, Mahmoud S. Abdel-Dayem§, Ali A. Elgharbawy|, Hathal M. Al Dhafer|
‡ Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
§ Cairo University (Giza, Egypt) and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
| King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Open Access

Abstract

The first list of insects of Al-Baha Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was published in 2013 and contained a total of 582 species; an addendum to this list was published in 2015 adding 142 species and bringing the total number recorded from the province to 724 insect species representing 17 orders. The previous two studies excluded Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR), so the present study in SANR, as belonging to Al-Baha Province, are complementary to the previous two. The present study presents a preliminary list of Diptera (Insecta) in SANR, with remarks on their zoogeography, and is the first of a series of planned ecological and systematic studies on different insect orders as one of the outputs of a project proposed to study the entire insect fauna of SANR.

A total number of 119 Diptera species belonging to 87 genera, 31 tribes, 42 subfamilies, and representing 30 families has been recorded from SANR in the present study. Some species have been identified only to the genus level and listed herein only because this is the first time to record their genera in KSA. Fourteen of the species are recorded for the first time for KSA, namely: Forcipomyia sahariensis Kieffer, 1923 [Ceratopogonidae]; Chaetosciara sp. [Sciaridae]; Neolophonotus sp.1; Neolophonotus sp.2; Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun, 1934; Saropogon longicornis (Macquart, 1838); Saropogon sp. [Asilidae]; Spogostylum tripunctatum (Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818) [Bombyliidae]; Phycus sp. [Therevidae]; Hemeromyia sp.; Meoneura palaestinensis Hennig, 1937 [Carnidae]; Desmometopa inaurata Lamb, 1914 [Milichiidae]; Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 [Muscidae]; and Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer, 1998) [Sarcophagidae].

Zoogeographic affinities of recorded fly species suggest a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region (46%) than to the Palearctic region (23.5%) or the Oriental region (2.5%). This supports the previous studies’ conclusions and emphasizes the fact that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, ought to be a part of the Afrotropical Region rather than of the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic Zone.

Keywords

Afrotropical, Al-Baha Province, Al-Sarah, Al-Sarawat Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Eremic Zone, fly species, new records, Palaearctic, Tihama

Introduction

Al-Baha Province (Fig. 1) is situated in the south-western part of the Kingdom of Saudi-Arabia (KSA) between the Holy Makkah and Asir provinces. It is the smallest province in KSA (approximately 10,362 km2), situated at 41–42 °E and 19–20 °N. It is characterized by natural tree cover (El-Juhany and Aref 2013) and agricultural plateaus. Huge and steep rocky mountains divide the province into two main sectors, a mountainous area known as ‘Al-Sarat’ or ‘Al-Sarah’ with an elevation of 1500–2450 m above sea level at the east forming a part of Al-Sarawat Mountains range, and a lowland coastal plain in the west, known as ‘Tihama’. The second sector, Tihama, is divided into two districts, Al-Mekhwa and Qelwa (Alahmed et al. 2010, El-Hawagry et al. 2013, 2015). Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR) lies between latitudes 19.8149N–19.8763N and longitudes 41.2855E–41.3501E (Fig. 1). It is an isolated granite mountain massif made up of jagged spires and pinnacles, located in Al-Mekhwa district, 20 km to the south-west of Al-Mekhwa city, the capital of the district. It is a dissonant of the Sarawat Escarpment in the foothills of Tihama, measuring 68.62 square kilometers. Its location and its altitudinal range from 490 to 2,222 meters above sea level ensures high rainfall, a wide range of micro-climates, and a high level of biological diversity (SWA 2016).

Figure 1.

Map of Saudi Arabia showing Al-Baha Province and Jabal Shada al-A‘la Nature Reserve.

In the lowland coastal plain, Tihama, the climate is hot in summer, warm in spring and mild in winter, with less than 100 mm of annual rainfall. In the mountainous area, Al-Sarah, the weather is generally cooler due to high altitude, in addition to the formation of clouds and fog accompanied by thunderstorms in winter, with a rainfall average of 405 mm annually (Ibrahim and Abdoon 2005; El-Hawagry and Al Dhafer 2015). The climate in SANR is intermediate between the climates in these two sectors, with a rainfall average of approximately 200 mm annually (Fig. 2).

Figure 2.

Monthly average temperatures and rainfall in 50 years (1950–2000). In Jabal Shada al-A‘la Nature Reserve (Worldclim database: http://www.worldclim.org/).

SANR, as an isolated mountain massif, supports an exceptionally rich flora; with approximately 500 plant species recorded, including 63 key plant taxa including endemics and Afrotropical relicts, it is the site of highest botanical diversity known in Saudi Arabia. The exceptional floral diversity of SANR, together with the presence of griffon vultures and endemic birds of the southwestern mountains and carnivores such as, the Arabian red fox [Vulpes vulpes arabica Thomas, 1902], Arabian caracal [Caracal caracal schmitzi (Matschie, 1912)], striped hyaena [Hyaena hyaena sultana (Pocock, 1934)], Arabian wolf [Canis lupus arabs Pocock, 1934], sand cat [Felis margarita harrisoni Hemmer, Grubb & Groves, 1976], and reportedly the Arabian leopard [Panthera pardus nimr Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833], makes this small protected area a unique treasure of biological diversity. Small communities on the mountain grow a distinctive variety of coffee and other crops in terraced fields (El-Hawagry et al. 2013; SWA 2016; UAEinteract 2016).

The purpose of this paper is to present a preliminary list of Diptera (Insecta) in SANR, Al-Baha Province, KSA, with remarks on their zoogeography. This is not the final list of Diptera that occur at SANR with the study serving as a basis for further investigations as many additional collected species are still unidentified and further studies are planned to be carried out at SANR. Also, this is the first of a series of planned ecological and systematic studies on different insect orders as one of the outputs of a project proposed to study the entire insect fauna of SANR.

El-Hawagry et al. (2013, 2015) studied the insect fauna of Al-Baha Province excluding SANR, so the present study and other future studies in SANR are complementary to the previous two studies. Studies on the fauna of SANR are of particular interest as this area lies in a part of the Arabian Peninsula which is thought by many authors to touch three of the main zoogeographical regions: the Palaearctic, the Afrotropical, and the Oriental (Hölzel 1998).

The Afrotropical Region is supposed to encompass all of Africa south of the Sahara, with the island of Madagascar and the nearby smaller islands. Many authors add parts of the Arabian Peninsula to the Afrotropical Region as well, but there seems to be no agreement as to how much (El-Hawagry et al. 2015). This may be deduced from the fact that the south-western and southern parts of the Arabian Peninsula including Al-Baha Province are strongly influenced by a subtropical to tropical climate with spring and summer rains (Abdullah and Al-Masroui 1998), and are thus dominated by a xeromesic tropical flora of palaeotropical origin, that in fact represents the impoverished northern part of an African flora (Ghazanfar and Fisher 1998; Hegazy et al. 1998). Examples of plant species with this conspicuous distribution pattern, linking south-west Arabia with the other side of the Red Sea, and commonly represented in SANR are: Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Vahl, Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B.L.Burtt and Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br. (Acanthaceae); Aloe officinalis Forssk. (Aloeaceae), Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult., Aerva lanata (L.) A. L. Juss. ex Schultes and Celosia spp. (Amaranthaceae); Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem. & Schlt. and Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae); Commiphora quadricinta Schweinf. and Capparis cartilaginea Decne. (Burseraceae); Commelina forskaolii Vahl (Commelinaceae); Conyza stricta Willd., Echinops sp., Psiadia punctulata (DC.), Pulicaria undulata (DC.), Rhamnus dispermus (L.), Tagetes minuta L. and Vernonia schimperi DC. (Compositae); Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Baker (Dracaenaceae); succulent Euphorbia spp. (Euphorbiaceae); Acacia asak (Forssk.), Acacia etbaica Schweinf and Indigofera spinosa Forssk. (Fabaceae); Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae); Hibiscus micranthus L. and Hibscus deflersii Schweinf. ex Cufod. (Malvaceae); Ficus ingens (Miq.) (Moraceae); Commicarpus spp. (Nyctaginaceae); Aristida adscensionis L., Cenchrus ciliaris L., Eragrostis tenella (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roemer & Schultes and Pennisetum divisum (Gmel.) Henr. (Poaceae); Solanum incanum L. (Solanaceae); Grewia tembensis Fresen and Grewia tenax (Forssk.) (Tiliaceae); Cissus rotundifolius (Forssk.) Vahl (Vitaceae); in addition to semi-evergreen sclerophyllous woodlands of the Afromontane vegetation (Ghazanfar and Fisher 1998; Zohary 1973; Thomas 2016).

Sclater (1858) and Wallace (1876) proposed the classical zoogeographical regions and placed the northern border of the Afrotropics along the Tropic of Cancer, i.e. the northern limit of the Afrotropical Region was placed in Taif area, some 200 km north of Al-Baha Province (Hölzel 1998). Crosskey (1980) considered the northern boundaries of Yemen as the regional boundary between the Afrotropical and Palaearctic parts in the Arabian Peninsula. Extensive sampling of Insects in the Arabian Peninsula by many authors in Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates and south-western mountains of KSA, have raised some interesting questions about the true extent of the Afrotropical Region in this important transitional zone. Authors indicate that Wallace’s (1876) concept of the extent of the Afrotropical Arabian Peninsula is more accurate than Crosskey’s (1980) limited concept of Yemen alone (Kirk-Spriggs and McGregor 2009, El-Hawagry et al. 2015). However, Uvarov (1938), Greathead (1980) and Larsen (1984) agreed that the south-western part of KSA including the study area should be united with the central Arabian deserts which are either considered as a part of the Palaearctic or by some authors as an autonomous Eremic Zone (also called the Saharo-Sindian faunal region).

Material and methods

Flies were collected from different localities in SANR over two successive years, 2014 and 2015 by the authors. Twelve collecting trips were made, six in 2014 in February, April, June, August, October and December, and six in 2015 in January, March, May, July, September and November. Collections were made in 6 different localities representing different altitudinal levels and habitats in SANR (Figs 13–18, Table 1). The collecting methods included sweep and aerial nets (randomly), bait traps (irregularly), light traps (6 traps, one in each locality, for one night in each trip), Malaise traps (6 traps, one in each locality, for one day in each trip), pitfall traps (90 traps, 15 in each locality, for three days in each trip), and vacuuming (one time in each locality, for 15 minutes in each trip). In addition, a few specimens were incidentally collected by hand.

An overview of the collecting localities with their coordinates and common vegetation.

Locality no. Coordinates (in decimal degrees) The most common plants in the locality
Elevation (M) Latitude (N) Longitude (E) Species Family
1 1666 19.8429 41.3115 Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Acanthaceae
Carissa edulis L. Apocynaceae
Conyza stricta Willd. Compositae
Psiadia punctulata (DC.) ,,
Rhamnus dispermus (L.) ,,
Aristida adscensionis L. Poaceae
Acacia etbaica Schweinf Fabaceae
Indigofera spinosa Forssk. ,,
Hibiscus micranthus L. Malvaceae
Hibscus deflersii Schweinf. ex Cufod. ,,
2 1611 19.8402 41.3114 Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Acanthaceae
Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl)
Aerva javanica (Burm.f.)
,,
Amaranthaceae
Capparis cartilaginea Decne. Burseraceae
Echinops sp. Compositae
Pulicaria undulata (DC.) ,,
Tagetes minuta L. ,,
Vernonia schimperi DC. ,,
Cenchrus ciliaris L. Poaceae
Eragrostis tenella (L.) ,,
Pennisetum divisum (Gmel.) ,,
Indigofera spinosa Forssk. Fabaceae
Ficus ingens (Miq.) Moraceae
Commicarpus spp. Nyctaginaceae
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae
3 1563 19.8388 41.3101 Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Acanthaceae
Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Amaranthaceae
Aerva lanata (L.) ,,
Asparagus africanus Lam. Liliaceae
Commiphora quadricinta Schweinf. Burseraceae
Commelina forskaolii Vahl Commelinaceae
Tagetes minuta L. Compositae
Aristida adscensionis L. Poaceae
Cenchrus ciliaris L. ,,
Eragrostis tenella (L.) ,,
Indigofera spinosa Forssk. Fabaceae
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae
Grewia tembensis Fresen Tiliaceae
Grewia tenax (Forssk.) ,,
Cissus rotundifolius (Forssk.) Vitaceae
4 1474 19.8452 41.3044 Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Amaranthaceae
Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Apocynaceae
Tagetes minuta L. Compositae
Cenchrus ciliaris L. Poaceae
Acacia asak (Forssk.) Fabaceae
Acacia etbaica Schweinf ,,
Indigofera spinosa Forssk. ,,
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae
5 1325 19.8511 41.3006 Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Acanthaceae
Blepharis ciliaris (L.) ,,
Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Amaranthaceae
Aerva lanata (L.) ,,
Acacia asak (Forssk.) Fabaceae
Acacia etbaica Schweinf ,,
Indigofera spinosa Forssk. ,,
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae
6 1225 19.8627 41.3015 Barleria bispinosa (Forssk.) Acanthaceae
Blepharis ciliaris (L.) ,,
Aloe officinalis Forssk. Aloeaceae
Psiadia punctulata (DC.) Compositae
Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. Dracaenaceae
Cenchrus ciliaris L. Poaceae
Acacia asak (Forssk.) Fabaceae
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae

Zoogeographic affinities of fly species of Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR).

Region Affinities
No. of species %
Afrotropical 55 46
Palaearctic 28 23.5
Oriental 3 2.5
Cosmopolitan 14 12
Undetermined 19 16

All taxa are identified and arranged in alphabetical order. Dates of collection for each species are included for the purpose of mapping the activity periods of species in the study area. Each collection date is followed, between parentheses, by the method of collection used, and the latter is followed by the locality number from which the specimens are collected.

Zoogeographical affiliations of species reported in the study area were estimated using world catalogues and counted to calculate the percentage of Afrotropical, Palaearctic or Oriental elements.

Images of newly recorded species were made using a Leica MZ 125 stereo-binocular microscope (Leica Microsystems Ltd, St. Gallen, Switzerland) fitted with a digital camera (Q-imaging Micro Publisher 5.0 RTV; Zerene Systems LLC, Richland, WA, USA) at the Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University. Photo automontage was performed by Zerene stacker program version 1.04 (Innovative Solutions, Bucharest, Romania).

Many studies and keys have been consulted in order to identify, classify and estimate the zoogeographical affiliation of collected specimens and such studies are indicated after each taxon in the list, in addition to the following: Abdullah and Merdan (1995), Amoudi (1993), Dawah and Abdullah (2006), El-Hawagry (2015), El-Hawagry and Gilbert (2014), El-Hawagry et al. (2000), Evenhuis and Greathead (2015), Greathead (1980, 1988), Londt (2008), McAlpine (1981), Pape (1996), Pape and Thompson (2016), Soós and Papp (1984–1993), Unwin (1991).

Unidentified specimens (or photos of specimens)were sent to experts for identification, as indicated after each of these taxa in the list.

Flies of suborder Nematocera were examined and preserved in alcohol, while other flies were glued to pinned stiff paper points, and all are deposited at the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (KSMA).

Abbreviations used:

AF Afrotropical

BT Bait trap

HP Hand-collecting

KSMA King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

LT Light trap

MT Malaise trap

NE Nearctic

OR Oriental

PA Palaearctic

PT Pitfall trap

SANR Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve

SW Sweeping and areal nets

VC Vacuuming

Results

A total of 119 fly species belonging to 87 genera, 31 tribes, 42 subfamilies, and representing 30 families was recorded from SANR through the present study. Some species have been identified only to genus and listed herein as the genera were not previously recorded from KSA.

Most of the recorded fly species are characteristic of the Afrotropical region. Table (2) indicates the zoogeographic affinities of recorded species suggesting a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region (46%) than to the Palearctic region (23.5%) or the Oriental region (2.5%).

List of species recorded at SANR to date

Order Diptera

Suborder Nematocera

Family Bibionidae

Dilophus tridentatus Walker, 1848

15 February 2014 (MT1), 5 May 2015 (SW1).

Identification: Haenni (1985).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Ceratopogonidae

Subfamily Ceratopogoninae

Tribe Culicoidini

Culicoides kingi (Austen, 1912)

23 August 2014 (LT2, LT5).

Identification: Alahmed et al. (2010), Boorman (1989).

Known distribution: AF.

Subfamily Forcipomyiinae

Forcipomyia sahariensis Kieffer, 1923

23 August 2014 (LT1).

Identification: Lewanczyk et al. (2009).

Known distribution: AF. First record from KSA.

Family Culicidae

Subfamily Anophelinae

Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu, 1902

23 August 2014 (LT2), 15 February 2014 (LT3).

Identification: Glick (1992).

Known distribution: PA.

Subfamily Culicinae

Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771)

15 February 2014 (LT1, PT4).

Identification: Alikhan et al. (2014).

Known distribution: PA.

Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758

23 August 2014 (PT4).

Identification: Thielman and Hunter (2007).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Family Sciaridae

Chaetosciara sp. Fig. 7

15 February 2014 (MT1), 23 August 2014 (LT2).

Remark: This seems to be the first record of Sciaridae from KSA..

Identification: Steffan (1981) and Mohrig et al. (2012).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Figures 3–7.

3 Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun 4 Neolophonotus sp.1 5 Saropogon longicornis (Macquart) 6 Neolophonotus sp.2 7 Chaetosciara sp.

Suborder Brachycera

Infraorder Asilomorpha

Superfamily Asiloidea

Family Asilidae

Subfamily Asilinae

Tribe Asilini

Neolophonotus sp1. Fig. 4

14-15 February 2014 (MT1, MT3), 21 April 2014 (LT3), 27 January 2015 (MT2, MT3, MT5), 5 May 2015 (SW1), 27 July 2015 (LT2).

Remark: This seems to be the first record of this genus from KSA.

Identification: Dr. Jason G.H. Londt, from photos (personal communication).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Neolophonotus sp2. Fig. 6

15 February 2014 (MT3), 15 November 2015 (MT3).

Remark: This seems to be the first record of this genus from KSA.

Identification: Dr. Jason G.H. Londt, from photos (personal communication).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Subfamily Apocleinae

Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun, 1934 Fig. 3

20 April 2014 (LT6), 3 June 2014 (LT2, MT4), 3-5 June 2014 (SW2), 15 November 2015 (MT6).

Identification: Efflatoun (1934, 1937).

Known distribution: PA. First record of the species from the KSA.

Subfamily Dasypogoninae

Tribe Dasypogonini

Saropogon longicornis (Macquart, 1838) Fig. 5

3 June 2014 (MT3).

Identification: Efflatoun (1934, 1937).

Known distribution: PA. First record from KSA.

Saropogon sp.

15 November 2015 (MT6).

Remark: This seems to be the first record of this genus from KSA.

Identification: Efflatoun (1934, 1937).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Subfamily Laphystiinae

Trichardis leucocomus (Wulp, 1899)

3 June 2014 (MT5), 5 May 2015 (MT5).

Identification: Dr Torsten Dikow, from photos (personal communication).

Known distribution: PA.

Family Bombyliidae

Subfamily Bombyliinae

Tribe Bombyliini

Bombylella delicata Wiedemann, 1830

5 June 2014 (SW6), 28 July 2015 (SW3).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Bombylius pallidipilus Greathead, 1967

15 February 2014 (MT1), 23 August 2014 (LT2).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Systoechus horridus Greathead, 1980

21 April 2014 (LT2), 3 May 2015 (LT5), 14 November 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: PA.

Subfamily Anthracinae

Tribe Anthracini

Anthrax sticticus Klug, 1832

22 April 2015 (LT).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF, PA.

Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909)

4 June 2014 (SW6).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: OR, PA.

Spogostylum isis (Meigen, 1820)

29 July 2015 (PT5).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: PA.

Spogostylum tripunctatum (Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818)

4-5 June 2014 (SW2), 2 September 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: PA. First record from KSA.

Tribe Exoprosopini

Defilippia nigrifimbriata (Hesse, 1956)

17 October 2014 (MT5).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Exoprosopa disrupta tihamae Greathead, 1980 Fig. 9

3 June 2014 (SW1).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Figures 8–12.

8 Actocetor margaritatus Wiedemann 9 Exoprosopa disrupta tihamae Greathead 10 Desmometopa inaurata Lamb 11 Stomoxys niger Macquart 12 a Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer), habitus b same, male genitalia.

Figures 13–18.

13 Collecting locality no. 1 14 Collecting locality no. 2 15 Collecting locality no. 3 16 Collecting locality no. 4 17 Collecting locality no. 5 18 Collecting locality no. 6.

Heteralonia bisecta Greathead, 1988

29 July 2015 (PT5).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Pterobates chalybaeus (Röder, 1887)

3 November 2014 (HP6).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: PA.

Tribe Villini

Exhyalanthrax triangularis Bezzi, 1924

27 January 2015 (MT5), 5 May 2015 (MT2, MT4), 15 November 2015 (MT4).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Pachyanthrax circe (Klug, 1832)

5 May 2015 (MT4).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Villa bivirgata Austen, 1937

3 June 2014 (SW4), 5 May 2015 (SW4).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988) and EL-Hawagry and Greathead (2006).

Known distribution: PA.

Villa paniscoides Bezzi, 1912

3 June 2014 (SW4), 27-28 July 2015 (SW1), 15 November 2015 (MT4).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988) and EL-Hawagry and Greathead (2006).

Known distribution: AF.

Tribe Xeramoebini

Desmatoneura sp.

4 June 2014 (SW4).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using El-Hawagry and Evenhuis (2008).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Petrorossia albula Zaitzev, 1962

5 June 2014 (SW2), 27 July 2015 (SW1).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: PA.

Petrorossia letho (Wiedemann, 1828)

5 June 2014 (SW4), 27 July 2015 (SW1).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: PA.

Petrorossia tropicalis Bezzi, 1921

3-5 June 2014 (SW2, SW4), 5 May 2015 (MT3), 27 July 2015 (SW4).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry using Greathead (1980, 1988).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Therevidae

Phycus sp.

1 June 2014 (LT5), 24 August 2014 (LT6).

Remark: This seems to be the first record of the genus from KSA.

Identification: Dr Martin Hauser (personal communication).

Known distribution: AF.

Superfamily Empidoidea

Family Dolichopodidae

Subfamily Diaphorinae

Asyndetus albifacies Parent, 1929

27 July 2015 (SW).

Identification: Grichanov (2007).

Known distribution: AF.

Subfamily Dolichopodinae

Dolichopus sp.

23 August 2014 (LT4), 10 December 2014 (LT6), 26 January 2015 (PT4), 27 July 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Grichanov (2007).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Tachytrechus planitarsis Becker, 1907

23 August 2014 (LT2).

Identification: Grichanov (2007).

Known distribution: PA.

Superfamily Nemestrinoidea

Family Nemestrinidae

Trichopsidea costata Loew, 1858

10 December 2014 (LT6).

Identification: Narchuk (2007).

Known distribution: AF.

Superfamily Tabanoidea

Family Tabanidae

Haematopota pluvialis (Linnaeus, 1758)

15 November 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Amoudi and Leclercq (1992) and Leclercq (1982, 1986, 2000).

Known distribution: PA.

Infraorder Muscomorpha

Section Aschiza

Superfamily Platypezoidea

Family Phoridae

Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866)

23 April 2014 (PT2, PT3), 5 June 2014 (PT4), 2 March 2015 (PT4), 29 July 2015 (PT5), 23 August 2015 (LT3).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry.

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Section Schizophora

Subsection Acalyptratae

Family Carnidae

Hemeromyia sp. 23 August 2014 (LT1).

Remark: This seems to be the first record of the genus from KSA.

Identification: Sabrosky (1987).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Meoneura palaestinensis Hennig, 1937

23 August 2014 (LT1, PT2).

Identification: Papp (1978).

Known distribution: PA.

Family Chloropidae

Subfamily Chloropinae

Pachylophus pellucidus Becker, 1910

24 August 2014 (MT6).

Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: AF.

Thaumatomyia notata (Meigen, 1830)

27 January 2015 (LT1).

Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: AF, PA.

Subfamily Oscinellinae

Anatrichus pygmaeus Lamb, 1918

27 July 2015 (VC5).

Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: AF.

Aphanotrigonum subfasciellum Collin, 1949

4 June 2014(SW4), 24 August 2014 (LT6).

Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: PA.

Lasiochaeta vulgaris (Adams, 1905)

15 February 2014 (MT1), 8 December 2014 (VC1, VC4), 5 May 2015 (MT4).

Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: AF.

Polyodaspis robusta (Lamb, 1918)

15 February 2014 (MT1, PT1), 17 October 2014 (LT1), 27 July 2015 (VC2).

Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012) for genus, and Lamb (1918) for species.

Known distribution: AF.

Scoliophthalmus micantipennis Duda, 1935

5 May 2015 (MT6).

Identification: Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: AF.

Scoliophthalmus trapezoides Becker, 1903

5 May 2015 (MT6).

Identification: Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: AF.

Subfamily Siphonellopsinae

Apotropina gregalis (Lamb, 1937)

23 August 2014 (LT5, LT6, PT2, PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6), 17 October 2014 (LT5), 8 December 2014 (VC4), 2-3 March 2015 (PT4, PT5), 17 July 2015 (LT3, MT4), 15 November 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Identification: Deeming and Al-Dhafer (2012).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Chyromyidae

Subfamily Chyromyinae

Somatiosoma eremicolum Ebejer, 2008

15 February 2014 (MT4).

Identification: Ebejer (2008).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Conopidae

Subfamily Myopinae

Tribe Zodionini

Zodion cinereum (Fabricius, 1794)

5 May 2015 (MT6).

Mei & Stuke J-H (2008) has been consulted to identify this species.

Identification: Mei and Stuke (2008).

Known distribution: PA.

Family Diopsidae

Diopsis apicalis Dalman, 1817

5 May 2015 (LT2, SW1).

Identification: Dawah and Abdullah (2008).

Known distribution: AF.

Sphyracephala beccarii (Rondani, 1873)

2 June 2014 (LT6), 3 June 2014 (LT3, LT4), 3 June 2014 (MT2), 27 January 2015 (LT4), 5 May 2015 (LT1, SW1), 15 November 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Dawah and Abdullah (2008).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Drosophilidae

Subfamily Drosophilinae

Tribe Drosophilini

Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830

17-18 October 2014 (LT3, PT2), 8 December 2014 (PT2), 26-27 January 2015 (LT1, MT1, MT2, PT1, PT2), 2 March 2015 (PT1, PT2, PT4).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry.

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Zaprionus indianus Gupta, 1970

2 March 2014 (PT5), 23 August 2014 (LT2), 18 October 2014 (PT1, PT2, PT4, PT5).

Identification: Amoudi et al. (1991).

Known distribution: OR.

Family Ephydridae

Subfamily Discomyzinae

Tribe Discomyzini

Actocetor indicus (Wiedemann 1824)

23 April 2014 (PT4, PT5), 17 October 2014 (LT4).

Identification: Dawah and Abdullah (2006), Becker (1903) and Wiedemann (1824).

Known distribution: AF.

Actocetor margaritatus Wiedemann, 1830 Fig. 8

28 February 2014 (PT3), 23 August 2014 (PT1, PT2, PT4, PT5), 10 December (2014 (LT6), 5 May 2015 (LT4, SW1).

Identification: Dawah and Abdullah (2006), Becker (1903) and Wiedemann (1830).

Known distribution: AF.

Tribe Psilopini

Psilopa nilotica (Becker, 1903)

15 February 2014 (LT2, MT2), 4 June 2014 (SW4), 29 July 2015 (PT4, PT5).

Identification: Dawah and Abdullah (2006), Becker (1903).

Known distribution: AF, PA.

Subfamily Hydrelliinae

Notiphila ignobilis Loew, 1862

29 July 2015 (MT6).

Identification: Dawah and Abdullah (2006), Becker (1903).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Lonchaeidae

Subfamily Lonchaeinae

Tribe Lonchaeini

Silba virescens Macquart, 1851

15 February 2014 (SW6).

Identification: MacGowan and Friedberg (2009).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Milichiidae

Subfamily Madizinae

Desmometopa inaurata Lamb, 1914 Fig. 10

27 January 2015 (LT2), 29 July 2015 (PT4).

Identification: Deeming (1998).

Known distribution: AF. First record from KSA.

Desmometopa varipalpis Malloch, 1927

5 May 2015 (PT5), 29 July 2015 (PT6).

Identification: Identification: Deeming (1998).

Known distribution: AF.

Subfamily Phyllomyzinae

Phyllomyza sp.

15 February 2014 (LT2), 27 July 2015 (LT2).

Identification: Deeming (1998).

Known distribution: Undetermined.

Family Pyrgotidae

Campylocera ferruginea Macquart, 1843

15 November 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Dr Valery Korneyev, from photos (personal communication).

Known distribution: AF.

Eupyrgota latipennis (Walker, 1849)

3 June 2014 (LT2), 14 November 2015 (LT2).

Identification: Dr Valery Korneyev, from photos (personal communication).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Sphaeroceridae

Rachispoda fuscipennis (Haliday 1833)

15 February 2014 (PT2, PT3), 23 August 2014 (PT6), 18 October 2014 (LT3, PT1, PT2, PT3, PT4), 8-11 December 2014 (LT2, LT3, LT4, VC1, VC2).

Identification: Magdi El-Hawagry, compared with museum specimens.

Known distribution: PA.

Family Tephritidae

Subfamily Dacinae

Tribe Dacini

Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, 1842)

23 August 2014 (LT2), 5 May 2015 (SW1), 27 July 2015 (SW1).

Identification: Merz and Dawah (2005) and Efflatoun (1924).

Known distribution: OR.

Subfamily Tephritinae

Tribe Tephritini

Acanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi, 1794)

23 August 2014 (LT2).

Identification: Merz and Dawah (2005) and Efflatoun (1924).

Known distribution: AF, OR, PA.

Dioxyna sororcula (Wiedemann, 1830)

15 February 2014 (MT4), 3 June 2014 (MT4), 8 December 2014 (LT5, VC1).

Identification: Merz and Dawah (2005) and Efflatoun (1924).

Known distribution: AF.

Goniurellia tridens (Hendel, 1910)

23 August 2014 (LT2).

Identification: Hendel (1910).

Known distribution: PA.

Trupanea stellata (Fuesslin, 1775)

3 June 2014 (LT2).

Identification: Merz and Dawah (2005) and Efflatoun (1924).

Known distribution: PA.

Family Ulidiidae

Subfamily Ulidiinae

Tribe Ulidiini

Physiphora alceae (Preyssler, 1791)

15 February 2014 (MT1, LT1), 21 April 2014 (LT1), 6 June 2014 (LT1), 23 August 2014 (LT1), 17-18 October 2014 (LT3, PT3), 27 January 2015 (MT1, MT3), 5 May 2015 (LT1), 27 July 2015 (LT1, SW1), 15 November 2015 (LT6, MT4).

Identification: Al Dhafer and El-Hawagry (2016).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Subsection Calyptratae

Family Anthomyiidae

Subfamily Anthomyiinae

Tribe Anthomyiini

Anthomyia pluvialis (Linnaeus, 1758)

15 February 2014 (MT1), 27 January 2015 (MT3), 4-5 May 2015 (MT3, SW1), 15 November 2015 (LT5).

Identification: Michelsen (2008).

Known distribution: PA.

Tribe Hydrophoriini

Delia platura (Meigen, 1826)

15 February 2014 (LT1, LT2, LT3, MT1), 23 August 2014 (LT2), 17 October 2014 (LT1, LT2), 27 January 2015 (LT2, LT3, MT2).

Identification: Meigen (1826).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Family Calliphoridae

Subfamily Calliphorinae

Calliphora croceipalpis Jaennicke, 1867

15 February 2014 (MT4).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: AF.

Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

3 June 2014 (SW6).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Subfamily Chrysomyinae

Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819)

4 June 2014 (SW1), 2 September 2015 (LT6), 15 November (LT3).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: AF.

Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830)

3 June 2014 (SW4).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: AF.

Chrysomya regalis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

15 February 2014 (MT3), 4 June 2014 (MT6), 10 December 2014 (LT6).Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: AF.

Subfamily Luciliinae

Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826)

16 February 2014 (HP6), 21 February 2014 (LT3), 10 December 2014 (LT6).

Identification:

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Subfamily Polleniinae

Pollenia hungarica Rognes, 1987

17 October 2014 (LT6).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: PA.

Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794)

17 October 2014 (LT5).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: PA.

Family Muscidae

Subfamily Atherigoninae

Tribe Atherigonini

Atherigona humeralis Wiedemann, 1830

15 November 2015 (SW5).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Atherigona laevigata (Loew, 1852)

15 February 2014 (MT1), 8 December 2014 (VC4).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Atherigona reversura Villeneuve, 1936

15 February 2014 (MT3), 23 August 2014 (LT2, LT3, LT5), 17 October 2014 (LT4, LT5, MT2, MT4), 5 May 2015 (MT2), 15 November 2015 (MT4), 2 September 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: OR.

Subfamily Coenosiinae

Tribe Coenosiini

Coenosia attenuata Stein, 1903

15 February 2014 (MT4, PT4), 23 April 2014 (PT1), 23 August 2014 (LT2), 17 October 2014 (LT2, LT4, MT4), 18 October 2014 (PT5), 5 May 2015 (MT4), 15 November 2015 (MT4).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Coenosia humilis Meigen, 1826

5 May 2015 (MT6).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Tribe Limnophorini

Lispe nivalis Wiedemann, 1830

15 February 2014 (LT6).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Lispe pectinipes Becker, 1903

23 August 2014 (LT2, LT3), 17 October 2014 (LT5), 5 May 2015 (LT1, MT2), 14-15 November 2015 (LT4, LT5).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: PA.

Subfamily Muscinae

Tribe Muscini

Musca albina Wiedemann, 1830

5 May 2015 (MT6).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF, OR, PA.

Musca autumnalis De Geer, 1776

23 August 2014 (LT2), 5 May 2015 (MT2).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Musca calleva Walker, 1849

14 November 2015 (LT4).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758

15 February 2014 (MT5, PT6), 3 June 2014 (MT2, SW6), 23 August 2014 (LT2, LT3), 5 May 2015 (MT6), 2 September 2015 (LT5), 15 November 2015 (LT6).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Musca lucidula (Loew, 1856)

3 June 2014 (MT6).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF, PA.

Musca sorbens Wiedemann, 1830

5 May 2015 (MT1), 15 November 2015 (LT5).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Tribe Stomoxyini

Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 Fig. 11

15 February 2014 (MT4), 17 October 2014 (LT5).

Identification: Márcia et al. (2012).

Known distribution: AF. First record from KSA.

Subfamily Phaoniinae

Tribe Dichaetomyiini

Dichaetomyia luteiventris (Rondani, 1873)

2 March 2015 (PT5).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Tribe Phaoniini

Helina coniformis (Stein in Becker, 1903)

15 February 2014 (MT5, PT2), 21 April 2014 (LT2), 17 October 2014 (LT1, LT5, MT1, MT2, MT3, MT4), 27 January 2015 (MT2, MT3), 14-15 November 2015 (LT4, LT5, MT4).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Helina lucida (Stein, 1913)

21 April 2014 (LT5).

Identification: Pont (1991).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Rhiniidae

Cosmina viridis Townsend, 1917

15-16 February 2014 (MT1, MT3), 17 October 2014 (LT5), 27 January 2015 (LT1, MT3), 4-5 May 2015 (SW4, MT2).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: AF.

Isomyia terminata (Wiedemann, 1830)

15 February 2014 (MT5, PT5).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: AF.

Rhinia apicalis (Wiedemann, 1830)

15 February 2014 (MT5), 3 June 2014 (SW4), 17 October 2014 (LT2, LT3, LT5), 14-15 November 2015 (LT4, LT5, LT6).

Identification: Setyaningrum and Al Dhafer (2014).

Known distribution: AF.

Family Sarcophagidae

Subfamily Miltogramminae

Taxigramma heteroneura (Meigen, 1830)

15 February 2014 (MT5), 3 June 2014 (SW4), 27 January 2015 (MT4), 5 May 2015 (MT4, SW1), 27-29 July 2015 (PT5).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: NE, PA.

Subfamily Paramacronychiinae

Wohlfahrtia erythrocera Villeneuve, 1910

28 July 2015 (PT6).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: AF.

Wohlfahrtia nuba Wiedemann, 1830

3 May 2015 (PT5).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: AF.

Subfamily Sarcophaginae

Blaesoxipha algeriensis (Townsend, 1919)

23 August 2014 (LT5).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: PA.

Blaesoxipha rufipes (Macquart, 1839)

3 June 2014 (SW4).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Sarcophaga adhamae (Lehrer & Abou-Zied, 2008)

21 April 2014 (BT6).

Identification: Lehrer and Abou–Zied (2008).

Known distribution: AF.

Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann, 1824)

5 May 2015 (SW4).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Sarcophaga babiyari (Lehrer, 1995)

3 June 2014 (LT6).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: AF.

Sarcophaga dux Thompson, 1869

15 February 2014 (MT1).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: Cosmopolitan.

Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer, 1998) Fig. 12

21 February 2014 (LT1).

Identification: Thomas Pape (personal communication) and the first author.

Known distribution: PA.

Family Tachinidae

Subfamily Exoristinae

Tribe Eryciini

Drino lota (Meigen, 1824)

15-16 February 2014 (LT6, MT4, MT5, MT6, SW6), 17 October 2014 (LT4, LT5, LT6), 14-15 November 2015 (LT4, LT6).

Identification: Dawah (2011) and Tschorsnig and Herting (1994).

Known distribution: AF, PA.

Tribe Exoristini

Exorista larvarum (Linnaeus, 1758)

3 June 2014 (SW2, SW4).

Identification: Dawah (2011) and Tschorsnig and Herting (1994).

Known distribution: NE, PA.

Tribe Goniini

Gonia capitata (De Geer, 1776)

5 May 2015 (MT1).

Identification: Dawah (2011) and Tschorsnig and Herting (1994).

Known distribution: PA.

Sturmia bella (Meigen, 1824)

15 February 2014 (MT1), 21 April 2014 (LT1), 3 June 2014 (SW4), 27-30 January 2015 (LT1, LT2, LT3), 27 July 2015 (LT5).

Identification: Dawah (2011) and Tschorsnig and Herting (1994).

Known distribution: OR, PA.

Subfamily Phasiinae

Tribe Cylindromyiini

Cylindromyia bicolor (Olivier, 1812)

7 June 2014 (SW4).

Identification: Dawah (2011), El-Hawagry et al. (2015) and Tschorsnig and Herting (1994).

Known distribution: PA.

Subfamily Tachininae

Tribe Tachinini

Dejeania bombylans (Fabricius, 1798)

10 December 2014 (LT6).

Identification: Dawah (2011) and Tschorsnig and Herting (1994).

Known distribution: AF.

Discussion

In terms of vegetation and speciation, the south-western part of KSA, including Al-Baha Province, is considered to be the most important part of the country and the Arabian Peninsula in general. Floristically and ecologically, this area is similar to the high altitude mountains of north-eastern and eastern parts of Africa, and like other areas in the south-western part of the Arabian Peninsula, contains montane woodlands and evergreen shrub lands, with strong Afromontane affinities (Bussmann and Beck 1995; Zohary 1973; Eig 1938).

Considering the insect fauna as a whole, El-Hawagry et al. (2013, 2015) attributed the extraordinary complex and the interesting insect fauna in Al-Baha Province to its geographical position at the junction of two of the world’s main zoogeographical regions, the Afrotropical and the Palaearctic.

Many present day biogeographers think that the biogeographical divisions within the eastern and the northeastern parts of Africa should be extended towards east within the Arabian Peninsula as well, covering the high altitude regions of the southern Al-Sarawat Mountains, namely “Afromontane Archipelago” (Zohary 1973; Eig 1938).

Bolton (1994), Eig (1938), El-Hawagry et al. (2013 and 2015) and Sharaf et al. (2012a, 2012b) concluded that the insect faunal composition in Al-Baha Province has an Afrotropical flavor as the Afrotropical elements were predominantly indicated, they tended to agree with those biogeographers who think that parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha Province, should be included in the Afrotropical region, but they couldn’t indicate the northern border of this region exactly. All these facts seem to be reflected somehow on the fly faunal composition in Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR) as shown in the present results which obviously emphasize the fact that Al-Baha Province, as lying in the south-western part of the Arabian Peninsula, should be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic Zone.

Funding

The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding this research group NO (RGP-1437-009).

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Prince Bandar Bin Saud Al Saud, Head of the Saudi National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development for the support during the study. We are also indebted to the following people for identifying specimens or providing critical assistance throughout this study: Dr John Deeming, National Museum Wales, Cardiff, Wales, UK; Dr Thomas Pape, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark; Dr Valery Korneyev, General and Applied Entomology Department, I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Dr Jason G. H. Londt, Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; Dr Boris C. Kondratieff, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, USA; Dr Neal Evenhuis, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; Dr Babak Gharali, Research Centre for Agriculture and Natural Resources, Iran; Dr Shaun Winterton and Dr Martin Hauser, Plant Pest Diagnostics Branch, California Department of Food & Agriculture, Sacramento, U.S.A.; Torsten Dikow, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, USA. Dr Francis Gilbert, School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK; and Mr Ahmed Shams Al Ola, Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Sincere thanks go to the research team of the KSMA for collecting and mounting specimens.

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