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Catalogue
Catalog of the Neotropical Trichoptera (Caddisflies)
expand article infoRalph W. Holzenthal, Adolfo R. Calor§
‡ University of Minnesota, St. Paul, United States of America
§ Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
Open Access

Abstract

The Neotropical caddisfly (Trichoptera) fauna is cataloged from a review of over 1,000 literature citations through 2015 (partial 2016) to include 3,262 currently recognized, valid species-group names in 25 families and 155 extant genera. Fourteen subspecies are included in the total as well as 35 fossil species and 1 fossil genus. The region covered includes all of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Genus-group and species-group synonyms are listed. For each nominal species, information on the type locality, type depository, sex of type, distribution by country, and other pertinent taxonomic or biological information is included. Summary information on taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, immature stages, and biology are provided for each family and genus where known. An extensive index to all nominal taxa is included to facilitate use of the catalog. The glossosomatid species Mexitrichia usseglioi Rueda Martín & Gibon, is transferred to Mortoniella comb. n.

Keywords

Caddisflies, Trichoptera, catalog, Neotropical, taxonomy, distribution, valid names, synonyms, bibliography

Introduction

Trichoptera are an order of holometabolous insects that have aquatic egg, larval, and pupal stages. These immature stages are ubiquitous in the world’s freshwaters, but are especially diverse in rivers and streams. In the Neotropics, larvae can be found in small trickles and seeps in the high Andean páramo, down to the very large, slowly flowing, lowland rivers, and all kinds of rivers and streams between these extremes. It is in intermediate sized, forested, mountain streams where the fauna seems to reach its greatest diversity. Intermittent streams also support a trichopterous fauna, with a few species especially adapted to seasonal drying. A very few species can be found in waters of thermal origin or with water chemistry that has been affected by volcanic activity. In addition to lotic species, those that frequent standing waters also occur, but this lentic fauna is not as diverse as that of northern, Holarctic lakes and ponds. However, floodplain lakes and pools, swamps and marshes in lowland areas, and mountain lakes all harbor species. There are also species that frequent the spray and splash zones of waterfalls and similar torrential situations as well as hygropetric habitats. These species often occur above the waterline, where a few venture quite far from the aquatic habitat. Only a single species has been reported from a container habitat (bromeliad tanks) and none of the Neotropical species is known from the marine littoral, unlike some Australian and New Zealand species. Recent reviews of Trichoptera diversity, biology, and natural history include those of Wiggins (2004) and Holzenthal et. al (2007, 2015).

Trichoptera larvae are important participants in energy flow and nutrient dynamics in the aquatic environment. They display a wide diversity of trophic adaptations, being surpassed only by aquatic Diptera in the type of food eaten and the manner in which it is obtained. Similarly, the larvae exploit a wide variety of aquatic microhabitats. This trophic and habitat diversity has been attributed to the larvae’s ability to use silk to construct capture nets, retreats, cases, and pupal shelters. In fact, the order has been divided into taxonomic units based on the differences in the way silk is used, whether to spin nets or tubes, or as mortar to make portable cases. The case makers use sand and small mineral fragments, pieces of leaves or other vegetable material, or silk alone to construct cases. Other larvae are “free-living,” but nevertheless lay down a strand of silk as they move across the substrate. Not only do larvae exhibit great diversity in their biology, they also respond to pollution in various manners, most being intolerant to most forms of pollution. As such, they have been used extensively as biological indicators of water quality, especially in temperate regions, where a large field of study has developed around this application. However, in the Neotropics, where larval taxonomy is poorly known, progress in this area has been hampered.

Like most holometabolous larvae, Trichoptera have well-developed mandibulate mouthparts, although the maxillae and labium are closely associated and the latter is modified to spin silk. The thoracic legs are well developed, but the abdomen lacks prolegs, except for a pair of terminal anal prolegs, each bearing a strong anal claw. Highly branched or single filament abdominal gills may be present. The exarate pupae are also aquatic and have dectitious mandibles, at least in the Neotropical families.

Trichoptera adults are less familiar to the aquatic ecologist or taxonomic non-specialist. Adults are small, generally drab colored, and usually begin to fly after the sun sets, when they are attracted to artificial lights, often in great numbers. However, it is this life history stage that is of paramount taxonomic importance because the species level taxonomy of the order is based mainly on structures of the adult male genitalia. Females and larvae must be positively associated with the adult males before their identities can be established. In contrast to that of larvae, the ecology and behavior of adult Trichoptera are poorly known. They, too, are certainly important components of the aquatic and riparian environments, where they serve as food for fish, birds, bats, lizards, frogs, and other vertebrates, as well as spiders and other invertebrates. Adult female flight behavior, especially upstream flight prior to oviposition, is an important compensation for downstream larval drift. The adults have specialized, lapping type mouthparts and most probably imbibe liquids, including nectar. Adult Trichoptera certainly depend on the riparian habitat for mating and oviposition sites, shelter, food, etc. and therefore may be good indicators of riparian health and integrity, and thus that of the entire watershed as shown by Houghton (2006) and Houghton et al. (2011).

Adult Trichoptera have greatly modified mouthparts. Although most species have reduced mandibles and maxillae, almost all possess well-developed maxillary and labial palps. The compound eyes are well developed, and the head may or may not bear ocelli. Antennae are long and filiform in most species. The head and thorax bear characteristic “setal warts.” Two pairs of wings are present with the forewings longer, but often narrower than the hind wings. Both pairs of wings, as well as the body and other appendages, are covered with setae, or hairs, and occasionally scales. The hairs and scales are usually plainly colored, but the Neotropical fauna contains species with brightly colored or intricate patterns of setae, especially on the forewings. Tibial spurs on the legs are conspicuous.

The world fauna contains about 15,000 described species, but it has been estimated that as many as 50,000 species may occur. In this catalog we record 3,262 valid names of extant species-group taxa from the Neotropics, including 14 extant subspecies. One species is listed as Trichoptera, incertae sedis. This represents 1,050 more species-group taxa than included in the catalog published by Flint et al. (1999b). In addition, we list 35 fossil species, these from Dominican and Mexican amber (the identity of two additional fossil species is discussed below). These species and subspecies are distributed among 155 extant genera, 1 fossil genus (†Palaehydropsyche), and 25 families (Table 1).

Number of extant and fossil species and genera of Neotropical Trichoptera, by family.

Family No. Species No. Genera
Extant Fossil Extant Fossil
Anomalopsychidae 28 2
Atriplectididae 2 1
Calamoceratidae 74 1 2
Ecnomidae 44 2
Glossosomatidae 266 5 11
Helicophidae 16 5
Helicopsychidae 121 3 1
Hydrobiosidae 183 1 22
Hydropsychidae 476 4 15 1
Hydroptilidae 946 7 36
Kokiriidae 2 1
Lepidostomatidae 28 1
Leptoceridae 224 2 16
Limnephilidae 51 10
Odontoceridae 45 3
Philopotamidae 377 6 5
Philorheithridae 6 2
Polycentropodidae 283 1 5
Pseudoneureclipsidae 4 4 1
Psychomyiidae 2 1
Rhyacophilidae 1 1
Sericostomatidae 20 6
Stenopsychidae 3 1
Tasimiidae 2 2
Xiphocentronidae 58 1 3
TOTAL 3262 35 155 1

Biogeography

The Neotropical fauna is divided into two distinct faunal elements – the Chilean and Brazilian, equivalent to the Neotropical and Patagonian of de Moor and Ivanov (2008). The Chilean fauna is distinct, highly endemic, and very closely related to the faunas of Australia and New Zealand. It occurs in southern Chile and adjacent Argentina, from about the level of the Río Negro south. It shares almost nothing in common with the Brazilian fauna. The Brazilian fauna occurs in southern Mexico, Central America, the Antilles, and all of tropical and subtropical South America, exclusive of the Chilean region. There is broad overlap of the Neotropical and Nearctic faunas from the southwestern states of the United States through Mexico and Central America to Panama and Costa Rica. The fauna of the Greater Antilles is highly endemic, that of the Lesser Antilles much less so. Areas with an apparent great concentration of endemic species and high species richness include the northern Andes, the Amazon basin, and the mountains of southern and southeastern Brazil.

Taxonomic history of the fauna

The first descriptions of Neotropical Trichoptera occurred in the 1830s in the works of Perty (1830-1834) (Phryganea maculata = Macrostemum maculatum), Pictet (1836) (Macronema lineatum; Hydropsyche hyalina = Macrostemum hyalinum), and Burmeister (1839) (Barypenthus concolor; B. rufipes; Chimarrha morio = Chimarra morio; Mystacides albicornis = Marilia albicornis; Mystacides gracilis = Triplectides gracilis; M. princeps = T. gracilis; Macronema speciosum = Leptonema speciosum). Ulmer (1913), who listed 162 names, produced the first checklist of the region. Since then, from about the end of the 19th century until the first third of the 20th century, numerous other early workers, principally among them Banks, Brauer, Hagen, McLachlan, Müller, Navás, and Ulmer, described and recorded numerous genera and species from the region. However, many of these early works, especially those of Navás, suffer from inadequate descriptions and illustrations, those of Ulmer and Müller being exceptions. Fortunately, many of the early species have been redescribed and lectotypes designated, especially in the works of Betten and Mosely (1940), Flint (1966a, 1967c), Kimmins (1957), Kimmins and Denning (1951), Ross (1938a, 1952), Schmid (1949a), Tomaszewski (1961), and Weidner (1964).

M.E. Mosely was among the first of the “modern” workers to produce several important works and revisions on the fauna (e.g., Mosely 1933, 1936, 1937, 1939a, 1954). H.H. Ross and D.G. Denning, primarily workers on the North American fauna, produced several important works covering the Neotropical fauna (e.g., Denning 1947a, 1962b, 1964; Ross 1956b, 1959; Ross and King 1952). Beginning in the 1950s, F. Schmid produced a series of works, principally on the Chilean fauna (Schmid 1955a, 1957, 1958b, 1959, 1964), and subsequently published several important revisions covering the Neotropical fauna (e.g., Schmid 1982, 1989). Since about the early 1960s O.S. Flint, Jr., has produced a large body of work on the entire Neotropical fauna, which includes major contributions to the taxonomy of most families and genera. Finally, L. Botosaneanu made significant contributions to our knowledge of the fauna of the Antilles.

Notable recent workers include E.B. Angrisano, W. Bravo, P. Rueda Martín, and J. Sganga on the fauna of Argentina and Uruguay, J. Oláh on Hydropsychidae and Hydroptilidae, R.J. Blahnik and D.R. Robertson on the Philopotamidae and Glossosomatidae, respectively, J. Bueno-Soria, S. Santiago-Fragoso, and R. Barba-Álvarez on the fauna of Mexico, S.C. Harris, R.E. Thomson, and A.P.M. Santos on Hydroptilidae, A. Prather on Calamoceratidae, K.A. Johanson on Helicopsychidae, F. Muñoz-Quesada on Wormaldia and other taxa, R.W. Holzenthal on Trichoptera across the region, many active Brazilian workers and their students (A.R. Calor, A.M.O. Pes, L.L. Dumas, D.M. Takiya, A.P.M. Santos, H. Paprocki, J.L. Nessimian, and others), and W. Wichard on fossil taxa.

Other checklists, catalogs, and bibliographies

In preparing this catalog several published (or electronic) checklists, catalogs, and bibliographies of the regional and world Trichoptera faunas were consulted. In all cases, the accuracy of the names, citations, or listings in these works were checked and corrected as necessary before inclusion in the present catalog. However, as these former works may be useful to the user of this catalog in further research on the Neotropical fauna or other regional faunas, these works are listed and discussed below, beginning with those covering the world fauna.

The world catalog, Trichopterorum Catalogus, Volumes I–XV + Index, 1960–1973b, by F.C.J. Fischer is an indispensable and first source of taxonomic and associated literature pertaining to Trichoptera. The catalog and its supplements cover all literature from 1758 to the end of 1960. As a planned continuation to Fischer’s catalog, A.P. Nimmo published the first volume of Bibliographica Trichopterorum (Nimmo 1996) covering the literature from 1961 through 1970. This valuable work includes full literature citations by first author, an index of key words, including species-group and genus-group names, a list of expanded journal titles, and an alphabetical list of secondary authors. In addition, Nimmo compiled an annual bibliography of Trichoptera literature in the series Current and Selected Bibliographies on Benthic Biology published by the North American Benthological Society, now the Society for Freshwater Science. A similar bibliography is published in Braueria, formerly Trichoptera Newsletter, by H. Malicky, Lunz am Zee, Austria. The searchable World Trichoptera Checklist is available over the World Wide Web [www.clemson.edu/cafls/departments/esps/database/trichopt/]. Morse (1997b) discussed the format of this checklist. Three other important sources of information with application to the Neotropical fauna are the checklists of Poole (1996), Morse (1993), and Rasmussen and Morse (2014) on the Nearctic fauna, the latter ones also covering Mexico fully or in part. Zoological Record and other electronic abstracting services (e.g., Web of Science) are of paramount importance in accessing the taxonomic literature. The Trichoptera Literature Database [www.trichopteralit.umn.edu] is also useful, especially for searching the literature, for obtaining uniformly formatted titles and journal names, and for downloading copies of the older literature, including the entire Trichopterorum Catalogus.

Regional bibliographies of a general nature include those of Flint (1977, 1981d) and Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso (1982) published in the Aquatic Biota series edited by S.H. Hurlbert and others. These works summarize the state of taxonomic knowledge and distribution of the Trichoptera fauna of the respective regions and list all pertinent literature until about the late 1970s and early 1980s. More regionally restricted catalogs, checklists, and faunal works are listed next by country or region:

Argentina (Angrisano and Sganga 2007, Angrisano 1995c, Brand 2009, Flint, 1982c, Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín 2014, Mangeaud 1996, Manzo et al., 2014, Muzón et al., 2005); Brazil (Almeida and Marinoni 2000, Barcelos-Silva et al. 2012, Blahnik et al. 2004, Calor 2011, Costa et al. 2014, Dumas and Nessimian 2012, Dumas et al., 2009, Dumas et al., 2010, Flint 1992d, Marinoni and Almeida 2000, Moretto and Bispo 2015, Nogueira and Cabette 2011, Oliveira and Froehlich 1997, Paprocki and França 2014, Paprocki et al. 2004, Quinteiro et al. 2014, Speis and Forehlich 2009, Souza et al., 2013a); Caribbean Islands (Botosaneanu 2002); Chile (Flint 1974e, Rojas 2006, Schmid 1952); Colombia (Flint 1991, Medellín et al., 2004, Muñoz-Quesada 2000, Rincón-Hernández 1999); Costa Rica (Holzenthal 1988c, Muñoz-Quesada 1999, Springer 2010); Cuba (Botosaneanu 1977, 1979, 1980, Flint 1996c, González Lazo et al. 2005, Kumanski 1987, López del Castillo et al., 2004, 2007, Naranjo López and González Lazo 2005); Curaçao (Flint 1992a); Dominican Republic (Botosaneanu 1995, 1996, Flint and Sykora 2004, Wichard 1987, 2007a, b); Grenada (Flint and Sykora 1993); Guadaloupe (Botosaneanu 1994a, 2000); Haiti (Botosaneanu 1991a); Hispaniola (Flint and Pérez-Gelabert 1999, Pérez-Gelabert 2008); Jamaica (Botosaneanu and Hyslop 1998, 1999, Botosaneanu and Thomas 2004, Flint 1968a, Malicky 1999); Lesser Antilles (Flint 1968b, Malicky 1983); Martinique (Botosaneanu and Thomas 2005, Botosaneanu 1988, 1989a); Mexico (Banks 1901, Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez 2011, Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978, Bueno-Soria et al. 2005, 2007, Denning 1964, Flint 1967d, Rojas-Ascencio et al. 2002, Ross 1951a [the checklist of Arizona species by Blinn and Ruiter (2005) may contain species that will eventually be discovered in adjacent Mexico]); Nicaragua (Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007, Maes 1999, Maes and Flint 1988); North America (Morse 1993, Poole 1996, Rasmussen and Morse 2014); Panama (Aguila 1992, Armitage et al., 2015a, 2015b, Armitage and Cornejo 2015); Peru (Flint and Reyes 1991, Flint 1996b); Puerto Rico (Flint 1964a); Suriname (Flint 1974c); Trinidad and Tobago (Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo 1993, Botosaneanu and Sakal 1992, Flint 1996a); Uruguay (Angrisano 1994, 1995b, 1997b); Venezuela (including Isla Margarita) (Botosaneanu and Viloria 2002, Botosaneanu 1989b, Flint 1981a).

In addition, several works have been published containing keys for identifying families and genera of the Neotropical fauna. Angrisano (1995d) produced a key to all the families and genera of caddisflies known from South America. Flint provided keys to adults of the Neotropical families (1991) and families and genera (1996b), but the latter does not include all genera from the region covered by this catalog, and excludes genera from the Chilean Subregion. Other important keys to regional faunas include those of Angrisano and Korob (2001), Angrisano and Sganga (2007), Huamantinco and Ortiz (2010), Pes et al. (2005, 2014), Posada-García and Roldán-Pérez (2003), Roldán-Pérez (1988), Ruiter (2000), Springer (2006), and Springer et al. (2010a, b). Finally, Wiggins (1996), Wiggins and Currie (2008), and Morse and Holzenthal (2008) provided various keys for North American families and genera of adults, pupae, and larvae. These works will adequately serve those studying the fauna of much of Mexico, and, to a lesser degree, Central America, but they should be used with caution in those regions south of the United States.

Purpose of the catalog

The Neotropical Trichoptera fauna is diverse, second only in numbers of species to that of the Oriental fauna (Morse 1997b, 2011). However, despite recent advances in our knowledge of the fauna of Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, and Venezuela, for example, and building on investigations since the early 1960s, the fauna is still underexplored and poorly known. New collections or examinations of museum material, especially from unexplored regions (Chamorro and Holzenthal 2010), but even from well-explored areas (Flint 1996a) always yield many new species. Epansive regions, especially in South America have hardly been explored for caddisfly diversity (e.g., Amazon basin, Guyana shield, northern Andes). The likelihood that the Neotropical fauna is substantially more diverse than presently known is very high, even with the addition of over 1,000 new species described since 1999, when the fauna was most recently cataloged (Flint et al., 1999b).

A catalog is a list of nominal species and associated taxonomic and nomenclatural references arranged in a logical, easily accessible format. Catalogs are important tools to anyone requiring knowledge of currently accepted names, including synonyms and distributional data. Because the binomen is usually the starting point of the information storage and retrieval system afforded by the Linnean hierachy, an accurate list of currently accepted species names is essential for anyone needing information about a species, be it for basic or applied research. By accumulating and organizing all the previously published Neotropical Trichoptera taxonomic information into a single, easily accessed source, we hope to facilitate and stimulate further exploration and research on the fauna. Furthermore, we hope that this catalog benefits research beyond Trichoptera systematics, such as ecology, behavior, conservation, and the application of Trichoptera as biological indicators of water quality.

The need for a comprehensive catalog for the Neotropical Trichoptera grew from discussions between Flint and Holzenthal in 1993. These discussions and effort resulted in the 1999 publication by the Ohio Biological Survey of the Catalog of the Neotropical Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) by Flint, Holzenthal and Harris. The need for an update of the “Catalog” emerged from discussions between Holzenthal and Calor in 2015, some 15 years after the publication by Flint et al., (1999b). It was also agreed that a new catalog should be published in an “open access” format so that it could be readily available for free download from the Internet. Work on a new catalog began immediately and the result is presented here.

Definition of the region covered

The current catalog lists names of all species described or recorded from south of the United States, to include all of Mexico, Central and South America, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, and all of the off-shore islands pertaining politically to the countries of the region (although the latter contain very few Trichoptera or have not been surveyed). We realize that this region extends northward beyond the traditional northern boundary of the Neotropical Region to include northern, Nearctic Mexico. However, with regard to Trichoptera, the traditional demarcation between the Neotropical and Nearctic regions, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, does not apply. There is broad overlap and interdigitation of the Trichoptera faunas of the two regions from at least the southwestern states of the United States through Mexico and Central America until the mountains of eastern Costa Rica and western Panama. Although the region covered by this catalog is artificial with regard to biogeography, it has allowed us to be more objective as to which species to include in the catalog.

Fossil species

Few fossil species of caddisflies have been discovered in the Neotropical Realm. A single species of the fossil family Necrotaulidae has been described from the Rhaetic (upper Triassic) of western Argentina. The larval cases of a Brazilian Tertiary caddis, provisionally placed in the Limnephilidae, has also been described. Otherwise a number of caddisflies have been described in recent years from Dominican and now Mexican amber (Johanson and Wichard 1996, Lewis 1989, Wells and Wichard 1989, Wichard 1981, 1983a, 1983b, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1995a, 1995b, 2000, 2007a, b, Wichard et al., 2006). The first two fossils will only be mentioned here, but the amber fossils are treated in their proper systematic position in the catalog.

Wieland (1925) described Necrotaulius affinis as the type of his new genus Tipulitides placed in the Diptera, Tipulidae. In 1926 he, with the help of Tillyard, who also examined the fossil, transferred the species to Necrotaulius and presented a more accurate figure of its wing venation. It is still the only member of the family known from the New World.

Martins-Neto (1989) described a caddisfly case from the Oligocene of São Paulo state in Brazil. The species, Indusia suguioi, was placed in the form genus Indusia, and suggested that it was a member of the Limnephilidae. The photo of the fossil is too vague to either support or refute this placement.

Format of the catalog

The catalog is organized alphabetically by family, genus, and species. For each family introductory information, including literature citations, of a general nature is given concerning distribution, diversity, taxonomy, biology, habitat, and knowledge of immature stages, if available. Valid generic names are next presented in boldface type, centered on the page, and followed by the author and, in square brackets, the number of currently recognized valid species-group taxa in the region, followed by the number of fossil species. A generic synonymy follows. The currently recognized, valid genus name is followed by its author, date and bibliographic citation of publication, and page number on which the name was formally established. Following this, in square brackets, the type species in its original combination with author and date is presented, along with any synonyms of the type species name, the manner in which the type species was established (e.g., original designation, monotypy, subsequent selection, etc.), and the family in which it was originally described if different from the current family. Other citations containing other important nomenclatural acts, generic revisions, or larval descriptions are next included with annotations contained in square brackets. Generic synonyms follow, in chronological order (oldest names first), and are presented in the same format and with the same information as presented for the valid genus name, with the addition of the citation where the generic synonymy was established. Subgeneric names are presented as generic synonyms and with the same information, but the subgeneric status is so indicated and the citation included. Following the generic synonymy, introductory information on the genus, similar to that presented for the family, is given.

All currently recognized, valid species and subspecies names (specific epithets only), in their current orthography, are then listed in alphabetical order and in boldface type. Fossil species (and genera) are preceded by the symbol †. In cases where subgenera are used, the subgenus name follows the specific epithet, in parentheses. Each species name is followed by its author, date and bibliographic citation of publication, and page number on which the name was formally established. Following, in square brackets, the type locality is presented, as annotated by us for clarity, but otherwise given as indicated in the original publication, except the country of origin is always listed first. The type depository is then given if known, and so indicated if unknown, according to the institution codes presented below. Sex of the type is presented next, if known, and so indicated if not known. Sex of type is followed (separated by a semicolon) by the sex or stage of any other specimens illustrated and described with the type specimen (these also separated by semicolons). Finally, still in square brackets and separated by a semicolon, the genus of the original combination, or the original orthography of the specific epithet if different from present orthography, is presented. In addition, citations for any significant publications containing redescriptions, lectotype or neotype designations or other nomenclatural acts, systematic revisions, larval descriptions, or new distribution records follow their appropriate species’ entries. Synonyms are indicated in italics, preceded by an em dash (—), and listed in chronological order (if more than one) and in their present orthography under the valid species entry. All species-group synonyms are included in the catalog. Information presented for synonyms is the same as presented for the senior name (date and bibliographic citation of the synonymy, sex of type, type depository, genus of original combination or original orthography), but also includes the date and bibliographic reference where the synonymy was established. Lastly, for each species entry the distribution by country, based on published records, is presented.

In addition to original citations and important taxonomic or nomenclatural works, all of the recent and important literature published after 1960 is included in the catalog. However, the extensive bibliographies presented by Fischer (1960-1973a) for the literature prior to 1961 are NOT repeated in this catalog if not of primary importance. The reader is referred to Fischer’s catalog for this additional literature; again, Fischer’s catalog is available from the Trichoptera Literature Database (see above). Furthermore, genus-group synonyms are included only if those synonyms pertain to type species described from the region covered by the catalog. Other sources (Fischer 1960-1973a, Poole 1996, Morse 1993, Trichoptera World Checklist) should be consulted for a complete list of genus-group synonyms.

All literature cited in the introduction and catalog itself is listed in the References section. The complete title of the journal, book, or other bibliographic source is given to assist the user in obtaining literature. In all cases, the original citation was consulted by the authors in compiling the catalog to ensure accuracy of information or to check date of issue.

The catalog includes all literature known to us up to the end of 2015, as well as several important works published in 2016 and any other literature published after 2015 that has come to our attention. The user is cautioned, however, that we make no claims to have included all the literature published in 2015, and certainly not 2016, but we have done our best to do so. Some literature is not abstracted in Zoological Record or Web of Science until several years after its date of publication and thus may have been missed. Again, the user should check the appropriate bibliographic sources to ensure complete coverage and overlap by several years the bibliography in this catalog when searching the literature in the future.

The catalog ends with an Index that lists all names presented in the catalog and the primary page number where the name occurs. Format of names in the index generally follows that presented in the catalog: valid species and subspecies epithets are presented in bold italics, followed by the current genus in italics; synonyms of species or subspecies names are presented in italics, followed by the current genus in italics. The original orthography of species names, including synonyms, is also indexed, but referred to the species in its current combination and orthography. For subspecies names, the trinomen is also indexed, but referred to the name in combination with the nominotypical name. Homonyms are also indexed, but with the author of the name and date of publication included. Valid genus names are presented in bold, followed by the family in square brackets. Generic synonyms are presented in italics, except that currently recognized subgeneric names are presented in bold italics, both followed by the family in square brackets. Fossil species are followed by the symbol †.

Trichoptera classification

Since the publication of Flint et al., (1999b), much research has been done on Trichoptera phylogeny and classification, including analyses using molecular data (e.g., Kjer et al., 2001, Holzenthal et al., 2007a, Malm et al., 2013) corroborating or refuting earlier hypotheses (e.g., Ross 1967, Weaver 1984, Weaver and Morse 1986, Wiggins and Wichard 1989, Frania and Wiggins 1997, Ivanov 1997 among others; see Morse 1997a for a review). We have chosen to present taxonomic names in our catalog in alphabetical order for ease of use only. Suborder and family concepts in this catalog follow the classification presented by Holzenthal et al. (2011) as presented below (with genera and subgenera listed in alphabetical order). Only subgenera with representation in the region covered by this catalog are included. Publications containing hypotheses on relationships within families are presented, where known, under the family treatments. The Trichoptera World Checklist can be consulted for additional details on classification below the family.

Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813

Suborder Annulipalpia Martynov, 1924

Superfamily Philopotamoidea Stephens, 1829

Family Philopotamidae Stephens, 1829

Alterosa Blahnik, 2005

Chimarra Stephens, 1829

Chimarra Stephens, 1829

Chimarrita Blahnik, 1997

Curgia Walker, 1860

Otarrha Blahnik, 2002

Chimarrhodella Lestage, 1925

Sortosa Navás, 1918

Wormaldia McLachlan, 1865

Family Stenopsychidae Martynov, 1924

Pseudostenopsyche Döhler, 1915

Superfamily Psychomyioidea Walker, 1852

Family Ecnomidae Ulmer, 1903

Austrotinodes Schmid, 1955

Chilocentropus Navás, 1934

Family Polycentropodidae Ulmer, 1903

Cernotina Ross, 1938

Cyrnellus Banks, 1913

Nyctiophylax Brauer, 1865

Polycentropus Curtis, 1835

Polyplectropus Ulmer, 1905

Family Pseudoneureclipsidae Ulmer, 1913

Antillopsyche Banks, 1941

Family Psychomyiidae Walker, 1852

Tinodes Curtis, 1834

Family Xiphocentronidae Ross, 1949

Cnodocentron Schmid, 1982

Caenocentron Schmid, 1982

Machairocentron Schmid, 1982

Xiphocentron Brauer, 1870

Antillotrichia Banks, 1941

Glyphocentron Schmid, 1982

Rhamphocentron Schmid, 1982

Sphagocentron Schmid, 1982

Xiphocentron Brauer, 1870

Superfamily Hydropsychoidea Curtis, 1835

Family Hydropsychidae Curtis, 1835

Blepharopus Kolenati, 1859

Calosopsyche Ross and Unzicker, 1977

Centromacronema Ulmer, 1905

Cheumatopsyche Wallengren, 1891

Diplectrona Westwood, 1839

Hydropsyche Pictet, 1834

Ceratopsyche Ross and Unzicker, 1977

Hydropsyche Pictet, 1834

Leptonema Guérin-Méneville, 1843

Macronema Pictet, 1836

Macrostemum Kolenati, 1859

Palaehydropsyche Wichard, 1986

Plectromacronema Ulmer, 1906

Plectropsyche Ross, 1947

Pseudomacronema Ulmer, 1905

Smicridea McLachlan, 1871

Rhyacophylax Müller, 1879

Smicridea McLachlan, 1871

Streptospyche Ross and Unzicker, 1977

Synoestropsis Ulmer, 1905

Suborder Integripalpia Martynov, 1924

Superfamily Glossosomatoidea Wallengren, 1891

Family Glossosomatidae Wallengren, 1891

Canoptila Mosely, 1939

Cariboptila Flint, 1964

Culoptila Mosely, 1954

Glossosoma Curtis, 1834

Itauara Müller, 1888

Mastigoptila Flint, 1967

Merionoptila Schmid, 1959

Mortoniella Ulmer, 1906

Protoptila Banks, 1904

Scotiotrichia Mosely, 1934

Tolhuaca Schmid, 1964

Superfamily Hydroptiloidea Stephens, 1836

Family Hydroptilidae Stephens, 1836

Acostatrichia Mosely, 1939

Alisotrichia Flint, 1964

Anchitrichia Flint, 1970

Angrisanoia Özdikmen, 2008

Ascotrichia Flint, 1983

Betrichia Mosely, 1939

Bredinia Flint, 1968

Byrsopteryx Flint, 1981

Celaenotrichia Mosely, 1934

Cerasmatrichia Flint, Harris and Botosaneanu, 1994

Ceratotrichia Flint, 1992

Costatrichia Mosely, 1937

Dicaminus Müller, 1879

Flintiella Angrisano, 1995

Hydroptila Dalman, 1819

Ithytrichia Eaton, 1873

Kumanskiella Harris and Flint, 1992

Leucotrichia Mosely, 1934

Mayatrichia Mosely, 1937

Mejicanotrichia Harris and Holzenthal, 1997

Metrichia Ross, 1938

Neotrichia Morton, 1905

Nothotrichia Flint, 1967

Ochrotrichia Mosely, 1934

Orinocotrichia Harris, Flint and Holzenthal, 2002

Orthotrichia Eaton, 1873

Oxyethira Eaton, 1873

Argyrobothrus Barnard, 1934

Dactylotrichia Kelley, 1984

Dampfitrichia Mosely, 1937

Kelleyella Özdikmen, 2007

Loxotrichia Mosely, 1937

Oxytrichia Mosely, 1939

Tanytrichia Kelley, 1984

Peltopsyche Müller, 1879

Ragatrichia Oláh and Johanson, 2011

Rhyacopsyche Müller, 1879

Scelobotrichia Harris and Bueno-Soria, 1993

Taraxitrichia Flint and Harris, 1991

Tizatetrichia Harris, Flint and Holzenthal, 2002

Tricholeiochiton Kloets and Hinks, 1944

Tupiniquintrichia Santos, Nessimian and Takiya, 2016

Zumatrichia Mosely, 1937

Superfamily Rhyacophiloidea Stephens, 1836

Family Hydrobiosidae Ulmer, 1905

Amphichorema Schmid, 1989

Androchorema Flint, 1979

Apatanodes Navás, 1934

Atopsyche Banks, 1905

Atopsaura Ross, 1953

Atopsyche Banks, 1905

Dolochorema Banks, 1913

Australobiosis Schmid, 1958

Cailloma Ross and King, 1951

Clavichorema Schmid, 1955

Heterochorema Schmid, 1989

Iguazu Ross and King, 1951

Isochorema Schmid, 1989

Metachorema Schmid, 1957

Microchorema Schmid, 1955

Neoatopsyche Schmid, 1955

Neochorema Schmid, 1957

Neopsilochorema Schmid, 1955

Nolganema Navás, 1934

Parachorema Schmid, 1957

Pomphochorema Flint, 1969

Pseudoradema Schmid, 1955

Rheochorema Schmid, 1955

Schajovskoya Flint, 1979

Stenochorema Schmid, 1955

Family Rhyacophilidae Stephens, 1836

Rhyacophila Pictet, 1834

Infraorder Brevitentoria Weaver, 1984

Superfamily Leptoceroidea Leach, 1815

Family Atriplectididae Neboiss, 1977

Neoatriplectides Holzenthal, 1997

Family Calamoceratidae Ulmer, 1905

Banyallarga Navás, 1916

Banyallarga Navás, 1916

Histricoverpa Prather, 2004

Phylloicus Müller, 1880

Family Leptoceridae Leach, 1815

Achoropsyche Holzenthal, 1984

Amazonatolica Holzenthal and Pes, 2004

Amphoropsyche Holzenthal, 1985

Atanatolica Mosely, 1936

Brachysetodes Schmid, 1955

Grumichella Müller, 1879

Hudsonema Mosely, 1936

Mystacides Berthold, 1827

Nectopsyche Müller, 1879

Neoathripsodes Holzenthal, 1989

Notalina Mosely, 1936

Neonotalina Holzenthal, 1986

Oecetis McLachlan, 1877

Osflintia Calor and Holzenthal, 2008

Setodes Rambur, 1842

Triaenodes McLachlan, 1865

Triplectides Kolenati, 1859

Family Odontoceridae Wallengren, 1891

Anastomoneura Huamantinco and Nessimian, 2004

Barypenthus Burmeister, 1839

Marilia Müller, 1880

Family Philorheithridae Mosely, 1936

Mystacopsyche Schmid, 1955

Psilopsyche Ulmer, 1907

Superfamily Sericostomatoidea Stephens, 1836

Family Anomalopsychidae Flint, 1981

Anomalopsyche Flint, 1967

Contulma Flint, 1969

Family Helicophidae Mosely, 1953

Alloecentrellodes Flint, 1979

Austrocentrus Schmid, 1964

Eosericostoma Schmid, 1955

Microthremma Schmid, 1955

Pseudosericostoma Schmid, 1957

Family Helicopsychidae Ulmer, 1906

Helicopsyche Siebold, 1856

Cochliopsche Müller, 1885

Feropsyche Johanson, 1998

Family Sericostomatidae Stephens, 1836

Chiloecia Navás, 1930

Grumicha Müller, 1879

Gumaga Tsuda, 1938

Myotrichia Schmid, 1955

Notidobiella Schmid, 1955

Parasericostoma Schmid, 1957

Superfamily Tasimioidea Riek, 1968

Family Tasimiidae Riek, 1968

Charadropsyche Flint, 1969

Trichovespula Schmid, 1955

Infraorder Plenitentoria Weaver, 1984

Family Kokiriidae McFarlane, 1964

Pangullia Navás, 1934

Superfamily Limnephiloidea Kolenati, 1848

Family Limnephilidae Kolenati, 1848

Anomalocosmoecus Schmid, 1957

Antarctoecia Ulmer, 1907

Austrocosmoecus Schmid, 1955

Clistoronia Banks, 1916

Hesperophylax Banks, 1916

Limnephilus Leach, 1815

Metacosmoecus Schmid, 1955

Monocosmoecus Ulmer, 1906

Platycosmoecus Schmid, 1964

Verger Navás, 1918

Superfamily Phryganeoidea Leach, 1815

Family Lepidostomatidae Ulmer, 1903

Lepidostoma Rambur, 1842

List of type depositories

AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, USA

ASL Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

BMNH Natural History Museum, London, England

CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA

CMNH Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

CNC Canadian National Collection, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

CNIN Colección Nacional de Insectos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico, formerly IBUNAN

Collection Apollinaris he worked in Colombia, sent material to Navás, material presumed lost

Collection Malicky private collection, Hans Malicky, Lunz am See, Austria

Collection Martynov private collection in Warsaw, material not in ASL, presumed lost

Collection Navás some material transferred to MZBS and survived, remainder mostly lost

Collection Poinar collection of George O. Poinar, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

Collection Wichard private collection, Wilfried Wichard, Bonn, Germany

CU Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

CZNC Coleção Zoológica Norte Capixaba, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, Brazil

CZMA Coleção Zoológica do Maranhão, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil

DEI Institut für Pflanzenschutzforschung (former Deutsches Entomologisches Institut), Eberswalde, Germany

DZRJ Coleção Entomológica Prof. José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

DZUP Coleção de Entomologia Padre Jesus Santiago Moure, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

FHCU Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias (Departamento de Artropodos), Univeridad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay

FMNH Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, USA

FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida, USA

GPIMH Geological-Palaeontological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg, Germany

HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary

IBN Instituto de Biodiverdidad Neotropical, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina

IBUNAM now CNIN

IESHC Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática, Havana, Cuba

INBIO Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Dominge de Heredia, Costa Rica

IHNEC Museo de Paleontología, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecología de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico

IML Instituto Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina

INHS Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois, USA

INPA Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil

IRSNB Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium

ISMA Instituto San Miguel, Buenos Aires, Argentina

IZAM Instituto de Zoología Agrícola, Maracay, Venezuela

KMUL Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig, Germany

LACM Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, California, USA

MACN Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina

MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

MHNG Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland

MHNJP Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Peru

MIUP Universidad de Panamá Museo de Invertebrados, Panama

MNHNP Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MNHNS Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile

MNRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [F. Müller material. Müller did not designate types nor indicate any depository for his material, but the material he examined, primarily larval cases, is in the MNRJ (A.P.M. Santos, personal communication)].

MZBS Museo de Zoologia, Barcelona, Spain

MZUSP Museu de Zooologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

NMB Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland

NMNH National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA

NMSB National Museum, Sofia, Bulgaria

NMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria

NRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden

OPC Jánus Oláh private collection, Debrecen, Hungary, presently under protection of Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary

PAN Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

PSUC Pennsylvania State University, Frost Entomological Museum, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

RNH Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, Netherlands

SDMNH San Diego Museum of Natural History, San Diego, California, USA

SEMC Snow Entomological Museum Collection, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA

SMNS Staatlichen Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany

UASC Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

UCB University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

UCD University of California, Davis, California, USA

UChS Universidad de Chile (Investigaciones Entomológicas), Santiago, Chile

UMQ University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

UMSP University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

UNLP Museo de la Plata, Universdad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina

UZMC Universitetets Zoologiske Museet, Copenhagen, Denmark

WSU Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

ZIUH Zoologisches Institut der Universität, Halle an der Salle, Germany

ZMHU Zoologisches Museum, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany

ZMUA Zoölogische Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Netherlands

ZSM Zoologischen Staatssamlung München, Munich, Germany

ZSZMH Zoologische Staatsinstitut und Zoologisches Museum, Hamburg, Germany

Catalog

Family Anomalopsychidae

The family Anomalopsychidae was established by Flint (1981c) for two Chilean species previously placed in the Sericostomatidae: Contulma cranifer Flint and Anomalopsyche minuta (Schmid). Two additional Contulma species were described by Holzenthal and Flint (in Flint 1991) from Colombia. Since then, 24 new species have been described from Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil (Holzenthal and Flint 1995, Holzenthal and Robertson 2006, Jardim and Nessimian 2011, Holzenthal and Ríos-Touma 2012).

Flint (1981c) described the immature stages of Anomalopsyche and those of several species of Contulma were described by Holzenthal and Flint (1995) and Holzenthal and Ríos-Touma (2012). Larvae of both genera build cases of sand grains and inhabit small streams in forested areas or at high elevations.

Genus Anomalopsyche Flint [1]

Anomalopsyche Flint, 1967a:66 [Type species: Anomalopsyche ocellata Flint, 1967a = Myotrichia minuta Schmid, 1957, original designation; in Sericostomatidae]. —Flint, 1981c:75 [to Anomalopsychidae].

A single species is known from Chile. Larvae and pupae were described by Flint (1981c). They build slightly curved, tapered, cylindrical cases of sand grains. The immature stages are found in spring runs, in waterfalls, and hygropetric habitats, often in aquatic moss.

minuta (Schmid), 1957:392 [Type locality: Chile, Ñuble, Tregualemu, NMNH; ♂; in Myotrichia]. —Flint, 1967a:66 [to Anomalopsyche]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 1981c:75 [♂; ♀; larva; pupa; redescription].

ocellata Flint, 1967a:66 [Type locality: Chile, Valdivia, Punucapa, near Valdivia; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:84, 91 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Chile.

Genus Contulma Flint [27]

Contulma Flint, 1969b:513 [Type species: Contulma cranifer Flint, 1969b, original designation; in Sericostomatidae]. —Flint, 1981c:82 [to Anomalopsychidae]. —Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:1 [♂; ♀; larva; pupa; phylogeny].

The 27 known species of Contulma range in distribution from Costa Rica, through the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, to Chile and the mountains of southeastern Brazil. Certainly, many more undescribed species await discovery.

Contulma species are generally found associated with the spray and splash zones of waterfalls, small first order streams, and seeps in lush, montane forests. Several species have been taken from small streams flowing through the páramo. Holzenthal and Ríos-Touma (2012) described the life history stages and biology of an uncommon species living above 3,800 m in the Ecuadorian páramo. The larvae fed on diatoms and were univoltine with continuous larval growth. In some Colombian streams between 2,500-2,900 m a.s.l., Contulma larvae were a dominant component of the benthic fauna (Medellín et al., 2004). Adults of species living in high elevations are not readily attracted to lights because of cold nighttime temperatures; those of the Ecuadorian species C. paluguillensis were collected in sticky traps as well as Malaise and emergence traps.

adamsae Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:11 [Type locality: Peru, Cuzco, Paucartampo, nr. park entrance station, nr. km 106, seeps; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Flint, 1996b:429 [distribution].

Distribution. Peru.

bacula Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:11 [Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, 1 mi E of Papallacta; NMNH; ♂]. —Medellín et al., 2004:201 [distribution; biology].

Distribution. Colombia, Ecuador.

boliviensis Holzenthal and Robertson, 2006:50 [Type locality: Bolivia, Santa Cruz, Parque Nacional Amboró, 17°50'15"S, 64°23'29"W, el. 2030 m; UASC; ♂].

Distribution. Bolivia.

caldensis Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:12 [Type locality: Colombia, Caldas, 1.1 km E Termales de Ruíz; NMNH; ♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

cataracta Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:12 [Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Río Maspa Chico, 2 km W Cuyuja; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Ecuador.

colombiensis Holzenthal and Flint, in Flint, 1991:106 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, 12 km N Fredonia, road to Medellín; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:14 [♂; ♀; redescription; distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

costaricensis Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:14 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, unnamed tribs. (Quebrada Palmitos and falls), ca. 9 km (road) NW tunnel, 9.72°N, 83.78°W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

cranifer Flint, 1969b:513 [Type locality: Chile, Malleco, Río Manzanares, near Purén; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 1981c:82 [to Anomalopsychidae]. —Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:14 [♂; ♀; redescription].

Distribution. Chile.

echinata Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:15 [Type locality: Colombia, Caldas, 5 km W Termales de Ruíz; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

ecuadorensis Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:16 [Type locality: Ecuador, Imbabura, Otavalo/Apuila; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Ecuador.

fluminensis Holzenthal and Robertson, 2006:52 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Macaé, Macaé da Cima, 22°23'41"S, 42°30'08"W, el. 1000 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Dumas et al., 2009:371 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:3 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

inornata Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:16 [Type locality: Colombia, Caldas, 5 km W Termales de Ruíz; NMNH; ♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

lanceolata Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:17 [Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Baeza (72 km E), in seep at waterfall; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Ecuador.

meloi Holzenthal and Robertson, 2006:54 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Estação Biológica de Boracéia, Rio Venerando, 23°39'11"S, 45°53'25"W, el. 850 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:3 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

nevada Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:17 [Type locality: Colombia, Caldas, 0.7 km S entrance P.N. Los Nevados; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

paluguillensis Holzenthal and Ríos-Touma, 2012:444 [Type locality: Ecuador, Pichincha, Reserva Paluguillo, Quebrada Saltana, 0°19'1.80"S, 78°13'8.8"W, 3848 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; biology].

Distribution. Ecuador.

papallacta Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:17 [Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, 1 mi E of Papallacta; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Ecuador.

penai Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:18 [Type locality: Ecuador, Zamora-Chinchipe, 30 km E Loja; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia, Ecuador.

sana Jardim and Nessimian, 2011:226 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro: Macaé municipality, Sana, Córrego da Ilha, 22°20'41.8"S, 42°11'03.7"W, 381 m; DZRJ; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:3 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

sancta Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:19 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Quebrada Virgencita, 10.2 km S Bajos del Toro, 10.168°N, 84.326°W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

spinosa Holzenthal and Flint, in Flint, 1991:106 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Quebrada La Iguaná, 17 km NW Medellín, on road to San Jerónimo; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:19 [♂; ♀; larva; distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist]. —Medellín et al., 2004:200 [distribution; biology].

Distribution. Colombia, Ecuador.

talamanca Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:21 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Río Jaba at rock quarry, 1.4 km (air) W Las Cruces, 8.79°N, 82.97°W; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

tapanti Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:21 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, unnamed trib. (Quebrada Palmitos and falls), ca. 9 km (road) NW tunnel, 9.72°N, 83.78°W; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

tica Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:22 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Río Bellavista, ca. 1.5 km NW Las Alturas, 8.951°N, 82.846°W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

tijuca Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:22 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Nacional Tijuca, Repressa dos Ciganos; MZUSP (on indefinite loan to NMNH); ♂; ♀; probable larva]. —Dumas et al., 2009:371 [distribution]. Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:8 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:3 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

tripui Holzenthal and Robertson, 2006:56 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Estação Ecológica do Tripuí, Córrego Tripuí, 20°23'22"S, 43°32'32"W, el. 1070 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Calor, 2011:319 [distribution]. —Dumas et al., 2009:371 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:3 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

valverdei Holzenthal and Flint, 1995:22 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, waterfall, ca. 1 km (road) NW tunnel, 9.69°N, 83.76°W; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

Family Atriplectididae

Neboiss (1978) established a new family, Atriplectididae, for the Australian species Atriplectides dubius Mosely and at the same time transferred Hughscottiella auricapilla Ulmer, from the Seychelles, to the family. The larvae of both genera were described in the same year (Marlier 1978, Neboiss 1978). Roback (1966) described an unusual caddisfly larva from the Río Bella, near Tingo Maria, Peru that he was unable to place in a known family at the time, but it, too, belongs to the Atriplectididae. The larvae of all three are unusual within the Trichoptera in that the head, pro- and mesonota are narrow, elongate and retractile. Holzenthal (1997) reviewed the family and described the first Neotropical species, placing it in a new genus, Neoatriplectides. The unusual larval morphology is apparently an adaptation that allows the larva to feed internally in small dead arthropods found in the stream (Malicky 1997).

Genus Neoatriplectides Holzenthal [2]

Neoatriplectides Holzenthal, 1997:157 [Type species: Neoatriplectides froehlichi Holzenthal, 1997].

Unknown family 1, Roback, 1966:256 [larva only]. —Holzenthal, 1997:157 [to synonymy].

Only two species are known in the genus, with definitive records of adults of one from only Peru and Bolivia, and the other from southeastern Brazil. Larval only records are known from Colombia and Ecuador, as well as Peru The larvae were described by Roback (1966) and Holzenthal (1997). Larvae are found on sandy substrates or among leaf liter in shallow, lateral pools of small streams (Dumas and Nessimian 2008). Posada-García and Roldán-Pérez (2003) recorded a single larva from a small stream containing bryophytes at an elevation of 2,800 m in northwestern Colombia, and Villarreal-Grisales and García-Cárdenas (2013) recorded larvae from Quindío, Colombia, in streams at about 3000 m elevation. These larvae were found on rocks in the center of the streams where the current was fastest. Villada-Bedoya et al. (2015) also recorded a larva from Colombia. These larval records and the one from Ecuador (Holzenthal 1997) are here tentatively listed under N. froehlichi, but adults must be collected or reared to confirm their identity.

desiderata Dumas and Nessimian, 2008:64 [Type localiy: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Itamonte, Rio Aiuruoca, 22°20'56.9"S, 44°41'37.9"W, 1860 m; DZRJ; ♂; pupa]. —Dumas et al., 2009:367 [distribution]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:8 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:4 [checklist].

Neoatriplectides sp., Holzenthal, 1997:160 [larva; case]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2008:64 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Brazil.

froehlichi Holzenthal, 1997:159 [Type locality: Peru, Cuzco, Paucartambo, Puente San Pedro, ca. 50 km NW Pilcopata, MHNJP (temporarily at NMNH); ♂; /female]. —Muñoz-Quesada 2000:272 [probable distribution]. —Posada-García and Roldán-Pérez, 2003:175 [probable distribution]. —Villarreal-Grisales and García-Cárdenas, 2013:261 [probable distribution]. —Villada-Bedoya et al., 2015:369 [probable distribution].

—Probable n. gen., n. sp., Flint, 1996b:423 [teneral ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1997:159 [described as new species].

Distribution. Bolivia, Colombia [probable], Ecuador, Peru.

Family Calamoceratidae

This is a small, but cosmopolitan family of seven genera and about 200 species, most of which are tropical. Only two genera, Banyallarga and Phylloicus, are to be found in the Neotropics, with 17 and 58 species respectively, including one fossil species from Domincan amber.

Adults are more diurnal in their activity than most Trichoptera. The immature stages and cases of several species of Phylloicus have been described: Flint (1964a), Roldán Pérez (1988), Wiggins (1996), Bowles and Flint (1997), Prather (2003), Huamantinco et al. (2005), Quinteiro et al. (2011). The same stages are also known for Banyallarga argentinica (Flint and Angrisano 1985). Larvae of the Neotropical species are found in standing, backwater areas of streams and rivers where they feed on leaf detritus; they are often very abundant.

Genus Banyallarga Navás [17]

Banyallarga Navás, 1916b:78 [Type species: Banyallarga testacea Navás, 1916b, original designation]. —Fischer, 1963:175 [in Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1982:24 [larva; as Phylloicus]. —Flint, 1983a:77 [to Calamoceratidae]. —Flint and Angrisano, 1985:688 [larva; pupa; distinguished from Phylloicus]. —Prather, 2004:3, 11 [revision; ♂; ♀; key to species]. —Rueda Martín, 2013:328 [case; differentiation of larvae from Phylloicus].

Histricoverpa Prather, 2004:22 [Type species: Ganonema molliculum McLachlan, 1871, original designation; as subgenus of Banyallarga; ♂; ♀; revision; key to species].

This genus of 17 known species is endemic to the Neotropics, being found from Nicaragua to Argentina. Adults exhibit a preference for flying and swarming during the day, and only rarely are attracted to collecting lights.

The larvae are found in slowly flowing areas of small streams on sandy-stony bottoms or among vegetation (Flint and Angrisano 1985). Larvae build tubular cases primarily of mineral fragments with some plant matter incorporated or flat cases of leaf framents, similar to those of Phylloicus (Rueda Martín 2013). They appear to be omnivorous.

acutiterga (Histricoverpa) (Denning and Hogue), in Denning et al., 1983:188 [Type locality: Costa Rica, San José Province, Motel Prado, San Isidro del General; LACM; ♂; in Murielia]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:71 [distribution]. —Flint et al., 1999a:73 [to Banyallarga]. —Prather, 2004:23 [♂; ♀; redescription; to Histricoverpa].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

argentinica (Banyallarga) Flint, 1983a:77 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Salta, Cañada la Gotera, Rt. 59, km 23.5; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint and Angrisano, 1985:691 [larva; pupa; biology]. —Mangeaud, 1996:154 [distribution]. —Cohen, 2004:74 [list of type material, distribution]. —Prather, 2004:12 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Rueda Martín, 2013:326 [♂; case]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Peru.

columbiana (Banyallarga) (Navás), 1934a:174 [Type locality: Colombia, Santander, Pamplona; MNHNP; original description implies ♀; but type is ♂; in Anisocentropus]. —Flint, 1983a:77 [to Banyallarga]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist]. —Prather, 2004:12 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Colombia.

echinata (Histricoverpa) Prather, 2004:24 [Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Manu Biosphere Res[serve], Pakitza Bio[logical] Sta[tion], 11°56'00"S, 71°18'00"W, el. 350 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

—“n. sp. 1” Flint, 1996b:424. —Prather, 2004:24 [as synonymy].

Distribution. Peru.

fortuna (Histricoverpa) (Resh), in Denning et al., 1983:190 [Type locality: Panama, Rio Chiriqui at Fortuna; UCB; ♂; in Murielia]. —Aguila, 1992:543 [distribution]. —Flint et al., 1999a:73 [to Banyallarga]. —Prather, 2004:26 [♂; ♀; redescription; to Histricoverpa]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:8 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:197 [checklist].

undescribed genus, undescribed species “A” McElravy et al., 1981:153. —Denning et al., 1983:190 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

loxana (Banyallarga) (Navás), 1934a:173 [Type locality: Ecuador, Loja; MNHNP; original description implies ♂; but the type is female; in Phylloicus]. —Flint, 1983a:77 [to Banyallarga]. —Flint, 1996b:424 [distribution]. —Cohen, 2004:77 [distribution]. —Prather, 2004:15 [♂; ♀; redescription]. —Rueda Martín, 2013:326 [♂]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru.

mexicana (Histricoverpa) Prather, 2004:27 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, La Esperanza; IBUNAM; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Mexico.

mollicula (Histricoverpa) (McLachlan), 1871:127 [Type locality: Venezuela; BMNH; ♂; in Ganonema]. —Flint, 1983a:77 [to Banyallarga]. —Prather, 2004:28 [♂; ♀; redescription; to Histricoverpa].

Distribution. Venezuela.

nica (Histricoverpa) Prather, 2004:29 [Type locality: Nicaragua, Jinotega, Peñas Blancas, 13°17'00"N, 85°33'00"W, el. 1300 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist].

Distribution. Nicaragua.

penai (Banyallarga) Prather, 2004:16 [Type locality: Bolivia, La Paz, Unduavi/Coroico, el. 2500 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Bolivia, Ecuador.

quincemil (Histricoverpa) Prather, 2004:30 [Type locality: Peru, Cuzco, Quincemil; CNC; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Peru.

sanchezi (Histricoverpa) Prather, 2004:31 [Type locality: Colombia, Huila, Quebrado Juancho, 10 km W Iquira; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Colombia.

sylvana (Histricoverpa) Prather, 2004:32 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Reserva Forestal San Ramón, Río San Lorencito & tribs., 10°12'58"N, 84°36'25"W, el. 980 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Nicaragua.

tapanti (Histricoverpa) Prather, 2004:33 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapanti, Quebrada Segunda at administration building, 09°45'40"N, 83°47'13"W, el. 1250 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

vicaria (Banyallarga) (Walker), 1852:114 [Type locality: Venezuela; BMNH; ♀; in Hydropsyche]. —McLachlan, 1871:127 [♂; in Ganonema]. —Betten and Mosely, 1940:218 [redescription; in Ganonema]. —Flint, 1983a:77 [to Banyallarga]. —Prather, 2004:17 [Neotype: Venezuela, Mérida, Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, Mucuy Fish Hatchery, 7 km E Tabay, Queb. La Mucuy, el. 2012 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀; distribution].

testacea Navás, 1916b:78 [Type locality: Colombia, Muzo; collection Appolinaris, now lost?; ♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist]. —Prather, 2004:17 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela.

villosa (Banyallarga) (Navás), 1934a:174 [Type locality: Ecuador, Loja; MNHNP; original description implies ♂; but type is ♀; in Anisocentropus]. —Flint, 1983a:77 [to Banyallarga]. —Prather, 2004:19 [♂; /female; redescription].

Distribution. Ecuador.

yungensis (Banyallarga) Flint, 1983a:79 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Tucumán, Horco Molle, near Tucumán; NMNH; ♂]. —Martynov 1912:7 [♂; misidentified as Ganonema vicarium]. —Flint, 1996b:424 [distribution]. —Cohen, 2004:74 [list of type material]. —Prather, 2004:20 [♂; /female; redescription; distribution]. —Rueda-Martin, 2013:327 [♂]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela.

Genus Phylloicus Müller [57 + †1]

Phylloicus Müller, 1880a:113, 131 [Type species: Phylloicus major Müller, 1880a, subsequent selection of Flint, 1964a, not Fischer, 1965]. —Müller, 1880b:180 [♂; ♀; cases]. —Müller, 1888:274 [larva]. —Ulmer, 1905b:77 [adults]. —Ulmer, 1907d:120 [adults]. —Lestage, 1925:42 [checklist; key]. —Betten, 1934:236 [adults]. —Flint and Angrisano, 1985:688 [larva; pupa; distinguished from Banyallarga]. —Roldán Pérez, 1988:146 [larva]. —Wiggins, 1996:224 [larva]. —Prather, 2003:17 [revision; ♂; ♀; key to species]. —Wichard, 2007a:34 [diagnosis]. —Rueda Martín, 2013:328 [case; differentiation of larvae from Banyallarga].

Homoeoplectron Ulmer, 1905a:33 [Type species: Homoeoplectron assimile Ulmer, 1905a = Phylloicus major Müller, 1880a, subsequent selection of Fischer, 1965]. —Ulmer, 1905b:77 [to synonymy].

Notiomyia Banks, 1905:18 [Type species: Heteroplectron mexicanum Banks, 1900, original designation]. —Flint, 1967c:17 [to synonymy].

Murielia Hogue and Denning, in Denning et al., 1983:187 [Type species: Phylloicus farri Flint, 1968a, original designation]. —Flint et al., 1999a:73 [to synonymy].

The genus is limited to Latin America, except for two species which extend into the southwestern United States. As in Banyallarga, the often strikingly colored adults are day active, although they do appear at collecting lights, especially teneral individuals.

Larvae have been described a number of times (Ulmer 1955, Wiggins 1996, Botosaneanu and Sykora 1973, Botosaneanu and Flint 1982, Bowles and Flint 1997, Huamantinco et al. 2005, Quinteiro et al. 2011, Rueda Martín 2013). The flat case, made of oval pieces of leaves, is distinctive. Larvae live in still, backwater pools of rivers and streams; they can occur in very large numbers. One species is known to occur in water trapped in the leaf axils of Bromeliaceae (Müller 1880a, Banks 1912). Larvae are detritivorous, feeding in leaf litter depositional areas. Moretti et al. (2009) showed that Phylloicus selected leaves for case-building that were chemically protected againt microbial degradation and consumption by other shredders, but this was dependant on leaf abundance. As a typical and important leaf shredder in Neotropical aquatic ecosystems, Phylloicus has been been the subject of many different kinds of biological and ecological studies, perhaps the most of any caddisfly in the region (e.g., Rincón and Martínez 2006, Wantzen and Wagner 2006, Becker et al. 2009, Encalada et al. 2010, Landeiro et al. 2010, Navarro et al. 2013, Vidovix et al. 2013, Guzmán-Soto and Tamarís-Turizo 2014, Martins et al. 2014, Rezende et al. 2015).

abdominalis (Ulmer), 1905a:34 [Type locality: Brazil, “Are-as”, probably in Santa Catarina; ZIUH; type destroyed; ♂; in Homoeoplectron]. —Ulmer, 1913:398 [distribution]. —Prather 2003:15 [Neotype: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Itajai; MCZ; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Huamantinco et al., 2005:20 [larva; pupa; distribution]. —Dumas et al., 2009:367 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:8 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:4 [checklist]. —Quinteiro et al., 2014:230 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil.

aculeatus (Blanchard), 1851:138 [Type locality: Chile; MNHNP; ♀; in Macronema]. —Flint, 1974e:84, 90 [♀; lectotype; to Phylloicus]. —Flint, 1990:119 [distribution]. —Prather, 2003:17 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Cohen, 2004:77 [distribution]. —Guevara-Cardona et al., 2007:123 [checklist].

distans Navás, 1918c:226 [Type locality: Chile, Marga-Marga, Los Perales; MZBS; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:84 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

adamsae Prather, 2003:19 [Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Manu Biosphere Res[erve], Pakitza Bio[logical] Sta[tion], 11°56'00"S, 71°18'00"W, el. 350 m; MHNJP; ♂; ♀].

—“n. sp. 3” Flint, 1996: 425. ­—Prather, 2003:19 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Peru.

aeneus (Hagen), 1861:285 [Type locality: Mexico, [Veracruz]; MCZ; ♀; in Macronema]. —Hagen, 1864b:804 [to Anisocentropus]. —Ulmer, 1905b:79 [to Phylloicus; redescription; ♂; in P. nigripennis]. —Ross, 1952:34 [lectotype; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:17 [♂; in P. nigripennis]. —Flint, 1967d:174 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:210 [distribution]. —Denning et al., 1983:182 [redescription]. —Aguila, 1992:543 [distribution]. —Wiggins, 1996:224 [larva]. —Bowles and Flint, 1997:58 [variation]. —Maes, 1999:1196 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:21 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Baumgardner and Bowles, 2005:11 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2006:332 [biology]. —Bowles et al., 2007:23 [distribution; biology]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Ruiter and Blinn, 2009:4 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist]. —Djernaes, 2011:52 [♂; ♀]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:8 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:197 [checklist].

ornatus (Banks), 1909:342 [Type locality: United States, Texas, Brownwood; MCZ; ♀; in Notiomyia]. —Flint, 1967c:17 [to Phylloicus]. —Flint, 1967d:173 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:211 [distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c: 72 [distribution]. —Bowles and Flint, 1997:53 [redescription; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa]. —Norwood and Stewart, 2002:44 [biology]. —Prather, 2003:21 [to synonymy].

centralus (Navás), 1924c:82 [Type locality: Costa Rica; MNHNP; ♂; in Macronema]. —Holzenthal, 1988:72 [to Phylloicus]. —Prather, 2003:21 [to synonymy].

amazonas Prather, 2003:26 [Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas, Cerro de la Neblina, Basecamp, 00°51'N, 66°10'W, el. 140 m; NMNH; ♂]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:4 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela.

angustior Ulmer, 1905b:78 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul; NMW; ♂]. —Flint, 1966a:11 [lectotype; ♂]. —Flint, 1981a:36 [♂; distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1982:24 [larva]. —Flint, 1991:98 [♂; distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo, 1993:38 [♂; distribution]. —Flint, 1996a:102 [distribution; likely hansoni]. —Flint, 1996b:424 [distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:96 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:27 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Cohen, 2004:77 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Angrisano and Sganga, 2007:41 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:8 [checklist]. —Manzo et al., 2014:167 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:4 [checklist]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Trinidad[?], Uruguay, Venezuela.

auratus Prather, 2003:29 [Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Manu Biosphere Res[erve], Pakitza Bio[logical] Sta[tion], Aquajal, 11°56'00"S, 71°18'00"W, el. 250 m; MHNJP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:4 [checklist].

—“n. sp. 4” Flint, 1996:425. —Prather, 2003:29 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Brazil, Peru.

bertioga Prather, 2003:31 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Bertioga, 23°51'00"S, 46°09'00"W, el. 5 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

bicarinatus Prather, 2003:32 [Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Manu, Biosphere Res[erve], Pakitza Bio[logical] Sta[tion], Quebrada Trompetero, trail 2, marker 15, 11°56'39"S, 71°16'59"W, el. 350 m; MHNJP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Bolivia, Peru.

bidigitatus Prather, 2003:34 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Itatiaia; NMW; ♂]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2009:367 [distribution]. —Dumas et al., 2010:7 [distribution]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:9 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist]. —Quinteiro et al., 2014:230 [distribution].

Distribution. Brazil.

blahniki Prather, 2003:35 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Parque Nacional Corcovado, unnamed stream, Piedra el Arco, 08°34'55"N, 83°42'32"W, el. 20 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:8 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:197 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

brevior Banks, 1914b (1915):632 [Type locality: Guyana, Bartica; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:18 [♂]. —Flint, 1974c:139 [♂; distribution]. —Prather, 2003:36 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2010:9 [distribution as Pará state, Brazil, not Paraná as reported by Prather 2003 and Paprocki et al. 2004]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Guyana, Suriname.

bromeliarum Müller, 1880a:131 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catharina [sic]; MNRJ; case]. —Ulmer, 1906:56 [♀]. —Ulmer, 1913:398 [♂; distribution]. —Ulmer, 1955:418 [larva]. —Prather, 2003:38 [Lectotype: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Blumenau, 26°56'0"S, 49°3'0"W; MCZ; ♂; ♀; distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil.

camargoi Quinteiro and Calor, in Quinteiro et al., 2011:39 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, 21°10'04"S, 47°51'25"W; MZUSP; ♂; ♀; /larva/; /pupa/]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

chalybeus (Hagen), 1861:285 [Type locality: Cuba; MCZ; ♂; in Macronema]. —Ross, 1952:34 [lectotype; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:18 [♂]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:52 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1980:114 [♂; restriction of type locality]. —Kumanski, 1987:32 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:468 [larva]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:96 [checklist].—Prather, 2003:39 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —López del Castillo et al., 2004:229 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist]. —López del Castillo et al., 2007:171 [distribution; seasonal abundance].

Distribution. Cuba.

cordatus Prather, 2003:41 [Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas, Cerro de la Neblina, Camp IV, 00°58'00"N, 65°57'00"W, el. 760 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Venezuela.

crenatus Navás, 1916b:79 [Type locality: Colombia, Muzo; collection Apollinaris, now lost?; ♂; in Banyallarga]. —Lestage, 1925: 44 [perhaps Phylloicus]. —Flint, 1983a:77 [to Phylloicus]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:42 [as nomen dubium].

Distribution. Colombia.

cressae Prather, 2003:43 [Type locality: Venezuela, Lara, Parque Nacional Dinira, Quebrada Las Pinetas, 09°46'19"N, 70°01'45"W, el. 1889 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela.

cubanus Banks, 1924:445 [Type locality: Cuba; MCZ; [♂]. —Banks, 1938:298 [distribution]. —Flint, 1967c:18 [♂]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Sykora, 1973:399 [♂; larva; pupa]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:52 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:468 [larva]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:97 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:45 [♂; ♀; distribution]. — López del Castillo et al., 2004:229 [distribution]. —González Lazo et al., 2005:260 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

dumasi Santos and Nessimian, 2010a:322 [Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas State, Rio Preto da Eva municipality, tributary to Rio Preto da Eva, 02°32'09.4"S, 59°49'59.3"W; INPA; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

elegans Hogue and Denning, in Denning et al., 1983:184 [Type locality: Panama, Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Island; WSU; ♂]. —Flint, 1991:98 [♂; distribution]. —Maes and Flint, 1988:6 [distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:72 [distribution]. —Aguila, 1992:543 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1196 [checklist]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:46 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:8 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:197 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panama.

elektoros Prather, 2003:48 [Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas, Cerro de la Neblina, Basecamp, in rain forest, 00°51'N, 66°10'W, el. 140 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Martins et al., 2014:337 [biology]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Peru, Venezuela.

ephippium Prather, 2003:50 [Type locality: Ecuador, Tungurahua, 13 km E Baños, el. 1550 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Ecuador.

farri Flint, 1968a:56 [Type locality: Jamaica, St. Andrew, Hope River near Newcastle at mile post 16.5; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Denning et al., 1983:188 [type species of Murielia]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1998:21 [distribution]. —Malicky, 1999:116, 117 [distribution]. —Flint et al., 1999a:73 [returned to Phylloicus]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:97 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:51 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Jamaica.

fenestratus Flint, 1974c:139 [Type locality: Suriname, Nickerie River, Stondansi; RNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1996b:425 [distribution]. —Prather, 2003:53 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2010:9 [distribution as Pará state, Brazil, not Paraná as reported by Prather 2003 and Paprocki et al. 2004]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela.

flinti Prather, 2003:55 [Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Manu Biosphere Res[erve], Pakitza Bio[logical] Sta[tion], trail 1, 1st stream, 11°56'00"S, 71°18'00"W, el. 250 m; MHNJP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist].

—“n. sp. 2” Flint, 1996:425. ­—Prather, 2003:55 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Brazil, Peru.

hansoni Denning, 1983, in Denning et al., 1983:184 [Type locality: Trinidad, Simla Research Station; CAS; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1982:24 [larva; as synonym of P. angustior]. —Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo, 1993:38 [as synonym of P. angustior]. —Flint, 1996a:102 [distribution; as angustior]. —Flint et al., 1999a:57 [as synonym of P. angustior]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:96 [as P. angustior]. —Prather, 2003:57 [resurrected; distribution].

Distribution. Trinidad, Venezuela.

holzenthali Prather, 2003:59 [Type locality: Venezuela, Tachira, Quebrada La Honda, 10 km E La Grita, 08°08'49"N, 71°56'02"W, el. 2300 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Colombia, Venezuela.

iridescens Banks, 1941:397 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Constanza to V. Nuevo; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:18 [lectotype; ♂]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:20 [distribution]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:97 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:61 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:3 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:298 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

lituratus Banks, 1920:350 [Type locality: Colombia, Mariquito; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:19 [♂]. —Denning et al., 1983:182 [redescription]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:72 [distribution; as priapulus]. —Aguila, 1992:543 [distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:274 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:62 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Rueda Martín, 2013:322 [♂; larva; pupa; case; biology; distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:8 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:197 [checklist].

—“species 1” Flint, 1991:98. —Prather, 2003:62 [to synonymy].

priapulus Denning and Hogue, 1983, in Denning et al., 1983:187 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Province, 1.8 miles west of Rincón, Osa Peninsula; LACM; ♂]. —Graça et al., 2001:951 [biology]. —Prather, 2003:62 [to synonym].

Distribution. Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela.

llaviuco Prather, 2003:65 [Type locality: Ecuador, Azuay, Río Llaviuco, 16 km W Quenca, el. 3010 m; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Ecuador.

maculatus (Banks), 1901:369 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Presidio; MCZ; ♀; in Heteroplectron]. —Flint, 1967c:19 [♀; to Phylloicus]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:211 [distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:72 [distribution]. —Prather, 2003:66 [♂; ♀; distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico.

magnus Banks, 1913a:236 [Type locality: Colombia, Monte Socorro; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:19 [♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:68 [♂; ♀].

Distribution. Colombia.

major Müller 1880a:113, 131 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina; MNRJ; case]. —Ulmer, 1905b:77, 78 [as synomyn of assimilis]. —Flint, 1964a:65 [type species of genus]. —Flint, 1966a:11 [♂; taxonomic remarks]. —Prather, 2003:69 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2009:367 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist].

assimilis (Ulmer), 1905a:36 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina; PAN; ♂; in Homoeoplectron]. —Flint, 1966a:11 [♂; lectotype; to synonymy].

Distribution. Brazil, Paraguay.

medius Müller 1880a:132 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina; no type nor type depository designated; sex not stated]. —Ulmer, 1955:418 [literature, discussion]. —Prather, 2003:71 [as nomen dubium]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

mexicanus (Banks), 1900:257 [Type locality: Mexico, Morelos, Cuernavaca; MCZ; ♂ (description implies type is female, but specimen with type label is a male according to Prather, 2003); in Heteroplectron]. —Banks, 1901 :369 [distribution]. —Flint, 1967c:17 [as synonym of P. aeneus]. —Wiggins, 1996:224 [larva; as P. aeneus]. —Prather, 2003:71 [resurrected; ♂; ♀; distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2006:332 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009a:307 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009b:185 [phenology, distribution]. —Ruiter and Blinn, 2009:4 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico, U.S.A.

monneorum Dumas and Nessimian, 2010a:309 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Itatiaia, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio Campo Belo tributary in the track to Lago Azul, 22°27'8.38"S, 44°36'40.99"W, el. 790 m; DZRJ; ♂; ♀]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:9 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist]. —Quinteiro et al., 2014:231 [distribution].

Distribution. Brazil.

monticolus Flint, 1968b:74 [Type locality: Dominica, 1.6 miles west of Pont Casse; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint and Sykora, 1993:50 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1994a:51 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2000:256 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:97 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:74 [♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu and Thomas, 2005:53 [distribution].

Distribution. Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique.

munozi Prather, 2003:75 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, Quebrada Palmitos & falls, ca. 9 km (road) NW tunnel, 09°43'12"N, 83°46'48"W, el. 1400 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:8 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:197 [checklist].

—“species 2” Flint, 1991:99. —Prather, 2003:75 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama.

nigripennis (Banks), 1900:256 [Type locality: Mexico, Puebla, Santa Maria; MCZ; ♀; in Heteroplectron]. —Banks, 1901 :369 [distribution]. —Flint, 1967c:17 [♂; as synonym of P. aeneus]. —Prather, 2003:77 [resurrected; ♂; ♀]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist].

latus (Navás), 1924c:83 [Type locality: Costa Rica; MNHNP; ♂; as Macronema latum]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:53, 71 [as synonym of P. aeneus]. —Prather, 2003:77 [to synonymy].

sagittosa (Ross), 1951a:72 [Type locality: Mexico, Lower California, Todos Santos; CAS; ♂; in Notiomyia]. —Denning, 1964:134 [distribution]. —Flint, 1967:17 [as synonym of P. aeneus]. —Prather, 2003:77 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.

obliquus Navás, 1931b:458 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais; DEI; ♀]. —Prather, 2003:79 [♂; ♀]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2009:368 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist]. —Quinteiro et al., 2014:230 [distribution].

Distribution. Brazil.

panamensis Prather, 2003:80 [Type locality: Panama, Chiriqui, Guadalupe Arriba, 08°52'26"N, 82°33'13"W; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:8 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:197 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

paprockii Prather, 2003:82 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Aldeia de Cachoeira das Pedras, 20°06'49"S, 44°01'25"W, el. 925 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

passulatus Prather, 2003:83 [Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas, Puerto Ayacucho (40kmS) El Tobogán, Caño Coromoto; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Venezuela.

paucartambo Prather, 2003:84 [Type locality: Peru, Cuzco, Paucartambo to Pilcopata rd., Río San Pedro at Puente San Pedro, 13°03'18"S, 71°32'47"W, el. 1445 m; MHNJP; ♂; ♀].

—“n. sp. 1” Flint, 1996:424. —Prather, 2003:84 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Ecuador, Peru.

perija Prather, 2003:86 [Type locality: Venezuela, Zulia, Parque Nacional Perijá, Río Negro in Toromo, 10°03'04"N, 72°42'43"W, el. 360 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Venezuela.

pirapo Prather, 2003:86 [Type locality: Paraguay, Itapua, Pirapo; NMNH; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Argentina, Paraguay.

plaumanni Flint, 1983a:76 [Type locality: Brazil, Edo. Santa Catarina, Seara, 27°09'S, 52°15'W; NMNH; ♂]. —Prather, 2003:88 [♂; ♀]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil.

pulchrus Flint, 1964a:65 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, Maricao Forest; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:21 [♂; misidentificated as P. superbus according to Flint and Sykora, 2004]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:97 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:90 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:3 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:298 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico.

quadridigitatus Prather, 2003:91 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Alto da Serra; NMW; ♂]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

quitacalzon Prather, 2003:92 [Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Toma del Agua, Amazonia Lodge, 12°52'13"S, 71°22'34"W, el. 415 m; MHNJP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Peru.

spectabilis Martynov, 1912:9 [Type locality: Peru, Callanga; ASL; ♂]. —Prather, 2003:94 [♂].

Distribution. Peru.

spinulacolis Prather, 2003:95 [Type locality: Venezuela, Falcón, Río Ricoa near Dos Bocas, 11°17'19"N, 69°26'04"W, el. 157 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Venezuela.

superbus Banks, 1938:298 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente, Pico Turquino; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:19 [lectotype; ♂]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:52 [distribution]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:97 [checklist]. —Prather, 2003:96 [♂]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba, Dominican Republic.

tricalcaratus (Ulmer), 1905a:37 [Type locality: Brazil, Bahia, Freyreiss; ZIUH; ♂; in Homoeoplectron]. —Ulmer, 1905b:78 [to Phylloicus; key]. —Prather, 2003:97 [as nomen dubium]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

trichothylax Prather, 2003:98 [Type locality: Ecuador, Cotopaxi, Latacunga, 13 km W, el. 1372 m; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Ecuador.

velteni Wichard, 2007a:35 [Type locality: Dominican Republic; SMNS; ♂; in amber].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

yolandae Prather, 2003:98 [Type locality: Brazil, Paraná, Municipio Corbélia, Rio Novo, headwaters, 24°53'53"S, 53°14'54"W, el. 700 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:6 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

Family Ecnomidae

This family now contains 10 genera and almost 400 species, mostly confined to the Southern Hemisphere, with Australia home to several endemic genera. In the Northern Hemisphere, species extend into the Palearctic and just barely into the Nearctic regions. In their recent phylogeny, Johanson and Espeland (2009) placed the putative origin of the family as Gondwanan. In the New World, all species but one are placed in the genus Austrotinodes.

The larvae of a number of the Old World species of Ecnomus have been described (Ulmer 1957, Lepneva 1970, Scott 1968) as well as those of Austrotinodes (Flint 1973a, Bowles 1995, Wiggins 1996). They construct silken tubes with fine sand grains incorporated, attached to rocks, wood, or submerged vegetation, and occur in both lotic and lectic waters. The pupa is found in an oval, silken cocoon, firmer than the retreat, with silken sieve openings at each end (Ulmer 1957).

Genus Austrotinodes Schmid [43]

Austrotinodes Schmid, 1955a:132 [Type species: Austrotinodes latior Schmid, 1955a, original designation]. —Flint, 1973a:127 [review of genus]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:108 [review]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Wichard, 2007a:25 [♀; fossil, diagnosis]. —Cartwright, 2009:3 [Australian species, key].

Austrotinodes, originally described for a series of species from southern Chile and adjacent Argentina, is now known to occur throughout the entire Neotropics, including the West Indies and Texas (Bowles 1995), and Australia (Cartwright 2009). Wichard (2007a) recorded a female from Dominican amber, but he did not formally describe it as a new species.

The pupa of A. recta and the larva of an unknown Chilean species were described by Flint (1973a). The larva of A. cubanus was described (Botosaneanu 1994b) and the larva and pupa of A. texensis are also known (Bowles 1995); the latter species is known only from Texas, USA, and is therefore not included below. The adults are generally collected, most commonly by net or rarely at UV lights, near flowing waters, from small streams to rather large rivers. The larvae live in elongate, rather flimsy shelters of sand and silk on the undersides of rocks. Larval food is probably fine detrital matter.

abrachium Thson and Holzenthal, 2010:39 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Rio Paraúna, 3 km S Santana do Riacho, 19°10.986'S, 43°43.485'W, el. 650 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:7 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

adamsae Flint, 1996a:76 [Type locality: Tobago, Hermitage River, 5 km S Charlotteville, 11°19'N, 60°34'W; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:96 [checklist].

Distribution. Tobago.

amazonensis Flint and Denning, 1989b:119 [Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas State, Hwy. AM 010, km 246, 20 km W Itacoatiara; MZUSP; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:7 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

ancylus Flint and Denning, 1989b:114 [Type locality: Ecuador, Pastaza Province, Tzapino, 32 km NE Tigueno at 1°11'S, 77°14'W; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Ecuador.

angustior Schmid, 1955a:133 [Type locality: Chile (ile de Chiloé) Aucar; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:109 [distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

ariasi Flint and Denning, 1989b:118 [Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas State, Reserva Ducke, Hwy. AM 010, km 26; MZUSP; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [distribution]. —Dumas et al., 2010:7 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:7 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

armiger Flint, 1983a:23 [Type locality: Chile, Pcia. Malleco, Cabrería, Cordillera Nahuelbuta; NMNH; ♂]. —Schmid, 1958b:202 [example of angustior this species]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:109 [distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

belchioris Thomson and Holzenthal, 2010:39 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, Córrego Belchior, 20°25.048'S, 43°25.737'W; MZUSP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:7 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

boliviensis Thomson and Holzenthal, 2010:42 [Type locality: Bolivia, Dept. La Paz, AMNI Madidi, Comun. San Miguel de Bala, Arroyo Bacuatra Grande, 14°30.737'S, 67°31.385'W, el. 280 m; UASC; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Bolivia.

bracteatus Flint and Denning, 1989b:119 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo State, Paranapiacaba Biological Station; MZUSP; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:7 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

brevis Schmid, 1958b:201 [Type locality: Chile, Contulmo (Palo Botado); NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1973a:135 [distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

canoabo Flint and Denning, 1989b:116 [Type locality: Venezuela, Carabobo State, near Canoabo; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Venezuela.

cekalovici Flint, 1969b:507 [Type locality: Chile, Prov. Cautin, Puente Hilquilco, south of Quepe; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

chihuahua Flint and Denning, 1989b:109 [Type locality: Mexico, Cuiteco, Chihuahua State; UCD; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

contubernalis Flint and Denning, 1989b:116 [Type locality: Panama, Chiriqui Province, Fortuna Dam Site, 8°44'N, 82°16'W; NMNH; ♂]. —Aguila, 1992:537 [distribution]. —Muñoz and Holzenthal, 1993:568 [♂; distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:4 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:192 [checklist].

species B McElravy et al., 1981:152 [in part, same data as contubernalis]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:116 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

cressae Thomson and Holzenthal, 2010:45 [Type locality: Venezuela, Sucre, Península de Paria, Puerto Viejo, Rio el Pozo, 10°43.073'N, 62°28.569'W, el. 20 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Venezuela.

cubanus Kumanski, 1987:10 [Type locality: Cuba, Province Pinar del Rio, torrent in the Cueva Fuentes; NMSB; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:461 [larva]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:96 [checklist]. —González Lazo et al., 2005:260 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist]. —López del Castillo et al., 2007:171 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

doublesi Muñoz and Holzenthal, 1993:565 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Guanacaste, Estación Pitilla, Río Orosí, 10.991°N, 85.428°W; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Maes, 1999:1184 [checklist]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Nicaragua.

fortunata Flint and Denning, 1989b:114 [Type locality: Panama, Chiriqui Province, Fortuna Dam Site, 8°44'N, 82°16'W; NMNH; ♂]. —Aguila, 1992:537 [distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:4 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:192 [checklist].

species B McElravy et al., 1981:152 [same data as fortuna]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:114 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Panama.

freytagi Flint and Denning, 1989b:110 [Type locality: Honduras, El Zamorano; CAS; ♂]. —Flint, 1973a:140 [Belize example of sedmani this species]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Belize, Honduras.

fuscomarginatus Flint and Denning, 1989b:117 [Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas Federal Territory, Cerro de la Neblina, camp IV, 0°58'N, 65°57'W; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Venezuela.

inbio Muñoz and Holzenthal, 1993:565 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Reserva Forestal San Ramón, Río San Lorencito and tribs., 10.216°N, 84.607°W; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

irwini Flint, 1973a:135 [Type locality: Chile, Prov. Malleco, Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta; UCR; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

labiatus Flint and Sykora, 2004:4 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Pedernales Province, Río Mulito, 13 km N Pedernales, 18°09'N, 71°46'W, el. 230 m; CMNH; ♂]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:298 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

lineatus (Navás), 1934a:166 [Type locality: none given [presumably Chile]; collection Navás, now lost?; ♂; in Tinodes]. —Schmid, 1955a:132 [to Austrotinodes]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

longispinum Thomson and Holzenthal, 2010:45 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Cachoeira do Paredão, Lajeado, Serra da Bocaina, 22°43.533'S, 44°37.274'W, el. 1550 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:7 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

madininae Botosaneanu, 1990a:40 [Type locality: Martinique, tributaries of Rivière Morose (Morne Vert, quartier Bernadette, at the foot of Pitons du Carbet; ZMUA; ♀]. —Flint and Sykora, 1993:49 [checklist]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:96 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Thomas, 2005:51 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Martinique.

mexicanus Flint, 1973a:136 [Type locality: Mexico, San Luis Potosi, El Salto Falls; NMNH; ♂; ♀; wings]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:198 [distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

neblinensis Flint and Denning, 1989b:112 [Type locality: Venezuela, Amazonas Federal Territory, Cerro de la Neblina, basecamp (0°51'N, 66°10'W); NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Venezuela.

nielseni Flint and Denning, 1989b:120 [Type locality: Argentina, Rio Negro Province, Puerto Blest, Lago Nahuel Huapi; UZMC; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina.

panamensis Flint, 1973a:136 [Type locality: Panama, Cerro Campana; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:112 [distribution; biology]. —Aguila, 1992:537 [distribution]. —Muñoz and Holzenthal, 1993:570 [♂; distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [distribution]. —Djernaes, 2011:12 [♂; ♀]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:4 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:192 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama.

paraguayensis Flint, 1983a:22 [Type locality: Paraguay, Dpto. Paraguarí, Colonia Piraretá; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:117 [distribution; correction of original figure]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:7 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Paraguay.

picada Flint, 1983a:22 [Type locality: Chile, Pcia. Chiloe, Huequetrumao, 22 km N Quellon; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

prolixus Flint and Denning, 1989b:120 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Chapéu do Sol, km 110, Serra do Cipó; MZUSP; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2009:357 [distribution]. —Dumas et al., 2010:7 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:319 [checklist]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:9 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:8 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

quadrispina Schmid, 1958b:200 [Type locality: Chile, Contulmo (Palo Botado); NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1973a:140 [distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

recta Schmid, 1964:322 [Type locality: Chile (Malleco) Rucanuco; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1973a:140 [pupa; distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:109 [distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

recurvatus Flint, 1983a:25 [Type locality: Chile, Pcia. Maule, Alto Tregualemu, ca. 20 km SE Chovellén; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

sedmani Flint, 1973a:140 [Type locality: Guatemala, Izabal, Las Escobas, near Matias de Galvez; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:58 [distribution]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:110 [distribution; original Belize record a misidentification of freytagi]. —Aguila, 1992:537 [distribution]. —Muñoz and Holzenthal, 1993:568 [/male; distribution]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:4 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:192 [checklist].

species A McElravy et al., 1981:152 [Recorded from: Panama, Chiriqui Province, Fortuna Dam Site, 8°44'N, 82°16'W]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:110 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama.

talcana (Navás), 1934a:165 [Type locality: Chile, Talca; MZBS; ♀; in Tinodes]. —Schmid, 1949a:340 [♀]. —Schmid 1955a:132 [to Austrotinodes]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:109 [synonymy]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

latior Schmid, 1955a:132 [Type locality: Chile (ile de Chiloé) Aucar; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Flint and Denning, 1989b:109 [to synonymy]. —Cohen, 2004:74 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

taquaralis Thomson and Holzenthal, 2010:47 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Nacional Itatiaia, Rio Taquaral, 22°27.252'S, 44°36.570'W, el. 1300 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:9 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:8 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

triangularis Schmid, 1958b:202 [Type locality: Chile, Pichinahuel, (Arauco); NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

tuxtlensis Flint and Denning, 1989b:114 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz State, Los Tuxtlas area, seeps at “Las Cabanas”; NMNH; ♂]. —Bowles, 1995:160 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

uruguayensis Angrisano, 1994:130 [Type locality: Uruguay, Depto. Paysandú, Sta. Rita; FHCU; ♂; ♀; wings]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:5 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:8 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Uruguay.

Genus Chilocentropus Navás [1]

Chilocentropus Navás, 1934a:167 [Type species: Chilocentropus disparilis Navás, 1934a, original designation]. —Flint et al., 1999a:73 [to Ecnomidae].

This genus is likely a synonym of Austrotinodes, but having no evidence Flint et al., (1999a) made no formal taxonomic changes and we here follow that decision.

disparilis Navás, 1934a:167 [Type locality: Chile, Marga-Marga; collection Navás, now lost?; sex unknown]. —Flint, 1974e:87 [checklist]. —Flint et al., 1999a:73 [status].

Distribution. Chile.

Family Glossosomatidae

This cosmopolitan family of approximately 700 described species is represented in the Neotropics only by members of the subfamily Protoptilinae (save for one species of Glossosomatinae). The 269 Neotropical species, including 5 fossils in amber, are distributed among 11 genera, all endemic to the Neotropics, except for Culoptila, with species also in the southwestern U.S., Protoptila, with species widely distributed in North and South America, and a single, northern Mexican Glossosoma species. One of the Neotropical genera (Cariboptila) is endemic to the Greater Antilles, while 4 others (Canoptila, Mastigoptila, Scotiotrichia, Tolhuaca) are endemic to the Chilean Subregion and/or southeastern Brazil.

In their world revision of Glossosomatidae, Protoptilinae, Robertson and Holzenthal (2013) synonymized Campsiphora Flint, 1964 and Cubanoptila Sykora, 1973 with Cariboptila Flint, 1964. Their study included detailed diagnoses, descriptions, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphological and molecular sequence data to also justify the synonymization of several Asian and North American genera with Padunia Martynov, 1910, Malicky’s (2014) opinion notwithstanding.

Six of the 10 Neotropical genera are known in the immature stages. In general, the tropical species tolerate warmer and more slowly flowing waters than the northern species, but feed in the same manner, i.e., by scraping periphyton and associated detritus from the upper surfaces of rocks. The Neotropical species build typical tortoise-cases, often with dorsal respiratory openings resembling chimneys (Flint 1963a, Blahnik and Holzenthal 2006).

Genus Canoptila Mosely [2]

Canoptila Mosely, 1939a:218 [Type species: Canoptila bifida Mosely, 1939a, original designation]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2006:45 [revision, distribution; phylogeneitc position]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:27 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

Two species are known in the genus, both endemic to the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil (Robertson and Holzenthal 2006). The immature stages and biology are unknown.

bifida Mosely, 1939a:218 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia; BMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2006:51 [♂; redescription]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:51 [♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:8 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

williami Robertson and Holzenthal, 2006:53 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Estadual Intervales, Riacho at Poços Altos, 24°18'20"S, 48°20'52"W, 830 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀]. —Calor, 2011:320 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:8 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

Genus Cariboptila Flint [21 + †4]

Cariboptila Flint, 1964a:17 [Type species: Cariboptila orophila Flint 1964a, original designation]. —Wichard, 2007a:7 [key to fossil species, as Cubanoptila]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 28 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

Campsiophora Flint, 1964a:14 [Type species: Campsiophora pedophila Flint 1964a, original designation]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 28 [review of genus, phylogeny, to synonymy].

Cubanoptila Sykora, in Botosaneanu and Sykora, 1973:383 [Type species: Cubanoptila cubana Sykora, 1973, original designation]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 28 [new, subsequent designation of type species C. cubana by virtual tautonomy; review of genus, phylogeny, to synonymy].

Muangpaipsyche Malicky and Silalom, 2012:22 [Type species: Muangpaipsyche areopagita Malicky and Silalom, 2012, by monotypy]. —Malicky 2013:42 [as synonym of Campsiophora]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:28 [to synonymy].

Cariboptila is endemic to the islands of the Greater Antilles. The immatures stages of C. orophila and C. jamaicensis were described by Flint (1964a, 1968a, respectively). The immature stages of C. cubana and C. purpurea were described by Sykora (in Botosaneanu and Sykora 1973), and details were mentioned for C. guajira and C. poquita by Botosaneanu (1994b). Flint (1964a) also described the immature stages of C. pedophila (as Campsiophora) and noted that the larvae occur by the hundreds on the surfaces of rocks in riffles of clear, lowland streams. Four fossil species (in amber) are known from the Dominican Republic.

arawak (Flint), 1968a:13 [Type locality: Jamaica, St. Andrew, Yallahs River, Chestervale; NMNH; ♂; in Campsiophora]. —Flint, 1968b:80 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1998:7 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:80 [distribution]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Jamaica.

aurulenta Flint, 1974a:7 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Convento, 12 km S of Constanza; NMNH; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:8 [distribution]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:80 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:5 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:298 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

botosaneanui (Kumanski), 1987:4 [Type locality: Cuba, Pinar del Río, ca. 15 km SE from La Palma, spring region of Río El Caimito; NMSB; ♂; ♀; in Cubanoptila]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Cuba.

caab Botosaneanu, 1996:8 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, springbrooks in La Descubierta, north shore of Lake Enriquillo; ZMUA; ♂; ♀]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:80 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:5 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

calcigena Flint, 1974a:8 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, La Palma, 12 km E of El Río; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:6 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

cubana (Sykora), in Botosaneanu and Sykora, 1973:384 [Type locality: Cuba, Mogotes de Viñales (Pinar del Río); IZAC; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; in Cubanoptila]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:43 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1980:93 [distribution]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution; correction of figure]. —López del Castillo et al., 2004:229 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [♂; to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Cuba.

grimaldii (Wichard), 1995a:160 [Type locality: Dominican Republic; AMNH; ♂; in amber; in Cubanoptila]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [checklist]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:28 [to Cariboptila, by synonymy of Cubanoptila].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

guajira Botosaneanu, 1977:244 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente, Massif de Gran Piedra, Arroyos de la Idalia; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:43 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:453 [larva]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

hispaniolica Flint, 1974a:8 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, La Palma, 12 km E of El Río; NMNH; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:8 [distribution]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:6 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

jamaicensis Flint, 1968a:16 [Type locality: Jamaica, St. Andrew, Hope River near Newcastle at milepost 16.5; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1968b:79 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1998:7 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution].

Distribution. Jamaica.

longiscapa (Wichard), 2007a:7 [Type locality: Dominican Republic; SMNS; ♂; in amber; in Cubanoptila]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:28 [to Cariboptila, by synonymy of Cubanoptila].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

madremia (Botosaneanu), 1977:239 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente, Baracoa, Rio Yumuri; ZMUA; ♂; ♀; in Cubanoptila]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:43 [distribution]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Cuba.

mathisi Flint and Sykora, 2004:6 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Monseñor Nouel Province, 8.7 km W Bonao [jct. Carretera Duarte and rt. 12], 19°01.8'N, 70°29.4'W, 890 m; NMNH; ♂]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

mederi (Wichard), 1989:93 [Type locality: Dominican Republic; NMNH; ♂; in amber; in Cubanoptila]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [checklist]. —Wichard, 2007a:8 [♂]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:28 [to Cariboptila, by synonymy of Cubanoptila].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

mulata (Botosaneanu), 1977:248 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente, Baire, Rio Mogote; ZMUA; ♂; in Campsiophora]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:44 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:453 [larva]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:80 [distribution]. —López del Castillo et al., 2004:229 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist]. —López del Castillo et al., 2007:171 [distribution; seasonal abundance]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Cuba.

muybonita (Botosaneanu), 1977:237 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente, Baracoa, Rio Sabanilla; ZMUA; ♂; ♀; in Cubanoptila]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:43 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:453 [larva]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Cuba.

orophila Flint, 1964a:17 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, El Semil, near Villalba; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1968b:79 [checklist]. —Flint and Masteller, 1993:140 [biology]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution].

Distribution. Puerto Rico.

paradoxa Flint and Sykora, 2004:6 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Independencia Province, La Descubierta, 18°34.1'N, 71°43.8, 0 m; NMNH; ♂]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

pedophila (Flint), 1964a:15 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, Maricao; NMNH; ♂; in Campsiophora]. —Flint, 1968b:80 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1991a:116 [distrubution]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:6 [distribution]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:80 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:5 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:298 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [♂; to Cariboptila].

areopagita (Malicky and Silalom), 2012:22 [Type locality: Thailand, Prov. Mae Hong Son, Muang Pai Resort, 19°23'N, 98°23'E, 730 m; Collection Malicky; ♂; in Muangpaipsyche]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to synonymy, distribution in question]. —Malicky, 2014:45 [good species].

Distribution. Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Thailand [?].

poinari (Wichard), 1989:92 [Type locality: Dominican Republic; UCB; ♂; in amber; in Cubanoptila]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [checklist]. —Wichard, 2007a:8 [♂]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:28 [to Cariboptila, by synonymy of Cubanoptila].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

poquita Botosaneanu, 1977:242 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente, Baracoa, Rio Yumuri; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:43 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1980:92 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:453 [larva]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

purpurea (Sykora), in Botosaneanu and Sykora, 1973:387 [Type locality: Cuba, Río Cañas, Río Frio, El Cobre (Oriente); IESHC; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case; in Cubanoptila]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:43 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1980:91 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1987:5 [♀; distribution]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution; correction of figure]. —López del Castillo et al., 2004:229 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist]. —López del Castillo et al., 2007:171 [distribution; seasonal abundance]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Cuba.

soltera Botosaneanu, 1977:246 [Type locality: Cuba, Pinar del Rio, Soroa, Rio Manatiales; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:43 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1980:96 [♀; distribution]. —Kumanski 1987:6 [distribution]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:149 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

tridens (Botosaneanu), in Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1998:7 [Type locality: Jamaica, Rio Munho in its upper reach at Grantham, a few km. W. of Frankfield, Clarendon; ZMUA; ♂; /female; in Cubanoptila]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1999:325 [♂; distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution; population differences]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:29 [to Cariboptila].

Distribution. Jamaica.

trispinata Flint, 1992c:380 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, El Verde Field Station, Quebrada Prieta; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint and Masteller, 1993:140 [biology]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution].

Distribution. Puerto Rico.

Genus Culoptila Mosely [23 + †1]

Culoptila Mosely, 1954:336 [Type species: Culoptila aluca Mosely, 1954, original designation]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:1 [revision, key to species]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 30 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

The genus was revised by Blahnik and Holzenthal (2006). Twenty-six species are known, 3 exclusively from north of Mexico - C. cantha (Ross), C. kimminsi Denning, C. plummerensis Blahnik and Holzenthal) - and 23 from southwestern US and Mexico through Central America to Costa Rica and Panama. A fossil species was described from Mexican amber (Wichard et al., 2006), one of the first caddisflies described from these mid-Miocene inclusions. Wiggins (1996) described the larva of C. moselyi from Arizona, and Houghton and Stewart (1998b) described all 5 larval instars, the pupa, and the case of C. cantha from Texas. Larvae seem to prefer larger rivers (Wiggins 1996). Blahnik and Holzenthal (2006) figured a larva and cases from Costa Rica. Houghton and Stewart (1998a) provided a detailed life history study and larval descriptions of C. cantha, from Texas; some of the Mexican species may have similar life histories and habitat preferences.

acaena Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso, 1996a:448 [Type locality: Mexico, Guerrero, carretera 130, 80 km NW from Zihuatanejo; IBUNAM; ♂]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:11 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Mexico.

aguilerai Wichard, Solórzano-Kraemer and Luer, 2006:39 [Type locality: Chiapas, Simojovel de Allende, approximately 50 km from Tuxtla Gutiérrez, 17°08'19"N, 92°42'00"W, 600 m; IHNEC; ♂; in amber].

Distribution. Mexico.

aluca Mosely, 1954:337 [Type locality: Mexico, Caracuaro; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:192 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:13 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Mexico.

amberia Mosely, 1954:338 [Type locality: Mexico, Liquidamber; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:192 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:14 [♂; redescription]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

azulae Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso, 1996a:451 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Reserva Montes Azules; IBUNAM; ♂]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:15 [♂; redescription]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

barrerai Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso, 1996a:448 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Pochutla, Finca Progreso; IBUNAM; ♂]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:17 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Mexico.

bidentata Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:17 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Río Pizote, ca. 5 km N Dos Rios, 10°56'53"N, 85°17'28"W, 470 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

buenoi Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:19 [Type locality: Mexico, Puebla, 26 km N Xicotepec de Juárez, km 93, Tra 130; UNAM; ♂].

Distribution. Mexico.

cascada Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:22 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, Quebrada Palmitos & falls, ca. 9 km (road) NW tunnel, 9°43'12"N, 83°46'48"W, 1400 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

costaricensis Flint, 1974a:9 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Ojo de Agua, route 2, km 75; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:54 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:23 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

denningi Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso, 1996a:451 [Type locality: Mexico, Guerrero, Ruta 130, 80 km NW from Zihuatanejo; IBUNAM; ♂]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:24 [♂; redescription]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

hamata Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:26 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alahuela, Río Toro, 3.0 km (road) SE Bajos del Toro, 10°12'14"N, 85°18'58"W, 1530 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

jamapa Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso, 1996a:446 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Río Jamapa; NMNH; ♂]. —Rojas-Ascencio, et al., 2002:377 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:28 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Mexico.

montanensis Flint, 1967b:2 [Type locality: Guatemala, El Progreso, Finca La Cajeta; NMNH; ♂]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:30 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Guatemala.

moselyi Denning, 1965c:269 [Type locality: U.S.A., Arizona, Apache County, Greer, White Mountains (near Springerville), 8,00 ft.; CAS; ♂; female]. —Houghton, 2001:90 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2006:332 [biology]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:31 [♂; redescription]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009b:185 [phenology, distribution].

Distribution. Mexico, U.S.A.

nahuatl Flint, 1974a:8 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Fortín de las Flores; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:192 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:32 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Mexico.

pararusia Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:34 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, trib. to Rio de Teapa on Mex. 195, 1.5 mi. N Ixhuatan; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

rusia Mosely, 1954:341 [Type locality: Mexico, La Prusia; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:192 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:38 [♂; redescription]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Guatemala, Mexico.

saltena Mosely, 1954:342 [Type locality: Mexico, Huixtla; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:192 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:39 [♂; redescription]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.

tapanti Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:40 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, Río Grande de Orosí, 9°41'10"N, 83°45'22"W, 1650 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

tarascanica Flint, 1974a:9 [Type locality: Mexico, Michoacan, Carapan, route 15, km 431; NMNH; ♂]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:42 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Mexico.

thoracica (Ross), 1938b:114 [Type locality: U.S.A.: Boulder, Wyoming, along tributary of Big Piney River; INHS; ♂; in Protoptila]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:42 [♂; redescription; distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2006:329, 332 [ecology].

Distribution. Mexico, U.S.A.

unispina Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:44 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Río Bellavista, ca 1.5 km NW Las Alturas, 8°57'04"N, 82°50'46"W, 1400 m; UMSP; ♂; larval case]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

vexillifera Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2006:45 [Type locality: Guatemala, Chimaltenango; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Guatemala.

Genus Glossosoma Curtis [1]

Glossosoma Curtis, 1834:216 [Type species: Glossosoma boltoni Curtis, 1834, monotype]. —Ross, 1956a:127 [revision].

This is a large genus of primarily Holarctic and Oriental species. One western North American species, G. ventrale Banks, extends southward into northern Mexico. Larvae of the genus have been described a number of times (Wiggins 1996). They feed on periphyton and detritus, which they scrape from the surfaces of rocks and other substrates in rapid, cool streams.

ventrale Banks, 1904a:109 [Type locality: United States, New Mexico, East Las Vegas; MCZ; ♂]. —Ross, 1956a:153 [redescription]. —Flint, 1967d:165 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:192 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009a:302 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009b:185 [phenology, distribution].

Distribution. Mexico, U.S.A.

Genus Itauara Müller [22]

Itauara Müller, 1888:275 [Type species: Antoptila brasiliana Mosely, 1939a, subsequent selection of Flint et al., 1999a]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:46 [revision, key to species]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 31 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

Antoptila Mosely, 1939a:219 [Type species: Antoptila brasiliana Mosely, 1939a, original designation]. —Angrisano, 1993:59 [larval and adult characterization]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [to synonymy].

Robertson and Holzenthal (2011) revised this exclusively South American genus, adding 18 new species to the 4 previously known. Species are now known from Venezuela, Guyana, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. The immature stages of the type species were described by Angrisano (1993). They were found in a sandy bottom stream with scarce vegetation, mostly of Characeae algae on whose stems the pupae were fixed.

alexanderi Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:50 [Type locality: Brazil, Nova Friburgo, 22°16'00"S, 042°31'59” W, 950 m; NMNH; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

amazonica (Flint), 1971c:13 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Rio Marauiá, Endstation langer Cachoeira, Fluss tritt hier aus dem Gebirge mit starkem Gefálle; NMNH; ♂; in Antoptila]. —Angrisano, 1999:29 [checklist]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [to Itauara]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:52 [♂; redescription]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

bidentata Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:54 [Type locality: Guyana, Kumu, 25 km SE Lethem, 3°15'54"N, 59°43'36” W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Guyana.

blahniki Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:56 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Estação Biológica Boraceia, Rio Guaratuba, 23°40'02"S, 45°53'46"W, 775 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

brasiliana (Mosely), 1939a:220 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia; BMNH; ♂; in Antoptila]. —Angrisano, 1993:59 [♀; larva; pupa; case; distribution]. —Angrisano, 1997b:58 [distribution]. —Angrisano, 1999:29 [checklist]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [to Itauara]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Angrisano and Sganga, 2007:22 [♂; distribution]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:58 [♂; redescription]. —Manzo et al., 2014:166 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay.

charlotta Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:60 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Serra do Cipó, Cardeal Mota, Cachoeira Veu da Noiva, 19°18'55"S, 43°36'16"W, 800 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

emilia Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:62 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Estação Biológica Boraceia, Rio Coruja, 23°40'06"S, 45°53'57"W, 850 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

flinti Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:65 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão, Rio Galharada, 22°41'40"S, 45°27'47"W, 1530 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

guarani (Angrisano), 1993:57 [Type locality: Argentina, Misiones, Dto. Belgrano, río Urugua-í; MACN; ♂; ♀; in Antoptila]. —Angrisano, 1999:29 [checklist]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [to Itauara]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:67 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Argentina.

guyanensis Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:69 [Type locality: Guyana, Dubulay Ranch, Warniabo Cr., 5°39'48"N, 57°53'24"W [sic E]; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Guyana.

jamesii Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:71 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, trib. to Rio do Salto, Ibitipoca, Fazenda Engenho, 21°44'06"S, 43°53'56"W, 875 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:9 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

julia Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:73 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio Campo Belo, trail to Veu da Noiva, 22°25'42"S, 44°37'10"W, 1310 m; MZUSP; ♂; adult habitus]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:9 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:10 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

lucinda Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:75 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Parque Nacional do Caparaó, small trib. to Rio Caparaó, Vale Verde, 20°25'02"S, 41°, 50'46"W, 1350 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:10 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

ovis Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:77 [Type locality: Guyana, Kanuku Mountains, Kumu River & Falls, 3°15'54"N, 59°43'30"W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Guyana, Venezuela.

peruensis Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:79 [Type locality: Peru, Madre de Dios, Manu Biosphere Reserve, Pakitza Biological Station, Trail 2, 1st stream, 12°07'00"S, 70°58'00"W, 250 m; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Peru.

plaumanni (Flint), 1974a:7 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia; NMNH; ♂; in Antoptila]. —Angrisano, 1993:59 [♀; distribution]. —Angrisano, 1997b:58 [distribution]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [to Itauara]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:81 [♂; redescription]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:10 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay.

rodmani Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:83 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Corrego das Aguas Pretas & tribs., ca. 15 km S Aiuruoca, 22°03'42"S, 44°38'14"W, 1386 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:10 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

simplex Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:86 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Cachoeira dos Posses, 22°46'26"S, 44°36'15"W, 1250 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:10 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

spiralis Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:88 [Type locality: Guyana, Paramakatoi, 4°42'00"N, 59°42'48"W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Guyana.

stella Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:90 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Estação Biológica Boraceia, Rio Venerando & tribs, 23°39'11"S, 45°53'25"W, 850 m; UZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:10 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

tusci Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:92 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Rio das Flores, Macaé de Cima, 10 km SE Mury, 1000 m; MZUSP; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:10 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

unidentata Robertson and Holzenthal, 2011:94 [Type locality: Guyana, Kanuku Mountains, Kumu River & Falls, 3°15'54"N, 59°43'30"W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Guyana.

Genus Mastigoptila Flint [9]

Mastigoptila Flint, 1967a:49 [Type species: Mastigoptila curvicornuta Flint, 1967a, original designation]. —Schmid, 1958b:191 [diagnosis of Chilean species, as Antoptila]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 33 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

The 9 species of Mastigoptila are known only from the Chilean Subregion of the Neotropics. Valverde and Miserendino (1998) fully described the larva and pupa of Mastigoptila longicornuta, and presented data on its population densities and physical characteristics of the stream. Adults are commonly taken at light near fast-flowing rivers and streams.

bicornuta (Schmid), 1958b:192 [Type locality: Chile, Ñuble, Tregualemu; NMNH; ♂; in Antoptila]. —Flint 1967a:50 [to Mastigoptila]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

brevicornuta (Schmid), 1958b:192 [Type locality: Chile, Chiloé, Aulen; NMNH; ♂; in Antoptila]. —Flint 1967a:50 [to Mastigoptila, distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

complicornuta Holzenthal, 2004:111 [Type locality: Chile, VIII Región del Bío-Bío, Bío-Bío, small trib. to Río Queco, 5 km E Ralco, 37°51.619'S, 71°36.257'W, el. 500 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Chile.

curvicornuta Flint, 1967a:50 [Type locality: Chile, Ñuble, Río Ñuble about 80 km. north of Los Angeles; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

ecornuta Flint, 1974a:9 [Type locality: Chile, Arauco, Caramavida; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

elae Holzenthal, 2004:113 [Type locality: Chile, VII Región del Araucania, Cautín, nr. Pucon; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Chile.

longicornuta (Schmid), 1958b:193 [Type locality: Chile, Ñuble, Los Pellines; NMNH; ♂; in Antoptila]. —Flint 1967a:50, 51 [to Mastigoptila, distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Valverde and Miserendino, 1998:49 [larva; pupa; biology]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Miserendino and Brand, 2007:312 [biology]. —Brand and Miserendino, 2011a:29 [biology]. —Brand and Miserendino, 2014:6 [community ecology].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

ruizi (Navás), 1933c:110 [Type locality: Chile, Bío-Bío; DEI; ♂; in Mortoniella]. —Flint, 1974e:83, 86 [to Mastigoptila, distribution]. —Flint, 1990:116 [♂ lectotype].

duplicicornuta (Schmid), 1964:311 [Type locality: Chile, Liucura, Malleco; NMNH; ♂; in Antoptila]. —Flint 1967a:50 [to Mastigoptila, distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Flint, 1990:116 [to synonymy]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

ventricornuta Flint, 1967a:51 [Type locality: Chile, Valdivia, Río Llancahue; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

Genus Merionoptila Schmid [1]

Merionoptila Schmid, 1959:477 [Type species: Merionoptila wygodzinskyi Schmid, 1959, original designation].

The immature stages are not known for this monotypic genus, but the biology of the adult was described by Schmid (1959). The small, brachypterous adults live on the surface of the water of small streams flowing through high elevation, xerophytic areas.

wygodzinskyi Schmid, 1959:482 [Type locality: Argentina, Tucumán, Quebrada de Amaicha; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:222 [checklist, distribution]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina.

Genus Mortoniella Ulmer [97]

Mortoniella Ulmer, 1906:95 [Type species: Mortoniella bilineata Ulmer, 1906, by monotypy]. —Flint 1963a:465 [description], —Flint, 1996b:381 [key]. —Sykora 1999:377 [review]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:1 [revision of Central American species]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:1 [revision of austral South American species]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 34 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

Mexitrichia Mosely, 1937:158 [Type species: Mexitrichia leroda Mosely, 1937, original designation]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:9 [to synonymy].

Paraprotoptila Jacquemart, 1963:342 [Type species: Paraprotoptila armata Jacquemart, 1963, by monotypy]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [to synonymy].

The 97 described species of Mortoniella are known from Mexico, Central, and South America as far south as Argentina and southeastern Brazil. Flint (1963a) and Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo (1993) described the immature stages. They are commonly found in fast-flowing rivers and streams on stones and boulders; the adults come readily to lights placed near these habitats.

acauda Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:8 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Urubici, Cachoeira Avencal, 28°02'50"S, 049°37'00"W, 1260 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:11 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

aequalis (Flint), 1963a:472 [Type locality: Peru, Río Pichis, Puerto Bermudez; CU; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [to Mortoniella; ormina species group].

Distribution. Peru.

agosta Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:8 [Type locality, Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Macaé, Macaé de Cima, 22°23'41"S, 042°30'08"W, 1000 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:11 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

akantha Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:11 [Type locality: Costa Rica, San José: Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, Quebrada Sanguijuela, 10°09'36"N, 83°57'47"W, 800 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

albolineata Ulmer, 1907a:44 [Type locality: Brazil, Sta. Catharina [sic]; PAN; ♀; ♂ unnoticed in series]. —Mosely 1939a:218 [from Mortoniella to Antoptila?, distribution]. —Flint 1963a:465. —Flint, 1966a:2 [to Mexitrichia, ♂ lectotype, teutonia erroneously to synonymy]. —Flint, 1972b:225 [distribution]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:223 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [leroda species group]. —Calor, 2011:320 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:10 [♂; redescription; distribution; albolineata subgroup]. —Manzo et al., 2014:167 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:11 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay.

alicula Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:47 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Macaé, Macaé de Cima, 22°23'41"S, 042°30'08"W, 1000 m; MZUSP; ♂; ormina species group]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:11 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

anakantha Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:14 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Río Bellavista trib., Las Alturas, road to quarry, 08°57'07"N, 82°50'53"W, 1480 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

angulata Flint, 1963a:468 [Type locality: Ecuador, stream 11 miles west of Pujilí; NMNH; ♂; larva; pupa]. —Sykora, 1999:386 [bilineata group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

apiculata Flint, 1963a:466 [Type locality: Ecuador, 1 mile east of Papallacta; NMNH; ♂; larva; pupa]. —Knutson and Flint, 1979:32 [Empididae predators in pupal cocoons]. —Sykora, 1999:386 [bilineata group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

argentinica Flint, 1974a:13 [Type locality: Argentina, Catamarca, N. Aconquija; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Sykora, 1999:386 [argentinica group]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:224 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:67 [♂; redescription; unplaced]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina.

aries (Flint), 1963a:470 [Type locality: Ecuador, Napo-Pastaza Province, Río Chingual, 8 miles east of El Pun; NMNH; ♂; immature larva; pupa; in Mexitrichia]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [to Mortoniella; ormina species group].

Distribution. Ecuador, Peru.

armata (Jacquemart), 1963:342 [Type locality: Argentina [San Juan Province], Rio Sasso; IRSNB; ♂; in Paraprotoptila]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [to Mexitrichia, no specimen on type slide]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella, leroda species group]. —Manzo et al., 2014:167 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina.

asymmetris Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:12 [Type locality: Paraguay, Amambay, Cerro Cora, Río Aquidaban; NMNH; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Souza et al., 2013a:3 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:11 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Paraguay.

atenuata (Flint), 1963a:473 [Type locality: Peru, Río Pichis, Puerto Bermudez; CU; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Flint, 1996b:382 [discussion, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Peru.

aviceps Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:16 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Reserva Forestal San Ramón, Río San Lorencito & tribs., 10°12'58"N, 84°36'25"W, 980 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

bifurcata Sykora, 1999:382 [Type locality: Venezuela, Yacambu, 1200 m; NMNH; ♂; flinti group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Venezuela.

bilineata Ulmer, 1906:97 [Type locality: Ecuador, Chimbo; RNH; ♂]. —Flint 1963a:466 [♂]. —Flint, 1991:22 [♂; distribution]. —Sykora 1999:386 [bilineata group]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:61 [female].

Distribution. Colombia, Ecuador.

bocaina Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:55 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, Cachoeira dos Posses, 22°46'26"S, 044°36'15"W, 1250 m; ♂; ♀; MZUSP; velasquezi species group]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:11 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

bolivica (Schmid), 1958b:193 [Type locality: Bolivia, Coroico; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:223 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Bolivia.

brachyrhachos Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:18 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Loxicha, Pluma Hidalgo, 450 m; ♂; IBUNAM; leroda species group].

Distribution. Mexico.

buenoi Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:19 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Loxicha, Pluma Hidalgo, 450 m; ♂; IBUNAM; leroda species group].

Distribution. Mexico.

carinula Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:22 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, Quebrada Segunda @ administration building, 9°45'40"N, 83°47'13"W, 1250 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

catarinensis (Flint), 1974a:12 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [to Mortoniella; ormina species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:49 [♂; redescription]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:11 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

caudicula Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:24 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Río Pizote, ca. 5 km (air) S Brasilia, 10°58'19"N, 85°20'42"W, 390 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

chicana Sykora, 1999:378 [Type locality: Eduador, Chin. [sic], Rio Chicana, 880 m, 5 km N Yanzantza; NMNH; ♂; bilineata group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

collegarum (Rueda Martín and Gibon), 2008:216 [Type locality: Bolivia, Tarija: O´Connor, Saladito Ríver, 21°18'28"S, 64°7'2.8"W, 900 m; ♂; IML; in Mexitrichia]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:51 [♂; redescription; to Mortoniella, ormina species group].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Chile.

crescentis Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:14 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Campo Belo, trail to Veu da Noiva, 22°25'42"S, 044°37'10"W, 1310 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:10 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

denticulata Sykora, 1999:382 [Type locality: Venezuela, Me. [sic], Rt. 4, 27 km W Merida; NMNH; ♂; flinti group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Venezuela.

dolonis Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:16 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Pedregulho, Riberão São Pedro, 20°09'07"S, 047°30'38"W, 617 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

eduardoi (Rueda Martín and Gibon), 2008:216 [Type locality: Bolivia, La Paz, Yara River near Caranavi; ♂; IML; in Mexitrichia]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:53 [to Mortoniella, velasquezi species group].

Distribution. Bolivia.

elongata (Flint), 1963a:474 [Type locality: Colombia, Valle, Tablones, Finca la Florida; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Flint, 1991:20 [♂; distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

enchrysa Flint, 1991:24 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Risaralda, Termales de Santa Rosa de Cabal; NMNH; ♂]. —Sykora, 1999:386 [enchrysa group]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

falcicula Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:24 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Puente Angel, Rt. 175, 1420 m; ♂; IBUNAM; leroda species group].

Distribution. Mexico.

flinti Sykora, 1999:382 [Type locality: Venezuela, Est. Exp. Cataurito, ca. 32 km E Villa; NMNH; ♂; flinti group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Venezuela.

florica (Flint), 1974a:10 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Río Tacolapan, route 180, km 551; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:192 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2005:75 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:27, 69 [♂; redescription; distribution; to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Mexico, Nicaragua.

foersteri (Schmid), 1964:311 [Type locality: Columbia, Cundinamarca, Monterredondo; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Sykora, 1999:386 [to Mortoniella; bilineata group]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

froehlichi Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:55 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parati, Riacho Perequê-açu, Sitio Cachoeira Grande, 23°13'14"S, 044°47'24"W, 120 m; ♂; ♀; MZUSP; velasquezi species group]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

guahybae Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011: 19 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão, Rio Galharada, 22°41'40"S, 045°27'47"W, 1530 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

guairica (Flint), 1974a:12 [Type locality: Paraguay, Salto de Guaira; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [to Mortoniella; incertae sedis]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:67 [♂; redescription; unplaced].

Distribution. Paraguay.

hodgesi Flint, 1963a:470 [Type locality: Ecuador, stream 5 miles south of Antisana; NMNH; ♂; larva; pupa]. —Sykora 1999:386 [bilineata group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

hystricosa Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:19 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Parque Ecológica Spitzkopf, confl. Rio Ouro & Rio Caeté, 27°00'21"S, 49°06'42"W, 140 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

intervales Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:21 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Estadual Intervales, Rio do Carmo, 24°18'59"S, 48°25'15"W, 560 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

iridescens Flint, 1991:24 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, 12 km N Fredonia (road to Medellín); NMNH; ♂]. —Sykora 1999:386 [bilineata group]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

latispina Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:24 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio Campo Belo, trail to Veu da Noiva, 22°25'42"S, 44°37'10"W, 1310 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:10 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

leei (Flint), 1974a:12 [Type locality: Colombia, Valle, Río Raposo; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Flint, 1991:21 [♂; distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

leroda (Mosely), 1937:158 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Barranca Honda; BMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:29, 69 [♂; redescription; to Mortoniella; leroda species group]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.

limona (Flint), 1981a:9 [Type locality: Venezuela, Aragua, Maracay, Río Limón, Estación Piscicultura; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Venezuela.

longispina Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:24 [Type locality: Brazil Santa Catarina, Urubici, Rio Canoas, road to Campo dos Padres, 28°00'15"S, 049°22'24"W, 1100 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:12 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

macarenica (Flint), 1974a:11 [Type locality: Colombia, Meta, Refugio Macarena; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [to Mortoniella; ormina species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

macuta (Botosaneanu), 1998:460 [Type locality: Venezuela, Macuto, Rio del Teleferico, about 12 km N from the northern limits of Caracas; ZMUA; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Venezuela.

marini (Rueda Martín and Gibon), 2008:219 [Type locality: Bolivia, La Paz, small triburaty of the Unduavi River at Puente Villa, 16°24'03"S, 67°38'30"W; ♂; IML; in Mexitrichia]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:45 [to Mortoniella, leroda species group, punensis subgroup].

Distribution. Bolivia.

meloi Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:69 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Estadual Intervales, Rio do Carmo, 24°18'59"S, 048°25'15"W, 560 m; MZUSP; ♂; unplaced]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

meralda (Mosely), 1954:342 [Type locality: Mexico, Huixtla; BMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:54 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Rojas-Ascencio, et al., 2002:377 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:31 [♂; redescription; to Mortoniella; leroda species group]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.

mexicana Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:34 [Type locality: Mexico, Puebla, Patla; NMNH; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Mexico.

munozi Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:34 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Río Chitaría, rt 10, 10 km NW Río Reventazón, 9°55'12"N, 83°36'14"W, 740 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

opinionis Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:37 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapantí, Quebrada Palmitos & falls, ca. 9 km (road) NW tunnel, 9°43'12"N, 83°46'48"W, 1400 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

ormina (Mosely), 1939a:222 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catharina [sic], Nova Teutonia; BMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [to Mortoniella; ormina species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:53 [♂; redescription]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

pacuara (Flint), 1974a:11 [Type locality: Costa Rica, San Jose, Río General, Pacuare (10 miles S of San Isidro); NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:54 [distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:39, 70 [♂; redescription; to Mortoniella; ormina species group].

Distribution. Colombia, Costa Rica.

panamensis Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:42 [Type locality: Panama, San Blas, Río Carti Grande, 2 km W Nusagandi; NMNH; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

papillata Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:44 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Parque Nacional Guanacaste, ca. 0.7 km N Est. Maritza, 10°57'36"N, 85°30'00"E, 550 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

paraenchrysa Sykora, 1999:381 [Type locality: Bolivia, La Paz, Coroico, 2200 m; NMNH; ♂; enchrysa group]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:224 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Bolivia.

paraguaiensis Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:26 [Type locality: Paraguay, Alto Parana, SE Naranja, ca. 20 km S. Pto. Stroessner; NMNH; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup].

Distribution. Paraguay.

paralineata Sykora, 1999:378 [Type locality: Eduador, Zamb.-Chin. [sic], Rio Jamboe, 1,340 m, 21 km S Zamora; NMNH; ♂; bilineata group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

parauna Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:28 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Rio Paraúna, 3 km S Santana do Riacho, 19°10'59"S, 043°43'29"W, 650 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

paraunota Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:31 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Seara (Nova Teutônia), 27°11'S, 052°23'W, 300-500 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil.

pectinella Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:46 [Type locality: Panama, Chiriquí, Fortuna Dam Site nr. Hornitos, 1050 m; NMNH; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

pocita (Flint), 1983a:8 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Salta, Río Pescado, W Orán; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:223 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:39 [♂; redescription; pocita subgroup].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia.

propinqua Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:46 [Type locality: Costa Rica, San José, Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, Quebrada Sanguijuela, 10°09'36"N, 83°57'47"W, 800 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

pumila Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:41 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Encontro dos Rios (Macaé/Bonito), 6 km S Lumiar, 22°23'29"S, 042°18'42"W, 600 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, pumila subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

punensis (Flint), 1983a:9 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Tucumán, Rt. 307, La Angostura; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:223 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:45 [♂; redescription; punensis subgroup]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia.

pusilla Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:43 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Corrego Pitanga, upstream of confl. with Rio Santo Antônio, 19°05'40"S, 042°39'54"W, 238 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, pumila subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

quinuas Harper and Turcotte, 1985:137 [Type locality: Ecuador, Quinuas Valley near Cuenca, small affluents of Río Matadero, (79°09'W, 02°48'S); UMQ; ♂]. —Sykora 1999:384 [♂; flinti group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

rancura (Mosely), 1954:345 [Type locality: Mexico, Barranca Honda; BMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:49, 69 [♂; redescription; to Mortoniella; leroda species group]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

redunca Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:49 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Río Toro, 3.0 km (road) SW Bajos del Toro, 10°12'14"N, 84°18'58"W, 1530 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015a:4 [distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

rodmani Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:52 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja, Quebrada Zopilote, 10°45'54"N, 85°18'32"W, 785 m; ♂; UMSP]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [Mortoniella, incertae sedis].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

roldani Flint, 1991:23 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Río Aurrá at km 50, E San Jerónimo; NMNH; ♂]. —Sykora 1999:386 [bilineata group]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

rovira (Flint), 1974a:10 [Type locality: Panama, Rovira, Chiriquí, David; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Aguila, 1992:533 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:54 [♂; redescription; distribution; to Mortoniella, leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

santiaga Sykora, 1999:383 [Type locality: Ecuador, Morone, Santiago, 34 km SE Gualaceo, Rio Culebrillas, 2200 m; CMNH; ♂; flinti group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

sicula Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:56 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Parque Nacional Guanacaste, Río Tempisquito, Estación Maritza, 10°57'29"N, 85°29'49"W, 550 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

similis Sykora, 1999:380 [Type locality: Eduador, Pich. [sic], Sto. Domingo do los Colorados, 14 km E; NMNH; ♂; bilineata group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

simla (Flint), 1974a:11 [Type locality: Trinidad, Simla; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Botosaneanu and Sakal, 1992:201 [distribution; ecology]. —Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo, 1993:7 [♀; larva; distribution]. —Flint, 1996a:70 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:224 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Bolivia, Trinidad, Venezuela.

spinulata (Flint), 1991:22 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Quebrada Espadera, 7 km E Medellín (on road to Sta. Elena); NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

squamata Sykora, 1999:379 [Type locality: Eduador, Napo, 5 kms S Baeza, 1900 m; NMNH; ♂; bilineata group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Ecuador.

stilula Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:58 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Heredia, Río Bijagual, on road to Magsasay, 10°24'29"N, 84°04'34"W, 140 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

tapanti Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:60 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva [Parque Nacional] Tapantí, Quebrada Palmitos & falls, ca. 9 km (road) NW tunnel, 9°43'12"N, 83°46'48"W, 1400 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

taurina Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:62 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Quebrada Platanillo, ca. 5 km E Moravia de Chirripó, 9°49'16"N, 83°24'25"W, 1130 m; UMSP; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

teutona (Mosely), 1939a:223 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia; BMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Flint 1963a:474 [distribution]. —Flint, 1966a:2 [erroneously to synonymy with albolineata]. —Flint, 1972b:226 [resurrected, distribution]. —Angrisano, 1997b:58 [distribution; as teutonia]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Flint et al., 1999b:27 [as teutonia]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group]. —Calor, 2011:320 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2009:364 [distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:31 [♂; redescription; distribution; albolineata subgroup]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:10 [distribution]. —Manzo et al., 2014:166 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay.

tranquilla Martynov, 1912:38 [Type locality: Peru, Callanga; ASL; ♀]. —Flint 1963a:465 [unidentifiable]. —Sykora, 1999:385 [unknown group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Peru.

tripuiensis Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:58 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Estação Ecológica do Tripuí, Córrego Tripuí, 20°23'22"S, 043°32'32"W, 1070 m; ♂; ♀; MZUSP; velasquezi species group]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:13 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

truncata Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:34 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, spring trib to Rio Macauba, near Pandeiros, 15°28'38"S, 044°44'38"W, 525 m; MZUSP; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:14 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

umbonata Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:64 [Type locality: Panama, Chiriquí, Guadalupe Arriba, 8°52'26"N, 82°33'13"W; NMNH; ♂; leroda species group]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

unilineata Sykora, 1999:385 [Type locality: Venezuela, Me [sic], 11 km SE Apartaderos; NMNH; ♂; argentinica group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group].

Distribution. Venezuela.

unota (Mosely), 1939a:223 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catharina [sic], Nova Teutonia; BMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Angrisano, 1997b:58 [distribution]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:69 [to Mortoniella; leroda species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:37 [♂; redescription; distribution; albolineata subgroup]. —Manzo et al., 2014:167 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:14 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil.

uruguaiensis Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:37 [Type locality: Uruguay, Artigas, San Gregorio, 30°33'S, 057°52'W; NMNH; ♂; leroda species group, albolineata subgroup]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:14 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Uruguay.

usseglioi (Rueda Martín and Gibon), 2008:219 [Type locality: Bolivia, Rio Tumusla (not very far from Tumusla and the crossing with the road Potosi-Tupiza); ♂; IML; in Mexitrichia]. NEW COMBINATION

Distribution. Bolivia.

velasquezi (Flint), 1991:22 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Río Aurrá at km 50, E San Jerónimo; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [to Mortoniella; velasquezi species group].

Distribution. Colombia.

wygodzinskii (Schmid), 1958b:194 [Type locality: Argentina, Tucumán, Quebrada Los Sosa; NMNH; ♂; in Mexitrichia]. —Flint 1963a:465 [possibly a species of Mortoniella]. —Knutson and Flint, 1979:32 [Empididae predators in pupal cocoons]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Sykora, 1999:385 [to Mortoniella, wygodzinskii group; distribution]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:224 [checklist, distribution]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2008:70 [bilineata species group]. —Blahnik and Holzenthal, 2011:63 [♂; redescription]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela.

Genus Protoptila Banks [87]

Protoptila Banks, 1904c:215 [Type species: Beraea ? maculata Hagen, 1861, original designation]. —Mosely, 1937:152 [♀; description]. —Mosely, 1954:318 [description]. —Flint, 1971c:13 [key]. —Flint 1996b:381 [key]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:1 [revision of Costa Rican species]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 38 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

Eighty-seven species and subspecies are presently known from Mexico, Central, and South America, including the Lesser Antilles, but many undescribed species undoubtedly occur in nature. The larvae have been described a number of times (e.g., Ross 1944, Wiggins 1996, Valverde and Abelando 2006) for both North and South American species. They are found on rocks in flowing waters. Gut contents were of fine organic particles with some diatoms (Wiggins 1996). Adults fly in large numbers to lights placed near rivers.

alexanderi Ross, 1941:48 [Type locality: United States, Texas, San Antonio, San Antonio River; INHS; ♂]. —Mosely 1954:327 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Flint, 1963a:464 [larval diagnosis]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Baumgardner and Bowles, 2005:7, 11 [distribution]. —Bowles et al., 2007:21 [distribution; biology].

Distribution. Mexico, U.S.A.

altura Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:4 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Río Cotón, in Las Alturas, 8°56'17"N, 82°49'34"W, el. 1360 m; ♂; UMSP]. —Armitage et al., 2015a:4 [distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:194 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

alumnorum Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:219 [Type locality: Bolivia, Rio Yara, at the crossing with the road Caranavi/Quiquibey; ♂; IML].

Distribution. Bolivia.

bicornuta Flint, 1963a:475 [Type locality: Honduras, Lancetilla, August; MCZ; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Holzenthal 1988c:54 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:7 [♂; diagnosis; distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico.

boruca Flint, 1974a:18 [Type locality: Costa Rica, San José, Río General, Pacuare; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:54 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:7 [♂; diagnosis; distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

bribri Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:9 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Río Pizote, ca. 5 km (air) S Brasilia, 10°58'19"N, 85°20'42"W, el. 390 m; ♂; UMSP].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

burica Flint, 1974a:17 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, 2.8 miles E of Golfito; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:54 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:12 [♂; diagnosis; distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

cana Flint, 1974a:18 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Río Corobici, Las Canas; NMNH; ♂]. —Aguila, 1992:534 [distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:54 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:12 [♂; diagnosis; distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:195 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

cardela Mosely, 1954:336 [Type locality: Mexico, Vera Cruz, Cardel; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

chitaria Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:13 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Río Chitaría, rt 10, 10 km NW Río Reventazón, 9°55'12"N, 83°36'14"W, el. 740 m; ♂; UMSP]. —Armitage et al., 2015a:4 [distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:195 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

choluteca Flint, 1974a:16 [Type locality: Honduras, Valle, Nacaome; NMNH; ♂]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist].

Distribution. Honduras, Nicaragua.

chontala Flint, 1974a:16 [Type locality: Mexico, Tabasco, Río Puyacatengo, E of Teapa; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

colombiensis Flint, 1974a:14 [Type locality: Colombia, Valle, Río Raposo; NMNH; ♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

condylifera Flint, 1971c:16 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Río Marauiá, Endstation vor langer Cachoeira, fluss tritt hier aus dem Gebirge mit starkem Gefälle; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:14 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

cora Flint, 1983a:9 [Type locality: Paraguay, Dpto. Aquidabán, Cerro Corá; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:14 [checklist].

Distribution. Paraguay.

cristata Flint, 1967b:4 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Cuitlahuac; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2005:75 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

cristula Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:18 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Río Pizote, ca. 5 km (air) S Brasilia, 10°58'19"N, 085°20'42"W, el. 390 m; ♂; UMSP]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Nicaragua.

ctenacantha Flint, 1974c:13 [Type locality: Suriname, Coeroeni-eiland; RNH; ♂].

Distribution. Suriname.

ctilopsis Flint, 1974c:15 [Type locality: Suriname, Brownsberg, mountain creek near Golddiggers camp; RNH; ♂].

Distribution. Suriname.

curiosa Flint, 1974a:15 [Type locality: Colombia, Valle, Río Raposo; NMNH; ♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

delaca Mosely, 1954:333 [Type locality: Mexico, Vera Cruz, Cardel; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

diablita Robertson and Holzenthal, 2008:466 [Type locality: Bolivia, La Paz, ANMI (Área Natural de Manejo Integrado) Madidi, Raya Mayo river at Wabacuro trail, Chalalan Ecolodge, 14°26'33"S, 67°54'39"W, 351 m; ♂; UASC; discussion of scales on this species].

Distribution. Bolivia.

disticha Flint, 1971c:18 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Rio Solimões, bei der Mündung Ipixuna; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:14 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

dominicensis Flint, 1968b:7 [Type locality: Dominica, Morne Nicholls; NMNH; ♂; larva; pupa]. —Malicky, 1983:264 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 1993:49 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1994a:35 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2000:256 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Thomas, 2005:55 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominica, Guadeloupe.

dubitans Mosely, 1939a:221 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia; BMNH; ♂]. —Mangeaud, 1996:154 [distribution]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Cohen, 2004:76 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Valverde and Abelando, 2006:12 [larva; pupa; distribution]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:224 [checklist, distribution]. —Angrisano and Sganga, 2007:23 [♂; distribution]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2008:470 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:14 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay.

ensifera Flint, 1971c:16 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Rio Cuieiras, Cachoeira da Traira; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974c:12 [♂; distribution]. —Flint, 1992d:64 [distribution]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Suriname.

erotica Ross, 1938b:113 [Type locality: U.S.A., Wyoming, along North Platte River; INHS; ♂; ♀]. —Houghton, 2001:90 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2006:332 [biology]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009b:185 [phenology, distribution].

Distribution. Mexico, U.S.A.

fimbriata Flint, 1981a:8 [Type locality: Venezuela, Aragua, Maracay, Río Limón, Estación Piscicultura; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1991:24 [♂; distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia, Venezuela.

flexispina Flint, 1971c:18 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Rio Solimões, Igarapé Uarini, 20 km oberhalb; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

goitiai Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:220 [Type locality: Bolivia, Cochabamba, from a small tributary of the Rio Espiritu Santo (Chipiriri near Villa Tunari), 16°50'45"S, 65°25'33W; IML; ♂].

Distribution. Bolivia.

guarani Flint, 1974a:18 [Type locality: Paraguay, Salto de Guaira; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist].

Distribution. Paraguay.

guata Mosely, 1954:331 [Type locality: Mexico, Sinaloa, Badiraguata; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

huasteca Flint, 1967b:4 [Type locality: Mexico, San Luis Potosí, 25 miles north of Tamazunchale; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

huava Flint, 1974a:15 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Jaltepec, Isthmus of Tehuantepec; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

ignera Flint, 1974a:16 [Type locality: Trinidad, Simla; NMNH; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Sakal, 1992:201 [biology]. —Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo, 1993:7 [♀; larva; distribution]. —Flint, 1996a:69 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:81 [distribution].

Distribution. Tobago, Trinidad.

ixtala Mosely, 1937:156 [Type locality: Mexico, Huixtla; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:55 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:19 [♂; diagnosis; distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.

jolandae Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:19 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Reserva Forestal San Ramón, Río San Lorencito & tribs., 10°12'58"N, 84°36'25"W, el. 980 m; ♂; UMSP].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

julieta Robertson and Holzenthal, 2008:470 [Type locality: Bolivia, Cochabamba, Paracticito, R. San Rafaél, Pte. “Panchito,” nr. P.N. Carrasco station, 17°03'39"S, 65°28'58"W, 438 m; ♂; UASC]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Peru.

kjeri Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:22 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Río Pizote, ca. 5 km (air) S Brasilia, 10°58'19"N, 85°20'42"W, el. 390 m; ♂; UMSP]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

laterospina Flint, 1967b:3 [Type locality: Costa Rica, La Lola; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:55 [distribution]. —Aguila, 1992:534 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:25 [♂; diagnosis; distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:195 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

leonilae Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso, 1995:88 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Totoltepec; IBUNAM; ♂].

Distribution. Mexico.

liqua Mosely, 1954:327 [Type locality: Mexico, Liquidamber; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

locula Mosely, 1954:322 [Type locality: Mexico, Caracuara; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

longispinata Santos and Nessimian, 2009c:724 [Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus, tributary to Rio Branquinho, 2°31'24.6"S, 60°20'05.3"W; INPA; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

lorada Mosely, 1954:333 [Type locality: Mexico, Guerrera, Tierra Colorada; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

lucia Flint, 1974c:12 [Type locality: Suriname, Lucie River, Camp, Wilhelmina Mountains Expedition; RNH; ♂].

Distribution. Suriname.

macilenta Flint, 1971c:19 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Pará], Rio Tocantins, im Hause des Ingenieurs von Rio Impex; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:30 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

malica Mosely, 1954:324 [Type locality: Mexico, Colima; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

mara Flint, 1971c:16 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Rio Marauiá, Endstation vor langer Cachoeira, fluss tritt hier aus dem Gebirge mit starkem Gefälle; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

marqua Flint, 1967b:3 [Type locality: Mexico, Las Cruces National Park, La Marquesa; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

mayana Flint, 1974a:17 [Type locality: Belize [British Honduras], Cayo, Blancaneaux lodge; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Belize.

mina Flint, 1974c:13 [Type locality: Suriname, Wilhelmina Mountains, Linker Coppename River, Zuid Creek; RNH; ♂].

Distribution. Suriname.

misionensis Flint, 1972b:226 [Type locality: Argentina, Misiones Province, Mbopicua, near Puerto Rico; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Valverde and Abelando, 2006:14 [larva; pupa; distribution]. —Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:224 [checklist, distribution]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:199 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia.

mixteca mixteca Flint, 1974a:17 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Tamazulapan; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:193 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

mixteca veracruzensis Flint, 1974a:17 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Fortín de las Flores; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

myriamae Rueda Martín and Gibon, 2008:220 [Type locality: Bolivia, Rio Ilenez in Versalles, 12°39'39"S, 63°22'22"W; IML; ♂].

Distribution. Bolivia.

olvidada Bueno-Soria, Santiago-Fragoso and Barba-Álvarez, 2004:479 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Loxicha, Pluma Hidalgo, el. 450 m; CNIN; ♂].

Distribution. Mexico.

orotina orotina Flint, 1974a:13 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, 9 miles NW of Esparta; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:55 [distribution]. —Aguila, 1992:534 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:25 [♂; diagnosis; distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:195 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

orotina raposa Flint, 1974a:13 [Type locality: Colombia, Valle, Río Raposo; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint and Reyes, 1991:478 [distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia, Peru.

perdida Bueno-Soria, Santiago-Fragoso and Barba-Álvarez, 2004:480 [Type locality: Panama, Canal Zone, Pipeline Road; CAS; ♂]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:195 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

phyllisae Bueno-Soria, 1983b:450 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Agua Azul, 59 km southwest from Palenque; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

piacha Mosely, 1954:322 [Type locality: Mexico, Tierra Colorada; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

primerana (Weyenbergh), 1881:133 [Type locality: Argentina, Córdoba, Primero brook; type depository unknown; larva; in Rhiacophila (sic)]. —Flint et al., 1999a:74 [systematic position, to Protoptila].

Distribution. Argentina.

pseudopiacha Bueno-Soria, 1984b:393 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Guelatao; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Mexico.

quicha Flint, 1974a:15 [Type locality: Guatemala, Chimaltenango, Tecpán; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Guatemala.

quinoi Bueno-Soria and Santiago-Fragoso, 1979:477 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Balzapote; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Mexico.

resolda Mosely, 1937:157 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Dolores; BMNH; ♂]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico, Nicaragua.

rota Mosely, 1937:152 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Dolores; BMNH; ♂]. —Maes, 1999:1192 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico, Nicaragua.

salta Mosely, 1937:154 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Dolores; BMNH; ♂]. —Flint 1963a:475 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1193 [checklist]. —Rojas-Ascencio, et al., 2002:377 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua.

simplex Flint, 1971c:15 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Pará], Rio Tocantins, im Hause des Ingenieurs von Rio Impex; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974c:11 [♂; distribution]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Suriname.

spangleri Flint, 1967b:5 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Cuitlahuac; NMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2005:75 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

spirifera Flint, 1974a:14 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Ojo de Agua, route 2, km 75; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:55 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:28 [♂; diagnosis; distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

strepsicera Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:28 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Limón, Reserva Biológica Hitoy-Cerere, Río Cerere, Est. Miramar, 9°40'16"N, 83°01'41"W, el. 90 m; ♂; UMSP].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

talamanca Flint 1974a:14 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, 3 miles W of Turrialba; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:55 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:30 [♂; diagnosis; distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

tarahumara Bueno-Soria, 2010:23 [Type locality: Mexico, Chihuahua, Sierra Tarahumara, Urique, Río Urique, 27°13'51"N, 107°53'05"W, el. 575 m; CNIN; ♂].

Distribution. Mexico.

techila Mosely, 1954:324 [Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Río Chiltepec; BMNH; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

ternatia Flint, 1971c:17 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Rio Solimões, Igarapé Uarini, 20 km oberhalb; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

tetravittata Flint, 1971c:17 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Rio Cuieiras, Igarapé Cachoeira, bei dem Wasserfall Pedra dos Indios; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:15 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

tica Bueno-Soria, 1984b:392 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Corcovado, Estación Sirena; IBUNAM; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:55 [distribution]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:30 [♂; diagnosis; distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

ticumanensis Bueno-Soria, 1984b:392 [Type locality: Mexico, Morelos, Ticuman; IBUNAM; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

tojana Mosely, 1954:331 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Jonata; BMNH; ♂]. —Flint 1963a:476 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:194 [distribution]. —Maes and Flint 1988:2 [distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:55 [distribution]. —Flint and Reyes, 1991:478 [distribution]. —Maes, 1999:1193 [checklist]. —Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:32 [♂; diagnosis; distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:40 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:195 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru.

trichoglossa Holzenthal and Blahnik, 2006:34 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Río Bellavista, ca. 1.5 km NW Las Alturas, 8°57'04"N, 82°50'46"W, el. 1400 m; ♂; UMSP]. —Armitage et al., 2015a:4 [distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:195 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

trispicata Flint, 1971c:17 [Type locality: Brazil [Edo. Amazonas], Cachoeira do Gigante; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:16 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

truncata Flint, 1983a:10 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Misiones, Puerto Libertad; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina.

uruguayensis Angrisano, 1997b:56 [Type locality: Uruguay, Salto, Salto Grande, en la cascada; FHCU; ♂; ♀]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist].

Distribution. Uruguay.

voluta Flint, 1991:25 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Quebrada La Jiménez, Sopetrán (trap C); NMNH; ♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

yurumanga Flint, 1974a:18 [Type locality: Colombia, Valle, Río Raposo; NMNH; ♂]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist].

Distribution. Colombia.

Genus Scotiotrichia Mosely [1]

Scotiotrichia Mosely, 1934b:160 [Type species: Scotiotrichia ocreata Mosely, 1934b, original designation]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 39 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

A single species is known in the genus, endemic to the Chilean Subregion. Its immature stages have not been described.

ocreata Mosely, 1934b:160 [Type locality: Argentina, Terr. Rio Negro, Bariloche; BMNH; ♂]. —Schmid, 1958b:194 [as acreata, misspelling of ocreata]. —Flint 1963a:477 [description; distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:39 [♂]. —Brand and Miserendino, 2014:6 [community ecology].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

Genus Tolhuaca Schmid [2]

Tolhuaca Schmid, 1964:336 [Type species: Tolhuaca cupulifera Schmid, 1964, original designation]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2005:53 [revision, phylogeny, biogeography]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2013:1, 40 [review of genus, phylogeny, diagnosis; key to Protoptilinae genera].

The genus now contains 2 disjunct species, one in southern Chile and one in southeastern Brazil. Nothing is known of the immature stages or their biology. Robertson and Holzenthal (2005) discussed the biogeography of the genus and speculated that the disjunct occurrence of the 2 species represents relicts of a more widespread southern Gondwanan ancestor.

brasiliensis Robertson and Holzenthal, 2005:62 [Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Parque Estadual Campos do Jordão, 1st order trib. to Rio Galharada, 22°41'40"S, 45°27'47"W, 1530 m; MZUSP; ♂; female]. —Spies and Froehlich, 2009:215 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:320 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:16 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

cupulifera Schmid, 1964:337 [Type locality: Chile, Pichinahuel, Arauca; NMNH; ♂; in Sericostomatidae]. —Flint 1967a:52 [rectification of transposition of wing figures in original description, to Glossosomatidae, Protoptilinae, distribution]. —Flint, 1974e:86 [checklist]. —Angrisano, 1999:31 [checklist]. —Robertson and Holzenthal, 2005:57 [♂; ♀; redescription; distribution].

Distribution. Chile.

Family Helicophidae

The 43 extant species in this family occur on both sides of the southern Pacific Ocean. Four genera and 27 species are known from Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand and five genera and 16 species are found in southern Chile and Argentina. Johanson and Keijsner (2008) reviewed the family and provided a hypothesis of its phylogeny.

The immature stages of several Australian-New Zealand genera are known (Cowley 1978, Dean et al. 2004) as are those of the Patagonian genera Eosericostoma and Austrocentrus (Flint 1992e, 1997). Larvae build cases of sand grains or plant material and live in clear streams in forested areas.

Genus Alloecentrellodes Flint [2]

Alloecentrellodes Flint, 1979:646 [Type species: Alloecentrellodes obliquus Flint, 1979, original designation].

The two species known in this genus are associated with small, clear, cold, fast-flowing streams in forested areas (Flint 1979). The immature stages are unknown.

elongatus Flint, 1979:649 [Type locality: Chile, Prov. Ñuble, Recinto; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Chile.

obliquus Flint, 1979:646 [Type locality: Chile, Prov. Malleco, Parque Nacional Contulmo (near boundary of Prov. Arauco); NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Chile.

Genus Austrocentrus Schmid [3]

Austrocentrus Schmid, 1964:337 [Type species: Austrocentrus griseus Schmid, 1964, original designation; in Sericostomatidae]. —Flint 1979:646 [to Helicophidae]. —Flint, 1997:99 [revision, immature stages].

Flint’s (1997) revision of this genus raised the number of species in Austrocentrus to three. He also described the larvae, pupae, and cases of A. valgiformis and discussed its biology. Larvae are found in small rocky streams with clear water and moderate flow in forested regions, and are usually associated with aquatic moss (Flint 1997, Brand 2009).

bifidus Flint, 1997:106 [Type locality: Chile, Capt. Prat, 25 km S Cochrane; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Chile.

griseus Schmid, 1964:338 [Type locality: Chile, Arauco, Pichinahuel; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint 1997:104 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Chile.

valgiformis Flint, 1997:103 [Type locality: Chile, Malleco, [West of Paso] Pino Hachado; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Brand, 2009:223 [distribution]. —Brand and Miserendino, 2011a:35 [biology; habitat]. —Brand and Miserendino, 2014:6 [community ecology].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

Genus Eosericostoma Schmid [2]

Eosericostoma Schmid, 1955a:156 [Type species: Eosericostoma inaequispinum Schmid, 1955a, original designation; in Sericostomatidae]. —Flint, 1992e:494 [revision, immature stages, to Helicophidae].

Two species are known in Eosericostoma. Both are common and widespread in central Chile. The larval stages of E. inaequispina have been described (Flint 1992e). The larval case is broad and flat, like those of the European genus Thremma, and constructed of sand grains and some plant fragments. Brand and Miserendino (2011b) studied the ecology and life history of E. aequispina in Argentina and found the species to be univoltive, with a larval development time of 11 months; larvae were scrapers. Adult emergence was synchronous and occurred in February.

aequispina Schmid, 1955a:157 [Type locality: Chile, Chiloé, Aucár; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 1992e:504 [♂; ♀; redescription; distribution]. —Brand and Miserendino, 2011b:142 [life history]. —Brand and Miserendino, 2014:6 [community ecology].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

inaequispina Schmid, 1955a:156 [Type locality: Chile, Santiago [now Prov. Cordillera], El Manzano; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 1992e:500 [♂; ♀; larva; pupa; redescription; distribution].

aequispina Schmid, 1957:394 [misidentification, in part - series from Tregualemu]. —Schmid, 1964:339 [misidentification, in part - series from Curacautín, and series from Pillim-Pilli mixed]. —Flint, 1992e:500 [reidentification].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

Genus Microthremma Schmid [8]

Microthremma Schmid, 1955a:148 [Type species: Microthremma crassifimbriatum Schmid, 1955a, original designation; in Thremmidae]. —Flint, 1979:646 [to Helicophidae]. —Flint, 2002b:225 [revision, key to males].

With eight species, Microthremma is the largest genus in the family in the Western Hemisphere. The immature stages have not been described. Adults have been collected near small streams and spring runs (Flint 1983a).

angulatum Flint, 2002b:226 [Type locality: Chile, Pcia. Ñuble, Recinto; NMNH; ♂; crassifimbriatum complex].

Distribution. Chile.

bipartitum Flint, 1983a:90 [Type locality: Chile, Pcia. Chiloé, Dalcahue; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 2002b:230 [distribution; griseum complex].

Distribution. Chile.

caudatum Flint, 1969b:511 [Type locality: Chile, Prov. Concepción, Fundo Pinares, near Concepción; NMNH; ♂; in Sericostomatidae]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 2002b:231 [distribution; griseum complex].

Distribution. Chile.

crassifimbriatum Schmid, 1955a:149 [Type locality: Chile, Ñuble, Recinto; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 2002b:226 [♂; redescription; distribution; crassifimbriatum complex].

Distribution. Chile.

griseum Schmid, 1957:394 [Type locality: Chile, Arauco, Butamalal; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 2002b:231 [distribution; griseum complex].

Distribution. Chile.

lobatum Flint, 2002b:231 [Type locality: Chile, Pcia. Valdivia, Las Trancas, W. La Union; NMNH; ♂; griseum complex].

Distribution. Chile.

patagonicum Flint, 2002b:228 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Neuquén, 3 km W. Estación Forestal Purará; NMNH; ♂; crassifimbriatum complex].

Distribution. Argentina, Chile.

villosum Schmid, 1957:395 [Type locality: Chile, Arauco, Caramavida; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:91 [checklist]. —Flint, 2002b:230 [distribution; crassifimbriatum complex].

Distribution. Chile.

Genus Pseudosericostoma Schmid [1]

Pseudosericostoma Schmid, 1957:395 [Type species: Pseudosericostoma simplississimum Schmid, 1957, original designation; in Sericostomatidae]. —Flint 1983a:90 [to Helicophidae].

The single species, P. simplississimum, is only known from the single adult type. The larva and its biology are not known.

simplississimum Schmid, 1957:396 [Type locality: Chile, Arauco, Pichinahuel; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:92 [checklist].

Distribution. Chile.

Family Helicopsychidae

Well over 250 species are currently recognized in this small, primarily tropical family, which has been cataloged (Johanson 1995) and assessed phylogenetically (Johanson 1998). All of the species, except one, belong in the genus Helicopsyche, following the synonymization of 4 previosuly recognized genera. The only other genus in the family recongnized by Johanson (1998), Rakiura, is endemic to New Zealand and contains a single species. Helicopsyche is cosmopolitan in distribution, and comprises over 120 species in the Neotropics, including three fossil species.

All known larvae build cases in the general form of a snail shell, but there is great diversity in the height of the case, number and tightness of whorls, size, nature, and degree of minerals and silk incorporated, etc. (Cowley 1978, Flint 1968a, Wiggins 1996). Larvae appear to be periphyton scrapers on rocks in moderate to slow flowing sections of streams or wave-washed shores (Resh et al., 1984).

Genus Helicopsyche Siebold [121 + †3]

Cochliopsyche Müller, 1885:201 [Type species: Tetanonema clarum Ulmer, 1905a, subsequent selection of Ulmer, 1955]. —Flint, 1986:213 [review]. —Monson et al., 1988:158 [diagnosis]. —Schmid, 1993:97 [diagnosis]. —Johanson, 1995:107 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:128 [as subgenus of Helicopsyche]. —Johanson, 2003d:384 [review]. —Wichard, 2007a:35 [diagnosis].

Tetanonema Ulmer 1905a:17 [Type species: Tetanonema clarum Ulmer 1905a, by monotypy]. —Ulmer, 1955:589 [as synonym of Cochliopsyche].

Helicopsyche Siebold, 1856:38 [Type species: Helicopsyche shuttleworthi Siebold, 1856, subsequent selection of Flint, 1964a]. —Schmid, 1993:67 [diagnosis]. —Johanson, 1995:101 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998 [revision; phylogeny; biogeography].

Feropsyche Johanson, 1998:131 [Type species: Notidobia borealis Hagen, 1861, original designation, as subgenus, phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:16 [revision; key; new species]. —Wichard, 2007a:37 [diagnosis].

The genus has been recorded from all biogeographical regions, except Antarctica (Johanson 1998), but by far the greatest species diversity occurs in the tropics of Asia, including Australia, and the Americas, between 5-30°N and 15-45°S (Johanson 1997, 1998, Schmid 1993, Williams et al. 1983). Johanson (1998) revised the world fauna and placed all the Neotropical species in two subgenera, Feropsyche and Cochliopsyche. The subgenus Feropsyche, endemic to the Western Hemisphere, was reviewed by Johanson (2002). Johanson (2003d) rrevised the subgenus Cochliopsyche, endemic to Central and South America, redescribed the 4 previously known species, and added 12 new species. In addition, another ca. 30 species in the subgenus Feropsyche have been described by Johanson and collaborators from throughout the Neotropics (e.g., Johanson and Holzenthal 2004, 2010; Johanson and Malm 2006). In total, Helicopsyche comprises 123 species in the region, 16 in Cochliopsyche and 102 extant and 3 fossil species in Feropsyche. The three known fossil species are members of Feropsyche (Johanson and Wichard 1996).

Larvae construct helical cases of sand grains closely resembling the shells of snails. In fact, some of the American species were originally described as molluscs. Cases vary greatly among species in structure and composition (Flint 1968a, Botosaneanu and Sykora 1973, Ross 1975). Larvae, especially those of Helicopsyche (F.) borealis, have been described a number of times (Marlier 1964b, Wiggins 1996, Roldán-Pérez 1988). The immature stages of Helicopsyche (C.) vazquezae were described in detail by Monson et al. (1988), who also discussed some aspects of the biology of the species. Larvae of Feropsyche are found in springs, streams, and rivers, and, in temperate areas, on the shores of lakes (Wiggins 1996); those of Cochliopysche seem to prefer medium to large rivers. The biology of H. borealis is well known in comparison to other species (Resh et al., 1984, Vaughn 1985, Williams et al. 1983), although Maharaj and Alkins-Koo (1997) studied the population dynamics of H. margaritensis (now H. vergelana) on Trinidad. Adults are often attracted to lights in large numbers.

alajuela (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:38 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Alajuela, Reserva Forestal San Ramón, Río San Lorencito and tribs. 10.216°N, 84.607°W, el. 980 m; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

altercoma (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991b:178 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Dajabón Province, Río Massacre, Balneario El Salto, Loma de Cabrera; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 1991b:66 [biology]. —Johanson, 1995:108 [catalog]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:22 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:16 [♂; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:8 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

amazona (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:409 [Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus area, Rio Branquinho, Lager Tapiri; USNM; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:16 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

amica (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:395 [Type locality: Venezuela, TFA, Puerto Ayacucho; MVC; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:16 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela.

angeloi (Feropsyche) Holzenthal, Blahnik and Calor, 2016:346 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Córrego das Águas Pretas & tribs., ca. 15 km S Aiuruoca, 22°03.704'S, 44°38.241'W, el. 1386 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Brazil.

angulata (Feropsyche) Flint, 1981a:37 [Type locality: Venezuela, Aragua, Maracay, Río Limón, Estación Piscicultura; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Flint, 1991:103 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:108 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:119 [♂; distribution].—Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:29 [distribution].

Distribution. Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela.

apicauda (Feropsyche) Flint, 1968b:77 [Type locality: Dominica, Pont Casse, 0.5 miles south; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint and Sykora, 1993:50 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1994a:52 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2000:256 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:99 [♂; distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Thomas, 2005:56 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominica, Guadeloupe.

auroa (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:11 [Type locality: Venezuela, Lara, P. N. [Parque Nacional] Terepaima, Río Auro near Sabana Alta, 9°44.740'N, 69°16.614'W, el. 480 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

blahniki (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:401 [Type locality: Venezuela, Guarico, Hato Masuguaral, 45 km S Calabozo, 8.57°N, 67.58°W, el. 75 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:16 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela.

blancasi (Feropsyche) Schmid, 1958b:209 [Type locality: Peru, Rio Zapatilla; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:109 [catalog]. —Johanson, 2002:55 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Peru.

blantoni (Feropsyche) Johanson and Malm, 2006:4 [Type locality: Panama, Cerro Campana, R. Panama; NMNH; ♂]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

borealis (Feropsyche) (Hagen), 1861:271 [Type locality: Canada, St. Lawrence River; MCZ; ♂; in Notidobia]. —Hagen, 1866:253 [to Helicopsyche]. —Ross, 1938a:42 [♂; lectotype]. —Ross, 1944:266, 288 [♂; ♀; larva]. —Ross, 1951a:74 [distribution]. —Denning, 1964:134 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:214 [distribution]. —Williams et al., 1983:2290 [biology; distribution]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:76 [distribution]. —Aguila, 1992:545 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:109 [catalog]. —Wiggins, 1996:90 [larva]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Rojas-Ascencio, et al., 2002:377 [distribution]. —Johanson, 2002:30 [♂; distribution]. —Baumgardner and Bowles, 2005:11 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2006:332 [biology]. —Bowles et al., 2007:23 [distribution; biology]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:41 [checklist]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009a:302 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009b:185 [phenology, distribution].—Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:44 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:355 [checklist]. —Djernaes, 2011:52 [♂; ♀]. —Flint, 2011:103 [distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

lustrica Say, 1821:75 [Type locality: U.S.A., Cayuga Lake, as Paludina, mollusc]. —Baker, 1961:146 [suppressed name].

arenifera Lea, 1834:104 [Type locality: U.S.A., Tensessee, Cumverland River, as Valvata, mollusc]. —Johanson, 2002:32 [to synonymy].

glabra Hagen, 1864a:130, 237 [Type locality: North America; no type nor type depository designated; case]. —Hagen, 1866:253 [to synonymy].

californica Banks, 1899:210 [Type locality: United States, California; MCZ; ♂]. —Ross, 1944:266, 303 [to synonymy].

annulicornis Banks, 1904c:212 [Type locality: United States, Plummer’s Island, Maryland; MCZ; ♂]. —Betten, 1934:416 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Canada, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, U.S.A.

brazilia (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:410 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, confluence Rio Peixe & Rio Preto do Itambe, 19°17.525'S, 43°15.457'W, el. 500 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:16 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

braziliensis (Feropsyche) (Swainson), 1840:353 [Type locality: Brazil; no type nor type depository designated; case only; in Thelidomus, as mollusc]. —Hagen, 1864b:886 [synonymizes, erroneously, species with H. arenifera Lea, thereby transferring species to Helicopsyche]. —Johanson, 2002:144 [taxonomic remarks]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:17 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

breviterga (Feropsyche) Flint, 1991:105 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Boquerón, source of Quebrada Potreros, W La Fé; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:109 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:63 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:30 [distribution].

Distribution. Colombia, Venezuela.

caligata (Feropsyche) Flint, 1967a:67 [Type locality: Chile, Prov. Valdivia, brook at Fundo Walper, near Valdivia; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974e:92 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1995:109 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:127 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Chile.

camuriensis (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:9 [Type locality: Venezuela, Dist. Fed. [Distrito Federal], Río Camuri Grande, 1 km S Camuri (nucleo U.S.B.), 10.616°N, 66.715°W, el. 30 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

centrocubana (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:212 [Type locality: Cuba, Province Matanzas, Cuabales de Galindo, Valle de Yumuri; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:472 [larva]. —Johanson, 1995:109 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:46 [♂; distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

chilensis (Feropsyche) Flint, 1983a:91 [Type locality: Chile, Pcia. Bío-Bío, Estero Huequecura, 25 km E Santa Bárbara; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:110 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:37 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Chile.

chiriquensis (Feropsyche) Johanson and Malm, 2006:8 [Type locality: Panama, Chiriqui, Fortuna Dam Site, nr. Hornitos, 8°55'N, 82°16'W, el. 1050 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:44 [distribution]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Panama.

chocoensis (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:401 [Type locality: Colombia, Choco, Rio Atrato, Yuto; USNM; ♂; /females/].

Distribution. Colombia.

cipoensis (Feropsyche) Johanson and Malm, 2006:17 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Serra do Cipo; NMNH; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:17 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

circulata (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:25 [Type locality: Venezuela, Aragua, 1 km E Estación Biológica Rancho Grande, 10.352°N, 67.680°W, el. 1100 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

clara (Cochliopsyche) (Ulmer), 1905a:18 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina; PAN; ♂; in Tetanonema]. —Flint, 1966a:12 [♂; lectotype]. —Johanson, 1995:107 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:128 [status; phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2003d:388 [♂; ♀; redescription; distribution]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Calor, 2011:320 [checklist]. —Souza et al., 2013a:3 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:17 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador.

cochleara (Feropsyche) Johanson, 1999:128 [Type locality: Ecuador, Past. Puyo (27 km N), Est. Fluv. Metrica; NMHH; ♂]. —Johanson, 2002:134 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Ecuador.

colombiensis (Feropsyche) Siebold, 1856:144 [Type locality: Colombia, Puerto Cabello; no type nor type depository designated; case only]. —Hagen, 1864a:127 [case]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:139 [taxonomic remarks].

Distribution. Colombia, Venezuela.

comosa (Feropsyche) Kingsolver, 1964:259 [Type locality: Cuba, Aspiro-Rangel, Pinar del Rio Province; INHS; ♂]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:53 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991b:176 [♂; ♀; redescription]. —Johanson, 1995:110 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:19 [♂; distribution]. —López del Castillo et al., 2004:229 [sp. near comosa, distribution]. —González Lazo et al., 2005:260 [c.f. comosa, distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

cotopaxi (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1982:25 [Type locality: Ecuador, Volcan Cotopaxi; NMNH, ♂; ♀; case]. —Johanson, 1995:110 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:129 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Ecuador.

cubana (Feropsyche) Kingsolver, 1964:259 [Type locality: Cuba, Moa, Oriente Province; INHS; ♂]. —Flint, 1968a:64 [distribution; redescription; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:53 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:207 [as cubana cubana; redescription]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:468 [as cubana; larva]. —Johanson, 1995:110 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:44 [♂; distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba, Jamaica.

curvipalpia (Feropsyche) Johanson and Malm, 2006:3 [Type locality: Mexico, Chih. Hwy 127, 27.7 mi SW La Junta, 0.5 mi N Sierra Alta Tarahumara, 6900 ft; INHS; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Mexico.

dampfi (Feropsyche) Ross, 1956b:398 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Finca Germania; INHS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Maes and Flint, 1988:7 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:110 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Maes, 1999:1195 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:121 [♂; distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:41 [checklist]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:44 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:355 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua.

disjuncta (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:5 [Type locality: Venezuela, Sucre, Parque Nacional Peninsula de Paria, Uquire, Río La Viuda, 10°42.830'N, 61°57.661'W, el. 15 m; NMNH; ♂]

Distribution. Venezuela.

dominicana (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:200 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, La Vega Province, 12 km S. of Constanza; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Johanson, 1995:110 [catalog]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:22 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:118 [♂; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:8 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

dorsocurvata (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:41 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Cartago, Reserva Tapanti, Quebrada Palmitos and falls, 9.72°N, 83.78°W, el. 1400 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

electra (Feropsyche) Johanson and Wichard, 1996:199 [Type locality: Dominican Republic; ♂; collection Wichard; in amber]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:36 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Wichard, 2007a:38 [♂; key]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

extensa (Feropsyche) Ross, 1956b:397 [Type locality: Peru, Department of Cusco, Valley of the Cosnipata, Santa Isabel; INHS; ♂]. —Flint, 1996b:429 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:123 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:30 [distribution].

Distribution. Peru, Venezuela.

falcigona (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:210 [Type locality: Cuba, Isla de Pinos, Santa Fé, Arroyo La Talega; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:472 [larva]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist; as subspecies of H. ochthephila]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1998:23 [as subspecies of ochthephila]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:77 [to species; ♂; distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist; as subspecies of ochthephila].

Distribution. Cuba.

fistulata (Feropsyche) Flint, 1991:105 [Type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Quebrada La Mosca, 1 km W Guarne; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:68 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:30 [distribution].

Distribution. Colombia, Venezuela.

flinti (Feropsyche) Johanson, 1999:127 [Type locality: Brazil, [Santa Catarina], Nova Teutonia, 27°11'B[S], 52°23'L[W]; BMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 2002:111 [♂; distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:17 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

fridae (Feropsyche) Johanson, 2003a:5 [Type locality: Panama, Province of Panama, Barro Colorado Island; NMNH; ♂; ♀; key]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

golfitoensis (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:39 [Type locality: Costa Rica, [Puntarenas], 2.8 mi E of Golfito; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

granpiedrana (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Sykora, 1973:402 [Type locality: Cuba, La Gran Piedra; ZMA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:52 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:116 [♂; distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

grenadensis (Feropsyche) Flint and Sykora, 1993:61 [Type locality: Grenada, Parish St. Andrews, Clabony; FSCA; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:111 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:31 [distribution].

Distribution. Grenada, Venezuela.

guadeloupensis (Feropsyche) Malicky, 1980:222 [Type locality: Guadaloupe, mittellauf des flusses Lezard bei Chemin de Diane; collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky, 1983:264 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1988:227 [♀; larva]. —Flint and Sykora, 1993:60 [distribution; synonymy]. —Botosaneanu, 1994a:51 {distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2000:256 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:81 [♂; distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Thomas, 2005:56 [checklist].

species 1 Flint, 1968b:78 [♀]. —Flint and Sykora, 1993:60 [to synonymy].

species 2 Flint, 1968b:79 [larva]. —Flint and Sykora, 1993:60 [probable synonym].

Distribution. Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia.

guara (Feropsyche) Holzenthal, Blahnik and Calor, 2016:348 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina, Rio Caeté, at entrance to Parque Ecológico Spitzkopf, 27°00.350'S, 49°06.650'W, el. 92 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Brazil.

hageni (Feropsyche) Banks, 1938:296 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente, north side of Pico Turquino; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:24 [♂; lectotype]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 1979:53 [distribution].—Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:199 [redescription]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:468 [probable larva]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:21 [♀; misidentification of H. parahageni according to Flint and Sykora, 2004]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:37 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:79 [♂; distribution].—López del Castillo et al., 2004:229 [cf hageni, distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist]. —López del Castillo et al., 2007:171 [distribution; seasonal abundance]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba, Dominican Republic.

haitiensis (Feropsyche) Banks, 1938:296 [Type locality: Haiti, La Vesite, La Selle Range; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:24 [♂; lectotype]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:203 [redescription]. —Johanson, 1995:111 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:37 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:69 [♂; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:9 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

haitiense Banks, 1938. —Botosaneanu, 1991a:134 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:203 [♂; invalid emendation].

Distribution. Haiti.

helicoidella (Feropsyche) (Vallot), 1855:XII [Type locality: [Brazil], Bahia; no type nor type depository designated; case; in Phryganea]. —Hagen, 1864a:131 [to Helicopsyche]. —Johanson, 2002:139 [taxonomic remarks]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:18 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

holzenthali (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:403 [Type locality: Venezuela, Barinas, Rio Singüis in Cano Grande, 8°24.00'N, 70°46.45'W, el. 520 m; UMSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Venezuela.

incisa (Feropsyche) Ross, 1956b:398 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Finca Esperanza; INHS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Aguila, 1992:545 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:112 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:105 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson, 2003a:8 [distribution; key]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2005:75 [distribution]. —Johanson and Malm, 2006:22 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:41 [checklist]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:45 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:355 [checklist]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.

kalaom (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu, 1996:22 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, springbrook, 150 m from Salto Agua Blanca, road to Convento; ZMUA; ♂]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:37 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:103 [♂; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:9 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

kingstona (Feropsyche) Johanson, 2003c:33 [Type locality: Jamaica, 5 mi directly W of Kingston; UCD; ♂; relationships].

Distribution. Jamaica.

lambda (Feropsyche) Flint, 1983a:93 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia Misiones, Arroyo Piray Mini, Rt. 17 W Dos Hermanas; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:112 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:101 [♂; distribution]. —Manzo et al., 2014:167 [distribution].

Distribution. Argentina.

laneblina (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:21 [Type locality: Venezuela, T.F.A. [Territorio Federal Amazonas = Estado Amazonas], Camp VII, Cerro de la Neblina, 0°51'N, 65°58'W, el. 1800 m; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

lara (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:19 [Type locality: Venezuela, Lara, Parque Nacional Dinira, Quebrada Buenos Aires, 9°36.407'N, 70°04.178'W, el. 1850 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

lazzariae (Feropsyche) Holzenthal, Blahnik and Calor, 2016:348 [Type locality: Brazil, Paraná, Voçoroca, along main road to Joinville, 25°50.332'S, 49°03.332'W, el. 650 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Brazil.

lewalleni (Feropsyche) Denning and Blickle, 1979:27 [Type locality: El Salvador, La Libertad, west bank Rio Chilama; CAS; ♂; ♀]. —Johanson, 1995:112 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:28 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:45 [distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica, El Salvador.

linabena (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:23 [Type locality: Venezuela, T.F.A. [Territorio Federal Amazonas = Estado Amazonas], Camp IV, Cerro de la Neblina, 0°58'N, 65°57'W, el. 760 m; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

linguata (Feropsyche) Johanson and Malm, 2006:14 [Type locality: Panama, Chiriqui, Fortuna Dam Site, nr. Hornitos, 8°55'N, 82°16'W, el. 1050 m; NMNH; ♂]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

lobata (Cochliopsyche) Flint, 1983a:95 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Misiones, Arroyo Piray Guazú, N San Pedro; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:107 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:128 [status; phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2003d:391 [♂; redescription; distribution]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Manzo et al., 2014:167 [distribution]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:17 [checklist].

— n. sp. 1 Flint, 1996b: 429 [♂]. —Johanson, 2003d:391 [to lobata].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Peru.

lutea (Feropsyche) (Hagen), 1861:271 [Type locality: Santo Domingo; MCZ; ♀; in Notidobia]. —Hagen, 1866:254 [to Helicopsyche]. —Ross 1952:35 [♀; lectotype]. —Flint 1967c:24 [taxonomic remarks]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991b:181 [♀; redescription]. —Johanson, 1995:112 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:37 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:138 [♀; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:9 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

maculisternum (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu, in Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo, 1993:40 [Type locality: Trinidad, the stream just below Maracas waterfall; ZMUA; ♂; ♀; larva; case]. —Botosaneanu and Sakal, 1992:203 [distribution; ecology]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996a:108 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1998:131 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:99 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:59 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:31 [distribution].

agglutinans Lechmere-Guppy, 1864:245 [Type locality: Trinidad; as Valvata, mollusc]. —Johanson, 2002:59 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Trinidad, Venezuela.

melanochaeta (Feropsyche) Flint and Sykora, 2004:11 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Pedernales Province, Río Mulito, 21 km N Pedernales, 18°09.3'N, 71°45.6W, el. 280 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

—sp. indet. ex “gr. comosaBotosaneanu, 1996:22 [Dominican Republic, Pedernales Province, Río Mulito, 2 km from the village Mencia de Pedernales and about 6-7 km from its springs, el. 250 m; ZMUA; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [referred to melanochaeta].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

merida (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1982:24 [Type locality: Venezuela, Edo. Mérida, 11 km southeast of Apartaderos; NMNH; ♂; case]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:65 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:31 [distribution].

Distribution. Venezuela.

mexicana (Feropsyche) Banks, 1901:368 [Type locality: Mexico, Cuernavaca; MCZ; ♂]. —Ross, 1944:289, 303 [♂; figured as arizonensis]. —Flint, 1967d:176 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Denning and Blickle, 1979:32 [redescription; ♀; distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Rojas-Ascencio, et al., 2002:377 [distribution]. —Johanson, 2002:38 [♂; distribution]. —Miller et al., 2002:1663 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2006:332 [biology]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009a:302 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter, 2009b:185 [phenology, distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:45 [distribution].

arizonensis Banks, 1907a:125 [Type locality: United States, Arizona, Nogales; MCZ; ♀]. —Ross, 1944:303 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Mexico, U.S.A.

minima (Feropsyche) Siebold 1856:38 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, Sierra de Luquillo (according to Flint 1964a); no type nor type depository designated; case only]. —Flint, 1964a:71 [redescription; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:213 [♂; ♀; redescription]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Maes, 1999:1195 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:53 [♂; distribution].—Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:41 [checklist].

nigra Bremi-Wolf, 1848:125 [Type locality: [U.S.A.] Puerto Rico, Aus einem Backe der Hochebene der Sierra de Suevilla]. —Johanson, 1995:121 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Nicaragua, Puerto Rico.

minuscula (Feropsyche) Martynov, 1912:3 [Type locality: Peru, Callanga; PAN; /female.]. —Betten 1934:46 [venation]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Johanson, 2002:137 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Peru.

molesta (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu, in Botosaneau and Hyslop, 1998:24 [Type locality: Jamaica, streamlet tributary of East Lucea River at ca. 2 km. upstream from its mouth, Hanover (Lucea); ZMUA; ♂; as subspecies of occidentale]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist; as subspecies of occidentale]. —Johanson, 2002:44, 93 [to species; ♂; distribution].

Distribution. Jamaica.

monda (Feropsyche) Flint, 1983a:93 [Type locality: Paraguay, Depto. Alto Paraná, Salto del Monday, near Puerto Presidente Franco; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:92 [♂; distribution]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:31 [distribution]. —Dumas et al., 2009:371 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:320 [checklist]. —Dumas and Nessimian, 2012:10 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:18 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Venezuela.

montana (Feropsyche) Felber, 1912:46 [Type locality: Mexico; not stated, perhaps NMB; larva; pupa; case]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Johanson, 2002:141 [taxonomic remarks].

Distribution. Mexico.

muelleri (Feropsyche) Banks, 1920:348 [Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catharina [sic]; MCZ; ♂; as mulleri]. —Flint, 1967c:25 [lectotype]. —Johanson, 1995:113 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:48 [♂; distribution]. —Cohen, 2004:77 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:18 [checklist]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:200 [distribution].

angelae Marlier, 1964a:9 [Type locality: Peru, Río Huallaga, tributary to upper Marañon; IRSNB; ♂; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint, 1967c:25 [to synonymy].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Peru.

napoa (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:398 [Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Lago Agrio; USNM; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Ecuador.

neblinensis (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:15 [Type locality: Venezuela, T.F.A. [Territorio Federal Amazonas = Estado Amazonas]: Cerro de la Neblina, Basecamp, 0°51'N, 66°10'W, el. 140 m; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

nigrisensilla (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:210 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, La Vega Province, 20 km S. of Constanza; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Johanson, 1995:114 [catalog]. —Botosaneanu, 1996:22 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:37 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:109 [♂; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora, 2004:10 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

obscura (Feropsyche) Rueda Martín and Isa Miranda, 2015:205 [Type locality: Argentina, Tucumán, Anfama, 2645'08.9 S, 06531'22 W, 1169 m; IBN; ♂; larva; pupa; biology].

Distribution. Argentina.

occidentale (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:207 [Type locality: Cuba, Pinar de Rio Province, Soroa, Río El Manantiales; ZMUA; ♂; as subspecies of cubana]. —Botosaneanu, 1994b:471 [larva; as valid species]. —Johanson, 1995:114 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1998:24 [as subspecies]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:42 [♂; distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist; as H. occidentalis].

Distribution. Cuba.

ochthephila (Feropsyche) Flint, 1968a:65 [Type locality: Jamaica, St. Andrew, Hardwar Gap, Dicks Pond Trail; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1995:114 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop, 1998:23 [♂; larva; case]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:75 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Jamaica.

ocosingua (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:405 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Ocosingo Valley, Monte Finca Libano; INHS; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Mexico.

opalescens (Cochliopsyche) Flint, 1972b:245 [Type locality: Argentina, Misiones, Puerto Rico; NMNH; ♂]. —Flint, 1974c:145 [♂; distribution]. —Flint, 1992d:81 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:107 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996b:428 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1998:128 [status, phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2003d:393 [♂; redescription; distribution]. —Blahnik et al., 2004:4 [distribution]. —Cohen, 2004:77 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Dumas et al., 2009:372 [distribution]. —Calor, 2011:320 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:17 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela.

pandeirosa (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:407 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Rio Pandeirosa in Pandeiros, ca. 50 km W Januária, 15°30.727'S, 44°30.255'W, el. 495 m; MZUSP; ♂; ♀]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:17 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

paprockii (Feropsyche) Johanson and Malm, 2006:11 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Serra do Cipo; NMNH; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:18 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

paraguaiensis (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:413 [Type locality: Paraguay; Rio Aquidaban, Cerro Cora; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Paraguay.

parahageni (Feropsyche) Flint and Sykora, 2004:9 [Type locality: Dominican Republic [Barahona Province], Ran Rafael, 8.3 km S of Baoruco, 18°01.9'N, 71°08.4'W, el. 30 m ; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 1996 [♀; as hageni]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

paucispina (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:213 [Type locality: Cuba, Pinar del Rio Province, Viñales, San Vicente, Arroyo del Aqueducto; ZMUA; ♂]. —Flint, 1996c:15 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1995:114 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:97 [♂; distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

perija (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:27 [Type locality: Venezuela, Táchira, trib. to Río El Valle, 3.8 km SE El Zumbador, 7°57.411'N, 72°04.394'W, el. 2730 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

peruana (Feropsyche) Banks, 1920:349 [Type locality: Peru, Natucana; MCZ; ♂]. —Flint, 1967c:25 [relationships]. —Johanson, 1995:114 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:61 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson, 2003b:1 [♂; redescription].

Distribution. Peru.

pietia (Feropsyche) Denning, 1964:132 [Type locality: Mexico, Baja California, 3 miles southwest of Mission San Javier southwest of Loreto; CAS; ♂; ♀]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:61 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

piroa (Feropsyche) Ross, 1944:289 [Type locality: United States, Texas, San Antonio, along San Antonio River; INHS; ♂]. —Ross, 1956b:400-401 [diagnosis]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:24 [♂; distribution]. —Bowles et al., 2007:23 [distribution; biology]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:41 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:355 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico, Nicaragua, U.S.A.

planata (Feropsyche) Ross, 1956b:400 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, San Cristóbal; INHS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Maes, 1999:1196 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2002:88 [♂; distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2007:32 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al., 2007:41 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:355 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico, Nicaragua.

planorboides (Feropsyche) Machado, 1957:193 [Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Tarumirim, Rio Doce valley; type depository not designated, but now in DZRJ (A.P.M. Santos, personal communication); ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 2002:135 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:18 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

poliochaeta (Feropsyche) Flint and Sykora, 2004:11 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Pedernales Province, Río Mulito, 21 km N Pedernales, 18°09.3'N, 71°45.6W, el. 280 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

propinqua (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:215 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, Toro Negro Forest, Doña Juana creek; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:83 [♂; distribution]. —

Distribution. Puerto Rico.

puyoa (Cochliopsyche) Johanson, 2003d:406 [Type locality: Ecuador: Past. Puyo (22 km W); USNM; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. Ecuador.

quadrosa (Feropsyche) Ross, 1956b:400 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Finca Victoria; INHS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:81 [♂; distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al., 2005:75 [distribution; as cuadrata, mispelling]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:355 [checklist].

Distribution. Mexico.

ramosi (Feropsyche) Flint, 1964a:72 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, Yauco-Lares Rd, Km. 22; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Flint 1991a:205 [♂; ♀; redescription]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:95 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Puerto Rico.

rentzi (Feropsyche) Denning and Blickle, 1979:31 [Type locality: Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Finca La Pacifica, 10 miles north Cañas; CAS; ♂; ♀]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:76 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:115 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:46 [distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica.

sanblasensis (Feropsyche) Johanson and Malm, 2006:19 [Type locality: Panama, San Blas, 2 km S. Nusagandi; NMNH; ♂]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Panama.

scalaris (Feropsyche) Hagen, 1864a:128 [Type locality: Venezuela, Rio lego, 7000 feet above the sea; no type nor type depository designated; case]. —Johanson, 2002:140 [taxonomic remarks].

Distribution. Venezuela.

scaloida (Feropsyche) Johanson and Wichard, 1996:197 [Type locality: Dominican Republic; ♂; GPIMH; in amber]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert, 1999:37 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Wichard, 2007a:38 [♂; key]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

selanderi (Feropsyche) Ross, 1956b:400 [Type locality: Mexico, Michoacán, 20 miles west of Morelia; INHS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:115 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:130 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:32 [distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:46 [distribution].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Mexico, Venezuela.

septifera (Feropsyche) Flint and Sykora, 2004:13 [Type locality: Dominican Republic, Pedernales Province, Río Mulito, 21 km N Pedernales, 18°09.3'N, 71°45.6'W, el. 280 m; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Pérez-Gelabert, 2008:299 [checklist].

—cf. minima Von Siebold in Botosaneanu, 1996:22 [Dominican Republic, Pedernales Province, Río Mulito, 2 km from the village Mencia de Pedernales and about 6-7 km from its springs, el. 250 m; ♀]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [referred to septifera].

Distribution. Dominican Republic.

sigillata (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991b:182 [Type locality: Cuba, Oriente Province, Baracoa, Monte Iberia; ZMUA; ♂; ♀]. —Johanson, 1995:116 [catalog]. —Flint, 1996c:16 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist]. —Johanson, 2002:20 [♂; distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo, 2005:150 [checklist].

Distribution. Cuba.

singulare (Feropsyche) Botosaneanu and Flint, 1991a:199 [Type locality: Puerto Rico, El Verde Field Station, Quebrada Prieta; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:116 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:131 [♂; distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist].

Distribution. Puerto Rico.

sinuata (Feropsyche) Denning and Blickle, 1979:31 [Type locality: [U.S.A.] California, San Bernardino County, Sheep Creek Canyon; UCD; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:116 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:125 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Malm, 2006:23 [distribution].

Distribution. Mexico, U.S.A.

succincta (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:7 [Type locality: Venezuela, T.F.A. [Territorio Federal Amazonas = Estado Amazonas], Camp XII, el. 1950 m, near Pico Phelps; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

sucrensis (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:3 [Type locality: Venezuela, Sucre, Peninsula de Paria, Puerto Viejo, “Rio el Pozo”, 10°43.073'N, 62°28.569'W, el. 20 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

tachira (Feropsyche) Johanson and Holzenthal, 2004:13 [Type locality: Venezuela, Táchira, trib. to Río El Valle, 3.8 km SE El Zumbador, 7°57.411'N, 72°4.394'W, el. 2730 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. Venezuela.

tapadas (Feropsyche) Denning, 1966:238 [Type locality: Mexico, Nayarit, Arroyo Santiago, 3 miles northwest of Jesus Maria; CAS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:116 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:26 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

temora (Feropsyche) Denning and Blickle, 1979:30 [Type locality: Mexico, Chihuahua, 6.4 km (4 mi) SW of Temoris; UCD; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:116 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:30 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. Mexico.

thelidomus (Feropsyche) Hagen, 1864a:127 [Type locality: Venezuela, Rio lego 7000 feet above the sea; no type nor type depository designated; case]. —Johanson, 2002:139 [taxonomic remarks].

Distribution. Venezuela.

timbira (Feropsyche) Silva, Santos and Nessimian, 2014:436 [Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, Rio Beija Flor, 22°26'50.9"S, 43°00'19.4"W, el. 1187 m; DZRJ; ♂]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:19 [checklist].

Distribution. Brazil.

truncata (Feropsyche) Ross, 1956b:398 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Finca Vergel; INHS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint, 1978:215 [distribution]. —Aguila, 1992:545 [distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:117 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:71 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Holzenthal, 2010:46 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:355 [checklist]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama.

turbida (Feropsyche) Navás, 1923a:200 [Type locality: Argentina, Alta Gracia; MZBS; ♀]. —Schmid, 1949a:419 [/male; ♀; redescription]. —Flint, 1967c:25 [as synonym of muelleri]. —Flint, 1982c:63 [as valid species]. —Johanson, 1995:117 [catalog]. —Mangeaud, 1996:154 [distribution]. —Johanson, 2002:30 [♂; distribution]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín, 2014:200 [distribution]. —Rueda Martín and Isa Miranda, 2015:208 [redescription; ♂; larva; pupa; biology; distribution].

Distribution. Argentina.

tuxtlensis (Feropsyche) Bueno-Soria, 1983b:455 [Type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Balzapote, 3 km north from Estacion de Biologia “Los Tuxtlas”; IBUNAM; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:117 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:86 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson, 2003a:8 [distribution; key]. —Armitage et al., 2015b:9 [checklist]. —Armitage and Cornejo, 2015:198 [checklist].

Distribution. Guatemala, Mexico, Panama.

umbonata (Feropsyche) Hagen, 1864a:128 [Type locality: Jamaica, Chitty, Paines Town; no type nor type depository designated; case]. —Flint, 1968a:62 [distribution; redescription; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa; case]. —Flint, 1968b:83 [checklist]. —Johanson, 1995:117 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Malicky, 1999:117, 118 [distribution]. —Johanson, 2002:73 [♂; distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 2002:100 [ckecklist].

Distribution. Jamaica.

valligera (Feropsyche) Flint, 1983a:93 [Type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Misiones, Arroyo Coatí, 15 mi E San José; NMNH; ♂]. —Johanson, 1995:117 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:132 [phylogeny]. —Johanson, 2002:90 [♂; distribution]. —Paprocki et al., 2004:6 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França, 2014:18 [checklist].

Distribution. Argentina, Brazil.

vazquezae (Cochliopsyche) Flint, 1986:214 [Type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Río Tulijá, 48 km south of Palenque; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal, 1988c:75 [distribution]. —Monson et al., 1988:154 [larva; pupa; biology; distribution]. —Johanson, 1995:107 [catalog]. —Johanson, 1998:129 [status, phylogeny]. —Muñoz-Quesada, 2000:275 [checklist]. —Johanson, 2003d:392 [♂; redescription; distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Barba-Álvarez, 2011:354 [checklist].

Distribution. Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Venezuela.

venezuelensis (