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Catalogue
Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea)
expand article infoErik J van Nieukerken, Camiel Doorenweerd, Robert Hoare§, Donald Ray Davis|
‡ Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands
§ Landcare Research Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand
| Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172). We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief ‘state of the art’. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites. We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils) that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae, largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We propose the following 37 new synonymies for species (35 in Nepticulidae, 2 in Opostegidae):

Stigmella acerifoliella Dovnar-Zapolski, 1969 (unavailable, = S. acerna Puplesis, 1988), Stigmella nakamurai Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. palionisi Puplesis, 1984), Nepticula amseli Skala, 1941 (unavailable = S. birgittae Gustafsson, 1985), Stigmella cathepostis Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. microtheriella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmella populnea Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. nivenburgensis (Preissecker, 1942)), Nepticula obscurella Braun, 1912 (revised synonymy, = S. myricafoliella (Busck, 1900)), Nepticula mandingella Gustafsson, 1972 (= S. wollofella (Gustafsson, 1972)), Stigmella rosaefoliella pectocatena Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= S. centifoliella (Zeller, 1848)), Micropteryx pomivorella Packard, 1870 (= S. oxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmella crataegivora Puplesis, 1985 (= S. micromelis Puplesis, 1985), Stigmella scinanella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= S. purpuratella (Braun, 1917)), Stigmella palmatae Puplesis, 1984 (= S. filipendulae (Wocke, 1871)), Stigmella sesplicata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. lediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmella rhododendrifolia Dovnar-Zapolski & Tomilova, 1978 (unavailable, = S. lediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmella oa Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= S. spiculifera Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985), Stigmella gracilipae Hirano, 2014 (= S. monticulella Puplesis, 1984), Nepticula chaoniella Herrich-Schäffer, 1863 (= S. samiatella (Zeller, 1839)), Bohemannia piotra Puplesis, 1984 (= B. pulverosella (Stainton, 1849)), Bohemannia nipponicella Hirano, 2010 (= B. manschurella Puplesis, 1984), Sinopticula sinica Yang, 1989 (= Glaucolepis oishiella (Matsumura, 1931)), Trifurcula collinella Nel, 2012 (= Glaucolepis magna (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997)), Obrussa tigrinella Puplesis, 1985 (= Etainia trifasciata (Matsumura, 1931)), Microcalyptris vittatus Puplesis, 1984 and M. arenosus Falkovitsh, 1986 (both = Acalyptris falkovitshi (Puplesis, 1984)), Ectoedemia castaneae Busck, 1913, E. heinrichi Busck, 1914 and E. helenella Wilkinson, 1981 (all three = Zimmermannia bosquella (Chambers, 1878)), Ectoedemia chloranthis Meyrick, 1928 and E. acanthella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 (both = Zimmermannia grandisella (Chambers, 1880)), Ectoedemia coruscella Wilkinson, 1981 (= Zimmermannia mesoloba (Davis, 1978)), Ectoedemia piperella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 and E. reneella Wilkinson, 1981 (both = Zimmermannia obrutella (Zeller, 1873)), Ectoedemia similigena Puplesis, 1994 (= E. turbidella (Zeller, 1848)), Ectoedemia andrella Wilkinson, 1981 (= E. ulmella (Braun, 1912)), Nepticula canadensis Braun, 1917 (= E. minimella (Zetterstedt, 1839)), Opostega rezniki Kozlov, 1985 (= O. cretatella Chrétien, 1915), Pseudopostega cyrneochalcopepla Nel & Varenne, 2012 (= P. chalcopepla (Walsingham, 1908)). Stigmella caryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) and Zimmermannia bosquella (Chambers, 1878) are taken out of synonymy and re-instated as full species. Lectotypes are designated for Trifurcula obrutella Zeller, 1873 and Nepticula grandisella Chambers, 1880.

Keywords

Taxonomy, leaf miners, checklist, history, new synonyms, new combinations

Introduction

Names of organisms are the key to the biological literature, but even in our digital age it is often a challenge to find and apply the correct names. Taxonomic internet databases, spawned from global projects such as GBIF (Gbif Secretariat 2016) and Species 2000 (Catalogue of Life: Roskov et al. 2015) are growing in number and are impressively linked together, but in many cases lack informative and reliable content. Catalogue of Life is especially poor for Lepidoptera, being based on an online version of the Cardindex of the Natural History Museum in London (LepIndex: Beccaloni et al. 2005). This is a wonderful resource for taxonomists, but not an authoritative catalogue with modern classification and names. The plans for an update depend on external funding and may never materialize with the current taxonomic funding climate (I. Kitching personal communication).

Any online only publication of a catalogue has the disadvantage that nomenclatorial changes are unavailable and still need to be published in a unchangeable format on paper or as pdf file following the amendments made to the Code (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2012). It is understandable that many taxonomists prefer paper publications, evident from several recent catalogues for Lepidoptera (Pterophoridae, Coleophoridae, Psychidae, Notodontidae, Yponomeutoidea) that cannot yet be found in an online database (Gielis 2003; Baldizzone et al. 2006; Sobczyk 2011; Schintlmeister 2013; Lewis and Sohn 2015). Fortunately other authors followed a printed catalogue soon with an online database version, e.g. for Gracillariidae (De Prins and De Prins 2005; De Prins and De Prins 2016) and Tortricidae (Brown et al. 2003; Gilligan et al. 2014) and for other groups there are online-only catalogues that are actively maintained, e.g. Pyraloidea (Nuss et al. 2003–2015) and part of the butterflies (Häuser et al. 2012). Still, for the largest part of Lepidoptera there are still no global catalogues available. With our contribution we hope to fill a very small gap of the megadiverse order Lepidoptera.

For some years we have been preparing an online catalogue of Nepticuloidea in a so-called scratchpad (van Nieukerken 2016), which has several advantages, but also the cited disadvantage and the lack of an easy overview. The most recent Nepticuloidea catalogue was published in a book (Diškus and Puplesis 2003), using a somewhat different generic classification. Our phylogenetic study, to be published simultaneously with this catalogue (Doorenweerd et al. 2016a), resulted in the need for a new classification, which has consequences for the names of many taxa. We therefore decided to publish this static catalogue to fix the state of the art, make the necessary nomenclatorial changes, whereas at the same time the Nepticuloidea scratchpad version 2.0 (http://nepticuloidea.info/) is released with additional information and illustrations, and will be updated continuously. We are also happy to announce that at the same time this catalogue is made available to the Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172) and GBIF. This catalogue is not only the taxonomic summary of the published knowledge on these families, it also contains many original data, such as new synonymies and taxonomic placement of species, based on our many years of research of these insects worldwide; some of these results are formalised here, but will be detailed elsewhere. In the material and methods section we discuss our various choices for this catalogue, such as species concepts, use of DNA barcodes, and nomenclatorial issues.

To place the list in a broader context we give an account of the taxonomic history and history of research on Nepticulidae and Opostegidae. We begin the results section with a review of the “state of the art” of Nepticuloidea in the various biogeographic regions.

History of taxonomic research on Nepticulidae

The first species of Nepticulidae that was described, was Stigmella anomalella (Goeze, 1783) of which Degeer (1752) described and illustrated the larva in detail, while using the term “miner” (“mineuse”) for the first time (van Nieukerken 2008). Later, Degeer (1771) described the adult that he reared from these mines. Degeer’s descriptions are still interesting reading these days, and were fully copied and translated by Stainton et al. (1855). Since Degeer did not use binominal nomenclature in these works, the species was only validly named later by Goeze (1783) as Phalaena anomalella. This makes Ectoedemia occultella (Linnaeus, 1767) the first formally named nepticulid (as Phalaena (Tinea) occultella), although Linnaeus himself had yet no notion of the life history of the small moth that he found on his windows (Robinson and Nielsen 1983). Five more names were given to Nepticulidae in the 18th century, all named in Tinea, but just two of these are still considered valid: Stigmella aurella and S. hybnerella. Even though Schrank already in 1802 gave the generic name Stigmella to his rose leafminer Tinea rosella (a junior synonym of S. anomalella), this was overlooked by most 19th century authors, and in the first decades of the 19th century, species were still placed in Tinea (e.g. by Haworth 1828), the first author to describe a number of species from the London area, nine in total) or in a number of other “tineid” genera such as Microsetia (Stephens 1834; Bedell 1848), Oecophora and Elachista (Kollar 1832; Zetterstedt 1838–1840; Duponchel [1842–1845]) and Caloptilia (Hübner 1816–1826), now all belonging in different families, but together these authors named only about ten species of Nepticulidae.

Towards the second half of the 19th century, things changed rapidly, in Europe attributable to four naturalists: in Germany Philipp Christoph Zeller (1808–1883) (Fig. 1) and Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer (1799–1874, Regensburg) (Fig. 3), in Great Britain Henry Tibbats Stainton (1822–1892) (Fig. 2) and in Switzerland Heinrich Frey (1822–1890). All four were lepidopterists with a broad interest, studying not only all Lepidoptera from their own country, but also from many exotic countries.

Figures 1–9.

Portraits of Lepidopterists who described Nepticuloidea. 1 Philipp Christoph Zeller (Stainton 1883) 2 Henry Tibats Stainton from Douglas and Mclachlan (1893) 3 Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer, ca 1870 (Kraatz 1875) 4 Maximilian Ferdinand Wocke (Dittrich 1907) 5 Edward Meyrick (Clarke 1955) 6 Lord Walsingham (Durrant 1920) 7 Annette Francis Braun, in 1973 in her home in Cincinnati, Ohio (photo Mignon Davis) 8 Pierre Chrétien, Digne, May 1903 (Oberthür 1915) 9 Erich Martin Hering. Figs 1–6 and 8 from Biodiversity Heritage Library, 9 from Zobodat.

The genus Nepticula was formally erected in a meeting report by von Heyden (1843), but he did not publish much on this genus, and it was Zeller (1848) who made a detailed description of the genus and several species. Some years earlier Zeller (1839) had described several Nepticulidae (in his “Versuch einer naturgemässen Eintheilung der Schaben”) together with other leafminers in the genus Lyonetia, subgenus Bucculatrix, in which he placed ten nepticulid species together with six that we still consider as Bucculatrix (Bucculatricidae). All these descriptions were based on adults that were collected in the field without knowledge of the life history (except DeGeer’s work!). Stainton and his British followers drastically changed this situation, by eagerly rearing leafminers and many other microlepidoptera, resulting in a proliferation of new species discoveries. Following a few initial species descriptions, his book “Insecta Brittanica. Lepidoptera: Tineina” (Stainton 1854) contained the first extensive treatment of Nepticulidae – at that point recognised as a family with two genera (Nepticula and Trifurcula) – with detailed information on leafmines and biology of 32 species in total (see Table 1). Stainton continued publishing discoveries the next decades, partly using his own periodicals “The Entomologist’s Weekly Intelligencer” and “The Entomologist’s Annual”, and later in the still running journal “Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine” that he founded with entomologist friends (Emmet 1992). His magnum opus is the 13 volume work “The natural history of the Tineina”, that he wrote collaboratively with Zeller, Frey and J.W. Douglas. Nepticulidae are treated in volumes 1 and 7 (Stainton et al. 1855; Stainton et al. 1862). These books are best known for the exquisite hand coloured plates with details of all life stages of many Microlepidoptera. During his life Stainton described 39 species of Nepticulidae, of which currently 30 are still considered valid names. With that record he is the most productive 19th century nepticulid taxonomist.

Number of Nepticulidae species (valid and invalid) described per first author for authors who described at least ten valid species, including extant and fossil species.

First author Valid spp Invalid spp Total
Puplesis (Stonis) 176 22 198
Scoble 73 1 74
Meyrick 67 6 73
van Nieukerken 55 55
Klimesch 38 10 48
Stainton 30 9 39
Braun 26 11 37
Remeikis 24 24
Kemperman 23 13 36
Laštuvka, A. 21 21
Vári 20 20
Laštuvka, Z. 17 17
Diškus 15 15
Donner 14 14
Clemens 13 7 20
Zeller 12 5 17
Chambers 12 12 24
Hoare 12 12
Herrich-Schäffer 11 10 21
Frey 10 8 18
Hirano 10 2 12
96 authors 201
Total 880

Soon after Stainton’s Insecta Britannica, Frey wrote two books dealing with respectively Swiss and European Nepticulidae (Frey 1856; 1857), that he also partly had reared himself. In the same period, Herrich-Schäffer’s large multivolume work “Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa” (1843–1855) was concluded by volumes 5 and 6, dealing with Nepticulidae in volume 5, heft 67 (Herrich-Schäffer 1855a) (the book was issued in parts, the plates often earlier than the text, and the bibliography is very complicated, see Hemming 1937). He apparently did not rear nepticulids himself, but included information on rearing from others, such as Frey and Heyden. He also named several species that Frey intended to name (as he did later, in 1856), but changed the endings of the names deliberately into “–ella”. This explains pairs of names such as: Nepticula aeneofasciella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 and Nepticula aeneofasciata Frey, 1856. The practice to use consistent endings for larger groups of Lepidoptera dated from Linnaeus, who used –ella for what he called Tinea, -ana for Tortrix, -alis for Pyralis etc. (Emmet 1991). In the 19th century there were no hard nomenclatorial rules yet, and specialists often changed names deliberately following this practice, see e.g. also several listed synonyms (incorrect subsequent spellings) by Doubleday (1859). Herrich-Schäffer named several nepticulids hidden in catalogues and a report on a collecting trip to Engadin (Herrich-Schäffer 1863b; c), names that have completely been forgotten and were never listed in catalogues, but only cited in two other papers (Snellen 1873; Segerer 1997). As far as these names are valid, they can be considered nomina oblita once their identities have been established, since they were never used as valid names since 1899 (ICZN art. 23.9.1.1), and do not compete with junior synonyms (reversal of precedence, ICZN art. 23).

By 1860 the number of species (all from Europe) had been tripled since 1848: from 24 to 77 (see Fig. 24B). In Europe the work on describing Nepticulidae continued both in Britain and in Central Europe, particularly with Herman von Heinemann (1812–1871) in Braunschweig (Heinemann 1861; 1862a; b) and Maximilian Ferdinand Wocke (1820–1906) (Fig. 4) in Breslau, who contributed many shorter papers (Wocke 1862; 1865; 1877). Jointly they wrote a larger fauna: Die Schmetterlinge Deutschlands und der Schweiz, partly finished after Heinemann’s death (Heinemann and Wocke [1876]). After ca 1880 taxonomic work on Nepticulidae in Europe slowed down considerably.

Meanwhile, in the United States, James Brackenridge Clemens (1825–1867) in Easton, Pennsylvania, had started studies on microlepidoptera. He collected the leafmines actively and described them in a few papers, but in contrast to Stainton he did not wait for successful rearing results and described many new species solely on the basis of leafmines (Clemens 1861; 1862a; Clemens 1862b; Clemens 1865), often resulting in a conundrum for future taxonomists. There are no types of the mines left, and more than once multiple species are known to feed on the host plant from which he described a single species. Such species have to be interpreted carefully and sometimes Neotypes need to be selected (Busck 1903; Wilkinson and Scoble 1979). A second North American pioneer was Vactor Tousey Chambers (1830–1883) from Covington, Kentucky, who added more species on the basis of mines and larvae, but also many on the basis of adults (Chambers 1873; 1875b; 1878a). There are more types left of his species (in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.), but also many missing and reconstructing identities can still be cumbersome (Busck 1903; Miller and Hodges 1990). Here we resolve three of his names.

The first Nepticulidae described from other regions than Europe or the USA, were two species described from Colombia by Zeller (1877), although Francis Walker’s (Walker 1864) Stigmella maoriella from New Zealand already predated these. However, Walker, often criticised for his numerous useless descriptions, was totally unaware he was naming a nepticulid and placed it in Tinea.

In the late 19th century Edward Meyrick (1854–1939) (Fig. 5) started his long career of describing numerous exotic Microlepidoptera, totalling approximately 20,000 species, including 68 Nepticulidae and 54 Opostegidae. The first Nepticulidae he described were three species from New Zealand (Meyrick 1889) where he lived in 1882–1883 (Hudson 1938). Up to 1935 Meyrick described many Nepticulidae from southern Africa, India, Australia, New Zealand and South America. His descriptions are typically very short, without illustrations, and only some of the species were reared (by other collectors who sent the specimens to him). When studying genitalia became more common practice, Meyrick refused to see the necessity and continued in a similar manner, relying almost completely on venation and colour pattern (Clarke 1955). As a result almost none of the species he described can be recognised from the description alone and the study of types is essential. Fortunately, most of those are kept in the Natural History Museum in London, and some in other collections, including the Ditsong Museum of Natural History in Pretoria. Those types that still exist have been studied by Malcolm Scoble, Erik van Nieukerken, Robert Hoare and co-authors and Rimantas Puplesis (now Jonas Stonis). Meyrick named only two nepticulid genera: Acalyptris and Enteucha, the latter he placed in Opostegidae (Davis 1985).

Quite a different approach was followed in the early 20th century in North America, where August Busck (1870–1944), a Danish immigrant, started his studies at the Division of Entomology of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and somewhat later Annette Frances Braun (1884–1978) (Fig. 7), who became the leading microlepidopterists of North America. Both made many careful descriptions of often reared species, but most of these before genitalia studies became fashionable (Busck 1900; 1913; 1914a; Braun 1912; 1914; 1917; 1923; 1925b).

In Europe, in addition to Nepticula, only two additional small genera were recognised on the basis of the venation: Trifurcula Zeller, 1848 and Bohemannia Stainton, 1859 (Zeller 1848; Stainton 1859a). Although many treatments of the family were published in Europe, the classification did not change for almost a century (Heinemann 1862a; b; Frey 1880; Snellen 1882; Meyrick 1895; Tutt 1899; Spuler and Meess 1910; Heinemann and Wocke [1876]). Walsingham (1908a) had shown that the senior name Stigmella Schrank, 1802 should be used instead of Nepticula, but few authors followed him until this case was settled by Wilkinson (1978) in favour of the senior name Stigmella. Between them, Busck and Braun erected four more genera on the basis of venation: Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 (also based on the galling habit), Obrussa Braun, 1915, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917 and Microcalyptris Braun, 1925 (Busck 1907; Braun 1915; 1917; 1925b) (see Table 2). It is strange that these authors who relied so much on venation in describing genera, did not scrutinize the many Nepticula species, amongst which were still many species with venation different from Stigmella, and more similar to their new genera. Also the name Trifurcula was several times misapplied to species with completely different venations, now belonging in Zimmermannia (atrifrontella Stainton, obrutella Zeller), Bohemannia (pulverosella Stainton) or Acalyptris (minimella Rebel).

Number of genera of Nepticuloidea named per author, including replacement names.

Author # Valid genera # Invalid genera
Davis (1 with Stonis) 4 3
Scoble 4 1
Hoare 3
van Nieukerken 3 1
Beirne 2 3
Kozlov 2
Meyrick 2
Zeller 2
Borkowski 1 1
Braun 1 2
Busck 1
Hering 1
Koçak 1 1
Schrank 1
Stainton 1
Müller-Rutz 2
Börner 1
Heyden 1
Puplesis 1
Strand 1
Yang 1

In Europe, during the first decades of the 20th century, some more southern areas were explored by Lord Walsingham (Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham, 1843–1919) (Fig. 6), who collected in France, Spain, the Canary Islands, Morocco and Algeria (Walsingham 1891; 1904; 1908a; b; 1911) and reared several of these species from their mines. Also Pierre Chrétien (1846–1934) (Fig. 8) reared several species from hitherto unexpected host plants in France and Algeria (Bupleurum in Apiaceae, Linum in Linaceae, Launaea [as Zollikofferia] in Asteraceae); these species are now all placed in Glaucolepis (Chrétien 1904; 1907; 1914).

In the 20th century the study of genitalia gradually became standard in Lepidoptera and the first study on nepticulids was by Petersen (1930b), who divided Nepticula into a number of species groups based on the male genitalia. The first following him was Hering (Hering 1942; 1943), but his first genitalia drawings were published by Klimesch (Klimesch 1940a; b; c; d), who in the last of these papers also shows his first own genitalia drawing (of Acalyptris platani). The single contribution by Bryan P. Beirne (1918–1998) was particularly important. He finished the British series of Lepidoptera genitalia started by Pierce and Metcalfe (1935) – who excluded most Nepticulidae, apart from Trifurcula, in their ‘tineid’ volume, referring to Petersen’s work – , and described the male genitalia of the British species (Beirne 1945). While doing so he also erected five new genera with names based on Irish mythology (Dechtiria, Levarchama, Fedalmia, Etainia and Fomoria) and split Stigmella into Stigmella and Nepticula. From then on describing a new species without illustrating the male genitalia seldom occurred anymore, and the late 1940’s showed several examples of this (Doets 1947; Janse 1948; Klimesch 1948a; b; Hartig 1949; Ford 1950a). Josef Wilhelm Klimesch (1902–1997) (Fig. 10) was one of the most productive authors of this period, and again in the 1970’s after his retirement (Gusenleitner 1988; Deschka 1998; Aspöck 2003). He not only carefully illustrated the genitalia, he also paid considerable attention to the leafmines and biology, with detailed illustrations and descriptions. Possibly because of the greater demands that including genitalia imposed on authors, the descriptions of new species decreased considerably during the 1950’s and 1960’s, only to rise again from 1978 on. Between 1950 and 1978 only 60 new species were named, most by Josef Klimesch in Europe and Lajos Vári in South Africa (Klimesch 1951b; 1953a; b; 1975c; Vári 1955; 1963).

Figures 10–16.

Specialists on Nepticuloidea in 20th century. 10 Joseph Klimesch, in his house, Linz, October 1983 11 Donald R. Davis in his office, December 2006, USNM, Washington DC 12 Christopher Wilkinson, April 1982, Cambridge, European Congress of Lepidopterology 13 Arthur Maitland Emmet, with C Wilkinson, Essex, UK, October 1979 14 Meeting for preparation of the Nepticulidae volumes for Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, Copenhagen, October 1980: from left: Ebbe S. Nielsen, Roland Johansson, Chris Wilkinson, Bert Gustafsson, Niels Peder Kristensen 15 Rimantas Puplesis, standing (now Jonas R. Stonis), Erik J. van Nieukerken, in Zoological Institute, Leningrad, September 1985 16 Get together of leafminer enthusiasts at house of Aleš Laštůvka, Prostejov, Czech Rep., September 1994, from left: Steven Whitebread, Zdeněk Laštůvka, Roland Johansson, Aleš Laštůvka. Scans from transparencies by Erik J. van Nieukerken.

Quite a reverse development occurred in the first half of the 20th century that involved an increased interest in the mine form and the host plant, especially promoted by Erich Martin Hering (1893–1967) (Fig. 9), an entomologist in Berlin. Although he was also a very active and experienced taxonomist in Lepidoptera and Diptera, who introduced the use of genitalia characters, he also gave often undue weight to characters of leafmines, for example in the Stigmella ulmivora group, where he recognised three species on the basis of leafmine form and frass pattern, that are in fact ecological forms of one species. However, with his many publications, Hering’s work was an outstanding contribution to the study of leafminers, and his identification keys are still a much used reference (Hering 1957), as is his general book on the biology of leafminers (Hering 1951). Also Victor Hugo Otto Skala (1875–1952) studied leafminers intensively, but he also named many species on the basis of the mines only (which are unavailable after 1930, ICZN art. 13.6.2), provided with very poor and minute illustrations and brief descriptions (example: Skala 1939a; b; c; d; e; f; g; h), and only few of the names he introduced, and based on adults, remain valid today (Ectoedemia klimeschi (Skala, 1933), Fomoria groschkei (Skala, 1943)).

During the 1970’s the study of nepticulids suddenly received considerable increase in support from several sources, following a general trend for greater investment in taxonomy and science at large and an increase of amateur interest. In Sweden amateur Roland Johansson (Figs 14, 16) revised the confusing oak feeding Stigmella ruficapitella group (Johansson 1971). In the same paper he provided an updated checklist of Scandinavian and British species, within a new framework of two genera: Nepticula and Trifurcula, the latter embracing all of Beirne’s genera. He also introduced the use of species groups. At about the same time Alfred Borkowksi wrote a number of papers on the faunistics and taxonomy of Nepticulidae in Poland (Borkowski 1969; 1970a; b; 1972a; b). In one of these, he introduced a new generic classification, following partly Beirne (1945), using male genitalia, and combined this with the study of venation (Borkowski 1972a). In Britain Arthur Maitland Emmet (1908–2001) (Harley 2001) (Fig. 13) started to work on this group and many other Microlepidoptera for the new series “The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland” (MBGBI). He followed upon Johansson’s and Borkowski’s work and treated the Nepticulidae in the first volume (Emmet 1976), but his many shorter and longer papers in The Entomologist’s Record, often made in preparation of the book, illustrated his in-depth knowledge, and are also enjoyable reading (for example: Emmet 1973a; b; c; 1974a; d; e; f; g). Also in the 1970’s, Josef Klimesch, now retired, started working on the material he collected in southern Europe and the Canary Islands, and described a number of new species from that area (Klimesch 1975c; 1977; 1978b).

Before 1970, most work on Nepticulidae was carried out independently by either amateur entomologists or isolated professional biologists, but during the 1970’s scientific interest in taxonomy was boosted by funding and for the first time University groups started to work on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the family. Christopher Wilkinson (1936–2010) (Figs 12, 14) developed an interest in the Nepticulidae during a sabbatical at the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes in Ottawa in the early 1970’s. Bryan P. Beirne (see above), then an applied entomologist in Burnaby, British Columbia, encouraged Wilkinson to revise this group for Canada and the USA. Wilkinson brought this research back to Portsmouth Polytechnic University, where he had worked since 1965, and two of his graduate students (Philip J. Newton and Malcolm J. Scoble) worked jointly with him on North American Nepticulidae, resulting in five papers dealing with all known species and several new ones (Wilkinson 1979; Wilkinson and Scoble 1979; Wilkinson 1981; Wilkinson and Newton 1981; Newton and Wilkinson 1982). Later, Malcolm Scoble (Fig. 17) obtained an academic position at the Transvaal Museum in Pretoria and continued working on the Nepticulidae of South Africa in a global context, gaining his PhD in 1983 (Scoble 1978a; b; 1979; 1980a; b; 1982; 1983). He presented the first cladistic analysis and classification of the family, dividing the family into two subfamilies, Pectinivalvinae and Nepticulinae, and the latter into two tribes, Nepticulini and Trifurculini. He also introduced the use of subgenera in the genus Ectoedemia and he named no fewer than 73 species. After these studies, Scoble turned his attention to other microlepidopterans, larger Lepidoptera and management while working, respectively, in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History and the Natural History Museum, London.

Figures 17–23.

Specialists on Nepticuloidea in 20th and 21st century. 17 Malcolm Scoble, April 1992, Helsinki, Congress SEL 18 Robert J. B. Hoare, collecting Menurella quintiniae at type locality, Lamington Park, Queensland, August 2004 19, 20 Camiel Doorenweerd and Erik J. van Nieukerken collecting leafminers on Fagus hayatae, Taiwan, Taipingshan, October 2012 21 Nagao Hirano and Toshiya Hirowatari, at Hirano’s house, Matsumoto, Japan, September 2014 22 Arūnas Diškus 23 Andrius Remeikis. Photos by Erik J. van Nieukerken (17, 18, 21) and Shipher Wu (19, 20).

Figure 24A.

Schematic phylogram of Nepticulidae genera based on the best resolved tree of our Molecular phylogeny (Doorenweerd et al. 2016a).

Figure 24B.

Cumulative number of valid species of Nepticulidae and Opostegidae described per year. Notice the long period that no Opostegidae were described (1935–1967) and the sudden increase in numbers of Nepticulidae since 1978.

Christopher Wilkinson became professor of Animal Systematics and Zoogeography at the Free University of Amsterdam in 1977, and employed Erik J. van Nieukerken (Figs 15, 20) as PhD student and Georgina Bryan, Steph B. J. Menken and later Jacobus J. (Koos) Boomsma as postdocs, all to work on various aspects of the systematics and evolution of Nepticulidae. In Amsterdam, several MSc students worked with Wilkinson on the taxonomy of Stigmella species groups in Europe, and the taxonomy of Stigmella in Japan and New Zealand (Kemperman et al. 1985; Schoorl et al. 1985; Schoorl and Wilkinson 1986; Donner and Wilkinson 1989). The nepticulid research group (Wilkinson 1982) also published a joint paper on the Ectoedemia angulifasciella complex (Wilkinson et al. 1983). Unfortunately, the department was short lived being closed down after budget cuts in 1985, cuts that were particularly detrimental to taxonomy. EvN finished his degree in 1986 after the group had been disbanded (van Nieukerken 1983b; 1985b; 1986b; van Nieukerken and Dop 1987). His thesis built upon Scoble’s results, but mainly based on the Holarctic fauna. He largely kept Scoble’s classification, added two more subgenera to Ectoedemia, and included larval and detailed new adult characters in the character matrix. Together with his MSc student, Henk Dop, he also extensively studied antennal ultrastructure. Van Nieukerken and Dop discovered a novel sensillum, which they named sensillum vesiculocladum (van Nieukerken and Dop 1987). The work led to a first checklist of the Western Palearctic species (van Nieukerken 1986a). Steph Menken’s research adopted new methods in the systematics of Nepticulidae by using allozyme characters, not only for species discrimination, but also for studies of population structure and parthenogenesis. Long before the advent of DNA barcoding, studies of allozymes facilitated species identification (Menken and Brouwer 1984; Menken and Wiebosch Steeman 1988; Menken 1990). After these studies, Steph Menken continued working on insect host relationships, particularly on Yponomeutidae as professor at the University of Amsterdam and Koos Boomsma continued his ecological studies, working as a professor in Copenhagen, particularly on social insects. The collaboration started by Menken, Boomsma and van Nieukerken resulted in a review paper published in 2010 on diet breadth in Lepidoptera, which also included important information on the host plants of Nepticulidae (Menken et al. 2010).

Wilkinson had also initiated collaboration to study Chinese Nepticulidae with professor Liu Youqiao from Beijing (Academia Sinica), resulting in a joint collecting trip by Erik van Nieukerken and Hans van Driel to China with Chinese counterparts in 1984 (van Driel and van Nieukerken 1985). After closing of the Amsterdam department, this research was unfortunately not continued. Only much later, van Nieukerken picked up the collaboration with Liu Youqiao and completed one joint paper on Chinese Stigmella (van Nieukerken and Liu 2000). Also plans by Wilkinson and Donald R. Davis (Fig. 11) for a volume in the series MONA (Moths of North America north of Mexico) never materialized, but checklists for the North American (Davis and Wilkinson 1983) and Neotropical Nepticulidae (Davis 1984) were completed.

At the same time that the Amsterdam group was active, Rimantas Puplesis (Fig. 15) started his PhD at the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Leningrad, Soviet Union, and this resulted in many papers describing new species of Nepticulidae that he and colleagues had collected in Far East Russia (Primorskij Kraj) and Central Asia (Puplesis 1984a; b; c; e; 1985b; c; Puplesis and Ivinskis 1985). He also produced a phylogeny, although not strictly following Hennigian cladistics. From 1985, Rimantas continued his work in Vilnius (Lithuania), Pedagogical University and while his earlier papers were all in the Russian language, from 1988 he published mostly in English, and an important summary of all his earlier work was a book dealing with the Nepticulidae of the former Soviet Union, including 21 new species (Puplesis 1994). He continued his work first in Central Asia, where he had travelled extensively, usually together with his colleague Arūnas Diškus (Fig. 22), who received his PhD in 2005. From 2000 onwards their main interest shifted to the Neotropical fauna, and they travelled and collected particularly in Belize and Ecuador, and studied also the very interesting material earlier collected by Ebbe Nielsen and Ole Karsholt in Argentina and Chile (Nielsen 1980; Nielsen 1985). Puplesis made the first revisions of the Neotropic fauna in collaboration with Gaden S. Robinson (1949–2009) (Beccaloni et al. 2009) from the Natural History Museum in London (Puplesis and Robinson 2000; Puplesis et al. 2002a; 2002b). In 2003, Diškus and Puplesis published a book (Puplesis and Diškus 2003b) – partly in Lithuanian, partly in English – with several revisions of Nepticulidae from Asia and Europe and a first comprehensive global catalogue including both the Nepticuloidea and Tischerioidea (Diškus and Puplesis 2003). In 1996 Rimantas had become professor in Vilnius, and from 2007 onwards published under the name Jonas Rimantas Stonis. With a group of co-workers, including Arūnas Diškus (Fig. 22), Asta Navickaite, Agnė Rocienė and Andrius Remeikis (Fig. 23) he continued working on the Neotropical fauna and collecting, now also in Guatemala, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia and Chile (Stonis et al. 2013c; 2013d; 2014; 2016b; Remeikis and Stonis 2015; Stonis and Remeikis 2015), but also revised the earlier described Far East Russian Nepticulidae (Rocienė and Stonis 2013; Stonis and Rocienė 2013) and worked on the Lithuanian and Crimean fauna (Navickaitė et al. 2011; 2014). Puplesis-Stonis and his co-authors have contributed by far the largest number of new species in Nepticulidae, by July 2016 in total ca 225 valid names.

In 1986 Erik van Nieukerken obtained a position at the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden (now Naturalis Biodiversity Center), but his initial responsibilities left him little opportunity to continue taxonomic work before he got a position as curator for microlepidoptera and Arachnida in 1999. Still he was able to finish some studies that he had started in Amsterdam, and continued collaborations with especially Roland Johansson and other Scandinavians: Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen (1950–2001) (Fig. 14), Bert Gustafsson (Fig. 14) and Ole Karsholt. This collaboration led to the two volume set in the series Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica (Johansson et al. 1990), very beautifully illustrated with water colours and line art by Roland Johansson (for examples see Figs 2540) and also containing the first treatment of all nepticulid larvae of a single fauna (Gustafsson and van Nieukerken 1990). Nielsen, who had moved from Denmark to Canberra, Australia, had been the driving force for completion of this multi-authored work, and he was that again for the completion of the study of the previously described Australian Nepticulidae by him, Johansson and van Nieukerken. It was speeded up when Nielsen had been able to hire in 1994 Robert J. B. Hoare (Fig. 18) as PhD student to work on Australian Nepticulidae (Hoare et al. 1997). Hoare finished his study of Australian Nepticulidae in an unpublished PhD thesis (Hoare 1998), of which most relevant parts have since been published, including the description of the new genus Roscidotoga and a revision of Pectinivalva, including two subgenera (Hoare 2000a; Hoare 2000b; Hoare and van Nieukerken 2013), that are raised here to genus. After moving to Auckland, New Zealand, Hoare shifted his attention to the Lepidoptera of New Zealand in general.

Figures 25–34.

Diversity of Nepticulidae, all on same scale. 25 Enteucha acetosae, male, Austria 26 Stigmella mespilicola, male, Switzerland, holotype 27 Roscidotoga callicomae, female paratype, Australia, NSW 28 Menurella libera, male holotype, Australia, NSW 29 Pectinivalva caenodora, male holotype, Australia, NSW 30 Glaucolepis lituanica , male, Austria 31 Bohemannia auriciliella, male, The Netherlands 32 Trifurcula iberica, male paratype, Spain 33 Fomoria weaveri, female, Sweden 34 Parafomoria helianthemella, female, Czech Republic. Scale 1 mm. Watercolours by Roland Johansson, 25, 26, 31 and 33 published earlier by Johansson et al. (1990), 28 and 29 by Hoare et al. (1997). The left wings of 32 and 34 are digitally mirrored images of the right wings. These figures may be reproduced given that their author Roland Johansson and the present publication are credited.

Figures 35–40.

Diversity of Nepticulidae and Opostegidae, all on same scale. 35 Etainia sericopeza, male, Sweden 36 Acalyptris platani, male, Italy 37 Zimmermannia atrifrontella, male, Germany 38 Ectoedemia klimeschi, male, Austria 39 Opostega spatulella, female, Hungary 40 Pseudopostega crepusculella, male, Sweden. Scale 1 mm. Watercolours by Roland Johansson, published earlier by Johansson et al. (1990). These figures may be reproduced given that their author Roland Johansson and the present publication are credited.

In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s the Czech brothers Aleš and Zdeněk Laštůvka (Fig. 16) developed an interest in leafmining Lepidoptera, particularly Nepticulidae and Gracillariidae, and the opening of the Iron Curtain provided them with the opportunity to start extensive collecting in the Mediterranean region: Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Croatia and Greece. They published a general guide for Central European species (Laštůvka and Laštůvka 1997) and many descriptions of new species (e.g. Laštůvka and Laštůvka 1990; 1994; 1998; 2000b; 2007). They also extensively collaborate with van Nieukerken on this fauna, resulting in several of the papers cited below. Aleš Laštůvka also started to illustrate the moths with water colours, as can be seen in several of their papers.

Moving into the 21st century, Roland Johansson and Erik van Nieukerken renewed their collaboration, resulting in a second revision of the oak mining Stigmella (van Nieukerken and Johansson 2003). The initiation of a molecular laboratory at Naturalis prompted van Nieukerken to include sampling material for DNA analysis during his extensive collecting in many parts of the world, including Vietnam, Australia, Borneo and from 2010 onwards in the USA, Taiwan, Korea and Japan. Early molecular results in 2004 were shown at the International Entomological Congress in Brisbane (van Nieukerken et al. 2004a), but still considered insufficient for a full publication. Most publications by him and co-authors in the early 2000’s concern detailed European faunistics (van Nieukerken et al. 2004b; 2004c; 2006; van Nieukerken 2006) and two small and one large revision of West Palearctic Acalyptris, the subgenus Trifurcula (Levarchama) and Ectoedemia, subgenera Ectoedemia and Zimmermannia (van Nieukerken 2007a; b; van Nieukerken et al. 2010). Meanwhile in Naturalis the DNA barcoding project was adopted, and extracting DNA for barcoding (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007) became a routine during dissection. Several papers provided barcodes as support for the taxonomy (van Nieukerken 2007a; 2010; Ivinskis et al. 2012; Laštůvka et al. 2013), and with MSc student Camiel Doorenweerd (Fig. 19), they published two larger papers concentrating on DNA barcodes and how to use them in Nepticulidae (van Nieukerken et al. 2012a; 2012b). Camiel Doorenweerd continued as PhD student from 2012 and analysed more genes. This resulted in several phylogeny papers (Doorenweerd et al. 2015a; Doorenweerd et al. 2016a), and some that are still in preparation. In order to improve calibration points for molecular phylogenies, all Nepticulidae fossils were re-assessed and catalogued (Doorenweerd et al. 2015b), and the named ones with formal descriptions are also included in the present catalogue.

After a paper on Stigmella from Japan (Kemperman et al. 1985), a collaboration between the Free University of Amsterdam group of Wilkinson and two Japanese leafminer specialists: Hiroshi Kuroko and Tosio Kumata, work on that fauna had slowed down, but a few species were named or discussed (Kuroko 1989; 1990; Kumata and Nakatani 1995; Kuroko 1999; Kuroko 2004; van Nieukerken and Kuroko 2005). The collaboration with Japan is now picked up again by van Nieukerken and Doorenweerd with Toshiya Hirowatari (Fig. 21), first in Osaka University, now professor in Kyushu University in Fukuoka and is expected to soon yield new publications. The study received further impetus from an amateur, Nagao Hirano (Fig. 21), who had collected and reared Nepticulidae extensively and described 12 new species (Hirano 2010; 2014); he also wrote the Nepticulidae texts for the book series “The standard of moths in Japan”, written in Japanese (Hirano 2013). At the same time some small-scale collaborations with China (prof. Li Houhun) and Korea (Bong Woo Lee) resulted in new material for study and will hopefully result in new publications.

Also work on North American Nepticulidae is now being continued collaboratively by van Nieukerken, Doorenweerd, in collaboration with Davis, David Wagner, Charley Eiseman, Greg Pohl and others, and this includes extensive DNA barcoding studies. A checklist of Lepidoptera of Canada with our contribution is now in preparation (Greg Pohl and Jean-François Landry, editors) and some of our data are presented in this catalogue.

Taxonomic history of Opostegidae

The first opostegids to be named were Tinea auritella Hübner, 1813 (now Pseudopostega auritella) and Elachista salaciella Treitschke, 1833 (now Opostega salaciella). Zeller (1839) erected the genus Opostega for these two species and his new O. crepusculella, but he also included other small white species, that are now included in respectively Phyllocnistis Zeller, 1848 (Gracillariidae) and Leucoptera Hübner, 1825 (Lyonetiidae). Zeller did not select a type species, only much later Walsingham (1914) selected salaciella as such. In 1848 Zeller narrowed Opostega and only included species now still regarded as Opostegidae, by removing the other species to his new genera Phyllocnistis and Cemiostoma Zeller, 1848 (a junior synonym of Leucoptera). In 1855 five out of the six known European species had been named and two species from North America followed in the next 20 years (Clemens 1862a; Chambers 1875b).

Most early authors placed Opostega in the family Lyonetiidae (Stainton 1854; Frey 1856; Stainton 1859a), but Heinemann and Wocke ([1876]) already recognised the similarity with Nepticula and placed them in the Nepticulidae. The family name was first used by Meyrick (1893) as Opostegides, but Meyrick considered it to be a subfamily of Tineidae.

After the early descriptions, for a long period new species, mostly from other continents, were almost all named by Edward Meyrick and Lord Walsingham (66 in all) (Table 3). Just single species are attributed to Busck, Chrétien, Eyer, and Kuroko. A. Jefferis Turner (1923) described some species from Australia and O.H. Swezey (1921) discovered that the opostegids in Hawaii (now Paralopostega) make leafmines on Melicope (Rutaceae) (then named Pelea), whereas the life history of most Opostegidae remained a mystery. Only that of Opostegoides scioterma had been extensively described by Grossenbacher (1910), under the incorrect name Opostega nonstrigella (Davis and Stonis 2007). This species is a cambium miner of Ribes (Grossulariaceae), and another species of the same genus, Opostegoides minodensis (Kuroko, 1982) was later discovered to be a cambium miner of Betula.

Number of Opostegidae species (valid and invalid) described per first author for authors who described at least six valid species.

First Author # spp
Davis 74
Meyrick 53
Puplesis (Stonis) 21
Walsingham 11
Turner 6
17 authors 27
Total 192

In the 20th century there was still no agreement about placement of the single genus Opostega, some textbooks placed it in the Nepticulidae, sometimes as subfamily (Spuler and Meess 1910; Hering 1932a), others kept it in Lyonetiidae, including the book first describing the male genitalia of three British species (Pierce and Metcalfe 1935). The first paper that recognised a grouping of families very similar to what we know nowadays was Busck (1914b), who considered the Opostegidae as family, close to Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae, in the Lepidoptera “Aculeates”, rather similar to what we now call lower Heteroneura. This placement was confirmed by larval studies a few years later (Heinrich 1918).

When studying the Opostegidae from the Asian parts of the Soviet Union, Kozlov (1985) realised that the differences in the genitalia of the single recognised genus Opostega were large and he erected a new genus, Opostegoides Kozlov, and split Opostega in two subgenera: Opostega and Pseudopostega Kozlov. Soon thereafter Davis (1989) completed a generic revision of the family and a phylogenetic analysis, finally resulting in the recognition of three new genera and raising Pseudopostega to full genus. The most peculiar new genus was Notiopostega, with the single species N. atrata Davis, 1989, with a wingspan of 13–18 mm by far the largest opostegid and largest species of the superfamily, of which the larvae make extremely long mines of up to seven meters in the cambium of Nothofagus trees (Carey et al. 1978; Davis 1989).

The four Northern European Opostegidae were reviewed and keyed by van Nieukerken (1990a), and a key for all six European species was presented by van Nieukerken et al. (2004b). Erik van Nieukerken also discovered and confirmed host plants for the northern European Pseudopostega species: Lycopus europaeus (Lamiaceae) for P. auritella and Mentha aquatica (Lamiaceae) for P. crepusculella. Both make long linear mines in the bark and gradually go deeper in the stem (van Nieukerken 1990a; Regier et al. 2015).

Rimantas Puplesis also worked extensively on Opostegidae, and revised the Oriental species together with Gaden Robinson (Puplesis and Robinson 1999) and together with Donald Davis they revised the New World species, including 70 new species and one new genus (Davis and Stonis 2007).

Material and methods

Taxonomic practice

Species

Ultimately, a catalogue or checklist is a list of species, arranged in a linear classification framework. Few taxonomists describe the methodology and philosophy they follow to recognise and delimit species. They often use the simple species concept: “a species is what a taxonomist calls a species” (Kalkman 1987). There are many species concepts, see eg Mallet (2001) for an overview. If we have to choose, we probably adhere most to the phylogenetic or diagnostic species concept (Mallet 2001; Isaac et al. 2004), but agree with Mallet’s notion that “agreement on a unified species-level taxonomy is possible, but will be forthcoming only if we accept that species lack a single, interpretable biological reality over their geographic range and across geological time”. In the taxonomic literature on Nepticuloidea, only Scoble (1983) discussed how he recognised species, but also he concluded that the practice is rather different from the theory. With the explosion of genetic data we have much more information nowadays than just two decades ago, but that does not mean that it has become much easier to recognise species. DNA barcodes are helpful, but can also complicate species discrimination, especially for allopatric populations (see below). In practice we recognise species by a combination of morphological characters, where genitalia are important, but not the only characters, and of the biology: host plant and mine morphology and of DNA data, particularly DNA barcodes and also of distribution data.

All species recognised here are in fact just hypotheses of species, open to further testing by more data and subject to ever ongoing evolution. We change the status of previously recognised species whenever our own research or our interpretation of published research has given reason to do so. This is particularly the case for several North American and Asian species that we (EvN and CD) have been studying the last years, and for which several publications are in preparation.

Subspecies

We do not recognise any subspecies. The systematic category in itself is problematic, and is particularly a part of the polytypic biological species concept, that can only be used for species where distributions are known in detail and the amount of hybridisation in border areas has been studied; as such subspecies are mostly used in charismatic groups such as vertebrates and butterflies, and even in these there is a tendency given by the phylogenetic species concept to abandon subspecies and raise them often to full species, particularly in birds (Isaac et al. 2004).

If allopatric populations are morphologically (almost) inseparable, and also share most of the biology, we simply use the same species name over the entire area (e.g. Ectoedemia occultella in the entire Palearctic and Nearctic, making the same characteristic mines on Betula and morphologically indistinguishable). In the case that there are more differences, we opt for separate species (e.g. E. intimella and E. insularis), particularly when consistent morphological differences are paired with a large diagnostic difference in DNA barcodes.

Very few subspecies have been described in the last 50 years in Nepticuloidea; for the few that were named (eg in two species of Neotropical Pseudopostega, (Davis and Stonis 2007)) we have raised the subspecies to full species when we see sufficient differences, or just left them as synonyms in other cases (e.g. Stigmella anomalella pacifica Puplesis, 1987). More than 50 years ago, the subspecies category had been used sometimes for biological forms (host plant races) and these are treated either as synonyms or raised to species level in a few cases.

Higher categories

Our classification of Nepticulidae follows our molecular phylogeny (Doorenweerd et al. 2016a), of which Fig. 24A shows the results in summary. Since the earlier recognised subfamily Nepticulinae and the tribe Nepticulini are not recovered, we abandon the use of subfamily and tribus here. After consultation with various lepidopterists we also choose to drop the subgenus category entirely, after we had to abandon them in Ectoedemia to maintain manageable monophyletic entities. In this way our classification resembles that of Diškus and Puplesis (2003).

The genus Enteucha is sister to all other Nepticulidae and therefore listed first. Stigmella is always split into two large clades that we name “Core Stigmella” for the clade with the type species S. anomalella and “Non-core Stigmella” for the other one. Splitting Stigmella was considered impractical, due to a lack of good morphological apomorphies for these clades and the fact that Stigmella remains a well supported and recognisable entity.

The new Neotropical genus Ozadelpha (van Nieukerken et al. 2016) forms a clade with the former Pectinivalvinae. Also in Pectinivalva we have raised the three recently recognised subgenera to full genus (Hoare and van Nieukerken 2013).

This clade is sistergroup to the remaining genera, previously collectively named Trifurculini. Within this clade one can recognise three groups: A poorly supported clade of Bohemannia together with the new Neotropic genera Neotrifurcula and Hesperolyra, a clade of Glaucolepis + Trifurcula and a clade of the former Ectoedemia plus Acalyptris and Parafomoria. Following the principle of abandoning subgenera, we split Trifurcula now into Trifurcula and Glaucolepis, whereas Levarchama is reduced to a species group in Trifurcula.

Whereas the finding of the large “Ectoedemia clade” occurs in all our analyses, the order of the various genera changes in different analyses. The classification we adopt here follows the best supported phylogeny. The raising of Muhabbetana and Zimmermannia to full genus is novel, even though Hering (1940) already proposed Zimmermannia as full genus, this was never adopted until now.

The classification of Opostegidae follows the treatments by Davis (1989) and Davis and Stonis (2007), but also here we abandon the use of subfamilies, and we do not follow the splitting of Pseudopostega in species groups (see below).

Species groups

Species groups are a practical category to combine groups of species within large genera that share morphological and biological characters, and have been extensively used in Nepticulidae, particularly Stigmella since Johansson (1971). Our molecular studies show that many of these species groups are indeed monophyletic entities (Doorenweerd et al. 2015a; 2016a), but on the other hand there has also been a proliferation of often monotypic species groups for species with different genitalia that cannot be placed easily. We have here recognised especially the well diagnosable species groups that often are also supported by molecular data. These include many of the Holarctic groups in Stigmella and Ectoedemia. Groups for which we have no or insufficient molecular data have been recognised when morphologically uniform and comprising more than one species, others are listed as unplaced within genera, or the larger clades that we recognise in Stigmella. When several groups together form a monophyletic clade, we sometimes use the term “cluster” for that clade.

In Pseudopostega we have abandoned all species groups for the time being, and list the species alphabetically by geographic region. We have been unable to find phylogenetic or molecular support for the groupings and found them hard to use. For details for these groups we refer to the revisions that introduced them (Puplesis and Robinson 1999; Davis and Stonis 2007).

Species group names are not governed by the ICZN rules, and for practical reasons we have therefore changed some names that were based on junior synonyms, or in one case replaced it by the name of the type species that is included in the group (Acalyptris psammophricta group rather than repeteki group). We give the authors who used the group name for the first time, even though they may have used a different composition. Synonyms are not complete, and many group names for single species are not given in synonymy, nor are the many names for Pseudopostega groups.

We group a few sibling species in species complexes, but only in cases where these species are really very hard to almost impossible to separate morphologically, or only by either biological or molecular data. This applies only to three complexes in European Ectoedemia (van Nieukerken et al. 2012b). Recently, Stonis and Remeikis (2015) recognised two species complexes in Neotropical Acalyptris, but since these are simply groupings of rather similar, but diagnosable species, we do not concur to use the term “complex” for such assemblages, because there are multiple similar examples in global Nepticuloidea. The Stigmella nigriverticella complex (Remeikis and Stonis 2015) is indeed a complicated group, but the saginella group to which the complex belongs, is overall still a taxonomic puzzle that requires more study both morphologically and genetically.

Order of the list

We order the genera and species groups according to our preferred phylogeny (Doorenweerd et al. 2016a), see also above. Species groups for which we do not have molecular data are listed at the end of each genus, monotypic species groups are largely abandoned, except in cases with an almost fully resolved phylogeny, where a single species does not group with any species group, as in the Ectoedemia terebinthivora group (Doorenweerd et al. 2015a), or when we know unnamed species that clearly group with the single species. The form genus Stigmellites for unplaced fossils is listed at the end of Nepticulidae and dubious taxa are listed at the end of each family. At the end of the checklist we list excluded taxa with their current taxonomic placement. These taxa were either originally described in Nepticula or Opostega, or once combined with these genera, but are now considered to belong to other families, in all 29 names, now belonging to 23 species in ca. eight to ten families. The list also includes four taxa of fossil leafmines, previously considered to possibly belong to Nepticulidae (Doorenweerd et al. 2015b).

Species are only listed in a phylogenetic order for those genera and groups where we have a detailed phylogeny, in practice only in Ectoedemia and a few species groups in Stigmella. Otherwise species are grouped by geographical region (order: WP, EP, OR, AFR, AUS, NEA, NEO) and listed alphabetically. Following the valid name we list the original combination plus those of the junior synonyms, followed by all now invalid subsequent combinations. Usually unavailable names are given at the end of the list of synonyms.

Distribution

For each species we give the biogeographical region(s) of occurrence with an abbreviation. When the abbreviation is placed in square brackets the species is assumed to be an introduction. For type localities and simple maps of country records we refer to the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/, which is regularly updated, and the Catalogue of Life.

DNA barcodes and specimen data

Obtaining DNA barcodes has been standard in our taxonomic workflow since ca 2000, particularly for recent material or taxonomic relevant material such as types; in many cases additional genes have been sequenced. Our methodology has been explained in detail elsewhere (van Nieukerken et al. 2012a; 2012b; Doorenweerd et al. 2015a; 2016a). Where our classification in the first place is based on the phylogenetic analyses of several genes, we have used DNA barcodes often to place species that were not involved in those analyses. Further we used the barcodes as additional arguments in deciding about species status, even though there is no absolute criterion. The judgement of the value of barcode distances is particularly problematic in vicariant populations, such as island populations, where exchange of genetic material has ceased often a long time ago (Mutanen et al. 2012; 2016). We only opted for separate species when a large distance was paired with morphological and/or biological differences, shown in sufficient material. In cases when single specimens on an island show large Barcode distances, but hardly any morphological ones, we usually decide against splitting until further material and data are available. This is for instance the case in Pseudopostega chalcopepla and some island populations of Stigmella perpygmaeella. We have discussed the use of barcodes extensively for Ectoedemia and some groups of Stigmella (van Nieukerken et al. 2012a; 2012b). Barcodes have also been of great use to couple the unknown sex, eg. in some Zimmermannia species, or to link species with unknown life histories to barcoded larvae. We would like to stress the added value of DNA barcodes to taxonomy, and plea for adding barcode data to all taxonomic treatments, whenever possible.

We release here our dataset of barcodes of well identified material as BOLD Dataset DS-NEPCAT (DOI: 10.5883/DS-NEPCAT). This means that identities of specimens included were either identified by us or by colleagues providing the data. Obviously various barcoded larvae that did not match any adult barcodes and could not otherwise be identified may still belong to named species with unknown hosts. This dataset includes DNA barcodes of 3205 specimens, belonging to 779 species (733 Nepticulidae and 46 Opostegidae) of which 2574 specimens belong to 444 formally named species (409 Nepticulidae and 35 species of Opostegidae). The remaining 642 specimens belong to ca. 335 unnamed (or as yet unidentified) species (324 Nepticulidae and 11 Opostegidae). In the dataset 3071 barcodes are assigned a Barcode Identification Number (BIN), representing 900 BIN’s, which belong to 749 recognised species (717 Nepticulidae and 32 Opostegidae). A neighbour joining tree of the barcode data is supplied here as Supplementary material S2. Even though NJ trees contain phylogenetic signal, they cannot be considered as real phylogenetic trees, and species may be completely misplaced on the basis of barcodes alone.

Data for specimens to which we refer in our notes are listed in Supplementary material S1, and when barcoded these data are also available in dataset DS-NEPCAT.

Host plants

We refrain from compiling a list of host plants here, even though it would have made the catalogue much more complete. A critical catalogue of host plant records requires considerable work on checking literature records, verifying host plant identifications and nomenclature and interpretation. We are working on such a catalogue to publish in the future, including many records of yet unnamed and unidentified species, to provide an insight into the host plant choices of the family. A catalogue of hosts without reference to sources was given by Diškus and Puplesis (2003), and for the West Palearctic and northern European alone by respectively van Nieukerken (1986a) and Johansson et al. (1990) and several more local revisions provide detailed host records. An analysis of all global host records on family level was used for the paper on the evolution of host associations in Lepidoptera (Menken et al. 2010).

Nomenclatorial practice

The most important source for nomenclatorial practice is the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999), that helps solving most nomenclatorial issues. However, interpreting the code is often difficult and we therefore highlight how we dealt with some cases in general, whereas in notes we discuss our individual choices where needed.

We include only names that were published as real scientific names, all available names according to ICZN, but also all unavailable names that are formed as real binomial or trinomial names. Unavailable names are marked with a double dagger (‡). For completeness’ sake we also include infrasubspecific names, that are not available according to the Code (ICZN 1.3.4). Many names based on leafmines only (the work of an animal) are unavailable when published after 1930 (ICZN 13.6.2), these are marked with the abbreviation “NNLM” (see below). After screening some of these descriptions, they appeared to be available after all, since part of the description dealt with the larva, eg. the colour, thus making the description available, even though it often is of little use in recognising the species.

We do not include any informal intermittent names (eg Acalyptris species 29135) or names given to unnamed barcoded species, as such names easily become obsolete and often are not published on paper or another fixed media anyway. Some of these intermittent names are listed on our scratchpad, though (van Nieukerken 2016) and many are used in the DNA barcodes dataset.

References

All original descriptions and references with new combinations and synonymies have been examined by EvN (mostly from his own collection of reprints, copies and pdf’s), always trying to establish correct publication dates, which lead to changing a few publication dates of taxa. The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) has been a particular great help, since this contains fully scanned volumes, allowing checking of dates on wrappers of issues and volumes, in addition to those available in our libraries. Nowadays there are many more repositories with scanned journals and books of particular countries, but since they do not always contain scans of wrappers and title pages, this checking is not always easy. It would be a great improvement if all these repositories were accessible through a single online source (BHL?); now it is not always easy to find these.

In the catalogue proper we present citations in the form as recommended by the Code (ICZN art. 50, 51, recommendations 51B–G), thus with comma, and use of ampersand rather than “and”. We always cite the page for the first description and for other nomenclatorial actions.

All references are listed here, and all references for original descriptions are also available in the scratchpad (van Nieukerken 2016). Where possible we added here the doi or url to the references.

Combinations

We here introduce several new combinations, that became necessary after raising subgenera to full genus. While doing this, we realised that it is often difficult to find where new combinations have been made in the past, since ICZN (in contrast to the Botanical Code) does not have special requirements for new combinations, other than that the publication fulfils availability. In practice many new combinations have been made unintentionally in checklists, faunistic papers, faunas, without marking these, whereas several of the new combinations marked as such in literature (including some of our own) appeared not to have been new at all. In Nepticulidae this is particularly the case with the combinations of many species with Stigmella: after the recognition by Walsingham (1908a) that in fact Stigmella is valid rather than Nepticula, some authors started to use this generic name, but many did not, and this uncertainty continued for 70 years (Wilkinson 1978)! There are in fact not many “official” new combinations in Stigmella and for European species many were given without further notice in two faunal works (Gerasimov 1952; Hering 1957). To document the combination history for all names in Nepticuloidea, we here give the first author using the combination – as far as we have been able to ascertain – as author name after the brackets, in a similar fashion as botanists do and as has been recommended by ICZN (Recommendation 51G). Combinations only published online on webpages or databases (including the scratchpad) and not in online journals, are not accepted as validly published, and thus are given here as new combinations when valid. When these combinations are no longer valid and have been used only online, we mention this by adding “online comb.”

One deviation from the code is that we do not change the ending of species-group names to agree with the gender of the generic name (ICZN article 34.2). This follows the practice by most lepidopterists in leading catalogues and checklists, duly discussed by Sommerer (2002) and formally adopted by the Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica in a Resolution during their General Meeting at the 13th European Congress of Lepidopterology in Kørsør (Denmark) on June 4, 2002 (Sommerer loc. cit.). In Nepticuloidea this affects only few names anyway, since most generic names are feminine (except Varius, which is masculine).

Synonyms

Similar to the combinations, finding the source for new synonyms is often difficult, and we therefore give the source for all subjective synonymies that we have been able to find. The few cases where we did not find it we leave this open, and we do not give a synonymy author for objective synonyms (names with the same type, such as new names, incorrect subsequent spellings) or for (infra)subspecific names within the same nominal species.

Types

We have tried to include information on the primary types for each name in the scratchpad (van Nieukerken 2016), including information on the depository, the genitalia slide number and the host plant of the type – when reared. Information on types is provided here only for cases discussed in the notes. We also started adding photos of types to the scratchpad, but this will be far from complete when this paper is published.

Type species of genera and type genera of family group names are always given in the list, using several similar abbreviations as suggested by Pullen et al. (2014).

Abbreviations and symbols used

AFR Afrotropical region

AUS Australian and Pacific regions

BIN Barcode Identification number

BOLD Barcoding of Life Database

EP East Palearctic region

ICZN International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999)

IOS Incorrect original spelling

ISS Incorrect subsequent spelling

JH Junior Homonym [of Genus]

JPH Junior Primary Homonym [of Species]

JSH Junior Secondary Homonym [of Species]

ND Nomen dubium, dubious name, of which identity is unknown and untraceable

NEA Nearctic region

NEO Neotropical region

NN Nomen nudum, unavailable name failing to conform to ICZN art 12 or 13

NNLM Nomen nudum, for a name after 1931 based on the description of a leafmine (ICZN 13.6.2)

NO Nomen oblitum, forgotten name, not used as valid name after 1900

OR Oriental region

RN Replacement name

syn Synonymised by

TG Type Genus

TS/OD Type Species by Original Designation

TS/OD,M Type Species by Original Designation and Monotypy

TS/M Type Species by Monotypy

TS/SD Type Species by Subsequent Designation

UE Unjustified emendation

URN Unnecessary replacement name

WP West Palearctic region

† Fossil species

‡ The double dagger is given before an nomenclatorially unavailable name.

1 Superscript numbers refer to the taxonomic notes after the list. In the online html version of the list automatically hyperlinked.

Global Nepticuloidea: the state of the art

Table 4 provides an overview of the diversity of global Nepticuloidea for region and genus. Here we report 862 extant named species of Nepticulidae and 192 Opostegidae, a total of 1054. For the 18 fossil species we refer to our earlier catalogue (Doorenweerd et al. 2015b). We illustrate most genera with watercolours by Roland Johansson in Figures 2540.

Diversity of extant Nepticuloidea per geographic region and globally. Numbers are validly described species. When only unnamed species of a certain genus are known from a region this is indicated by a plus sign, brackets indicate occurrence just at the edge of the region. When generic assignment is uncertain, the number is given in italics.

WP EP OR AUS AFR NEA NEO Global
Enteucha 1 + 1 (2) 9 11
Varius 1 1
Simplimorpha 1 1 2
Stigmella 138 115 17 31 50 51 61 428
Ozadelpha 3 3
Roscidotoga 4 4
Casanovula 2 2
Menurella 1 11 12
Pectinivalva 7 7
Neotrifurcula 1 1
Hesperolyra 4 4
Bohemannia 3 5 7
Areticulata 1 1
Glaucolepis 34 2 1 + 1 2 40
Trifurcula 34 ? 2 36
Fomoria 12 7 3 3 22 3 1 48
Muhabbetana 4 28 32
Parafomoria 8 8
Etainia 7 4 + 4 2 16
Acalyptris 23 1 7 + 22 9 32 93
Zimmermannia 9 4 + 5 + 17
Ectoedemia 47 29 + 5 14 1 89
Nepticulidae Total 321 167 30 58 136 85 114 862
# genera 13 8 6 6 10 7 9 22
Notiopostega 1 1
Eosopostega 1 1 + 2
Neopostega 6 6
Paralopostega 6 6
Opostegoides 1 6 15 1 4 1 28
Opostega 5 3 (1) 7
Opostega 17 3 20
Pseudopostega 3 2 22 + 8 9 82 122
Opostegidae total 9 12 39 24 15 10 89 192
# genera 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 8
Nepticuloidea Total 330 179 69 82 151 95 203 1054
# genera 16 12 9 10 13 9 12 30

There is a strong bias for the West Palearctic with 321 Nepticulidae, but the highest number of Opostegidae is for the Neotropics (89), which probably better reflects the reality. Fig. 24B shows that there is a constant increase in numbers of described species over time, and we are already aware of large numbers of unnamed species from most areas, but particularly the tropics and East Asia. The following lines present a short summary of our current knowledge of Nepticuloidea per region.

Europe. As has also become clear from the taxonomic history, until recently most work concentrated on the European fauna, and probably the majority of species have been described by now. Europe, excluding Cyprus, but including Macaronesia, contains 280 named species. We know of about 20 unnamed species of Trifurcula, eight Parafomoria and a small number of Stigmella, particularly Rhamnus feeders and several species belonging to the Stigmella salicis complex (van Nieukerken et al. 2012a), but otherwise do not expect many more to be discovered. Several key works deal with parts of Europe (Johansson et al. 1990; Laštůvka and Laštůvka 1997; Bengtsson et al. 2008), but this still excludes southern Europe.

The largest genus is Stigmella, as in most regions, but also Ectoedemia is very diverse here with a particularly rich fauna associated with oaks (van Nieukerken et al. 2010; 2012b). Both genera feed particularly on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Betulaceae and Salicaceae, and Stigmella also on Rhamnaceae and a few other families. Although Europe has no endemic genera, the three Mediterranean genera Parafomoria, Glaucolepis and Trifurcula have by far their largest diversity here, particularly in the Iberian Peninsula, and to a lesser extent in Italy and Greece. Most of these feed on shrubs and some herbs in the typical Mediterranean habitats as Garrigue or Maquis, with Parafomoria specialising on Cistaceae, Trifurcula on Fabaceae, mostly brooms (Genisteae) and Loteae, whereas Glaucolepis has groups of species feeding on Lamiaceae, Apiaceae: Bupleurum and Plantaginaceae: Globularia. Fomoria has a centre of diversity in Greece and Turkey with at least six species feeding on Hypericum. Acalyptris also has most species in South East Europe, with the staticis group specialised on Plumbaginaceae and often occurring along the sea coast, and four species in the platani group on Platanaceae, Loranthaceae and Anacardiaceae. Etainia and Zimmermannia are widespread in Europe, the first associated with Sapindaceae (Acer) and Ericaceae (Arctostaphylos), whereas most Zimmermannia are barkminers in Fagaceae, and one in Ulmus. Simplimorpha has one species, S. promissa, oligophagous on Anacardiaceae in southern Europea, whereas the single Enteucha, E. acetosae occurs in Central and Eastern Europe on Rumex species (Polygonaceae).

Western Palearctic Region. Obviously Europe is part of this region, and its fauna continues along the Mediterranean coasts, but there is a great difference in the knowledge of the faunas inside and outside of Europe. The region has only 50 species that are not known from Europe (the total of 330 minus 280). The typical Mediterranean fauna continues in North Africa, Turkey and the Levant, but has been poorly sampled and will probably contain still many new taxa to discover. Turkey and Iran in particular are promising countries for high diversities, Turkey has a large diversity in such host plant genera as Quercus and Hypericum. In the desert areas of the Middle East, North Africa and the Arabian peninsula other groups become important, such as the Acalyptris psammophricta and shafirkanus groups (Puplesis et al. 1996; van Nieukerken 2010) and Ectoedemia and Zimmermannia are almost absent. Probably the best studied area in this region is Turkmenistan with nearly 50 recorded species (Puplesis and Diškus 2003a).

Eastern Palearctic Region. We separate West and East Palearctic more or less following the 64–65 East meridian, from North to South along the rivers Ob, Tobol, Turgay, Aral Sea, Karakum desert and the border between Iran and Afghanistan/Pakistan. In practice this means that we treat in Central Asia Turkmenistan and Iran as West Palearctic, and Afghanistan, Tadzhikistan and most of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan as East Palearctic. This is a huge area, with major differences between the rather dry and mountainous Central Asia and the almost subtropical forested areas of the Sino-Japanese zone. The 167 named Nepticulidae and 12 Opostegidae certainly only represent the tip of the iceberg. Much work has been done on parts of the former Soviet Union: Central Asia and the Russian Far East (Puplesis 1994; Puplesis and Diškus 2003a; Rocienė and Stonis 2013; Stonis and Rocienė 2013), but for other regions descriptive work is only just beginning. In central Asia the best studied and most diverse country is Tadzhikistan with ca 40 species (Puplesis and Diškus 2003a). In this area Stigmella and Ectoedemia are particularly common in the mountainous areas, with species feeding particularly on Rosaceae, Salicaceae and Rhamnaceae, but in desert areas Acalyptris becomes an important element with members of the psammophricta and shafirkanus groups of which biologies are mostly completely unknown.

The northern part of the area, Siberia, has many trans-palearctic species, particularly Stigmella and Ectoedemia species feeding on Betula and Ericaceae feeders as Stigmella lediella on Rhododendron and Fomoria weaveri on Vaccinium vitis-idaea. A paper on Siberian nepticulids is in preparation (van Nieukerken, Kirichenko et al.).

Eastern Asia is a very rich faunistic area, with very diverse forests containing many potential host plants. The northernmost portion, Far east Russia, notably the Primorye region, has been best studied, with around 70 species known (Puplesis 1994; Rocienė and Stonis 2013; 2014, Stonis and Rocienė 2013). Initial fieldwork in China has resulted in the recognition of a very rich fauna of at least some 200 species, but to date only few have been described (van Driel and van Nieukerken 1985; van Nieukerken and Liu 2000). For Japan we have a working list of at least 120 species, the recent fauna work listed ca 75 (Hirano 2013; Hirowatari 2013). Obviously all these faunas have a large overlap, and are characterised by dominance of Ectoedemia and Stigmella (Kemperman et al. 1985; Hirano 2010; 2014). On many tree species there are multiple species in both genera, particularly in Fagaceae, Betulaceae, Juglandaceae, Rosaceae, Ulmaceae and Salicaceae, but also the fauna on Ericaceae and Sapindaceae is comparatively rich. Linking species names from species described from adults only to leafmines from which no adults have emerged is still a challenge, but due to an increasing number of available barcodes more and more of these are linked and publications are being prepared. In Stigmella there are also a few species feeding on monocots: the grass genus Oplismenus with S. oplismeniella (Kemperman et al. 1985) and an unnamed species on Carex in Japan. The smaller genera Etainia, Fomoria and Bohemannia are relatively rich in this area, and in the more southern parts Acalyptris and Enteucha become more important, the latter with a number of species feeding on Polygonaceae, to date all unnamed (van Nieukerken 1986b). In the Opostegidae the genus Opostegoides is particularly rich with six named species.

Oriental region. The number of named species for the oriental region is still very low with only 30 Nepticulidae, but the Opostegidae have been revised (Puplesis and Robinson 1999) and number 39 species. Most of the species were described by Meyrick from India, and some from Nepal by Puplesis and Diškus (2003a). From our fieldwork in Vietnam, Borneo and Taiwan, it is clear that there is a rich fauna of leafmining Nepticulidae in this region, but it is a challenge to find sufficient numbers of larvae that can be reared to adults. We have never been very successful with light collecting adults in this region, but some – often poor – material is available in various collections. The genera Stigmella and Acalyptris are most diverse in this area, Ectoedemia is becoming much rarer further away from the Palearctic, but still occurs on Rubus from the North as far as Borneo, forming a complex of closely related species. In Borneo we also discovered the first non-Australian species in the genus Menurella (formerly in Pectinivalva): M. xenadelpha on Syzygium acuminatissimum (Myrtaceae) (Hoare and van Nieukerken 2013). Stigmella species have a wide variety of hosts, including tropical groups such as Dipterocarpaceae, Meliaceae, Phyllanthaceae and Moraceae (Ficus species), the large majority belonging to non-core Stigmella. There are also species in the S. betulicola group feeding on grasses such as Oplismenus and Cyperaceae (Cyperus): S. xystodes (van Nieukerken 2010). Acalyptris have an even wider range of hosts throughout the eudicots, most species belonging to the A. platani group.

The Opostegidae are characterised by many species in Opostegoides and Pseudopostega, and single species in Opostega and Eosopostega (Puplesis and Robinson 1999).

The fauna of northern parts of the Oriental region, Nepal, northern Vietnam, Taiwan, has a much more Palearctic character, often sharing the same host plant genera and comprises for instance also several Ectoedemia, the Polygonaceae feeding Enteucha species, including the only named one, E. diplocosma and Fomoria species feeding both on Lamiaceae: Callicarpa and Vitex and Hypericaceae (van Nieukerken 2008).

Afrotropical Region. The knowledge of the African fauna is very unbalanced, of the 136 named Nepticulidae species the great majority is known from southern Africa, thanks to the diligent rearing work by Lajos Vári, who also named several species (Vári 1955; 1963) and the revisions by Malcolm Scoble (Scoble 1978a; b; 1980a; b; 1983). Further just a few were described from Gambia (Gustafsson 1985) and outside that area just five species have been named; also collections are poor in unidentified material. But even in South Africa much of the diversity is still unknown, and every new collection contains unnamed species. Two monotypic endemic genera Varius and Areticulata have an uncertain placement and may be synonyms to existing genera. The genera Simplimorpha and Muhabbetana are near endemic, both also occur in the adjacent Mediterranean region. Simplimorpha is specialised on Anacardiaceae, and most African Muhabbetana feed on Ebenaceae and Celastraceae. Fomoria and Acalyptris are relatively diverse genera with broad host ranges. Stigmella is the largest genus, as everywhere, but with a dominance of species belonging to non-core Stigmella. The Ectoedemia commiphorella group has several species feeding on Burseraceae and is possibly sister to the northern hemisphere Ectoedemia (Doorenweerd et al. 2015a). Also the group of African Etainia species seems to be sister to the Holarctic Etainia, but hosts and biology are completely unknown. The two species assigned to Trifurcula (Scoble 1980a) may not belong there, a closer study of these species is needed.

The island fauna of the Indian Ocean is still poorly known: two species occur on Aldabra (Seychelles), see below under note 21, and one is named from Madagascar (Fomoria scobleella). However, we have seen examples or DNA barcodes of Nepticulidae from Madagascar that show the presence of the genera Acalyptris, Muhabbetana, Ectoedemia and Stigmella. No species are known from Réunion or Mauritius.

The African Opostegidae, with 15 named species, have not yet been revised, but we have been able to recombine several “Opostega” species here with Opostegoides or Pseudopostega, the only genera known with certainty from Africa.

Australian Region. Australia proper has a very rich and special fauna with an estimate of about 250 species of Nepticulidae as currently available in collections (Hoare 1998), of which approximately 30 have been named. Australia has four (almost) endemic genera: the small genus Roscidotoga (4 species) in the eastern rainforest, specialised on plants in the Oxalidales (Hoare 2000a; van Nieukerken et al. 2011), and Casanovula, Menurella and Pectinivalva with around 160 species, all but one (that feeds on Quintinia, Paracryphiaceae) feeding on Myrtaceae, with a large number feeding on Eucalyptus (Hoare and van Nieukerken 2013). The other large genus is Stigmella with an estimated number of at least 80 species, with the most important host families being Rutaceae, Fabaceae (including Acacia), Sapindaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthaceae and Rhamnaceae (Hoare 1998); a large number of these species belong to non-core Stigmella. Fomoria has just a few species in the vannifera group on Brassicaceae and one in the weaveri group on Salicaceae (Hoare 2000b; Doorenweerd et al. 2016a), Acalyptris includes ca. seven unnamed species in the A. platani group (hosts Phyllanthaceae, Melastomataceae, Loranthaceae) and there is also one Glaucolepis in the raikhonae group. There is a rich opostegid fauna with 24 named species, but they have not yet been revised. The genera Opostegoides and Pseudopostega at least occur here, and there is possibly also a species of Eosopostega (Hoare 1998).

The fauna of New Guinea is virtually unknown, we have only seen a few species of Stigmella.

New Zealand has a fauna quite unrelated to Australia, only the genus Stigmella, with the S. ogygia group occurs here, with 27 named and ca 12 unnamed species. Interestingly, its sistergroup is the epicosma group in South America. Many New Zealand species feed on shrubby and herbaceous Asteraceae, such as Olearia or Senecio, but there are also species feeding on Malvaceae, Ericaceae and Nothofagaceae (Donner and Wilkinson 1989). There are no opostegids known from New Zealand.

On the many Pacific islands only few Nepticulidae are known, S. ebbenielseni, feeding on Pipturus (Urticaceae) was described from Guam (van Nieukerken and van den Berg 2003), and a few other Urticaceae feeding Stigmella are reported in the same paper from Polynesia and Fiji. No nepticulids are known from Hawaii, but there occurs the interesting endemic genus Paralopostega, with a small radiation of species, making leafmines on Melicope (formerly Pelea, Rutaceae) (Swezey 1921; Zimmerman 1978, Davis, 1989).

On New Caledonia many mines of Nepticulidae have been seen (RJBH), several on Cunoniaceae, but no serious collecting has taken place. The adults of two species are known, but these have not been placed to genus, and require further study. The fauna could well be diverse and important, in common with the very rich and unusual flora of this island.

Nearctic region. The fauna of the Nearctic is relatively poor with 85 named Nepticulidae and ten Opostegidae. The Nepticulidae were revised in the early 1980’s (Wilkinson 1979; 1981; Wilkinson and Scoble 1979; Wilkinson and Newton 1981; Newton and Wilkinson 1982) and the Opostegidae recently (Davis and Stonis 2007), but much material remained unstudied and a lot has been collected since the 1980’s. Two of us (EvN and CD) have been collecting leafmines throughout North America, whereas Davis has draft descriptions of 20 new species and several other people are contributing to a much better knowledge. Some of our results are shown in this list with notes, and several manuscripts are underway. Even though there are still quite a few unnamed species to describe, overall the fauna is not as rich as in the Palearctic, or even Europe alone. We do not know the cause, but it is interesting to note that other groups of leafminers are much more diverse in the Nearctic than in the Palearctic (Tischeriidae, Bucculatricidae, several groups of Gracillariidae).

By far the largest genus is Stigmella, with groups specialising on amongst others Fagaceae, Betulaceae, Juglandaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae and Anacardiaceae; typical species groups for this region are the saginella and quercipulchella groups with oak feeding species and the prunifoliella group feeding on Anacardiaceae, Rhamnaceae (Ceanothus) and Rosaceae (Prunus); most other species groups are shared with the Palearctic. Particularly in California and Arizona there are largely unstudied radiations of species on Quercus and Ceanothus. Ectoedemia is not nearly as diverse as in the Palearctic, and for instance has not more than three species feeding on oaks, but it has some other hosts including Platanaceae and Cornaceae (Nyssa). The genus Acalyptris still has a large undiscovered diversity, with several species specialising on Cyperaceae in wetlands, like the type species of Microcalyptris, A. scirpi. Fomoria, Etainia and Glaucolepis are small genera with just a few species, but the barkmining Zimmermannia has a few more species (even though we synonymise here eight names) and is a widespread element, with associations with Fagaceae, Salicaceae and possibly Betulaceae. The fauna of southern Florida is more Neotropical with its two species of Enteucha on seagrape Coccoloba uvifera (Polygonaceae) and various other species in Acalyptris, Stigmella and Pseudopostega. In northern North America there are several Holarctic species, particularly feeding on Betula (eg Ectoedemia occultella, minimella) or Ericaceae (Fomoria weaveri) and some European species have been introduced (paper in preparation).

Neotropical Region. Currently 123 named species of Nepticulidae (plus 13 informally named species) and 89 Opostegidae are known, but due to active research new species are added regularly, particularly by Stonis and co-authors (reviewed by van Nieukerken et al. (2016) and see above). The fauna differs remarkably from most other regions, with three endemic genera in Nepticulidae: Ozadelpha, Neotrifurcula and Hesperolyra, and two endemic genera in Opostegidae: Notiopostega and Neopostega. Most of the named Nepticulidae belong to Stigmella, but also here with endemic species groups: the epicosma group, the eurydesma group, the barbata group and the purpurimaculae group. Host plant relationships are also special: as in the New Zealand ogygia group, many species in the epicosma group, particularly common in the Andes, feed on Asteraceae (Stonis et al. 2015a; 2016b). The Nothofagus forest of austral South America is the locality for several endemics, and Notiopostega is known to make extremely long mines in the cambium of Nothofagus trees. It is possible that species of Neotrifurcula are also barkminers of Nothofagus, and for the Stigmella purpurimaculae group there is a strong suspicion that they make leafmines in Nothofagus (Stonis et al. 2014). Ozadelpha species are associated with Myrtales: Melastomataceae and Myrtaceae, and the only species of Hesperolyra where the host is known also feeds on Myrtaceae. There are nine species of Enteucha, and where known they feed on Polygonaceae: Coccoloba. For the large number of Acalyptris species there are only few host records, including Fabaceae and Verbenaceae. In the northern part of the Neotropics there is greater similarity with the Nearctic fauna, and this is particularly the case for the recently discovered diversity of Quercus miners in Guatemala and Colombia (Stonis et al. 2013e; Remeikis and Stonis 2015).

The generic placement of the few Neotropical species now placed in Ectoedemia, Fomoria and Glaucolepis requires further study, Zimmermannia occurs in Mesoamerica with an unnamed species with genitalia very similar to Z. bosquella (Puplesis and Robinson 2000).

In the Opostegidae the genus Pseudopostega is remarkably diverse with 82 species, unfortunately as yet without any knowledge of host associations (Davis and Stonis 2007).

Atlantic Islands. Not a single nepticuloid species is known from the Oceanic Atlantic islands south of Macaronesia (such as St. Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha, the Falklands), but their occurrence still could be possible. The fauna of Macaronesia is mostly endemic, particularly on the Canarian Islands, with mostly Mediterranean or African elements of Glaucolepis, Muhabbetana, Fomoria, Acalyptris and Stigmella. The fauna of the Azores and Madeira is very poor with respectively one and four species, some of which have been introduced (Karsholt and Vieira 2005; Aguiar and Karsholt 2006). No nepticulids are yet known from Cabo Verde, but are expected to occur there, and in the North Atlantic there are no Nepticulidae known from Greenland or Iceland, nor any of the smaller islands.

Catalogue

SUPERFAMILY NEPTICULOIDEA Stainton, 1854: 295

FAMILY NEPTICULIDAE Stainton, 1854: 295 (TG: Nepticula Heyden, 1843)

Family Stigmellidae Hampson, 1918: 387 (TG: Stigmella Schrank, 1802)

Subfamily Pectinivalvinae Scoble, 1983: 12 (TG: Pectinivalva Scoble, 1983) (syn.: Puplesis, 1994: 36)

Subfamily Nepticulinae Stainton, 1854

Subfamily Stigmellinae Hampson, 1918

Subfamily Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983: 16 (TG: Trifurcula Zeller, 1848) syn. n.

Tribe Nepticulini Stainton, 1854: 295

Tribe Stigmellini Hampson, 1918

Tribe Trifurculini Scoble, 1983: 16 syn. n.

Enteucha Meyrick, 1915a: 241 (TS/M: Enteucha cyanochlora Meyrick, 1915) 1

Johanssonia Borkowski, 1972a: 702; JH of Johanssonia Selensky, 1914 (Annelida, Hirudinea) (TS/OD,M: Nepticula acetosae Stainton, 1854) (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 7)

Artaversala Davis, 1978: 219 (TS/OD,M: Artaversala gilvafascia Davis, 1978) (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 7)

Oligoneura Davis, 1978: 217; JH of Oligoneura Bigot, 1878 (Brachiopoda) (TS/OD,M: Oligoneura basidactyla Davis, 1978) (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 7)

Manoneura Davis, 1979: 276; RN for Oligoneura Davis, 1978 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 7) 1

Johanssoniella Koçak, 1981: 99; RN for Johanssonia Borkowski (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 7)

Enteucha acetosae (Stainton, 1854) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 7 (Fig. 25) WP

Nepticula acetosae Shield, 1853: 4153 NN

Nepticula acetosae Stainton, 1854: 303

Nepticula acetosella Doubleday, 1859: 36 UE

Nepticula arifoliella Klimesch, 1940b: 92

Stigmella acetosae (Stainton, 1854) Beirne, 1945: 200

Johanssonia acetosae (Stainton, 1854) Borkowski, 1972a: 702

Johanssoniella acetosae (Stainton, 1854) Koçak, 1981: 99

Stigmella arifoliella (Klimesch, 1940) Hering, 1957: 912

Nepticula arifoliella var. altvateri Skala, 1941b: 79

Enteucha diplocosma (Meyrick, 1921) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 321 OR

Nepticula diplocosma Meyrick, 1921a: 411

Enteucha acuta Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 21 NEO

Enteucha basidactyla (Davis, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 54 1NEA,NEO

Oligoneura basidactyla Davis, 1978: 218

Manoneura basidactyla (Davis, 1978) Davis, 1979: 276

Enteucha contracolorea Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 20 NEO

Enteucha cyanochlora Meyrick, 1915a: 241 NEO

Enteucha gilvafascia (Davis, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 54 NEA,NEO

Artaversala gilvafascia Davis, 1978: 221

Enteucha hilli Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 19 NEO

Enteucha snaddoni Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 21 NEO

Enteucha trinaria (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000) comb. n. NEO

Manoneura trinaria Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 23

Enteucha terricula Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 20 NEO

Varius Scoble, 1983: 14 (TS/OD,M: Stigmella ochnicola Vári, 1955)

Varius ochnicola (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1983: 14 AFR

Stigmella ochnicola Vári, 1955: 336

Varius ochnicolus (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1983: 14 [variant]

Simplimorpha Scoble, 1983: 15 (TS/OD,M: Stigmella lanceifoliella Vári, 1955)

Simplimorpha promissa (Staudinger, 1871) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 6 WP

Nepticula promissa Staudinger, 1871: 325

Nepticula robiniella Gustafsson, 1973: 197 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 6)

Stigmella promissa (Staudinger, 1871) Klimesch, 1951b: 64

Simplimorpha lanceifoliella (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1983: 15 AFR

Stigmella lanceifoliella Vári, 1955: 331

Stigmella Schrank, 1802: 169 (TS/SD (Walsingham, 1908a: 1007) 2: Phalaena (Tinea) anomalella Goeze, 1783)

Nepticula Heyden, 1843: 208 (TS/SD (Walsingham, 1908a: 1007): Tinea aurella Fabricius, 1755) (syn: Walsingham, 1908a: 1008) 2

Dysnepticula Börner, 1925: 370 (TS/OD: Phalaena (Tinea) anomalella Goeze, 1783)

Astigmella Puplesis, 1984a: 111 (TS/OD: Astigmella dissona Puplesis, 1984) (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 7)

[Microsetia Stephens, 1834 sensu Kirby, 1897: 313 (TS/incorrect SD by Kirby, 1897: Nepticula microtheriella Stainton, 1854) (see Wilkinson 1978: 17)]

Non-core Stigmella 3

ungrouped species in Non-core Stigmella

Stigmella freyella (Heyden, 1858) Vári, 1950: 182 WP

Nepticula freyella Heyden, 1858: 175

Stigmella kurilensis Puplesis, 1987: 8 EP

Stigmella ebbenielseni van Nieukerken & Van den Berg, 2003: 28 AUS

Stigmella resplendensella (Chambers, 1875) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 456 4NEA

Nepticula resplendensella Chambers, 1875b: 118

Stigmella unifasciella (Chambers, 1875) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 438 NEA

Nepticula unifasciella Chambers, 1875b: 119

Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 7 NEO

Stigmella prunifoliella group (Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 385) 5

Stigmella prunetorum group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella bifasciella group (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 59)

Stigmella prunetorum (Stainton, 1855) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP,EP

Nepticula prunetorum Stainton, 1855: 72

Nepticula dimidiatella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 352 (syn: Herrich-Schäffer, 1860: 59)

Nepticula perpusillella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 353 (syn: Frey, 1856: 390)

Nepticula prunetella Doubleday, 1859: 36 UE

Nepticula ligustrella Rössler, 1867: 395 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula punctella Threlfall, 1884: 113 ISS

Nepticula prunetorum var. aviella Skala, 1934b: 6 NNLM

Stigmella prunetorum var. aviella (Skala, 1934b) NNLM

Stigmella diniensis (Klimesch, 1975) Leraut, 1980: 49 WP

Nepticula diniensis Klimesch, 1975c: 5

Stigmella ceanothi (Braun, 1910) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 387 NEA

Nepticula ceanothi Braun, 1910: 172

Stigmella cerea (Braun, 1917) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 407 NEA

Nepticula cerea Braun, 1917: 172

Stigmella intermedia (Braun, 1917) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 62 NEA

Nepticula intermedia Braun, 1917: 171

Stigmella prunifoliella (Clemens, 1861) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 385 NEA

Nepticula prunifoliella Clemens, 1861: 84

Nepticula bifasciella Clemens, 1862: 133 (syn: Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 385)

Nepticula serotinaeella Chambers, 1873: 126 (syn: Braun, 1917: 170)

Stigmella bifasciella (Clemens, 1862) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 59

Stigmella rhoifoliella (Braun, 1912) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 391 NEA

Nepticula rhoifoliella Braun, 1912: 93

Stigmella gossypii (Forbes & Leonard, 1930) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 404 NEO

Nepticula gossypii Forbes & Leonard, 1930: 149

Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, 2016 in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 15 NEO

Stigmella ultima group (Puplesis, 1984a: 116)

Stigmella aceris (Frey, 1857) Gerasimov, 1952: 222 WP

Nepticula aceris Frey, 1857: 386

Nepticula penicillata Heinemann & Wocke, [1876]: 744 6 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula szöcsi Klimesch, 1956: 423 (syn: Klimesch, 1978a: 246)

Nepticula szoecsi Klimesch, 1956: 423 ISS (syn: Klimesch, 1978a: 246)

Stigmella acerna Puplesis, 1988: 277 7WP

Stigmella acerifoliella Dovnar-Zapolski, 1969: 20 NNLM; syn. n. 7

Stigmella bicolor Puplesis, 1988: 276 EP

Stigmella bumbegerensis Puplesis, 1984d: 509 EP

Stigmella kozlovi Puplesis, 1984a: 118 EP

Stigmella monella Puplesis, 1984a: 117 EP

Stigmella orientalis Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 21 EP

Stigmella semiaurea Puplesis, 1988: 275 WP,EP

Stigmella tegmentosella Puplesis, 1984a: 117 EP

Stigmella ultima Puplesis, 1984a: 117 EP

Stigmella japonica Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 20 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 81)

Stigmella ulmivora group (Johansson, 1971: 244)

Stigmella kazakhstanica Puplesis in Puplesis et al. 1991: 70 WP,EP

Stigmella pimschoorli Puplesis, 1994: 64 (syn: Puplesis et al., 1996: 192)

Stigmella ulmiphaga (Preissecker, 1942) Klimesch, 1948b: 62 WP

Nepticula ulmiphaga Preissecker, 1942: 208

Nepticula gracilivora Skala, 1942: 6 (syn: Klimesch, 1975c: 4)

Stigmella ulmivora (Fologne, 1860) Beirne, 1945: 199 8WP

Nepticula ulmivora Fologne, 1860: 92

Nepticula ulmifoliae Hering, 1931: 531 (syn: Emmet, 1974d: 151)

Nepticula ulmicola Hering, 1932: 569 (syn: Emmet, 1974d: 151)

Stigmella ulmifoliae (Hering, 1931) Vári, 1944b: xxv

Stigmella ulmicola (Hering, 1932) Vári, 1944b: xxv

Nepticula ulmella Hofmann, 1858: 191 NN (syn: Segerer, 1997: 188) 8

Stigmella viscerella (Stainton, 1853) Beirne, 1945: 199 WP

Nepticula viscerella Stainton, 1853: 3958

Nepticula subvirescens Meyrick, 1934b: 523 (syn: Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 343)

Nepticula tauromeniella Groschke, 1944: 117 (syn: Klimesch, 1975c: 2)

Stigmella tauromeniella (Groschke, 1944) Hering, 1957: 1090

Stigmella alisa Puplesis, 1985c: 63 EP

Stigmella amuriella Puplesis, 1985c: 62 EP

Stigmella auricularia Puplesis, Diškus & Juchnevič in Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 245 EP

Stigmella multispicata Rocienė & Stonis in Stonis & Rocienė, 2014: 205 9EP

Stigmella nireae Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 18 EP

Stigmella palionisi Puplesis, 1984b: 5967EP

Stigmella nakamurai Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 16 syn. n. 10

Stigmella eurydesma group (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 32)

Stigmella albilamina Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 33 NEO

Stigmella eurydesma (Meyrick, 1915a) Davis, 1984: 18 NEO

Nepticula eurydesma Meyrick, 1915a: 255

Stigmella fuscilamina Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 34 NEO

Stigmella saginella group (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 39)

Stigmella castaneaefoliella (Chambers, 1875b) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 44 NEA

Nepticula castaneaefoliella Chambers, 1875b: 117

Stigmella flavipedella (Braun, 1914) Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 31 NEA

Nepticula flavipedella Braun, 1914: 19

Stigmella macrocarpae (Freeman, 1967) comb. n. 11NEA

Nepticula latifasciella Chambers, 1878: 106 JPH of Nepticula latifasciella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 11 (syn: Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 47)

Nepticula macrocarpae Freeman, 1967: 19

Stigmella latifasciella (Chambers, 1878) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 47

Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers, 1875b) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 423 NEA

Nepticula nigriverticella Chambers, 1875b: 118

Nepticula maculosella Chambers, 1880a: 193 (syn: Braun, 1917: 194)

Stigmella saginella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 39 NEA

Nepticula saginella Clemens, 1861: 85

Nepticula fuscocapitella Chambers, 1873: 128 (syn: Braun, 1917: 195)

Nepticula quercicastanella Chambers, 1873: 127 (syn: Braun, 1917: 195)

Stigmella sclerostylota Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 429 NEA

Stigmella aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013c: 8 NEO

Stigmella crassifoliae Remeikis & Stonis, 2015: 410 NEO

Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013c: 6 NEO

Stigmella lauta Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013c: 6 NEO

Stigmella robleae Remeikis & Stonis, 2015: 411 NEO

Stigmella sublauta Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013c: 8 NEO

Stigmella paliurella group (van Nieukerken, 1986a: 8)

Stigmella birgittae Gustafsson, 1985: 171 12WP,AFR

Stigmella omani Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 207 (syn: van Nieukerken, 2010: 493)

Nepticula amseli Skala, 1941b: 78 NNLM; syn. n. 12

Stigmella abaiella Klimesch, 1979: 21 13WP

Stigmella ficulnea Puplesis & Krasnilnikova, in Puplesis, 1994: 65 13WP

Stigmella longicornuta Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 217 WP

Stigmella paliurella Gerasimov, 1937: 285 14WP

Nepticula paliurella (Gerasimov, 1937) Klimesch, 1940a: 177 14

Nepticula paliurella Klimesch, 1940c

Stigmella turbatrix Puplesis, 1994: 66 15WP,EP

Stigmella celtivora Dovnar-Zapolski, 1969: 39 NNLM

Stigmella zizyphi Walsingham, 1911: 190 WP,AFR

Stigmella ziziphivora Gustafsson, 1985: 171 (syn: van Nieukerken, 2010: 495)

Nepticula zizyphi (Walsingham, 1911) Skala, 1938a: 45

Stigmella morivora Hirano, 2010: 128 EP

Stigmella sruogai Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 204 EP

Stigmella isochalca (Meyrick, 1916b) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 325 OR

Nepticula isochalca Meyrick, 1916b: 6

Stigmella nepali Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 206 OR

Stigmella phyllanthina (Meyrick, 1906b) Common, 1990: 156 AUS

Nepticula phyllanthina Meyrick, 1906b: 60

Stigmella naturnella group (new)

Stigmella dissona group (Puplesis, 1994: 58)

Stigmella naturnella (Klimesch, 1936) Klimesch, 1948b: 65 WP,EP

Nepticula naturnella Klimesch, 1936: 205

Astigmella dissona Puplesis, 1984a: 112 (syn: van Nieukerken et al., 2004a: 133)

Stigmella dissona (Puplesis, 1984a) Puplesis, 1994: 58

Stigmella mirabella (Puplesis, 1984a) Puplesis, 1994: 58 EP

Astigmella mirabella Puplesis, 1984a: 112

Stigmella tiliae group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella tiliae (Frey, 1856) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP

Nepticula tiliae Frey, 1856: 375

Stigmella sashai Puplesis, 1984b: 594 EP

Stigmella regina Puplesis, 1984b: 596 (syn: Rocienė & Stonis, 2013: 95)

Stigmella betulicola group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella corylifoliella group (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 50)

Stigmella alnetella (Stainton, 1856) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP

Nepticula alnetella Stainton, 1856: 43

Stigmella betulicola (Stainton, 1856) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP,EP,NEA

Nepticula betulicola Stainton, 1856: 42

Nepticula betulicolella Doubleday, 1859: 36 UE

Nepticula betulicola var. nanivora Petersen, 1930: 61 (syn: Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella nanivora (Petersen, 1930) Hering, 1957: 183

Stigmella glutinosae (Stainton, 1858) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP

Nepticula glutinosae Stainton, 1858: 96

Nepticula distinguenda Heinemann, 1862b: 305 (syn: Schoorl & Wilkinson, 1986: 234)

Nepticula rubescens Heinemann, 1871: 214 (syn: Klimesch, 1950a: 27)

Nepticula glutinosella Porritt, 1883: 173 UE

Stigmella rubescens (Heinemann, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 256

Nepticula glutinosae var. alni-viridis Skala, 1939e: 111 NNLM (syn: Klimesch, 1950a: 27)

Nepticula rubescens var. incanae Skala, 1941a: 57 NNLM (syn: Klimesch, 1950a: 27)

Stigmella gutlebiella A. Laštuvka & Huemer, 2002: 604 WP

Stigmella luteella (Stainton, 1857a) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP,EP

Nepticula luteella Stainton, 1857a: 110

Nepticula luteellina Skala, 1941b: 79 (syn: Skala, 1948: 121)

Stigmella microtheriella (Stainton, 1854) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 59 16WP,EP,[NEA,AUS]

Nepticula microtheriella Stainton, 1854: 302

Stigmella cathepostis Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 10 syn. n. 16

Microsetia microtheriella (Stainton, 1854) Kirby, 1897: 313

Stigmella nivenburgensis (Preissecker, 1942) Klimesch, 1951b: 59 17WP,EP

Nepticula nivenburgensis Preissecker, 1942: 209

Stigmella populnea Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 13 syn. n. 17

Stigmella sakhalinella Puplesis, 1984a: 115 WP,EP

Stigmella discidia Schoorl & Wilkinson, 1986: 237 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 470)

Nepticula distinguenda auct. [misapplied] (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 470)

Stigmella distinguenda auct. [misapplied]

Stigmella attenuata Puplesis, 1985c: 62 EP

Stigmella betulifoliae Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 179 EP

Stigmella conchyliata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 11 EP

Stigmella cornuta Rocienė & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013e: 206 18EP

Stigmella excelsa Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 182 EP

Stigmella kumashidei Hirano, 2014: 20 EP

Stigmella oplismeniella Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 12 EP

Stigmella pamirbetulae Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 180 EP

Stigmella titivillitia Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 14 EP

Stigmella caryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) stat. rev., comb. n. 19NEA

Nepticula caryaefoliella Clemens, 1861: 84

Stigmella corylifoliella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 50 NEA

Nepticula corylifoliella Clemens, 1861: 83

Nepticula virginiella Clemens, 1861: 83 (syn: Braun, 1917: 179)

Nepticula minimella Chambers, 1873: 179 (syn: Braun, 1917: 179)

Nepticula opulifoliella Braun, 1914: 22 (syn: Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 50)

Nepticula paludicola Braun, 1917: 177 (syn: Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 51)

Nepticula exasperata Braun, 1930: 17 (syn: Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 51)

Stigmella juglandifoliella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 57 NEA

Nepticula juglandifoliella Clemens, 1861: 84

Stigmella longisacca Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 436 NEA

Stigmella myricafoliella (Busck, 1900) Grossbeck, 1917: 145 20NEA

Nepticula myricafoliella Busck, 1900: 238

Nepticula obscurella Braun, 1912: 95 syn. n. 20

Stigmella ostryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 54 21NEA

Nepticula ostryaefoliella Clemens, 1861: 83

Stigmella himalayai Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 208 OR

Stigmella xystodes (Meyrick, 1916b) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 328 WP,OR

Nepticula xystodes Meyrick, 1916b: 6

Nepticula liochalca Meyrick, 1916b: 6 (syn: van Nieukerken, 2010: 496)

Nepticula homophaea Meyrick, 1918b: 181 (syn: van Nieukerken, 2010: 496)

Stigmella liochalca (Meyrick, 1916b) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 328

Stigmella homophaea (Meyrick, 1918b) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 363

Stigmella allophylica Scoble, 1978b: 97 AFR

Stigmella allophylivora Gustafsson, 1985: 167 AFR

Stigmella androflavus Scoble, 1978b: 104 AFR

Stigmella generalis Scoble, 1978b: 102 AFR

Stigmella geranica Scoble, 1978b: 96 AFR

Stigmella hortorum Scoble, 1978b: 99 AFR

Stigmella pelanodes (Meyrick, 1920b) comb. n. 22AFR

Nepticula pelanodes Meyrick, 1920b: 116

Stigmella potgieteri Scoble, 1978b: 99 AFR

Stigmella satarensis Scoble, 1978b: 97 AFR

Stigmella tragilis Scoble, 1978b: 98 AFR

Stigmella tropicatella Legrand, 1965: 27 23AFR

Stigmella triumfettica Scoble, 1978b: 107 AFR

Stigmella divina group (Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 212)

Stigmella divina Puplesis, Diškus & van Nieukerken, 1997: 55 WP

Stigmella maculifera Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 212 WP

Stigmella skulei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 213 WP

Unplaced tropical species - most probably in non-core Stigmella

African species

Stigmella fluida group (Scoble, 1978b: 92)

Stigmella ingens group (Scoble, 1978b: 111)

Stigmella abachausi (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1978b: 104 AFR

Nepticula abachausi Janse, 1948: 162

Stigmella abutilonica Scoble, 1978b: 93 AFR

Stigmella ampullata Scoble, 1978b: 108 AFR

Stigmella angustivalva Scoble, 1978b: 113 AFR

Stigmella caliginosa (Meyrick, 1921b) Scoble, 1983: 43 AFR

Nepticula caliginosa Meyrick, 1921b: 140

Stigmella celtifoliella Vári, 1955: 338 AFR

Stigmella charistis Vári, 1963: 71 AFR

Stigmella confinalis Scoble, 1978b: 111 AFR

Stigmella crotonica Scoble, 1978b: 100 AFR

Stigmella dombeyivora Scoble, 1978b: 107 AFR

Stigmella ficivora Gustafsson, 1985: 170 AFR

Stigmella fluida (Meyrick, 1911a) Scoble, 1978b: 94 AFR

Nepticula fluida Meyrick, 1911a: 236

Stigmella galactacma (Meyrick, 1924b) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 364 AFR

Nepticula galactacma Meyrick, 1924b: 89

Stigmella grewiae Scoble, 1978b: 112 AFR

Stigmella gustafssoni (Căpuşe, 1975) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 366 AFR

Nepticula gustafssoni Căpuşe, 1975: 211

Stigmella ingens (Meyrick, 1913) Scoble, 1978b: 112 AFR

Nepticula ingens Meyrick, 1913: 327

Stigmella irrorata (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1978b: 95 AFR

Nepticula irrorata Janse, 1948: 168

Stigmella letabensis Scoble, 1978b: 113 AFR

Stigmella liota Vári, 1963: 73 AFR

Stigmella maytenivora Gustafsson, 1985: 174 AFR

Stigmella naibabi Mey, 2004: 29 AFR

Stigmella nigrata (Meyrick, 1913) Scoble, 1978b: 106 AFR

Nepticula nigrata Meyrick, 1913: 326

Stigmella panconista (Meyrick, 1920a) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 363 AFR

Nepticula panconista Meyrick, 1920a: 312

Stigmella parinarella Vári, 1955: 337 AFR

Stigmella perplexa (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1978b: 103 AFR

Nepticula perplexa Janse, 1948: 172

Stigmella platyzona Vári, 1963: 67 AFR

Stigmella porphyreuta (Meyrick, 1917a) Scoble, 1978b: 110 AFR

Nepticula porphyreuta Meyrick, 1917a: 13

Stigmella pretoriata Scoble, 1978b: 109 AFR

Stigmella protosema (Meyrick, 1921b) Scoble, 1978b: 109 AFR

Nepticula protosema Meyrick, 1921b: 140

Stigmella rhomboivora Gustafsson, 1985: 167 AFR

Stigmella rhynchosiella Vári, 1955: 338 AFR

Stigmella urbica (Meyrick, 1913) Scoble, 1978b: 103 AFR

Nepticula urbica Meyrick, 1913: 326

Stigmella uwusebi Mey, 2004: 30 AFR

Stigmella varii Scoble, 1978b: 95 AFR

Stigmella wollofella (Gustafsson, 1972) Gustafsson, 1985: 174 24AFR

Nepticula wollofella Gustafsson, 1972: 158

Nepticula mandingella Gustafsson, 1972: 157 syn. n. 24

Stigmella mandingella (Gustafsson, 1972) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 366

Stigmella worcesteri Scoble, 1983: 16 RN for S. pallida Scoble, 1978 AFR

Stigmella pallida Scoble, 1978b: 105 JSH of Stigmella pallida (Braun, 1917)

Australian species

Stigmella leucargyra (Meyrick, 1906b) Nielsen, 1996: 16 AUS

Nepticula leucargyra Meyrick, 1906b: 57

Stigmella symmora (Meyrick, 1906b) Nielsen, 1996: 16 AUS

Nepticula symmora Meyrick, 1906b: 59

Oriental species

Stigmella aeriventris (Meyrick, 1932) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 364 OR

Nepticula aeriventris Meyrick, 1932: 312

Stigmella alicia (Meyrick, 1928) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 364 OR

Nepticula alicia Meyrick, 1928b: 461

Stigmella argyrodoxa (Meyrick, 1918) Fletcher, 1933: 83 OR

Nepticula argyrodoxa Meyrick, 1918b: 181

Stigmella auxozona (Meyrick, 1934) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 365 OR

Nepticula auxozona Meyrick, 1934a: 468

Stigmella elachistarcha (Meyrick, 1934) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 365 OR

Nepticula elachistarcha Meyrick, 1934a: 467

Stigmella hoplometalla (Meyrick, 1934) Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 215 OR

Nepticula hoplometalla Meyrick, 1934a: 467

Stigmella ipomoeella (Gustafsson, 1976) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 328 OR

Nepticula ipomoeella Gustafsson, 1976: 45

Stigmella neodora (Meyrick, 1918) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 363 OR

Nepticula neodora Meyrick, 1918b: 182

Stigmella oligosperma (Meyrick, 1934) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 365 OR

Nepticula oligosperma Meyrick, 1934a: 468

Stigmella polydoxa (Meyrick, 1911) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 363 OR

Nepticula polydoxa Meyrick, 1911c: 107

Core Stigmella 3

Stigmella rhamnella/lapponica/sanguisorbae cluster

Stigmella tiliella group (Puplesis et al., 2002: 63)

Stigmella tiliella (Braun, 1912) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 442 NEA

Nepticula tiliella Braun, 1912: 90

Stigmella kimae Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 35 NEO

Stigmella rhamnella group (new)

Stigmella alaternella (Le Marchand, 1937) Klimesch, 1948b: 63 WP

Nepticula alaternella Le Marchand, 1937: 234

Stigmella armeniana Puplesis, 1994: 90 WP

Stigmella catharticella (Stainton, 1853) Beirne, 1945: 199 WP

Nepticula catharticella Stainton, 1853: 3955

Stigmella crenulatae (Klimesch, 1975) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 8 WP

Nepticula crenulatae Klimesch, 1975c: 2

Stigmella kopetdagica Puplesis, 1994: 92 WP

Stigmella pyrellicola (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 9 WP

Nepticula pyrellicola Klimesch, 1978b: 264

Stigmella rhamnella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) Klimesch, 1951b: 56 WP

Nepticula rhamnella Herrich-Schäffer, 1860: 60

Nepticula rhamnella var. rhamnipumilae Klimesch, 1950a: 49

Stigmella rhamnophila (Amsel, 1934) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 8 WP

Nepticula rhamnella rhamnophila Amsel, 1934: 317

Nepticula rhamnophila Amsel & Hering, 1931: 142 NNLM

Stigmella klimeschi Puplesis, 1988: 274 EP

Stigmella kurotsubarai Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 15 EP

Stigmella taigae Puplesis, 1984a: 112 EP

Stigmella condaliafoliella (Busck, 1900) Grossbeck, 1917: 145 NEA

Nepticula condaliafoliella Busck, 1900: 238

Stigmella diffasciae (Braun, 1910) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 398 NEA

Nepticula diffasciae Braun, 1910: 172

Stigmella inconspicuella Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 400 NEA

Stigmella rhamnicola (Braun, 1916) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 393 NEA

Nepticula rhamnella Braun, 1912: 96 JPH of Nepticula rhamnella Herrich-Schäffer, 1860

Nepticula rhamnicola Braun, 1916: 55 RN for N. rhamnella Braun, 1912

Stigmella maya Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013b: 224 NEO

Stigmella sanguisorbae group (van Nieukerken, 1986a: 10)

Stigmella rosaefoliella group (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 14)

Stigmella muricatella (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 9 WP,EP

Nepticula muricatella Klimesch, 1978b: 266

Stigmella polymorpha Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 183 WP

Stigmella rolandi van Nieukerken, 1990c: 239 WP,EP

Stigmella sanguisorbae (Wocke, 1865) Gerasimov, 1952: 258 WP

Nepticula sanguisorbae Wocke, 1865: 269

Stigmella thuringiaca (Petry, 1904) Gerasimov, 1952: 263 WP,EP

Nepticula thuringiaca Petry, 1904: 267

Nepticula nickerli Rebel in Nickerl, 1908: 116 (syn: Rebel, 1909: (269))

Stigmella fasciola Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 185 EP

Stigmella trisyllaba Puplesis in Puplesis et al., 1992: 51 EP

Stigmella rosaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 14 25NEA

Nepticula rosaefoliella Clemens, 1861: 85

Stigmella rosaefoliella rosaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 1425

Stigmella lapponica group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella malella group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella confusella (Wood & Walsingham, 1894) Vári, 1944a: 215 WP,EP,NEA

Nepticula confusella Wood & Walsingham, 1894: 272

Stigmella lapponica (Wocke, 1862) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61 WP,EP,NEA

Nepticula lapponica Wocke, 1862: 251

Nepticula lapponicella Herrich-Schäffer, 1863c: 23 UE

Nepticula lusatica Schütze, 1905: 204 (syn: Johansson & Nielsen, 1990: 141)

Nepticula vossensis Grønlien, 1928: 217 (syn: Krogerus, 1971: 31)

Stigmella lusatica (Schütze, 1905) Beirne, 1945: 200

Stigmella vossensis (Grønlien, 1928) Gerasimov, 1952: 269

Stigmella malella (Stainton, 1854) Beirne, 1945: 199 WP

Nepticula malella Stainton, 1854: 304

Nepticula angustella Heinemann & Wocke, [1876]: 756 6 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula nigrobrunnella Groschke, 1939: 716 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula nigrobrunella auct. ISS

Stigmella nigrobrunnella (Groschke, 1939) Hering, 1957: 837

Nepticula malella var. prunicola Skala, 1939f: 126 NN

Stigmella maloidica Puplesis in Puplesis & Arutyunova, 1991: 573 EP

Stigmella braunella (Jones, 1933) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 13 NEA

Nepticula braunella Jones, 1933: 49

Stigmella slingerlandella (Kearfott, 1908) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 19 NEA

Nepticula slingerlandella Kearfott, 1908: 187

unplaced in rhamnella/lapponica/sanguisorbae cluster

Stigmella boehmeriae Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 54 EP

Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 19 NEO

Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 21 NEO

Stigmella salicis cluster

Stigmella ogygia group (new) 26

Stigmella aigialeia Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 17 AUS

Stigmella aliena Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 17 AUS

Stigmella atrata Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 18 AUS

Stigmella cassiniae Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 18 AUS

Stigmella childi Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 19 AUS

Stigmella cypracma (Meyrick, 1916) Dugdale, 1988: 53 AUS

Nepticula cypracma Meyrick, 1916c: 419

Nepticula perissopa Meyrick, 1919: 354 (syn: Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 20)

Stigmella perissopa (Meyrick, 1919) Dugdale, 1988: 54

Stigmella erysibodea Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 21 AUS

Stigmella fulva (Watt, 1921) Dugdale, 1988: 53 AUS

Nepticula fulva Watt, 1921: 215

Stigmella hakekeae Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 22 AUS

Stigmella hamishella Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 23 AUS

Stigmella hoheriae Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 24 AUS

Stigmella ilsea Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 25 AUS

Stigmella insignis (Philpott, 1927) Dugdale, 1988: 53 AUS

Nepticula insignis Philpott, 1927: 89

Stigmella kaimanua Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 26 AUS

Stigmella laquaeorum (Dugdale, 1971) Dugdale, 1988: 53 AUS

Nepticula laquaeorum Dugdale, 1971: 117

Stigmella lucida (Philpott, 1919) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula lucida Philpott, 1919: 225

Stigmella maoriella (Walker, 1864) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Tinea maoriella Walker, 1864: 1008

Stigmella ogygia (Meyrick, 1889) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula ogygia Meyrick, 1889: 187

Nepticula erechtitus Watt, 1924: 686 (syn: Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 20)

Stigmella erechtitus (Watt, 1924) Dugdale, 1988: 53

Stigmella oriastra (Meyrick, 1917) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula oriastra Meyrick, 1917b: 247

Stigmella palaga Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 31 AUS

Stigmella platina Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 32 AUS

Stigmella progama (Meyrick, 1924) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula progama Meyrick, 1924a: 662

Stigmella progonopis (Meyrick, 1921) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula progonopis Meyrick, 1921c: 336

Stigmella propalaea (Meyrick, 1889) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula propalaea Meyrick, 1889: 187

Stigmella sophorae (Hudson, 1939) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula sophorae Hudson, 1939: 469

Stigmella tricentra (Meyrick, 1889) Dugdale, 1988: 54 AUS

Nepticula tricentra Meyrick, 1889: 187

Stigmella watti Donner & Wilkinson, 1989: 35 AUS

Stigmella epicosma group (new) 27

Stigmella andina (Meyrick, 1915) Davis, 1984: 18 NEO

Nepticula andina Meyrick, 1915a: 255

Stigmella baccharicola Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2016b: 119 NEO

Stigmella bipartita Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2016b: 107 NEO

Stigmella confertae Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2016b: 124 NEO

Stigmella costalimai (Bourquin, 1961) Davis, 1984: 18 28NEO

Nepticula costalimai Bourquin, 1961: 31

Stigmella cuprata (Meyrick, 1915) Davis, 1984: 18 NEO

Nepticula cuprata Meyrick, 1915a: 255

Stigmella emarginatae Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2016b: 104 NEO

Stigmella epicosma (Meyrick, 1915) Davis, 1984: 18 NEO

Nepticula epicosma Meyrick, 1915a: 255

Stigmella guittonae (Bourquin, 1961) Davis, 1984: 18 28NEO

Nepticula guittonae Bourquin, 1961: 32

Stigmella hamata Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 30 NEO

Stigmella imperatoria Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 30 NEO

Stigmella johannis (Zeller, 1877) Davis, 1984: 18 NEO

Nepticula johannis Zeller, 1877: 454

Stigmella latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2016b: 115 NEO

Stigmella marmorea Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 26 NEO

Stigmella mevia Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis & Remeikis, 2016: 311 NEO

Stigmella montanotropica Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 23 NEO

Stigmella nubimontana Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 24 NEO

Stigmella olyritis (Meyrick, 1915) Davis, 1984: 18 NEO

Nepticula olyritis Meyrick, 1915a: 256

Stigmella pangorica Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2015a: 580 NEO

Stigmella peruanica Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 27 NEO

Stigmella podanthae Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2016a: 120 NEO

Stigmella racemifera Šimkevičiūtė & Stonis in Šimkevičiūtė et al., 2009: 270 NEO

Stigmella rubeta Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 24 NEO

Stigmella rudis Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 26 NEO

Stigmella schoorli Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 29 NEO

Stigmella serpentina Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2015a: 576 NEO

Stigmella sinuosa Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis & Remeikis, 2016: 310 NEO

Stigmella tripartita Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2016b: 110 NEO

Stigmella salicis group (Johansson, 1971: 244)

Stigmella fuscotibiella group (Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 385)

Stigmella aiderensis Puplesis, 1988: 277 WP

Stigmella arbusculae (Klimesch, 1951) Hering, 1957: 930 WP

Nepticula arbusculae Klimesch, 1951c: 149

Stigmella assimilella (Zeller, 1848) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61 WP,EP

Nepticula assimilella Zeller, 1848: 327

Nepticula tremulaefoliella Sorhagen, 1922: 48 (syn: Johansson & Nielsen, 1990: 200)

Stigmella tremulaefoliella (Sorhagen, 1922) Gerasimov, 1952: 265

Lyonetia nigricornella Mann in Zeller, 1848: 327 NN

Stigmella benanderella (Wolff, 1955) Hering, 1957: 930 WP

Nepticula benanderella Wolff, 1955b: 49

Nepticula scandicella Jonasson in Krogerus et al., 1971: 30 NN

Stigmella flavescens Puplesis, 1994: 131 WP, EP

Stigmella myrtillella (Stainton, 1857b) Vári, 1944a: 215 WP

Nepticula myrtillella Stainton, 1857b: 44

Nepticula myrtillella var. uliginosi Skala, 1941b: 80 NNLM

Stigmella obliquella (Heinemann, 1862) Vári, 1944a: 215 WP,EP

Nepticula obliquella Heinemann, 1862b: 316

Nepticula wockeella Heinemann, 1871: 223 (syn: Johansson & Nielsen, 1990: 198)

Nepticula diversa Glitz, 1872: 24 (syn: Glitz, 1887: 277)

Stigmella babylonicae Hartig, 1949: 94 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 11)

Stigmella wockeella (Heinemann, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 269

Stigmella pallidiciliella Klimesch, 1948a: 165 29WP

Nepticula purpureae Skala, 1948: 121 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 11)

Nepticula pallidiciliella (Klimesch, 1948a) Wolff, 1955a: 86

Stigmella salicis (Stainton, 1854) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60 30WP,EP,NEA

Nepticula salicis Stainton, 1854: 302

Nepticula salicella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 354 UE

Nepticula salicivorella Doubleday, 1859: 36 UE

Nepticula uniformis Heinemann, 1871: 210 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 11)

Nepticula dewitziella Sorhagen, 1885: 285 (syn: Johansson & Nielsen, 1990: 192)

Nepticula auritella Skala, 1939f: 128 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 11)

Stigmella libiezi Dufrane, 1949: 8 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 11)

Stigmella uniformis (Heinemann, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 267

Stigmella auritella (Skala, 1939) Hering, 1957: 929

Nepticula salicis ab. crombruggheella Dufrane, 1930: 30

Nepticula salicis ab. februella Crombrugghe, 1907: 14

Nepticula salicis ab. interrupta Skala, 1933a: 32

Stigmella trimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61 WP,EP

Tinea trimaculella Haworth, 1828: 583

Lyonetia rufella Zeller, 1839: 215 (syn: Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 358)

Nepticula populella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 357 (syn: Frey, 1856: 381)

Nepticula albicornella Kollar in Nowicki, 1860: 231 (syn: Rebel, 1901: 228)

Nepticula gilvella Rössler, 1867: 395 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula populicola Sorhagen, 1922: 88 (syn: Skala, 1948: 121)

Stigmella subtrimaculella Dufrane, 1949: 10 (syn: Borkowski, 1969: 107)

Microsetia trimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1834: 269

Nepticula trimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Stainton, 1849: 29

Nepticula rufella (Zeller, 1839) Zeller, 1848: 328

Stigmella populicola (Sorhagen, 1922) Gerasimov, 1952: 252

Nepticula trimaculella ab. semipictella Steudel in Steudel & Hoffmann, 1882: 244

Stigmella vimineticola (Frey, 1856) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60 WP

Nepticula vimineticola Frey, 1856: 382

Stigmella zelleriella (Snellen, 1875) van Nieukerken, 1983a: 60 WP

Nepticula zelleriella Snellen, 1875: 116

Nepticula repentiella Wolff, 1955a: 82 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1983a: 60)

Nepticula lappovimella Svensson, 1976: 204 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1983a: 60)

Stigmella repentiella (Wolff, 1955) Hering, 1957: 929

Stigmella lappovimella (Svensson, 1976) Svensson, 1985: 78

Stigmella azusa Hirano, 2010: 129 EP

Stigmella johanssoni Puplesis & Diškus, 1996c: 181 EP

Stigmella juratae Puplesis, 1988: 279 EP

Stigmella kondarai Puplesis, 1988: 277 EP

Stigmella sexcornuta Rocienė & Stonis in Stonis & Rocienė, 2014: 205 EP

Stigmella tenryuensis Hirano, 2014: 26 EP

Stigmella tranocrossa Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 27 EP

Stigmella ussurica Puplesis, 1987: 8 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 128)

Stigmella vittata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 28 EP

Stigmella fibigeri Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 209 OR

Stigmella aromella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 27 NEA

Stigmella fuscotibiella (Clemens, 1862) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 23 NEA

Nepticula fuscotibiella Clemens, 1862: 133

Nepticula ciliaefuscella Chambers, 1873: 128 (syn: Chambers, 1875a: 117)

Nepticula discolorella Braun, 1912: 86 (syn: Braun, 1917: 185)

Stigmella pallida (Braun, 1912) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 418 NEA

Nepticula pallida Braun, 1912: 85

Stigmella populetorum (Frey & Boll, 1878) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 26 NEA

Nepticula populetorum Frey & Boll, 1878: 276

Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 22 NEO

Stigmella quercipulchella/anomalella/oxyacanthella cluster

Stigmella quercipulchella group (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 65)

Stigmella altella (Braun, 1914) Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 58 NEA

Nepticula altella Braun, 1914: 21

Stigmella quercipulchella (Chambers, 1882) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 65 NEA

Nepticula quercipulchella Chambers, 1882: 105

Nepticula terminella Braun, 1914: 23 (syn: Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 65)

Stigmella variella (Braun, 1910) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 67 NEA

Nepticula variella Braun, 1910: 173

Stigmella guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013c: 10 NEO

Stigmella anomalella group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella anomalella (Goeze, 1783) Walsingham, 1908a: 1008 2WP,EP,[NEA]

Phalaena anomalella Goeze, 1783: 168

Phalaena grisearosae Retzius, 1783: 55

Tinea penicilla Thunberg, 1794: 88 (syn: Karsholt & Nielsen, 1986: 452)

Tinea rosella Schrank, 1802: 139 (syn: Stainton, 1854: 297)

Nepticula aeneella Heinemann, 1862a: 254 (syn: Schoorl et al., 1985: 98)

Nepticula fletcheri Tutt, 1899: 211 (syn: Krogerus, 1971: 30)

Nepticula laticuniculella Sauber, 1904: 55 (syn: Hering, 1957: 902)

Stigmella rubicurrens Walsingham, 1908a: 1009 2 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula rosarum Sorhagen, 1922: 30 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 470)

Nepticula zermattensis Weber, 1936: 668 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 9)

Nepticula helbigi Hartig, 1941: 160 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 468)

Stigmella caulescentella Klimesch, 1948a: 162 29 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 9)

Stigmella anomalella pacifica Puplesis, 1987: 10

Nepticula anomalella (Goeze, 1783) Stainton, 1854: 297

Dysnepticula anomalella (Goeze, 1783) Börner, 1925: 370

Nepticula rosella (Schrank, 1802) Sand, 1879: 200

Stigmella rosella (Schrank, 1802) Walsingham, 1908a: 10081

Stigmella fletcheri (Tutt, 1899) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 59

Nepticula rubicurrens (Walsingham, 1908a) Rebel, 1910: 373

Stigmella rosarum (Sorhagen, 1922) Gerasimov, 1952: 256

Stigmella zermattensis (Weber, 1936) Gerasimov, 1952: 270

Stigmella anomalella fletcheri (Tutt, 1899) Hering, 1957: 902

Stigmella anomalella helbigi (Hartig, 1941) Hering, 1957: 902

Stigmella centifoliella (Zeller, 1848) Beirne, 1945: 199 31WP,[NEA]

Nepticula centifoliella Heyden, 1843: 208 NN

Nepticula centifoliella Zeller, 1848: 315

Nepticula hodgkinsoni Stainton, 1884: 103 (syn: Bradley et al., 1972: 2)

Stigmella rosaefoliella pectocatena Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 18 syn. n. 31

Stigmella hodgkinsoni (Stainton, 1884) Gerasimov, 1952: 243

Stigmella spinosissimae (Waters, 1928) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP,EP

Nepticula spinosissimae Waters, 1928: 105

Stigmella hybnerella group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella nitidella group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella paradoxa group (Emmet, 1976: 238)

Stigmella irregularis group (Puplesis, 1994: 61)

Stigmella hybnerella (Hübner, 1796) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 59 WP

Tinea hybnerella Hübner, 1796: pl. 34: 236

Caloptilia ampelipennella Hübner, [1825]: 427 URN

Tinea posticella Haworth, 1828: 584 (syn: Stainton, 1849: 29)

Oecophora gratiosella Duponchel, 1843: 323 (syn: Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 59)

Nepticula ignobilella Stainton, 1849: 29 (syn: Emmet, 1974c: 77)

Nepticula latifasciella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 352 (syn: Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 352)

Microsetia posticella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1834: 269

Lyonetia hübnerella (Hübner, 1796) Zeller, 1839: 215

Nepticula gratiosella (Duponchel, 1843) Stainton, 1849: 29

Lithocolletis gratiosella (Duponchel, 1843) Bruand, [1851]: 86

Stigmella gratiosella (Duponchel, 1843) Beirne, 1945: 200

Stigmella ignobilella (Stainton, 1849) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60

Nepticula ignobiliella auct. ISS

Stigmella mespilicola (Frey, 1856) Klimesch, 1948b: 57 (Fig. 26) WP

Nepticula mespilicola Frey, 1856: 392

Nepticula ariella Herrich-Schäffer, 1860: 60 (syn: Frey, 1880: 422)

Stigmella ariella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) Klimesch, 1948b: 57

Stigmella irregularis Puplesis, 1994: 61 WP

Stigmella inopinata A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1990: 197 WP

Stigmella paradoxa (Frey, 1858) Emmet, 1970: 3 WP

Nepticula paradoxa Frey, 1858a: 14

Nepticula nitidella Heinemann, 1862a: 257 (syn: Heinemann & Wocke, [1876]: 734) 6

Stigmella juryi Puplesis, 1991: 125 (syn: van Nieukerken et al., 2004a: 140)

Stigmella nitidella (Heinemann, 1862) Gerasimov, 1952: 249

Stigmella pyrivora Gustafsson, 1981: 457 WP

Stigmella malifoliella Puplesis in Puplesis & Arutyunova, 1991: 571 EP

Stigmella montana Puplesis, 1991: 126 EP

Stigmella taeniola (Braun, 1925) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 382 NEA

Nepticula taeniola Braun, 1925b: 226

Stigmella stigmaciella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 38 NEA

Stigmella incognitella group (new)

Stigmella pomella group (Johansson, 1971: 244)

Stigmella azaroli (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13 32WP

Nepticula azaroli Klimesch, 1978b: 261

Stigmella fuscacalyptriella Puplesis, 1994: 149 WP

Stigmella incognitella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13 WP

Nepticula incognitella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 349

Nepticula pomella Vaughan, 1858: 43 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13)

Nepticula mali Hering, 1932: 568 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13)

Stigmella mali (Hering, 1932) Gerasimov, 1952: 247

Stigmella pomella (Vaughan, 1858) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 58

Stigmella perpygmaeella (Doubleday, 1859) Karsholt & Nielsen, 1976: 18 32WP

Tinea pygmaeella Haworth, 1828: 586; JPH of Tinea pygmaeella [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), now Argyresthia pygmaeella (Argyresthiidae)

Nepticula perpygmaeella Doubleday, 1859: 36; RN for Tinea pygmaeella Haworth, 1828

Microsetia pygmaeella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1834: 269

Nepticula pygmaeella (Haworth, 1828) Stainton, 1853: 3958

Stigmella pygmaeella (Haworth, 1828) Klimesch, 1951b: 55

Stigmella elegantiae Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 210 OR

Stigmella oxyacanthella group (Johansson, 1971: 245)

Stigmella crataegifoliella group (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 29)

Stigmella caspica Puplesis, 1994: 109 WP

Stigmella crataegella (Klimesch, 1936) Klimesch, 1948b: 62 WP

Nepticula crataegella Klimesch, 1936: 200

Stigmella indigena Puplesis, 1994: 111 (syn: Puplesis et al., 1996: 192)

Nepticula gratiosella sensu Tutt, 1899: 253

Stigmella desperatella (Frey, 1856) Beirne, 1945: 200 WP

Nepticula desperatella Frey, 1856: 374

Nepticula pyricola Wocke, 1877: 49 (syn: Schoorl et al., 1985: 94)

Stigmella pyricola (Wocke, 1877) Klimesch, 1951b: 57

Stigmella hahniella (Wörz, 1937) Gerasimov, 1952: 241 WP

Nepticula hahniella Wörz, 1937: 290

Stigmella lanceolata Puplesis, 1994: 111 WP

Stigmella magdalenae (Klimesch, 1950) Emmet, 1979: 25 33WP

Nepticula nylandriella var. magdalenae Klimesch, 1950b: 72

Nepticula nylandriella auct. [misapplied, before 1972] (syn: Borkowski, 1975: 523)

Stigmella nylandriella magdalenae (Klimesch, 1950b) Klimesch, 1961: 752

Nepticula magdalenae Klimesch, 1950b (Borkowski, 1975: 523)

Stigmella minusculella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP,[NEA]

Nepticula minusculella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 348

Nepticula chalybeia Braun, 1914: 20 (syn: Schoorl et al., 1985: 92)

Nepticula embonella Klimesch, 1978b: 259 (syn: Schoorl et al., 1985: 92)

Stigmella chalybeia (Braun, 1914) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 35

Stigmella nylandriella (Tengström, 1848) Beirne, 1945: 200 34WP

Lyonetia nylandriella Tengström, 1848: 152

Nepticula aucupariae Frey, 1857: 376 (syn: Borkowski, 1975: 522)

Nepticula aucupariella Porritt, 1883: 172 UE

Nepticula nylandriella (Tengström, 1848) Herrich-Schäffer, 1855: 359 34

Stigmella aucupariae (Frey, 1857) Beirne, 1945: 199

Stigmella oxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854) Beirne, 1945: 200 35WP,[NEA]

Nepticula oxyacanthella Stainton, 1854: 298

Nepticula oxyacanthaecolella Doubleday, 1859: 298 URN

Micropteryx pomivorella Packard, 1870: 237 syn. n. 35

Nepticula cotoneastri Sorhagen, 1922: 42 (syn: Schoorl et al., 1985: 87)

Nepticula aeneella auct. [misapplied, before 1985]

Stigmella aeneella auct. [misapplied, before 1985]

Nepticula pomivorella (Packard, 1870) Busck, 1901: 52

Stigmella pomivorella (Packard, 1870) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 33

Stigmella cotoneastri (Sorhagen, 1922) Klimesch, 1948b: 60

Nepticula chaenomelis Skala, 1936: 79 NNLM (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 10)

Nepticula oxyacanthella var. mespili Skala, 1940: 144 NNLM

Nepticula oxyacanthella var. oxymalella Skala, 1933b: 130 NNLM

Nepticula oxyacanthella var. oxysorbi Skala, 1933b: 130 NNLM

Stigmella chaenomelis (Skala, 1936) Hering, 1957: 275

Stigmella pyri (Glitz, 1865) Vári, 1944a: 214 WP

Nepticula pyri Glitz, 1865: 42

Stigmella regiella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Vári, 1944a: 214 WP

Nepticula regiella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 351

Nepticula corvimontana Hering, 1935: 6 (syn.: Borkowski, 1969: 103)

Stigmella corvimontana (Hering, 1935) Gerasimov, 1952: 234

Stigmella stettinensis (Heinemann, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 262 WP

Nepticula stettinensis Heinemann, 1871: 210

Stigmella torminalis (Wood, 1890) Beirne, 1945: 200 WP

Nepticula torminalis Wood, 1890: 209

Stigmella alaurulenta Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 23 EP

Stigmella aurora Puplesis, 1984a: 119 WP,EP

Stigmella chaenomelae Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 23 EP

Stigmella crataegi Gerasimov, 1937: 283 EP

Stigmella hissariella Puplesis, 1994: 112 EP

Stigmella honshui Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 24 EP

Stigmella micromelis Puplesis, 1985c: 59 36EP

Stigmella crataegivora Puplesis, 1985c: 60 syn. n. 36

Stigmella nostrata Puplesis, 1984a: 113 EP

Stigmella sorbivora Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 25 EP

Stigmella zumii Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 26 EP

Stigmella amelanchierella (Clemens, 1861) Davis & Wilkinson, 1983: 3 37NEA

Nepticula amelanchierella Clemens, 1861: 84

Stigmella crataegifoliella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 30 NEA

Nepticula crataegifoliella Clemens, 1861: 83

Stigmella heteromelis Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 405 NEA

Stigmella purpuratella (Braun, 1917) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 381 38NEA

Nepticula purpuratella Braun, 1917: 176

Stigmella scinanella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 36 syn. n. 38

Stigmella scintillans (Braun, 1917) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 33 NEA

Nepticula scintillans Braun, 1917: 167

Stigmella argentifasciella group (new)

Stigmella argentifasciella (Braun, 1912) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 453 NEA

Nepticula argentifasciella Braun, 1912: 100

Stigmella aurella/ruficapitella cluster 39

Stigmella styracicolella group (new)

Stigmella styracicolella (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP

Nepticula styracicolella Klimesch, 1978b: 267

Stigmella egonokii Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 53 EP

Stigmella speciosa group (new) 39

Stigmella kuznetzovi Puplesis, 1994: 152 WP

Stigmella speciosa (Frey, 1858) Walsingham, 1916: 159 WP

Nepticula speciosa Frey, 1858b: 27

Nepticula pseudoplatanella Weber, 1936: 671 (syn: Borkowski, 1969: 98)

Stigmella pseudoplatanella (Weber, 1936) Gerasimov, 1952: 254

Nepticula aceris var. pseudoplatanella Skala, 1933b: 132 NNLM

Nepticula speciosa var. monspessulani Skala, 1939d: 144 NNLM

Stigmella lonicerarum (Frey, 1857) Gerasimov, 1952: 246 WP

Nepticula lonicerarum Frey, 1857: 383

Nepticula lonicerarum var. lentinensis Skala, 1935: 79 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13)

Nepticula lonicerarum var. livonica Skala, 1935: 79 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13)

Nepticula lonicerarum var. teutonica Skala, 1935: 79 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13)

Stigmella monticulella Puplesis, 1984a: 114 40EP

Stigmella gracilipae Hirano, 2014: 22 syn. n. 40

Stigmella aurella group (Johansson, 1971: 243) 39

Stigmella lediella group (Puplesis, 1984b:583)

Stigmella aeneofasciella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Gerasimov, 1952: 222 WP

Nepticula aeneofasciella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 353

Nepticula aeneofasciata Frey, 1856: 376 UE

Stigmella aurella (Fabricius, 1775) Walsingham, 1908a: 1009 2WP

Tinea aurella Fabricius, 1775: 666

Nepticula fragariella Heinemann, 1862a: 263 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 503)

Nepticula nitens Fologne, 1862: 164 (syn: Klimesch, 1981: 114)

Nepticula gei Wocke, 1871: 336 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 503)

Nepticula albicomella Heinemann & Wocke, [1876]: 748 6 (syn: Johansson & Nielsen, 1990: 207)

Nepticula fruticosella Müller-Rutz in Vorbrodt & Müller-Rutz, 1914: 591 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 12)

Microsetia aurella (Fabricius, 1775) Stephens, 1834: 268

Nepticula aurella (Fabricius, 1775) Heyden, 1843: 209

Stigmella fragariella (Heinemann, 1862a) Vári, 1944a: 214

Stigmella nitens (Fologne, 1862) Vári, 1944a: 214

Stigmella gei (Wocke, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 240

Stigmella fruticosella (Müller-Rutz in Vorbrodt & Müller-Rutz, 1914) Gerasimov, 1952: 240

Nepticula gei ab. semicolorella Eppelsheim, 1891: 351 NNLM

Nepticula gei var. geirubi Skala, 1940: 143 NNLM

Stigmella auromarginella (Richardson, 1890) Gerasimov, 1952: 229 WP

Nepticula auromarginella Richardson, 1890: 30

Stigmella dryadella (Hofmann, 1868) Klimesch, 1951b: 58 WP

Nepticula dryadella Hofmann, 1868: 29

Stigmella filipendulae (Wocke, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 238 41WP,EP

Nepticula filipendulae Wocke, 1871: 338

Nepticula ulmariae Wocke, 1879: 79 (syn: van Nieukerken et al., 2012a: 250)

Stigmella palmatae Puplesis, 1984a: 115 syn. n. 41

Stigmella ulmariae (Wocke, 1879) Gerasimov, 1952: 266

Stigmella geimontani (Klimesch, 1940) Klimesch, 1961: 754 WP

Nepticula geimontani Klimesch, 1940b: 89

Stigmella lediella (Schleich, 1867) Gerasimov, 1952: 245 42WP,EP

Nepticula lediella Schleich, 1867: 449

Stigmella magica Puplesis, 1985c: 63 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 146)

Stigmella rhododendri Puplesis, 1985c: 65 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 146)

Stigmella sesplicata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 36 syn. n. 42

Nepticula lediella ab. auromarginata Petersen, 1930

Stigmella rhododendrifolia Dovnar-Zapolski & Tomilova, 1978: 29 NNLM; syn. n. 42

Stigmella poterii (Stainton, 1857) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 59 WP

Nepticula poterii Stainton, 1857c: 116

Nepticula poteriella Doubleday, 1859: 36 UE

Nepticula comari Wocke, 1862: 253 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 506)

Nepticula geminella Frey, 1870: 288 (syn: Karsholt & Nielsen, 1976: 17)

Nepticula palustrella Frey, 1870: 287 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 12)

Nepticula occultella Heinemann, 1871: 215 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 506)

Nepticula tengströmi Nolcken, 1871: 776 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 506)

Nepticula potentillae Glitz, 1872: 24 (syn with occultella: Heinemann &Wocke, [1876]: 749)

Nepticula diffinis Wocke, 1874: 100 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 506)

Nepticula serella Stainton, 1888a: 260 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 506)

Nepticula elisabethella Szőcs, 1957: 321 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 12)

Stigmella comari (Wocke, 1862) Gerasimov, 1952: 234

Stigmella geminella (Frey, 1870) Gerasimov, 1952: 240

Stigmella occultella (Heinemann, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 250

Stigmella tengstroemi (Nolcken, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 263

Stigmella diffinis (Wocke, 1874) Gerasimov, 1952: 236

Stigmella serella (Stainton, 1888a) Gerasimov, 1952: 259

Stigmella pretiosa (Heinemann, 1862) Gerasimov, 1952: 253 WP

Nepticula pretiosa Heinemann, 1862a: 261

Nepticula bollii Frey, 1873: 144 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 12)

Stigmella geimontani tatrensis Borkowski, 1970b: 546 (syn: Borkowksi, 1975: 507)

Stigmella bollii (Frey, 1873) Gerasimov, 1952: 231

Stigmella splendidissimella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Klimesch, 1951b: 58 WP

Nepticula splendidissimella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 353

Nepticula splendidissima Frey, 1856: 393 UE

Nepticula dulcella Heinemann, 1862a: 267 (syn: Karsholt & Nielsen, 1976: 17)

Nepticula inaequalis Heinemann, 1862b: 302 (syn: Johansson & Nielsen, 1990: 209)

Nepticula fragarivora Carolsfeld-Krause, 1944: 158 (syn: Karsholt & Nielsen, 1976: 17)

Stigmella dulcella (Heinemann, 1862a) Gerasimov, 1952: 237

Stigmella inaequalis (Heinemann, 1862b) Gerasimov, 1952: 244

Stigmella fragarivora (Carolsfeld-Krause, 1944) Hering, 1957: 455

Nepticula peterseniella Skala, 1941b: 78 NN (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 12)

Stigmella fragarivora peterseniella (Skala, 1941b) Hering, 1957: 455

Stigmella stelviana (Weber, 1938) Klimesch, 1948b: 67 WP

Nepticula stelviana Wocke, 1881: 205 NN

Nepticula stelviana Weber, 1938: 5

Nepticula crantziella Weber, 1945: 401 (syn: Klimesch, 1950a: 27)

Stigmella crantziella (Weber, 1945) Klimesch, 1948b: 69

Stigmella tormentillella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) Gerasimov, 1952: 264 WP

Nepticula tormentillella Herrich-Schäffer, 1860: 60

Stigmella acrochaetia Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 31 EP

Stigmella alikurokoi Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 31 EP

Stigmella ichigoiella Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 35 EP

Stigmella longispina Puplesis, 1994: 166 43WP,EP

Stigmella spiculifera Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 37 44EP

Stigmella oa Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 52 syn. n. 44

Stigmella villosella (Clemens, 1861) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 410 NEA

Nepticula villosella Clemens, 1861: 84

Nepticula dallasiana Frey & Boll, 1876: 288 (syn: Braun, 1917: 174)

Stigmella sorbi group (Johansson, 1971: 244) 36

Stigmella amygdali group (van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13)

Stigmella amygdali (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13 WP

Nepticula amygdali Klimesch, 1978b: 264

Stigmella cerasi Puplesis & Diškus, 1996b: 178 WP

Stigmella plagicolella (Stainton, 1854) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60 WP

Nepticula plagicolella Stainton, 1854: 303

Nepticula plagicolella var. avianella Skala, 1934c: 30 NNLM

Stigmella plagicolella avianella (Skala, 1934c) Hering, 1957: 839 NNLM

Stigmella sorbi (Stainton, 1861) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60 WP,EP

Nepticula sorbi Stainton, 1861: 91

Nepticula sorbiella Porritt, 1883: 171 UE

Nepticula sorbi var. cotoneastrella Weber, 1936: 670

Stigmella cotoneastrella (Weber, 1936) Hering, 1957: 338

Nepticula plagicolella var. malicola Skala, 1939d: 95 NNLM

Stigmella plagicolella malicola (Skala, 1939) Hering, 1957: 664 NNLM

Stigmella aflatuniae Puplesis & Diškus, 1996b: 180 EP

Stigmella azukinashii Hirano, 2014: 25 EP

Stigmella hamamelella Hirano, 2014: 20 EP

Stigmella lurida Puplesis, 1994: 132 45EP

Stigmella motiekaitisi Puplesis, 1994: 135 WP,EP

Stigmella pourthiaeella Hirano, 2014: 24 EP

Stigmella subsorbi Puplesis, 1994: 134 EP

Stigmella tenebrica Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 214 OR

Stigmella lemniscella group (new) 39

Stigmella marginicolella group (Johansson, 1971: 243)

Stigmella continuella (Stainton, 1856) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 59 WP,EP

Nepticula continuella Stainton, 1856: 42

Stigmella uigurica Puplesis, 1985c: 62 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 137)

Stigmella lemniscella (Zeller, 1839) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 11 WP

Lyonetia lemniscella Zeller, 1839: 215

Nepticula marginicolella Stainton, 1853: 3958 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 12)

Nepticula suberosella Toll, 1934b: 76 (syn: Hering, 1957: 1089)

Nepticula fulvomacula Skala, 1936: 79 (syn: Borkowski, 1969: 114)

Nepticula lemniscella (Zeller, 1839) Zeller, 1848: 313

Stigmella marginicolella (Stainton, 1853) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 59

Stigmella fulvomacula (Skala, 1936) Gerasimov, 1952: 239

Stigmella zagulaevi Puplesis, 1994: 139 WP

Stigmella gimmonella (Matsumura, 1931) Kuroko, 1982a: 448 EP

Nepticula gimmonella Matsumura, 1931: 1114

Stigmella talassica Puplesis in Puplesis et al., 1992: 54 EP

Stigmella apicialbella (Chambers, 1873) Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 413 NEA

Nepticula apicialbella Chambers, 1873: 127

Nepticula leucostigma Braun, 1912: 88 (syn: Braun, 1914: 21)

Stigmella floslactella group (Johansson, 1971: 244) 39

Stigmella carpinella (Heinemann, 1862) Gerasimov, 1952: 232 WP

Nepticula carpinella Heinemann, 1862a: 251

Stigmella floslactella (Haworth, 1828) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61 WP

Tinea floslactella Haworth, 1828: 585

Nepticula saxatilella Grönlien, 1932: 114 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Microsetia floslactella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1834: 268

Nepticula floslactella (Haworth, 1828) Stainton, 1849: 29

Stigmella saxatilella (Grönlien, 1932) Gerasimov, 1952: 258

Stigmella floslactella f. interrupta Dufrane, 1949: 10

Stigmella johanssonella A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997: 70 WP

Stigmella tityrella (Stainton, 1854) Hering, 1957: 439 WP

Nepticula tityrella Stainton, 1854: 304

Nepticula turicella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 355 (syn: Carolsfeld-Krausé, 1949: 310)

Nepticula turicensis Frey, 1856: 391 UE

Nepticula castanella Stainton, 1859a: 123 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula hemargyrella auct. [misapplied] (syn: Carolsfeld-Krausé, 1949: 304)

Stigmella turicella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60

Stigmella castanella (Stainton, 1859a) Gerasimov, 1952: 232

Stigmella ruficapitella group - s.l. (Johansson, 1971: 245) 39

Stigmella hemargyrella group (Johansson, 1971: 244)

Stigmella procrastinella group (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 69)

Stigmella castanopsiella group (Puplesis, 1984b: 583)

Stigmella hemargyrella (Kollar, 1832) Gerasimov, 1952: 242 WP

Oecophora hemargyrella Kollar, 1832: 98

Nepticula basalella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 354 (syn: Carolsfeld-Krausé, 1949: 310)

Nepticula fagella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 354 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula fagi Frey, 1856: 384 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula nobilella Heinemann & Wocke, [1876]: 755 6 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula fulgens Stainton, 1888b: 12 (syn: Carolsfeld-Krausé, 1949: 310)

Nepticula tityrella auct. [misapplied] (see: Carolsfeld-Krausé, 1949: 307)

Lyonetia hemargyrella (Kollar, 1832) Zeller, 1839: 215

Nepticula hemargyrella (Kollar, 1832) Zeller, 1848: 323

Stigmella basalella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60

Stigmella castanopsiella (Kuroko, 1978) Kuroko, 1982a: 448 EP

Nepticula castanopsiella Kuroko, 1978: 1

Stigmella kurokoi Puplesis, 1984b: 594 EP

Stigmella valvaurigemmata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 45 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 161)

Stigmella lithocarpella van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 169 EP

Stigmella vandrieli van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 171 EP

Stigmella circumargentea van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 165 EP

Stigmella kao van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 166 EP,OR

Stigmella alba Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 73 NEA

Stigmella procrastinella (Braun, 1927) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 70 NEA

Nepticula procrastinella Braun, 1927: 59

Stigmella humboldti Remeikis & Stonis, 2015: 412 46NEO

Stigmella ruficapitella group - s.s. (Johansson, 1971: 245) 39

Stigmella atricapitella group (Emmet, 1976: 239)

Stigmella caesurifasciella group (Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 38)

Stigmella suberivora group (Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 38)

Stigmella atricapitella (Haworth, 1828) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP

Tinea atricapitella Haworth, 1828: 585

Nepticula discrepans Sorhagen, 1922: 41 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Microsetia atricapitella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1834: 269

Nepticula atricapitella (Haworth, 1828) Stainton, 1849: 28

Stigmella discrepans (Sorhagen, 1922) Gerasimov, 1952: 237

Stigmella basiguttella (Heinemann, 1862) Vári, 1944b: xxv WP

Nepticula basiguttella Heinemann, 1862a: 258

Stigmella cerricolella Klimesch, 1948a: 160 29 (syn: Johansson, 1971: 253)

Nepticula cerricolella (Klimesch, 1948) Johansson, 1971: 253

Nepticula basiguttella cerricolella (Klimesch, 1948) Johansson, 1971: 253

Stigmella bicuspidata van Nieukerken & Johansson, 2003: 341 WP

Stigmella cocciferae van Nieukerken & Johansson, 2003: 329 WP

Stigmella dorsiguttella (Johansson, 1971) Pröse, 1984: 107 WP

Nepticula dorsiguttella Johansson, 1971: 251

Stigmella eberhardi (Johansson, 1971) Kasy, 1979: 4 WP

Nepticula eberhardi Johansson, 1971: 258

Stigmella fasciata van Nieukerken & Johansson, 2003: 321 WP

Stigmella ilicifoliella (Mendes, 1918) Gómez Bustillo, 1981: 18 WP

Nepticula ilicifoliella Mendes, 1918: 127

Stigmella ilicivora nigra Dufrane, 1955: 192 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 2003: 326)

Stigmella karsholti van Nieukerken & Johansson, 2003: 343 WP

Stigmella macrolepidella (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986b: 13 WP

Nepticula macrolepidella Klimesch, 1978b: 257

Stigmella roborella (Johansson, 1971) Emmet, 1976: 241 WP

Nepticula roborella Johansson, 1971: 258

Nepticula ruficapitella auct. partim before 1971

Stigmella ruficapitella (Haworth, 1828) Beirne, 1945: 198 WP

Tinea ruficapitella Haworth, 1828: 586

Tinea violacella Haworth, 1828: 585 (syn: Stainton, 1849: 28)

Microsetia ruficapitella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1834: 269

Nepticula ruficapitella (Haworth, 1828) Stainton, 1849: 28

Microsetia violaceella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1834: 269

Nepticula lamprotornella Heyden in Herrich-Schäffer, 1855b: 69 NN (syn: Herrich-Schäffer, 1855b: 69)

Nepticula ruficapitella var. ruficastaneae Skala, 1949: 129 NNLM

Stigmella samiatella (Zeller, 1839) Vári, 1950: 180 47WP

Lyonetia samiatella Zeller, 1839: 215

Nepticula chaoniella Herrich-Schäffer, 1863b: 170 NO syn. n. 47

Nepticula quercella Herrich-Schäffer, 1863a: 23 NN (syn: Segerer, 1997: 190) 47

Nepticula samiatella (Zeller, 1839) Zeller, 1848: 303

Stigmella suberivora (Stainton, 1869) Beirne, 1945: 197 WP

Nepticula suberivora Stainton, 1869b: 228

Nepticula aureocapitella Millière, 1876 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 461)

Nepticula aureocaputella Millière, 1876: 374 IOS

Nepticula ilicivora Peyerimhoff, 1871: 413 (syn: Johansson, 1971: 246)

Nepticula ilicella Walsingham, 1891: 152 (syn: van Nieukerken, 2004: 111)

Stigmella ilicivora (Peyerimhoff, 1871) Gerasimov, 1952: 244

Stigmella ilicella (Walsingham, 1891) Le Marchand, 1946b: 284

Stigmella svenssoni (Johansson, 1971) Emmet, 1976: 243 WP

Nepticula svenssoni Johansson, 1971: 249

Stigmella szoecsiella (Borkowski, 1972) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 13 WP

Nepticula szoecsiella Borkowski, 1972b: 776

Stigmella tristis (Wocke, 1862) Gerasimov, 1952: 265 WP

Nepticula tristis Wocke, 1862: 251

Stigmella trojana Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998: 313 WP

Stigmella zangherii (Klimesch, 1951) Zangheri, 1969: 1014 WP

Nepticula zangherii Klimesch, 1951d: 61

Stigmella acuta Diškus, Navickaitė & Remeikis in Stonis et al., 2013e: 202 EP

Stigmella aladina Puplesis, 1984a: 115 EP

Stigmella quercifaga Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 44 (syn: van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 161)

Stigmella azuminoensis Hirano, 2010: 125 EP

Stigmella caesurifasciella Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 38 EP

Stigmella egregilustrata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 39 (syn: van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 174)

Stigmella clisiotophora Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 48 EP

Stigmella crenatiella Hirano, 2010: 125 EP

Stigmella dentatae Puplesis, 1984a: 114 EP

Stigmella pulla Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 43 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 162)

Stigmella fervida Puplesis, 1984b: 593 EP

Stigmella fumida Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 42 EP

Stigmella chrysopterella Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 48 (syn: van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 157)

Stigmella kurii Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 51 (syn: van Nieukerken & Liu, 2000: 157)

Stigmella hisaii Kuroko, 2004: 238 EP

Stigmella hisakoae Hirano, 2010: 126 EP

Stigmella kasyi van Nieukerken & Johansson, 2003: 331 EP

Stigmella omelkoi Puplesis, 1984b: 593 EP

Stigmella kumatai Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985: 50 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 163)

Unplaced Species groups

Stigmella barbata group (Puplesis et al., 2002: 63)

Stigmella plumosetaeella Newton & Wilkinson, 1982: 455 NEA

Stigmella austroamericana Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 25 NEO

Stigmella barbata Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 37 NEO

Stigmella purpurimaculae group (Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 351)

Stigmella cana Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 324 NEO

Stigmella concreta Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 328 NEO

Stigmella pseudoconcreta Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 329 NEO

Stigmella purpurimaculae Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 323 NEO

Stigmella quadrata Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 329 NEO

Stigmella sceptra Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 327 NEO

Stigmella truncata Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 326 NEO

Stigmella unplaced and ungrouped species

Stigmella arbatella (Chrétien, 1922) Rungs, 1979: 25 WP

Nepticula arbatella Chrétien, 1922: 373

Stigmella georgiana Puplesis, 1994: 165 WP

Stigmella grandistyla Puplesis, 1994: 113 WP

Stigmella brutea Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 331 NEO

Stigmella hylomaga (Meyrick, 1931a) Davis, 1984: 18 NEO

Nepticula hylomaga Meyrick, 1931a: 415

Stigmella pruinosa Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 38 NEO

Stigmella pseudodigitata Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 332 NEO

Stigmella semilactea Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2014: 330 NEO

Ozadelpha van Nieukerken in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 26 (TS/OD: Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, 2016)

Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 28 NEO

Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002) van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 27 NEO

Enteucha guajavae Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 22

Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000) van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 27 NEO

Stigmella ovata Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 39

Roscidotoga Hoare, 2000a: 293 (TS/OD: Roscidotoga callicomae Hoare, 2000)

Roscidotoga callicomae Hoare, 2000a: 295 (Fig. 27) AUS

Roscidotoga eucryphiae Hoare, 2000a: 296 AUS

Roscidotoga lamingtonia van Nieukerken, van den Berg & Hoare, 2011: 194 AUS

Roscidotoga sapphiripes Hoare, 2000a: 297 AUS

Casanovula Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 24 (TS/OD: Pectinivalva brevipalpa Hoare, 2013) stat. n.

Casanovula brevipalpa (Hoare, 2013) comb. n. AUS

Pectinivalva brevipalpa Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 27

Casanovula minotaurus (Hoare, 2013) comb. n. AUS

Pectinivalva minotaurus Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 29

Menurella Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 35 (TS/OD: Pectinivalva scotodes Hoare, 2013) stat. n.

Menurella acmenae (Hoare, 2013) comb. n. AUS

Pectinivalva acmenae Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 41

Menurella anazona (Meyrick, 1906) comb. n. AUS

Nepticula anazona Meyrick, 1906b: 58

Pectinivalva anazona (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16

Menurella funeralis (Meyrick, 1906) comb. n. AUS

Nepticula funeralis Meyrick, 1906b: 59

Pectinivalva funeralis (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16

Menurella libera (Meyrick, 1906) comb. n. (Fig. 28) AUS

Nepticula libera Meyrick, 1906b: 61

Pectinivalva libera (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16

Menurella planetis (Meyrick, 1906) comb. n. AUS

Nepticula planetis Meyrick, 1906b: 58

Pectinivalva planetis (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16

Menurella primigena (Meyrick, 1906) comb. n. AUS

Nepticula primigena Meyrick, 1906b: 58

Pectinivalva primigena (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16

Menurella quintiniae (Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013) comb. n. AUS

Pectinivalva quintiniae Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 47

Menurella scotodes (Hoare, 2013) comb. n. AUS

Pectinivalva scotodes Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 37

Menurella trepida (Meyrick, 1906) comb. n. AUS

Nepticula trepida Meyrick, 1906b: 61

Pectinivalva trepida (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16

Menurella tribulatrix (van Nieukerken & Hoare, 2013) comb. n. AUS

Pectinivalva tribulatrix van Nieukerken & Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 48

Menurella warburtonensis (Wilson, 1939) comb. n. AUS

Nepticula warburtonensis Wilson, 1939: 239

Pectinivalva warburtonensis (Wilson, 1939) Nielsen, 1996: 16

Menurella xenadelpha (van Nieukerken & Hoare, 2013) comb. n. OR

Pectinivalva xenadelpha van Nieukerken & Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 44

Pectinivalva Scoble, 1983: 12

Pectinivalva caenodora (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16 (Fig. 29) AUS

Nepticula caenodora Meyrick, 1906b: 58

Pectinivalva chalcitis (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16 AUS

Nepticula chalcitis Meyrick, 1906b: 60

Pectinivalva commoni Scoble, 1983: 13 AUS

Pectinivalva endocapna (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16 AUS

Nepticula endocapna Meyrick, 1906b: 60

Pectinivalva gilva (Meyrick, 1906b) Nielsen, 1996: 16 AUS

Nepticula gilva Meyrick, 1906b: 59

Pectinivalva melanotis (Meyrick, 1906) Nielsen, 1996: 16 AUS

Nepticula melanotis Meyrick, 1906b: 59

Pectinivalva mystaconota Hoare in Hoare & van Nieukerken, 2013: 20 AUS

Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, 2016 in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 36 (TS/OD: Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, 2016)

Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, 2016 in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 38 NEO

Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, 2016 in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 44 (TS/OD: Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000)

Fomoria molybditis group Puplesis et al., 2002

Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000) van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 44 NEO

Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 43

Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877) van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 46 NEO

Nepticula molybditis Zeller, 1877: 453

Stigmella molybditis (Zeller, 1877) Davis, 1984: 18

Fomoria molybditis (Zeller, 1877) Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 43

Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002) van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 46 NEO

Fomoria repanda Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 26

Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, 2016 in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 52 NEO

Bohemannia Stainton, 1859a: 439 (TS/M: Nepticula quadrimaculella Boheman, 1853)

Scoliaula Meyrick, 1895: 727; URN for Bohemannia Stainton, 1859 (TS/OD,M: Nepticula quadrimaculella Boheman, 1853)

Bohemannia aschaueri Fischer, 2013: 88 WP

Bohemannia butzmanni Fischer, 2013: 86 WP

Bohemannia auriciliella (Joannis, 1909) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16 (Fig. 31) WP

Nepticula auriciliella Joannis, 1909: 822

Ectoedemia bradfordi Emmet, 1974: 269 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16)

Stigmella auriciliella (Joannis, 1909) Lhomme, [1963]: 1192

Bohemannia pulverosella (Stainton, 1849) van Nieukerken, 1982: 105 48WP,EP,[NEA]

Trifurcula pulverosella Stainton, 1849: 30

Bohemannia piotra Puplesis, 1984b: 586 syn. n.48

Nepticula pulverosella (Stainton, 1849) Meyrick, 1895: 726

Stigmella pulverosella (Stainton, 1849) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61

Dechtiria pulverosella (Stainton, 1849) Beirne, 1945: 206

Ectoedemia pulverosella (Stainton, 1849) Bradley et al., 1972: 3

Scoliaula pulverosella (Stainton, 1849) Borkowski, 1975: 489

Nepticula cineretella Frey in Herrich-Schäffer, 1855b: 70 NN (syn: Herrich-Schäffer, 1855b: 70)

Bohemannia quadrimaculella (Boheman, 1853) Stainton, 1859a: 439 49WP

Nepticula quadrimaculella Boheman, 1853: 167

Bucculatrix antispilella Meess, 1907: 129 (syn: Disqué, 1912: 75) 49

Scoliaula quadrimaculella (Boheman, 1853) Meyrick, 1895: 727

Trifurcula quadrimaculella (Boheman, 1853) Johansson, 1971: 246

Bohemannia ussuriella Puplesis, 1984b: 588 EP

Bohemannia manschurella Puplesis, 1984b: 587 50EP

Bohemannia nipponicella Hirano, 2010: 129 syn. n. 50

Bohemannia nubila Puplesis, 1985c: 69 EP

Bohemannia suiphunella Puplesis, 1984b: 588 EP

Areticulata Scoble, 1983: 11 (key), 40 (TS/OD,M: Areticulata leucosideae Scoble, 1983)

Areticulata leucosideae Scoble, 1983: 40 AFR

Glaucolepis Braun, 1917: 161 (key), 201 (TS/OD,M: Nepticula saccharella Braun, 1912)

Fedalmia Beirne, 1945: 207 (TS/OD,M: Nepticula headleyella Stainton, 1854) (syn: Puplesis, 1985a: 11)

Sinopticula Yang, 1989: 79 [81] (TS/OD,M: Sinopticula sinica Yang, 1989: 80) (syn: van Nieukerken & Puplesis, 1991: 202)

Glaucolepis raikhonae group (van Nieukerken & Puplesis, 1991: 202)

Glaucolepis melanoptera (van Nieukerken & Puplesis, 1991) Puplesis, 1994: 219 WP

Trifurcula melanoptera van Nieukerken & Puplesis, 1991

Glaucolepis oishiella (Matsumura, 1931) comb. n. 51EP

Trifurcula oishiella Matsumura, 1931: 1114

Sinopticula sinica Yang, 1989: 80 syn. n. 51

Trifurcula sinica (Yang, 1989) van Nieukerken & Puplesis, 1991: 205

Glaucolepis sinica (Yang, 1989) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 404

Glaucolepis raikhonae Puplesis, 1985c: 71 EP

Trifurcula raikhonae (Puplesis, 1985) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 68

Glaucolepis saccharella group (new)

Glaucolepis saccharella (Braun, 1912) Braun, 1917: 201 NEA

Nepticula saccharella Braun, 1912: 97

Trifurcula saccharella (Braun, 1912) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 68

Glaucolepis headleyella group (Puplesis, 1994: 219)

Glaucolepis albiflorella (Klimesch, 1978) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula albiflorella Klimesch, 1978b: 274

Glaucolepis alypella (Klimesch, 1975) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula alypella Klimesch, 1975c: 12

Glaucolepis andalusica (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula andalusica Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007: 102

Glaucolepis bleonella (Chrétien, 1904) Puplesis, 1994: 219 WP

Nepticula bleonella Chrétien, 1904: 164

Stigmella bleonella (Chrétien, 1904) Gerasimov, 1952: 231

Ectoedemia bleonella (Chrétien, 1904) Klimesch, 1975a: 861

Trifurcula bleonella (Chrétien, 1904) Leraut, 1980: 49

Glaucolepis bupleurella (Chrétien, 1907) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 405 WP

Nepticula bupleurella Chrétien, 1907: 91

Stigmella bupleurella (Chrétien, 1907) Gerasimov, 1952: 232

Ectoedemia bupleurella (Chrétien, 1907) Klimesch, 1975a: 863

Trifurcula bupleurella (Chrétien, 1907) Leraut, 1980: 49

Glaucolepis chretieni (Z. Laštůvka, A. Laštůvka & van Nieukerken, 2013) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula chretieni Z. Laštůvka, A. Laštůvka & van Nieukerken, 2013: 198

Glaucolepis corleyi (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula corleyi Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007: 102

Glaucolepis globulariae (Klimesch, 1975) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula globulariae Klimesch, 1975c: 7

Glaucolepis hamirella (Chrétien, 1915) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 52WP

Nepticula hamirella Chrétien, 1915: 364

Ectoedemia hamirella (Chrétien, 1915) Klimesch, 1975a: 863

Trifurcula hamirella (Chrétien, 1915) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15

Glaucolepis saturejae (Parenti, 1963) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 52WP

Stigmella saturejae Parenti, 1963: 101

Fedalmia saturejae (Parenti, 1963) Klimesch, 1976: 45

Trifurcula saturejae (Parenti, 1963) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15

Glaucolepis headleyella (Stainton, 1854) Puplesis, 1994: 219 WP

Nepticula headleyella Stainton, 1854: 298

Nepticula argyrostigma Frey, 1856: 379 (syn: Frey, 1880: 425)

Nepticula dubiella Hauder, 1912: 273 (syn: Klimesch, 1948b: 76)

Trifurcula rodella Svensson, 1982: 299 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15)

Fedalmia headleyella (Stainton, 1854) Beirne, 1945: 207

Stigmella headleyella (Stainton, 1854) Klimesch, 1948b: 76

Trifurcula headleyella (Stainton, 1854) Johansson, 1971: 245

Stigmella dubiella (Hauder, 1912) Klimesch, 1948b: 76

Glaucolepis helladica (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula helladica Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007: 101

Glaucolepis istriae (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula istriae A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000a: 290

Glaucolepis kalavritana (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 407 WP

Trifurcula kalavritana (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998): 314

Glaucolepis lavandulae (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula lavandulae Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007: 104

Glaucolepis liskai (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 407 WP

Trifurcula liskai A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000a: 291

Glaucolepis lituanica (Ivinskis & van Nieukerken, 2012) comb. n. (Fig. 30) WP

Trifurcula lituanica Ivinskis & van Nieukerken, 2012: 43

Glaucolepis magna (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 407 53WP

Trifurcula magna (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997): 132

Trifurcula collinella Nel, 2012: 24 syn. n. 53

Glaucolepis megaphallus (van Nieukerken, Z. Laštůvka & A. Laštůvka, 2013) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula megaphallus van Nieukerken, Z. Laštůvka & A. Laštůvka in Z. Laštůvka et al., 2013: 195

Glaucolepis micromeriae (Walsingham, 1908) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 405 WP

Stigmella micromeriae Walsingham, 1908a: 10101

Nepticula micromeriae (Walsingham, 1908) Rebel, 1910: 374

Trifurcula micromeriae (Walsingham, 1908) Klimesch, 1977: 196

Glaucolepis montana (Z. Laštuvka, A. Laštuvka & van Nieukerken) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula montana Z. Laštuvka, A. Laštuvka & van Nieukerken in Z. & A. Laštuvka, 2007: 103

Glaucolepis pederi (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula pederi Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007: 102

Glaucolepis rosmarinella (Chrétien, 1914) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 405 WP

Nepticula rosmarinella Chrétien, 1914: 270

Stigmella rosmarinella (Chrétien, 1914) Gerasimov, 1952: 256

Trifurcula rosmarinella (Chrétien, 1914) Klimesch, 1975b: 23

Glaucolepis salicinae (Klimesch, 1975) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula salicinae Klimesch, 1975c: 10

Glaucolepis salvifoliae (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula salvifoliae Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 2007: 103

Glaucolepis sanctaecrucis (Walsingham, 1908) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 405 WP

Stigmella sanctaecrucis Walsingham, 1908a: 10101

Nepticula sanctaecrucis (Walsingham, 1908) Rebel, 1910: 374

Fedalmia sanctaecrucis (Walsingham, 1908) Klimesch, 1976: 44

Trifurcula sanctaecrucis (Walsingham, 1908) Klimesch, 1977: 196

Glaucolepis sanctibenedicti (Klimesch, 1979) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula sanctibenedicti Klimesch, 1979: 24

Glaucolepis siciliae (Z. Laštůvka, A. Laštůvka & van Nieukerken, 2013) comb. n. WP

Trifurcula siciliae Z. Laštůvka, A. Laštůvka & van Nieukerken, 2013: 201

Glaucolepis stoechadella (Klimesch, 1975) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula stoechadella Klimesch, 1975c: 23

Glaucolepis teucriella (Chrétien, 1914) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 405 WP

Nepticula teucriella Chrétien, 1914: 270

Stigmella teucriella (Chrétien, 1914) Gerasimov, 1952: 263

Trifurcula teucriella (Chrétien, 1914) Leraut, 1980: 49

Glaucolepis thymi (Szőcs, 1965) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Nepticula thymi Szőcs, 1965: 89

Fedalmia thymi Borkowski, 1970a: 74; JSH of Nepticula thymi Szőcs, 1965

Trifurcula thymi (Szőcs, 1965) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15

Glaucolepis trilobella (Klimesch, 1978) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 WP

Trifurcula trilobella Klimesch, 1978b: 271

Glaucolepis zollikofferiela (Chrétien, 1914) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 405 WP

Nepticula zollikofferiela Chrétien, 1914: 271

Stigmella zollikofferiela (Chrétien, 1914) Gerasimov, 1952: 270

Ectoedemia zollikofferiela (Chrétien, 1914) Klimesch, 1975a: 862

Trifurcula zollikofferiela (Chrétien, 1914) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15

Glaucolepis rusticula (Meyrick, 1916) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 406 OR

Nepticula rusticula Meyrick, 1916b: 7

Trifurcula rusticula (Meyrick, 1916) online comb.

Unassigned to group 54

Glaucolepis aerifica (Meyrick, 1915) Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 56 NEO

Nepticula aerifica Meyrick, 1915a: 255

Stigmella aerifica (Meyrick, 1915) Davis, 1984: 18

Trifurcula aerifica (Meyrick, 1915) online comb.

Glaucolepis argentosa Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 57 54NEO

Trifurcula argentosa (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000) online comb.

Trifurcula Zeller, 1848: 249 (key), 330 (TS/SD (Tutt, 1899: 355): Trifurcula pallidella Zeller, 1848)

Trifurcella Chambers, 1878: 165 ISS

Levarchama Beirne, 1945: 206 (TS/OD: Nepticula cryptella Stainton, 1856) (syn: Johansson, 1971: 246)

Trifurcula cryptella group (new)

Trifurcula anthyllidella Klimesch, 1975c: 14 WP

Trifurcula cryptella (Stainton, 1856) Johansson, 1971: 246 WP

Nepticula cryptella Stainton, 1856: 41

Nepticula trifolii Sorhagen, 1885: 280 (syn: Hering, 1957: 1067)

Stigmella cryptella (Stainton, 1856) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61

Levarchama cryptella (Stainton, 1856) Beirne, 1945: 207

Trifurcula eurema (Tutt, 1899) Johansson, 1971: 246 WP

Nepticula eurema Tutt, 1899: 332

Nepticula heurema Meess, 1910: 481 UE

Nepticula dorycniella Suire, 1928: 128 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15)

Nepticula gozmanyi Szőcs, 1959: 417 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15)

Levarchama eurema (Tutt, 1899) Beirne, 1945: 207

Stigmella eurema (Tutt, 1899) Klimesch, 1951b: 66

Stigmella heurema (Meess, 1910) Gerasimov, 1952: 243

Stigmella dorycniella (Suire, 1928) Klimesch, 1951b: 66

Trifurcula manygoza van Nieukerken, A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka in van Nieukerken, 2007b: 125 WP

Trifurcula ortneri (Klimesch, 1951) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15 WP

Nepticula ortneri Klimesch, 1951b: 66

Stigmella ortneri (Klimesch, 1951) Klimesch, 1961: 763

Trifurcula peloponnesica van Nieukerken, 2007b: 118 WP

Trifurcula ridiculosa (Walsingham, 1908) Klimesch, 1975b: 15 WP

Stigmella ridiculosa Walsingham, 1908a: 10111

Nepticula ridiculosa (Walsingham, 1908) Rebel, 1910: 364

Trifurcula subnitidella group (van Nieukerken, 1990b: 208)

Trifurcula coronillae van Nieukerken, 1990b: 217 WP

Trifurcula iberica van Nieukerken, 1990b: 228 (Fig. 32) WP

Trifurcula josefklimeschi van Nieukerken, 1990b: 225 WP

Trifurcula luteola van Nieukerken, 1990b: 215 WP

Trifurcula puplesisi van Nieukerken, 1990b: 215 WP,EP

Trifurcula silviae van Nieukerken, 1990b: 230 WP

Trifurcula subnitidella (Duponchel, 1843) van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 462 WP

Elachista subnitidella Duponchel, 1843: 326

Trifurcula griseella Wolff, 1957: 21 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 462)

Lyonetia subnitidella (Duponchel, 1843) Duponchel, 1844: 378

Nepticula subnitidella (Duponchel, 1843) Zeller, 1848: 305

Trifurcula victoris van Nieukerken, 1990b: 219 WP

Trifurcula pallidella group (van Nieukerken, 1990b: 208)

Trifurcula aurella Rebel, 1933: 82 WP

Trifurcula austriaca van Nieukerken, 1990b: 213 WP

Trifurcula baldensis A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2005a: 8 WP

Trifurcula beirnei Puplesis, 1984a: 124 WP

Trifurcula bicolorella (Chrétien, 1915) comb. n. 55WP

Bucculatrix bicolorella Chrétien, 1915: 364

Trifurcula calycotomella A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997: 148 WP

Trifurcula chamaecytisi A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1994: 207 WP

Trifurcula corothamni A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1994: 202 WP

Trifurcula cytisanthi A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2005a: 8 WP

Trifurcula etnensis A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2005a: 7 WP

Trifurcula graeca Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998: 315 WP

Trifurcula immundella (Zeller, 1839) Zeller, 1848: 332 WP

Lyonetia immundella Zeller, 1839: 215

Trifurcula macedonica Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998: 315 WP

Trifurcula moravica A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1994: 205 WP

Trifurcula orientella Klimesch, 1953a: 168 WP

Trifurcula pallidella (Duponchel, 1843) Joannis, 1915: 129 WP

Oecophora pallidella Duponchel, 1843: 339

Trifurcula pallidella Zeller, 1848: 332; JSH of Trifurcula pallidella (Duponchel, 1843)

Lithocolletis pallidella (Duponchel, 1843) Bruand, [1851]: 86

Trifurcula incognitella Toll, 1936: 409 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15)

‡ [no genus] pallidulella Herrich-Schäffer, 1853: pl 108 NN

Trifurcula serotinella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 359 WP

Trifurcula confertella Fuchs, 1895: 47 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 15)

Trifurcula squamatella Stainton, 1849: 30 WP

Trifurcula maxima Klimesch, 1953a: 167 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1987b: 180)

Trifurcula trasaghica A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2005a: 9 WP

Trifurcula barbertonensis group (new)

Trifurcula barbertonensis Scoble, 1980a: 142 AFR

Trifurcula pullus Scoble, 1980a: 140 AFR

Fomoria Beirne, 1945: 208 (TS/OD: Nepticula weaveri Stainton, 1855)

Fomoria vannifera group (Hoare, 2000b: 300)

Fomoria asiatica group (Puplesis, 1994: 208)

Fomoria asiatica Puplesis, 1988: 27 EP

Ectoedemia asiatica (Puplesis, 1988) Hoare, 2000a: 301

Fomoria glycystrota (Meyrick, 1928) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 OR

Nepticula glycystrota Meyrick, 1928b: 462

Ectoedemia glycystrota (Meyrick, 1928b) Hoare, 2000a: 302

Fomoria fuscata (Janse, 1948) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 AFR

Nepticula fuscata Janse, 1948: 165

Ectoedemia fuscata (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1983: 36

Fomoria hobohmi (Janse, 1948) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 AFR

Nepticula hobohmi Janse, 1948: 167

Ectoedemia hobohmi (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1983: 38

Fomoria kharuxabi (Mey, 2004) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia kharuxabi Mey, 2004: 32

Fomoria uisebi (Mey, 2004) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia uisebi Mey, 2004: 32

Fomoria vannifera (Meyrick, 1914) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 AFR

Nepticula vannifera Meyrick, 1914: 203

Ectoedemia vannifera (Meyrick, 1914) Scoble, 1983: 37

Fomoria hadronycha (Hoare, 2000) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 AUS

Ectoedemia hadronycha Hoare, 2000b: 307

Fomoria pelops (Hoare, 2000) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 AUS

Ectoedemia pelops Hoare, 2000b: 304

Fomoria squamibunda (Hoare, 2000) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 AUS

Ectoedemia squamibunda Hoare, 2000b: 304

Fomoria groschkei group (Hoare, 2000b: 313)

Fomoria aegaeica (Z. Laštuvka, A. Laštuvka & Johansson, 1998) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 391 WP

Ectoedemia aegaeica Z. Laštuvka, A. Laštuvka & Johansson in Z. & A. Laštuvka, 1998: 316

Fomoria groschkei (Skala, 1943) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388 WP

Nepticula groschkei Skala, 1943: 86

Stigmella groschkei (Skala, 1943) Klimesch, 1948b: 77

Ectoedemia groschkei (Skala, 1943) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Fomoria thermae (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia thermae Scoble, 1983: 36

Fomoria weaveri group (Puplesis, 1994: 205)

Fomoria degeeri (van Nieukerken, 2008) comb. n. WP

Ectoedemia degeeri van Nieukerken, 2008: 124

Fomoria deschkai (Klimesch, 1978) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 384 WP

Trifurcula deschkai Klimesch, 1978b: 274

Ectoedemia deschkai (Klimesch, 1978b) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Fomoria empetrifolii (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 WP

Ectoedemia empetrifolii A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000b: 22

Fomoria eriki (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 WP

Ectoedemia eriki A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2000b: 21

Fomoria luisae Klimesch, 1978a: 89 WP

Ectoedemia luisae (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Fomoria septembrella (Stainton, 1849) Beirne, 1945: 209 WP

Nepticula septembrella Stainton, 1849: 29

Stigmella septembrella (Stainton, 1849) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61

Trifurcula septembrella (Stainton, 1849) Johansson, 1971: 246

Ectoedemia septembrella (Stainton, 1849) Scoble, 1983: 32

Fomoria variicapitella (Chrétien, 1908) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 384 WP

Nepticula variicapitella Chrétien, 1908: 363

Stigmella variicapitella (Chrétien, 1908) Gerasimov, 1952: 263

Trifurcula variicapitella (Chrétien, 1908) Klimesch, 1977: 197

Ectoedemia variicapitella (Chrétien, 1908) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Fomoria weaveri (Stainton, 1855) Beirne, 1945: 209 (Fig. 33) WP,EP,NEA

Nepticula weaveri Stainton, 1855: 49

Nepticula weaweri Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 346 ISS

Nepticula weaverella Doubleday, 1859: 36 UE

Stigmella weaveri (Stainton, 1855) Gerasimov, 1952: 269

Trifurcula weaveri (Stainton, 1855) Johansson, 1971: 246

Ectoedemia weaveri (Stainton, 1855) Scoble, 1983: 32

Fomoria weaveri f. fuliginella Vári, 1947: 523

Fomoria festivitatis (van Nieukerken, 2008) comb. n. OR, EP

Ectoedemia festivitatis van Nieukerken, 2008: 117

Fomoria hypericifolia Kuroko, 1982: 49 EP

Ectoedemia hypericifolia (Kuroko, 1982) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 84

Fomoria permira Puplesis, 1984b: 592 EP

Ectoedemia permira (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 84

Fomoria hypericella (Braun, 1925) Wilkinson, 1979: 84 NEA

Nepticula hypericella Braun, 1925a: 17

Ectoedemia hypericella (Braun, 1925a) van Nieukerken, 2008: 116

Fomoria pteliaeella (Chambers, 1880) Wilkinson, 1979: 84 NEA

Nepticula pteliaeella Chambers, 1880c: 137

Ectoedemia pteliaeella (Chambers, 1880) van Nieukerken, 2008: 117

Fomoria ruwenzoriensis (Bradley, 1965) comb. n. AFR

Stigmella ruwenzoriensis Bradley, 1965: 120

Acalyptris ruwenzoriensis (Bradley, 1965) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 394

Ectoedemia ruwenzoriensis (Bradley, 1965) van Nieukerken, 2008: 117

Fomoria lacrimulae group (Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 386)

Fomoria lacrimulae Puplesis & Diškus, 1996c: 185 WP

Ectoedemia lacrimulae (Puplesis & Diškus, 1996) online comb.

Fomoria knysnaensis (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 386 AFR

Ectoedemia knysnaensis Scoble, 1983: 33

African unplaced Fomoria

Fomoria alexandria (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia alexandria Scoble, 1983: 35

Fomoria gambiana (Gustafsson, 1972) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389 AFR

Nepticula gambiana Gustafsson, 1972: 156

Ectoedemia gambiana (Gustafsson, 1972) online comb.

Fomoria incisaevora (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia incisaevora Scoble, 1983: 35

Fomoria indicaevora (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia indicaevora Scoble, 1983: 33

Fomoria leptodictyae (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia leptodictyae Scoble, 1983: 35

Fomoria lucidae (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia lucidae Scoble, 1983: 34

Fomoria malelanensis (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia malelanensis Scoble, 1983: 36

Fomoria myrtinaecola (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia myrtinaecola Scoble, 1983: 34

Fomoria oleivora (Vári, 1955) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388 AFR

Stigmella oleivora Vári, 1955: 336

Ectoedemia oleivora (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1983: 32

Fomoria pappeivora (Vári, 1963) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388 AFR

Stigmella pappeivora Vári, 1963: 68

Ectoedemia pappeivora (Vári, 1963) Scoble, 1983: 32

Fomoria portensis (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390 AFR

Ectoedemia portensis Scoble, 1983: 36

Fomoria primaria (Meyrick, 1913) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388 AFR

Nepticula primaria Meyrick, 1913: 326

Ectoedemia primaria (Meyrick, 1913) Scoble, 1983: 38

Fomoria scobleella (Minet, 2004) comb. n. 56AFR

Ectoedemia scoblei Minet, 1990: 220; JPH of Ectoedemia scoblei Puplesis, 1984a

Ectoedemia scobleella Minet, 2004: 366; RN for E. scoblei Minet, 1990

Fomoria scoblei (Minet, 1990) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 391

Fomoria tecomariae (Vári, 1955) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388 AFR

Stigmella tecomariae Vári, 1955: 333

Ectoedemia tecomariae (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1983: 34

other unplaced Fomoria

Fomoria viridissimella (Caradja, 1920) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 385 WP

Nepticula viridissimella Caradja, 1920: 162

Nepticula nowakowskii Toll, 1957: 199 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1987a: 142)

Ectoedemia viridissimella (Caradja, 1920) van Nieukerken, 1987a: 142

Ectoedemia nowakowskii (Toll, 1957) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Fomoria argyraspis (Puplesis & Diškus, 1995) comb. n. 57EP

Acalyptris argyraspis Puplesis & Diškus, 1995: 51

Fomoria flavimacula Puplesis & Diškus, 1996c: 183 EP

Ectoedemia flavimacula (Puplesis & Diškus, 1996c) online comb.

Fomoria sporadopa (Meyrick, 1911) comb. n. 58OR

Nepticula sporadopa Meyrick, 1911c: 108

Acalyptris sporadopa (Meyrick, 1911) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 393

Fomoria tabulosa Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 27 NEO

Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007: 5 stat. n.; RN for Laqueus Scoble, 1983

Laqueus Scoble, 1983: 12 (key), 20; JH of Laqueus Dall, 1870 (Brachiopoda) (TS/OD: Nepticula grandinosa Meyrick, 1911) [as subgenus of Ectoedemia]

Muhabbetana grandinosa group (new)

Muhabbetana furcella (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia furcella Scoble, 1983: 24

Fomoria furcella (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana grandinosa (Meyrick, 1911) comb. n. AFR

Nepticula grandinosa Meyrick, 1911a: 236

Ectoedemia grandinosa (Meyrick, 1911) Scoble, 1983: 21

Fomoria grandinosa (Meyrick, 1911) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 386

Muhabbetana guerkiae (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia guerkiae Scoble, 1983: 22

Fomoria guerkiae (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana jupiteri (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia jupiteri Scoble, 1983: 25

Fomoria jupiteri (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana macrochaeta (Meyrick, 1921) comb. n. AFR

Nepticula macrochaeta Meyrick, 1921b: 140

Ectoedemia macrochaeta (Meyrick, 1921) Scoble, 1983: 23

Fomoria macrochaeta (Meyrick, 1921) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana maritima (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia maritima Scoble, 1983: 24

Fomoria maritima (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana scabridae (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia scabridae Scoble, 1983: 24

Fomoria scabridae (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana simiicola (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia simiicola Scoble, 1983: 22

Fomoria simiicola (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana stimulata (Meyrick, 1913) comb. n. AFR

Nepticula stimulata Meyrick, 1913: 326

Ectoedemia stimulata (Meyrick, 1913) Scoble, 1983: 21

Fomoria stimulata (Meyrick, 1913) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 386

Muhabbetana umdoniella (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia umdoniella Scoble, 1983: 24

Fomoria umdoniella (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana wilkinsoni (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia wilkinsoni Scoble, 1983: 21

Fomoria wilkinsoni (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana euphorbiella group (new)

Muhabbetana euphorbiella (Stainton, 1869) comb. n. WP

Nepticula euphorbiella Stainton, 1869b: 229

Nepticula tergestina Klimesch, 1940a: 79 (syn: Laštůvka & Laštůvka, 1997: 167)

Stigmella euphorbiella (Stainton, 1869) Gerasimov, 1952: 238

Ectoedemia euphorbiella (Stainton, 1869) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Fomoria euphorbiella (Stainton, 1869) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 384

Stigmella tergestina (Klimesch, 1940) Hering, 1957: 434

Ectoedemia tergestina (Klimesch, 1940) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Muhabbetana jubae (Walsingham, 1908) comb. n. WP

Stigmella jubae Walsingham, 1908a: 1011 2

Nepticula jubae (Walsingham, 1908) Rebel, 1910: 364

Trifurcula jubae (Walsingham, 1908) Klimesch, 1977: 197

Ectoedemia jubae (Walsingham, 1908) van Nieukerken, 1986b: 17

Fomoria jubae (Walsingham, 1908) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 384

Muhabbetana nigrifasciata (Walsingham, 1908) comb. n. WP

Stigmella nigrifasciata Walsingham, 1908a: 1011 2

Nepticula nigrifasciata (Walsingham, 1908) Rebel, 1910: 364

Dechtiria nigrifasciata (Walsingham, 1908) Klimesch, 1972: 1

Trifurcula nigrifasciata (Walsingham, 1908) Klimesch, 1977: 200

Fomoria nigrifasciata (Walsingham, 1908) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Ectoedemia nigrifasciata (Walsingham, 1908) van Nieukerken, 1986b: 17

Muhabbetana vincamajorella (Hartig, 1964) comb. n. WP

Nepticula vincamajorella Hartig, 1964: 8

Fomoria vincamajorella (Hartig, 1964) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Ectoedemia vincamajorella (Hartig, 1964) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 17

Muhabbetana – unplaced species

Muhabbetana bicarina (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia bicarina Scoble, 1983: 27

Fomoria bicarina (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana capensis (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia capensis Scoble, 1983: 28

Fomoria capensis (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana craspedota (Vári, 1963) comb. n. AFR

Stigmella craspedota Vári, 1963: 73

Ectoedemia craspedota (Vári, 1963) Scoble, 1983: 27

Fomoria craspedota (Vári, 1963) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388

Muhabbetana crispae (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia crispae Scoble, 1983: 31

Fomoria crispae (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390

Muhabbetana denticulata (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia denticulata Scoble, 1983: 26

Fomoria denticulata (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana digitata (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia digitata Scoble, 1983: 27

Fomoria digitata (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana gymnosporiae (Vári, 1955) comb. n. AFR

Stigmella gymnosporiae Vári, 1955: 334

Ectoedemia gymnosporiae (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1983: 29

Fomoria gymnosporiae (Vári, 1955) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388

Muhabbetana insulata (Meyrick, 1911) comb. n. AFR

Nepticula insulata Meyrick, 1911b: 79

Ectoedemia insulata (Meyrick, 1911) Scoble, 1983: 29

Fomoria insulata (Meyrick, 1911) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388

Muhabbetana kowynensis (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia kowynensis Scoble, 1983: 30

Fomoria kowynensis (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana limburgensis (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia limburgensis Scoble, 1983: 28

Fomoria limburgensis (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana nigrisquama (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia nigrisquama Scoble, 1983: 26

Fomoria nigrisquama (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana nylstroomensis (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia nylstroomensis Scoble, 1983: 30

Fomoria nylstroomensis (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Muhabbetana psarodes (Vári, 1963) comb. n. AFR

Stigmella psarodes Vári, 1963: 70

Ectoedemia psarodes (Vári, 1963) Scoble, 1983: 29

Fomoria psarodes (Vári, 1963) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388

Muhabbetana rhabdophora (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia rhabdophora Scoble, 1983: 31

Fomoria rhabdophora (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 390

Muhabbetana royenicola (Vári, 1955) comb. n. AFR

Stigmella royenicola Vári, 1955: 335

Ectoedemia royenicola (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1983: 25

Fomoria royenicola (Vári, 1955) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 388

Muhabbetana subnitescens (Meyrick, 1937) comb. n. AFR

Trifurcula subnitescens Meyrick, 1937: 90

Ectoedemia subnitescens (Meyrick, 1937) Scoble, 1983: 28

Fomoria subnitescens (Meyrick, 1937) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 387

Muhabbetana undatae (Scoble, 1983) comb. n. AFR

Ectoedemia undatae Scoble, 1983: 27

Fomoria undatae (Scoble, 1983) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 389

Parafomoria Borkowski, 1975: 498 (TS/OD: Nepticula helianthemella Herrich-Schäffer, 1860: 60)

Parafomoria van Nieukerken, 1983b: 454 JH of Parafomoria Borkowski, 1975

Parafomoria liguricella group (new)

Parafomoria ladaniphila (Mendes, 1910) van Nieukerken, 1983b: 468 WP

Nepticula ladaniphila Mendes, 1910a: 102

Stigmella ladaniphila (Mendes, 1910) Klimesch, 1948a: 170

Ectoedemia ladaniphila (Mendes, 1910) Gómez Bustillo, 1981: 19

Parafomoria liguricella (Klimesch, 1948) van Nieukerken, 1983b: 466 29WP

Stigmella liguricella Klimesch, 1948a: 170 29

Parafomoria tingitella (Walsingham, 1904) van Nieukerken, 1983b: 469 WP

Nepticula tingitella Walsingham, 1904: 8

Stigmella tingitella (Walsingham, 1904) Gerasimov, 1952: 264

Parafomoria helianthemella group (new)

Parafomoria cistivora (Peyerimhoff, 1871) van Nieukerken, 1983b: 458 WP

Nepticula cistivora Peyerimhoff, 1871: 414

Stigmella cistivora (Peyerimhoff, 1871) Suire, 1951: 71

Parafomoria fumanae A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2005b: 15 WP

Parafomoria halimivora van Nieukerken, 1985a: 24 WP

Parafomoria helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) Borkowski, 1975: 498 (Fig. 34) WP

Nepticula helianthemella Herrich-Schäffer, 1860: 60

Stigmella helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) Klimesch, 1948a: 171

Trifurcula helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) Leraut, 1980: 49

Parafomoria pseudocistivora van Nieukerken, 1983b: 460 WP

Etainia Beirne, 1945: 208 (TS/OD: Lyonetia sericopeza Zeller, 1839)

Obrussa Braun, 1915: 196 JH of Obrussa Heyden, 1891 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) (TS/M: Nepticula ochrefasciella Chambers, 1873) (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16)

Etainia albibimaculella (Larsen, 1927) Puplesis & Diškus, 1996a: 5 WP,NEA

Nepticula albibimaculella Larsen, 1927: 5

Stigmella albibimaculella (Larsen, 1927) Hering, 1957: 112

Trifurcula albibimaculella (Larsen, 1927) Johansson, 1971: 246

Ectoedemia albibimaculella (Larsen, 1927) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16

Etainia biarmata Puplesis, 1994: 233 WP

Ectoedemia biarmata (Puplesis, 1994) van Nieukerken & Laštůvka, 2002: 89

Etainia decentella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Beirne, 1945: 207 WP

Nepticula decentella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 358

Nepticula monspessulanella Jäckh, 1951: 171 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16)

Stigmella decentella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Gerasimov, 1952: 234

Trifurcula decentella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) Johansson, 1971: 246

Ectoedemia decentella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16

Stigmella monspessulanella (Jäckh, 1951) Hering, 1957: 19

Etainia leptognathos Puplesis & Diškus, 1996a: 44 WP

Ectoedemia leptognathos (Puplesis & Diškus, 1996) van Nieukerken & Laštůvka, 2002: 89

Etainia louisella (Sircom, 1849) Bradley et al., 1972: 3 WP

Nepticula louisella Sircom, 1849: XIII

Nepticula sphendamni Hering, 1937: 561 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16)

Ectoedemia louisella (Sircom, 1849) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16

Stigmella sphendamni (Hering, 1937) Klimesch, 1951b: 64

Trifurcula sphendamni (Hering, 1937) Johansson, 1971: 246

Etainia sphendamni (Hering, 1937) Bradley et al., 1972: 3

Etainia obtusa Puplesis & Diškus, 1996a: 46 WP

Ectoedemia obtusa (Puplesis & Diškus, 1996) Krenek, 2000: 36

Etainia sericopeza (Zeller, 1839) Beirne, 1945: 207 (Fig. 35) WP,[NEA]

Lyonetia sericopeza Zeller, 1839: 215

Oecophora sericopezella Duponchel, 1843: 344 UE

Tinea maryella Duponchel, 1843: 464 (syn: Frey, 1857: 402)

Nepticula acerella Goureau, 1860: xxiii (syn: Joannis, 1915: 131)

Nepticula sericopeza (Zeller, 1839) Heyden, 1843: 209

Stigmella sericopeza (Zeller, 1839) Walsingham, 1916: 160

Trifurcula sericopeza (Zeller, 1839) Johansson, 1971: 246

Obrussa sericopeza (Zeller, 1839) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 101

Ectoedemia sericopeza (Zeller, 1839) van Nieukerken, 1986b: 16

Lyonetia sericopezella (Duponchel, 1843) Duponchel, 1844: 378

Stigmella sericopeza f. palliolella Le Marchand, 1944: 358

Etainia capesella (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) Puplesis, 1994: 232 EP

Obrussa capesella Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985: 39

Ectoedemia capesella (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) Hirano, 2013: 93

Etainia peterseni (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) Puplesis, 1994: 231 EP

Obrussa peterseni Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985: 41

Ectoedemia peterseni (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) Hirano, 2013: 92

Etainia sabina (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) Puplesis, 1994: 231 EP

Obrussa sabina Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985: 43

Ectoedemia sabina (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) online comb.

Etainia trifasciata (Matsumura, 1931) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 408 59EP

Nepticula trifasciata Matsumura, 1931: 1114

Obrussa tigrinella Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985: 40 syn. n. 59

Stigmella trifasciata (Matsumura, 1931) Kuroko, 1982a: 448

Ectoedemia trifasciata (Matsumura, 1931) Hirano, 2013: 93

Ectoedemia tigrinella (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) Hirano, 2013: 92

Etainia tigrinella (Puplesis in Puplesis & Ivinskis, 1985) Puplesis, 1994: 232

Etainia crypsixantha (Meyrick, 1918) Vári & Kroon, 1986: 153 AFR

Nepticula crypsixantha Meyrick, 1918a: 43

Obrussa crypsixantha (Meyrick, 1918) Scoble, 1983: 17

Ectoedemia crypsixantha (Meyrick, 1918) online comb.

Etainia krugerensis (Scoble, 1983) Vári & Kroon, 1986: 153 AFR

Obrussa krugerensis Scoble, 1983: 19

Ectoedemia krugerensis (Scoble, 1983) online comb.

Etainia nigricapitella (Janse, 1948) Vári & Kroon, 1986: 153 AFR

Nepticula nigricapitella Janse, 1948: 170

Obrussa nigricapitella (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1983: 18

Ectoedemia nigricapitella (Janse, 1948) online comb.

Etainia zimbabwiensis (Scoble, 1983) Vári & Kroon, 1986: 153 AFR

Obrussa zimbabwiensis Scoble, 1983: 18

Ectoedemia zimbabwiensis (Scoble, 1983) online comb.

Etainia ochrefasciella (Chambers, 1873) Puplesis & Diškus, 1996a: 4 NEA

Nepticula ochrefasciella Chambers, 1873: 128

Obrussa ochrefasciella (Chambers, 1873) Braun, 1915: 196

Ectoedemia ochrefasciella (Chambers, 1873) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 19

Acalyptris Meyrick, 1921a: 410 (TS/OD,M: Acalyptris psammophricta Meyrick, 1921: 410)

Microcalyptris Braun, 1925b: 224 (TS/OD,M: Microcalyptris scirpi Braun, 1925: 225) (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14)

Weberia Müller-Rutz, 1934a: 122 JH of Weberia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae) (TS/OD,M: Weberia platani Müller-Rutz, 1934: 122) (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14)

Niepeltia Strand, 1934: 241; RN for Weberia Müller-Rutz, 1934 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14)

Weberina Müller-Rutz, 1934b: Errata, 148; RN for Weberia Müller-Rutz, 1934 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14)

Acalyptris scirpi group (new)

Acalyptris bicornutus (Davis, 1978) Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 53 NEA

Microcalyptris bicornutus Davis, 1978: 212

Acalyptris bipinnatellus (Wilkinson, 1979) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 16 NEA

Microcalyptris bipinnatellus Wilkinson, 1979: 75

Acalyptris lotella (Wagner, 1987) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 397 NEA

Microcalyptris lotella Wagner, 1987: 278

Acalyptris punctulata (Braun, 1910) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 393 NEA

Nepticula punctulata Braun, 1910: 174

Microcalyptris punctulata (Braun, 1910) Wilkinson, 1979: 71

Acalyptris scirpi (Braun, 1925) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 393 NEA

Microcalyptris scirpi Braun, 1925b: 225

Acalyptris thoracealbella (Chambers, 1873) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 393 NEA

Microcalyptris thoracealbella (Chambers, 1873) Davis, 1978: 214

Nepticula thoracealbella Chambers, 1873: 127

Nepticula badiocapitella Chambers, 1876: 160 (syn: Braun, 1917: 189)

Acalyptris tenuijuxtus (Davis, 1978) Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 51 NEA,NEO

Microcalyptris tenuijuxtus Davis, 1978: 216

Acalyptris basicornis Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013d: 102 NEO

Acalyptris basihastatus Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 29 NEO

Acalyptris bifidus Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 50 NEO

Acalyptris bovicorneus Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 45 NEO

Acalyptris caribbicus Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013d: 106 NEO

Acalyptris dominicanus Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis & Remeikis, 2015: 85 NEO

Acalyptris fortis Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 47 NEO

Acalyptris hispidus Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 48 NEO

Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida in van Nieukerken et al., 2016: 55 NEO

Acalyptris lascuevella Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 49 NEO

Acalyptris laxibasis Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 52 NEO

Acalyptris martinheringi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 46 NEO

Acalyptris nigrisignum Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis & Remeikis, 2015: 79 NEO

Acalyptris novenarius Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 48 NEO

Acalyptris paradividua Šimkevičiūtė & Stonis in Šimkevičiūtė et al., 2009: 272 NEO

Acalyptris peteni Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013d: 102 NEO

Acalyptris pseudohastatus Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 30 NEO

Acalyptris statuarius Diškus & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013d: 109 NEO

Acalyptris terrificus Šimkevičiūtė & Stonis in Šimkevičiūtė et al., 2009: 275 NEO

Acalyptris trifidus Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 50 NEO

Acalyptris trigonijuxtus Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis & Remeikis, 2015: 83 NEO

Acalyptris unicornis Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 51 NEO

Acalyptris staticis group (van Nieukerken, 2007a: 17)

Acalyptris lesbia van Nieukerken & Hull in van Nieukerken, 2007a: 22 WP

Acalyptris limoniastri van Nieukerken, 2007a: 23 WP

Acalyptris limonii Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998: 314 WP

Acalyptris maritima A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997: 119 WP

Acalyptris pyrenaica A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1993: 158 WP

Acalyptris staticis (Walsingham, 1908) van Nieukerken, 1986b: 14 WP

Stigmella staticis Walsingham, 1908a: 1009 1

Nepticula staticis (Walsingham, 1908) Rebel, 1910: 373

Acalyptris psammophricta group (new)

Acalyptris repeteki group (Puplesis, 1988: 509)

Acalyptris falkovitshi (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 60WP,EP

Microcalyptris falkovitshi Puplesis, 1984c: 499

Microcalyptris turanicus Puplesis, 1984c: 497 (syn: van Nieukerken, 2010: 501)

Microcalyptris vittatus Puplesis, 1984c: 491 syn. n. 60

Microcalyptris arenosus Falkovitsh, 1986: 168 syn. n. 60

Acalyptris turanicus (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14

Acalyptris vittatus (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14

Acalyptris arenosus (Falkovitsh, 1986) Puplesis, 1990: 66

Acalyptris galinae (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP,EP

Microcalyptris galinae Puplesis, 1984c: 502

Microcalyptris galinae mesasiaticus Puplesis, 1984c: 503

Acalyptris galinae mesasiaticus (Puplesis, 1984) Puplesis, 1990: 84

Acalyptris pallens (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP,EP

Microcalyptris pallens Puplesis, 1984c: 501

Acalyptris psammophricta Meyrick, 1921a: 410 WP,EP,OR

Microcalyptris lvovskyi Puplesis, 1984c: 494 (syn: van Nieukerken, 2010: 501)

Acalyptris lvovskyi (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14

Acalyptris repeteki (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP

Microcalyptris repeteki Puplesis, 1984c: 494

Acalyptris turcomanicus (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP

Microcalyptris turcomanicus Puplesis, 1984c: 499

Acalyptris shafirkanus group (Puplesis, 1988: 506)

Acalyptris brevis Puplesis, 1990: 86 WP

Acalyptris desertellus (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP

Microcalyptris desertellus Puplesis, 1984c: 493

Acalyptris egidijui Puplesis, 1990: 87 WP

Acalyptris kizilkumi (Falkovitsh, 1986) Puplesis, 1990: 86 WP,EP

Microcalyptris kizilkumi Falkovitsh, 1986: 167

Acalyptris piculus Puplesis, 1990: 85 EP

Acalyptris shafirkanus (Puplesis, 1984) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP

Microcalyptris shafirkanus Puplesis, 1984c: 493

Acalyptris vannieukerkeni Puplesis, 1994: 218 WP

Acalyptris platani group (van Nieukerken, 2007a: 7)

Acalyptris gielisi van Nieukerken, 2010: 500 WP

Acalyptris loranthella (Klimesch, 1937) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP

Nepticula loranthella Klimesch, 1937: 33

Stigmella loranthella (Klimesch, 1937) Klimesch, 1948b: 78

Weberina loranthella (Klimesch, 1937) Szőcs, 1978: 268

Niepeltia loranthella (Klimesch, 1937) van Achterberg, 1983: 30

Acalyptris minimella (Rebel, 1926) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 WP

Trifurcula minimella Rebel, 1926: (110)

Weberina lentiscella Groschke, 1944: 117 (syn: Klimesch, 1978a: 256)

Nepticula minimella (Rebel, 1926); Klimesch, 1953a: 162 JSH of Nepticula minimella Chambers, 1873

Niepeltia lentiscella (Groschke, 1944) Hering, 1957: 781

Niepeltia minimella (Rebel, 1926) Scoble, 1980a: 207

Acalyptris pistaciae van Nieukerken, 2007a: 14 WP

Acalyptris platani (Müller-Rutz, 1934) van Nieukerken, 1986a: 14 (Fig. 36) WP

Weberia platani Müller-Rutz, 1934a: 122

Niepeltia platani (Müller-Rutz, 1934) Strand, 1934: 241

Weberina platani (Müller-Rutz, 1934) Müller-Rutz, 1934b: slip

Trifurcula platani (Müller-Rutz, 1934) Klimesch, 1978a: 253

Acalyptris acontarcha (Meyrick, 1926) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 393 OR

Nepticula acontarcha Meyrick, 1926: 295

Stigmella acontarcha (Meyrick, 1926) Fletcher, 1933: 82

Acalyptris auratilis Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 219 OR

Acalyptris clinomochla (Meyrick, 1934) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 394 OR

Nepticula clinomochla Meyrick, 1934a: 468

Trifurcula clinomochla (Meyrick, 1934) Gustafsson, 1976: 49

Niepeltia clinomochla (Meyrick, 1934) Scoble, 1980a: 216

Acalyptris heteranthes (Meyrick, 1926) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 393 OR

Nepticula heteranthes Meyrick, 1926: 296

Acalyptris melanospila (Meyrick, 1934) Puplesis & Diškus, 2003a: 218 OR

Nepticula melanospila Meyrick, 1934a: 468

Acalyptris nigripexus Puplesis & Diškus, 2003: 220 OR

Acalyptris acumenta (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia acumenta Scoble, 1980b: 213

Acalyptris bispinata (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia bispinata Scoble, 1980b: 213

Acalyptris combretella (Vári, 1955) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Stigmella combretella Vári, 1955: 332

Niepeltia combretella (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1980a: 206

Acalyptris fagarivora (Vári, 1955) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Stigmella fagarivora Vári, 1955: 334

Niepeltia fagarivora (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1980a: 209

Acalyptris fulva (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia fulva Scoble, 1980b: 214

Acalyptris fuscofascia (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia fuscofascia Scoble, 1980b: 210

Acalyptris krooni (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia krooni Scoble, 1980b: 212

Acalyptris krugeri (Vári, 1963) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 394 AFR

Stigmella krugeri Vári, 1963: 71

Acalyptris lanneivora (Vári, 1955) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Stigmella lanneivora Vári, 1955: 332

Niepeltia lanneivora (Vári, 1955) Scoble, 1980a: 215

Acalyptris lorantivora (Janse, 1948) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Nepticula lorantivora Janse, 1948: 169

Niepeltia lorantivora (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1980a: 211

Acalyptris lundiensis (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia lundiensis Scoble, 1980b: 214

Acalyptris mariepsensis (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia mariepsensis Scoble, 1980b: 214

Acalyptris molleivora (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia molleivora Scoble, 1980b: 207

Acalyptris obliquella (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia obliquella Scoble, 1980b: 209

Acalyptris pundaensis (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia pundaensis Scoble, 1980b: 211

Acalyptris rubiaevora (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia rubiaevora Scoble, 1980b: 208

Acalyptris sellata (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia sellata Scoble, 1980b: 213

Acalyptris umdoniensis (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia umdoniensis Scoble, 1980b: 210

Acalyptris vacuolata (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia vacuolata Scoble, 1980b: 215

Acalyptris vepricola (Vári, 1963) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Stigmella vepricola Vári, 1963: 68

Niepeltia vepricola (Vári, 1963) Scoble, 1983: 44

Acalyptris vumbaensis (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia vumbaensis Scoble, 1980b: 207

Acalyptris zeyheriae (Scoble, 1980) Vári et al., 2002: 8 AFR

Niepeltia zeyheriae Scoble, 1980b: 208

Acalyptris latipennata group (Puplesis et al., 2002: 66)

Acalyptris dividua Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 54 NEO

Acalyptris ecuadoriana Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 27 NEO

Acalyptris latipennata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000) Puplesis et al., 2002: 66 NEO

Fomoria latipennata Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 45

Acalyptris onorei Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 28 NEO

unplaced Acalyptris 61

Acalyptris distaleus (Wilkinson, 1979) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 395 61NEA

Microcalyptris distaleus Wilkinson, 1979: 78

Acalyptris postalatratus (Wilkinson, 1979) Diškus & Puplesis, 2003: 395 NEA

Microcalyptris postalatratus Wilkinson, 1979: 77

Acalyptris amazonius Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 32 NEO

Acalyptris articulosus Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 30 NEO

Acalyptris insolentis Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 33 NEO

Acalyptris platygnathos Puplesis & Robinson, 2000: 54 NEO

Acalyptris rotundus Puplesis & Diškus in Puplesis et al., 2002: 31 NEO

Acalyptris yucatani Remeikis & Stonis in Stonis et al., 2013b: 227 NEO

Zimmermannia Hering, 1940: 266 (TS/OD,M: Ectoedemia liebwerdella Zimmermann, 1940) 62

Ectoedemia castaneae group (Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 72)

Zimmermannia amani (Svensson, 1966) comb. n. WP,EP

Ectoedemia amani Svensson, 1966: 200

Ectoedemia emendata Puplesis, 1985c: 69 (syn: Puplesis, 1994: 15)

Trifurcula amani (Svensson, 1966) Johansson, 1971: 245

Zimmermannia atrifrontella (Stainton, 1851) comb. n. (Fig. 37) WP

Trifurcula atrifrontella Stainton, 1851: 11

Zimmermannia heringiella Doets, 1947: 504 (syn: Klimesch, 1953a: 191)

Ectoedemia atrifrontella (Stainton, 1851) Klimesch, 1953b: 191

Ectoedemia heringiella (Doets, 1947) Klimesch, 1953b: 191

Zimmermannia hispanica (van Nieukerken, 1985) comb. n. WP

Ectoedemia hispanica van Nieukerken, 1985b: 22

Zimmermannia liebwerdella (Zimmermann, 1940) Hering, 1940: 266 WP

Ectoedemia liebwerdella Zimmermann, 1940: 264

Zimmermannia liguricella (Klimesch, 1953) comb. n. WP

Ectoedemia liguricella Klimesch, 1953b: 194

Zimmermannia longicaudella (Klimesch, 1953) comb. n. WP

Ectoedemia longicaudella Klimesch, 1953b: 193

Stigmella peiuii Nemeş, 1972: 153 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 21)

Trifurcula longicaudella (Klimesch, 1953) Johansson, 1971: 245

Zimmermannia monemvasiae (van Nieukerken, 1985) comb. n. WP

Ectoedemia monemvasiae van Nieukerken, 1985b: 23

Zimmermannia reichli (Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998) comb. n. WP

Ectoedemia reichli Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998: 316

Zimmermannia vivesi (A. Laštuvka, Z. Laštuvka & van Nieukerken, 2010) comb. n. WP

Ectoedemia vivesi A. Laštuvka, Z. Laštuvka & van Nieukerken in van Nieukerken et al., 2010: 12

Zimmermannia admiranda (Puplesis, 1984) comb. n. EP

Ectoedemia admiranda Puplesis, 1984b: 588

Zimmermannia nuristanica (van Nieukerken, 1985) comb. n. EP

Ectoedemia nuristanica van Nieukerken, 1985b: 25

Zimmermannia sivickisi (Puplesis, 1984) comb. n. EP

Ectoedemia sivickisi Puplesis, 1984b: 590

Ectoedemia laura Puplesis, 1985c: 68 (syn: Rocienė & Stonis, 2013: 108)

Zimmermannia bosquella (Chambers, 1878) stat rev., comb. n. 62NEA

Nepticula bosquella Chambers, 1878a: 106

Nepticula bosqueella Chambers, 1878b: 157 ISS

Ectoedemia castaneae Busck, 1913: 103 syn. n. 62

Ectoedemia heinrichi Busck, 1914: 149 syn. n. 62

Ectoedemia helenella Wilkinson, 1981: 105 syn. n. 62

Ectoedemia bosquella (Chambers, 1878) Braun, 1917: 200

Opostega bosqueella (Chambers, 1878) Dyar et al., 1903: 547

Ectoedemia obrutella sensu Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 72 [misapplied]

Zimmermannia grandisella (Chambers, 1880) comb. n. 62NEA

Nepticula grandisella Chambers, 1880a: 193

Ectoedemia chloranthis Meyrick, 1928b: 462 syn. n. 62

Ectoedemia acanthella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 75 syn. n. 62

Ectoedemia grandisella (Chambers, 1880) Wilkinson, 1981: 96

Zimmermannia mesoloba (Davis, 1978) comb. n. 62NEA

Ectoedemia mesoloba Davis, 1978: 209

Ectoedemia coruscella Wilkinson, 1981: 99 syn. n. 62

Zimmermannia obrutella (Zeller, 1873) comb. n. 62NEA

Trifurcula obrutella Zeller, 1873: 316

Ectoedemia piperella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 77 syn. n. 62

Ectoedemia reneella Wilkinson, 1981: 104 syn. n. 62

Ectoedemia obrutella (Zeller, 1873) Busck, 1913: 103

Zimmermannia phleophaga (Busck, 1914) comb. n. NEA

Ectoedemia phleophaga Busck, 1914: 3

Ectoedemia Busck, 1907: 97 (TS/OD,M: Ectoedemia populella Busck, 1907: 98)

Dechtiria Beirne, 1945: 204 (TS/OD: Tinea subbimaculella Haworth, 1828: 583) (syn: Svensson, 1966: 200)

Ectoedemia commiphorella group (Doorenweerd et al., 2015: 9)

Ectoedemia commiphorella Scoble, 1978a: 82 AFR

Ectoedemia expeditionis Mey, 2004: 30 AFR

Ectoedemia mauni Scoble, 1979: 36 AFR

Ectoedemia nigrimacula (Janse, 1948) Scoble, 1978a: 84 AFR

Nepticula nigrimacula Janse, 1948: 171

Ectoedemia tersiusi Mey, 2004: 31 AFR

Ectoedemia terebinthivora group (van Nieukerken, 1985b: 63)

Ectoedemia terebinthivora (Klimesch, 1975) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 63 WP

Trifurcula terebinthivora Klimesch, 1975c: 19

Ectoedemia populella group (Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 41)

Ectoedemia intimella (Zeller, 1848) Bradley et al., 1972: 3 WP

Nepticula intimella Zeller, 1848: 323

Stigmella intimella (Zeller, 1848) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61

Dechtiria intimella (Zeller, 1848) Beirne, 1945: 205

Trifurcula intimella (Zeller, 1848) Johansson, 1971: 245

Ectoedemia insularis Puplesis, 1985c: 68 63EP

Ectoedemia sinevi Puplesis, 1985c: 67 64EP

Ectoedemia populella Busck, 1907: 98 NEA

Ectoedemia hannoverella (Glitz, 1872) Borkowski, 1972a: Fig. 7 WP,EP

Nepticula hannoverella Glitz, 1872: 25

Stigmella hannoverella (Glitz, 1872) Klimesch, 1951b: 64

Trifurcula hannoverella (Glitz, 1872) Johansson, 1971: 245

Ectoedemia canutus Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 81 NEA

Ectoedemia turbidella (Zeller, 1848) Bradley et al., 1972: 3 65WP

Nepticula argyropeza var. turbidella Zeller, 1848: 321

‡ [no genus] argyropeza Herrich-Schäffer, 1853: pl106 NN

Nepticula argyropezella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 357 UE

Nepticula populi-albae Hering, 1935: 7 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 31)

Stigmella marionella Ford, 1950: 39 (syn: Bradley et al., 1972: 3)

Ectoedemia similigena Puplesis, 1994: 180 syn. n. 65

Dechtiria turbidella (Zeller, 1848) Vári, 1950: 182

Stigmella turbidella (Zeller, 1848) Klimesch, 1951b: 64

Trifurcula turbidella (Zeller, 1848) Johansson, 1971: 245

Stigmella populialbae (Hering, 1935) Gerasimov, 1952: 252

Ectoedemia populialbae (Hering, 1935) Borkowski, 1975: 495

Ectoedemia albida Puplesis, 1994: 179 WP

Ectoedemia klimeschi (Skala, 1933) Borkowski, 1975: 495 (Fig. 38) WP

Nepticula klimeschi Skala, 1933a: 31

Stigmella niculescui Nemeş, 1970: 33 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 34)

Stigmella klimeschi (Skala, 1933) Gerasimov, 1952: 244

Ectoedemia argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) Bradley et al., 1972: 3 WP,EP,[NEA]

Lyonetia argyropeza Zeller, 1839: 215

Lyonetia argyropezella Duponchel, 1844: 378 UE

Nepticula apicella Stainton, 1854: 300 (syn: Heinemann & Wocke, [1876]: 768) 6

Nepticula argyropezella Doubleday, 1859: 36 UE

Nepticula turbulentella Wocke, 1861: 129 URN

Nepticula simplicella Heinemann, 1862b: 319 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 35)

Ectoedemia argyropeza downesi Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 80

Nepticula argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) Zeller, 1848: 320

Stigmella argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61

Dechtiria argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) Emmet, 1971a: 243

Trifurcula argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) Johansson, 1971: 245

Nepticula argyropeza ab. houzeaui Dufrane, 1942: 11

Nepticula argyropeza ab. morosella Steudel in Steudel & Hoffmann, 1882: 244

Ectoedemia subbimaculella group - satellite taxa (Doorenweerd et al., 2015)

Ectoedemia preisseckeri group (van Nieukerken, 1985b: 37)

Ectoedemia arisi Puplesis, 1984a: 120 EP

Ectoedemia scoblei Puplesis, 1984a: 122 EP

Ectoedemia christopheri Puplesis, 1985c: 69; RN for E. wilkinsoni Puplesis, 1984a EP

Ectoedemia wilkinsoni Puplesis, 1984a: 122; JPH of Ectoedemia wilkinsoni Scoble, 1983

Ectoedemia trinotata (Braun, 1914) Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 46 NEA

Nepticula trinotata Braun, 1914: 18

Ectoedemia philipi Puplesis, 1984b: 590 EP

Ectoedemia preisseckeri (Klimesch, 1941) Borkowski, 1975: 493 WP,EP

Nepticula preisseckeri Klimesch, 1941: 162

Stigmella preisseckeri (Klimesch, 1941) Hering, 1957: 1092

Ectoedemia quadrinotata (Braun, 1917) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 95 NEA

Nepticula quadrinotata Braun, 1917: 168

Ectoedemia subbimaculella group (van Nieukerken, 1985b: 43)

Ectoedemia gilvipennella (Klimesch, 1948) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 45 29WP

Stigmella gilvipennella Klimesch, 1948a: 168 29

Nepticula gilvipennella (Klimesch, 1948) Szőcs, 1968: 228

Ectoedemia quinquella (Bedell, 1848) Bradley et al., 1972: 2 WP

Microsetia quinquella Bedell, 1848: 1986

Nepticula quinquella (Bedell, 1848) Stainton, 1849: 29

Dechtiria quinquella (Bedell, 1848) Beirne, 1945: 206

Stigmella quinquella (Bedell, 1848) Gerasimov, 1952: 255

Trifurcula quinquella (Bedell, 1848) Johansson, 1971: 245

Ectoedemia coscoja van Nieukerken, A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2010: 45 WP

Ectoedemia algeriensis van Nieukerken, 1985b: 44 WP

Ectoedemia leucothorax van Nieukerken, 1985b: 46 WP

Ectoedemia haraldi (Soffner, 1942) Klimesch, 1975a: 864 WP

Nepticula haraldi Soffner, 1942: 56

Stigmella prinophyllella Le Marchand, 1946: 285 (syn: Le Marchand, 1948: 298)

Stigmella haraldi (Soffner, 1942) Hering, 1957: 867

Trifurcula haraldi (Soffner, 1942) Leraut, 1980: 49

Ectoedemia pseudoilicis Z. Laštuvka & A. Laštuvka, 1998: 317 WP

Ectoedemia ilicis (Mendes, 1910b) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 48 WP

Nepticula ilicis Mendes, 1910b: 164

Stigmella ilicis (Mendes, 1910b) Gerasimov, 1952: 243

Ectoedemia heringella (Mariani, 1939) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 49 WP

Nepticula heringella Mariani, 1939: 5

Stigmella heringella (Mariani, 1939) Hering, 1957: 868

Nepticula heringella f. alliatae Mariani, 1939: 7

Ectoedemia alnifoliae van Nieukerken, 1985b: 50 WP

Ectoedemia aligera Puplesis, 1985c: 67 EP

Ectoedemia ermolaevi Puplesis, 1985c: 68 EP

Ectoedemia cerviparadisicola Sato in Shinozaki et al., 2012: 578 EP

Ectoedemia maculata Puplesis, 1987: 11 EP

Ectoedemia rufifrontella (Caradja, 1920) van Nieukerken, 1987a: 142 WP

Trifurcula rufifrontella Caradja, 1920: 161

Nepticula nigrosparsella Klimesch, 1940b: 91 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1987a: 142)

Stigmella nigrosparsella (Klimesch, 1940b) Klimesch, 1948a: 170

Ectoedemia nigrosparsella (Klimesch, 1940b) Kasy, 1983: 5

Ectoedemia albifasciella complex (van Nieukerken, 1985b: 52) (next 4 species)

Ectoedemia pubescivora (Weber, 1937) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 55 WP

Nepticula pubescivora Weber, 1937: 212

Stigmella pubescivora (Weber, 1937) Klimesch, 1948b: 73

Trifurcula pubescivora (Weber, 1937) Kasy, 1979: 4

Ectoedemia albifasciella (Heinemann, 1871) Bradley et al., 1972: 3 WP

Nepticula albifasciella Heinemann, 1871: 222

Nepticula subapicella Stainton, 1886: 238 (syn: Emmet, 1974b: 274)

Dechtiria albifasciella (Heinemann, 1871) Beirne, 1945: 205

Stigmella albifasciella (Heinemann, 1871) Klimesch, 1951b: 66

Trifurcula albifasciella (Heinemann, 1871) Johansson, 1971: 245

Ectoedemia contorta van Nieukerken, 1985b: 55 WP

Ectoedemia cerris (Zimmermann, 1944) Szőcs, 1978: 266 WP

Nepticula cerris Zimmermann, 1944: 121

Nepticula montissancti Skala, 1948: 121 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 54)

Stigmella cerris (Zimmermann, 1944) Hering, 1957: 866

Ectoedemia subbimaculella complex (van Nieukerken, 1985b: 56) (next 4 species)

Ectoedemia subbimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Bradley et al., 1972: 3 WP

Tinea subbimaculella Haworth, 1828: 583

Microsetia nigrociliella Stephens, 1829: 208 NN (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 57)

Microsetia nigrociliella Stephens, 1834: 267 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 57)

Nepticula cursoriella Heyden, 1843: 209 NN (syn: Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 356)

Nepticula cursoriella Zeller, 1848: 326 (syn: Herrich-Schäffer, 1855a: 356)

Nepticula bistrimaculella Heyden, 1861: 40 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 462)

Microsetia subbimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Stephens, 1829: 208

Nepticula subbimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Stainton, 1849: 29

Stigmella subbimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 61

Dechtiria subbimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Beirne, 1945: 206

Trifurcula subbimaculella (Haworth, 1828) Johansson, 1971: 245

Stigmella bistrimaculella (Heyden, 1861) Gerasimov, 1952: 231

Ectoedemia phyllotomella (Klimesch, 1948) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 62 29WP

Stigmella phyllotomella Klimesch, 1948a: 166 29

Ectoedemia heringi (Toll, 1934) Borkowski, 1975: 491 WP

Nepticula heringi Toll, 1934a: 3

Nepticula quercifoliae Toll, 1934b: 71 (syn: Borkowski, 1975: 491)

Nepticula sativella Klimesch, 1936: 208 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 59)

Nepticula zimmermanni Hering, 1942: 26 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 59)

Stigmella heringi (Toll, 1934) Hering, 1957: 867

Trifurcula heringi (Toll, 1934) Kasy, 1979: 4

Stigmella sativella (Klimesch, 1936) Klimesch, 1948b: 74

Stigmella quercifoliae (Toll, 1934) Hering, 1957: 867

Ectoedemia quercifoliae (Toll, 1934) Bradley et al., 1972: 3

Stigmella zimmermanni (Hering, 1942) Klimesch, 1951a: 65

Trifurcula zimmermanni (Hering, 1942) Kasy, 1979: 4

Ectoedemia zimmermanni (Hering, 1942) Szőcs, 1981: 210

Ectoedemia liechtensteini (Zimmermann, 1944) Szőcs, 1978: 266 WP

Nepticula liechtensteini Zimmermann, 1944: 119

Stigmella liechtensteini (Zimmermann, 1944) Hering, 1957: 866

Ectoedemia platanella group (Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 51)

Ectoedemia similella (Braun, 1917) Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 56 NEA

Nepticula similella Braun, 1917: 188

Ectoedemia platanella (Clemens, 1861) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 89 NEA

Nepticula platanella Clemens, 1861: 83

Nepticula maximella Chambers, 1873: 126 (syn: Braun, 1917: 187)

Ectoedemia clemensella (Chambers, 1873) Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979: 86 NEA

Nepticula clemensella Chambers, 1873: 125

Ectoedemia virgulae (Braun, 1927) Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 59 NEA

Nepticula virgulae Braun, 1927: 198

Ectoedemia ornatella group (Puplesis, 1984b: 584)

Ectoedemia ivinskisi Puplesis, 1984a: 120 EP

Ectoedemia olvina Puplesis, 1984a: 119 EP

Ectoedemia ornatella Puplesis, 1984a: 120 EP

Ectoedemia suberis group (van Nieukerken, 1985b: 38)

Ectoedemia chasanella Puplesis, 1984a: 124 EP

Ectoedemia aegilopidella (Klimesch, 1978) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 42 WP

Trifurcula aegilopidella Klimesch, 1978b: 269

Ectoedemia caradjai (Groschke, 1944) Szőcs, 1981: 211 WP

Nepticula caradjai Groschke, 1944: 118

Stigmella caradjai (Groschke, 1944) Klimesch, 1951b: 65

Trifurcula caradjai (Groschke, 1944) Klimesch, 1978a: 250

Ectoedemia andalusiae van Nieukerken, 1985b: 41 WP

Ectoedemia suberis (Stainton, 1869) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 40 WP

Nepticula suberis Stainton, 1869b: 229

Nepticula viridella Mendes, 1910b: 165 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 40)

Stigmella suberis (Stainton, 1869) Gerasimov, 1952: 262

Stigmella viridella (Mendes, 1910) Gerasimov, 1952: 260

Ectoedemia phaeolepis van Nieukerken, A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2010: 38 WP

Ectoedemia hendrikseni A. Laštuvka, Z. Laštuvka & van Nieukerken in van Nieukerken et al., 2010: 31 WP

Ectoedemia heckfordi van Nieukerken, A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 2010: 34 WP

Ectoedemia ortiva Rocienė & Stonis, 2013: 76 EP

Ectoedemia paraortiva Rocienė & Stonis in Stonis & Rocienė, 2013: 210 EP

Ectoedemia angulifasciella group (Wilkinson et al., 1983: 211)

Ectoedemia rubifoliella group (Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 61)

Ectoedemia occultella group (van Nieukerken, 1985b: 78)

Ectoedemia hexapetalae (Szőcs, 1957) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 68 WP

Nepticula utensis var. hexapetalae Szőcs, 1957: 322

Nepticula hexapetalae Szőcs, 1957 (Szőcs, 1965:79)

Trifurcula hexapetalae (Szőcs, 1957) Kasy, 1980: 47

Ectoedemia rosae van Nieukerken & Berggren, 2011: 182 WP

Ectoedemia rosiphila Puplesis in Puplesis et al., 1992: 55 EP

Ectoedemia marmaropa (Braun, 1925) Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 49 NEA

Nepticula marmaropa Braun, 1925b: 225

Ectoedemia spiraeae Gregor & Povolny, 1983: 174 66WP,EP?

Stigmella spireae Gregor & Povolny, 1955: 124 NNLM

Nepticula spireae (Gregor & Povolny, 1955) Szőcs, 1968: 229 NNLM

Ectoedemia jacutica Puplesis, 1988: 26 66EP

Ectoedemia agrimoniae (Frey, 1858) Bradley et al., 1972: 2 WP

Nepticula agrimoniae Frey, 1858c: 44

Nepticula agrimoniae Hofmann, 1858: 188

Nepticula agrimoniella Herrich-Schäffer, 1860: 60 UE

Dechtiria agrimoniae (Frey, 1858) Beirne, 1945: 205

Stigmella agrimoniae (Frey, 1858) Gerasimov, 1952: 224

Trifurcula agrimoniae (Frey, 1858) Johansson, 1971: 245

Stigmella agrimoniella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) Le Marchand, 1946a: 217

Nepticula agrimomella Rössler, 1881: 337 ISS

Ectoedemia nyssaefoliella (Chambers, 1880) Wilkinson & Newton, 1981: 67 NEA

Nepticula nyssaefoliella Chambers, 1880b: 66

Ectoedemia pilosae Puplesis, 1984a: 123 EP

Ectoedemia picturata Puplesis, 1985c: 65 EP

Ectoedemia minimella (Zetterstedt, 1839) van Nieukerken, 1985b: 80 67WP,EP,NEA

Elachista minimella Zetterstedt, 1839: 1011

Nepticula woolhopiella Stainton, 1887: 262 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 80)

Nepticula canadensis Braun, 1917: 185 syn. n. 67

Nepticula viridicola Weber, 1938: 211 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 80)

Nepticula vividicola Weber, 1938: 211 IOS

Stigmella woolhopiella (Stainton, 1887) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60

Dechtiria woolhopiella (Stainton, 1887) Beirne, 1945: 205

Trifurcula woolhopiella (Stainton, 1887) Johansson, 1971: 245

Ectoedemia woolhopiella (Stainton, 1887) Borkowski, 1975: 493

Ectoedemia mediofasciella auct. [misapplied] Bradley et al., 1972: 2

Trifurcula mediofasciella auct. [misapplied] Karsholt & Nielsen, 1976: 18

Stigmella viridicola (Weber, 1938) Klimesch, 1948b: 70

Stigmella canadensis (Braun, 1917) Davis & Wilkinson, 1983: 3

Ectoedemia canadensis (Braun, 1917) Wilkinson, 1981: 94

Ectoedemia occultella (Linnaeus, 1767) Robinson & Nielsen, 1983: 221 68WP,EP,NEA

Phalaena occultella Linnaeus, 1767: 899

Tinea strigilella Thunberg, 1794: 87 (syn: Robinson & Nielsen, 1983: 221)

Tinea mucidella Hübner, 1817: pl. 65: Fig. 435 (syn: Zeller, 1839: 215)

Tinea mediofasciella Haworth, 1828: 584 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 78)

Lyonetia argentipedella Zeller, 1839: 215 (syn: Robinson & Nielsen, 1983: 221)

Nepticula flexuosella Fologne, 1859: 140 (syn: van Nieukerken & Johansson, 1987: 462)

Nepticula lindquisti Freeman, 1962: 899 (syn: van Nieukerken, 1985b: 80) 68

Elachista mucidella (Hübner, 1817) Treitschke, 1833: 179

Lyonetia mucidella (Hübner, 1817) Duponchel, 1844: 378

Nepticula argentipedella (Zeller, 1839) Heyden, 1843: 209

Stigmella argentipedella (Zeller, 1839) Fletcher & Clutterbuck, 1945: 60

Dechtiria argentipedella