Annotated checklist of the coastal ichthyofauna from Michoacán State, Mexico
expand article infoEloisa Torres-Hernández, Georgina Palacios-Morales, Salvador Romero-Gallardo, Paloma Salazar-Araujo§, Adrián García-Meraz, Xavier Madrigal-Guridi, Luis F. Del Moral-Flores|, Omar Dominguez-Domínguez
‡ Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Mexico
§ Posgrado de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Mazatlan, Mexico
| Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, Mexico
Open Access


This study is the first to complete an intensive and comprehensive list of the ichthyofauna of nearly all ecosystems of the Michoacán coast, Mexico. The resulting systematic checklist, supplemented with information from the literature and scientific collections, comprises 440 species belonging to two classes, 31 orders, 104 families, and 264 genera. The families with the highest number of species were Sciaenidae (30 spp.), Carangidae (26), Haemulidae (24), Serranidae (21), Paralichthyidae, and Gobiidae (13). Of the total species list, 134 represent first records for the Michoacán State, and one is a first record for Mexico. The results expand the number of known fish species of the Michoacán coast by almost one third and will help to develop conservation and management plans for this coastal zone.


Coastal fish, estuaries, marine, Mexican Central Pacific, systematic list


Mexico has a wealth of both marine species and ecosystems. The country has the world’s twelfth longest marine territory, including both Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The geographic and geological history, as well as the ecological and biological richness of areas such as the Gulf of California, the Oceanic islands, and the Caribbean, expands the diversity of Mexican marine life (Lara-Lara et al. 2008), including the ichthyofauna. The few studies pertaining to these taxa have primarily focused on conservation priority zones such as the Gulf of California (e.g. Del Moral-Flores et al. 2013), protected marine areas (e.g. Galván-Villa et al. 2016), or on economically important species (e.g. Lara-Lara et al. 2008).

The Mexican tropical Pacific is part of the biogeographic region known as the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which comprises three provinces: Cortez or Sinuscaliforniana, Mexican, and Panamic (sensuBriggs 1974). An estimated 1358 fish species occur in the TEP region, along with an additional of approximately 59 undescribed species (Zapata and Robertson, 2007). The TEP could be considered an area of low richness compared to other biogeographical regions of tropical seas, such as the Indo-Malaysian or the Great Caribbean. However, approximately 71% of identified TEP fish species are considered endemic, making it the tropical region with the highest rate of endemism per unit area in the world (Robertson and Allen 2015). According to Robertson and Allen (2015), the Cortez province possesses 9% of the 515 endemic fish species identified in the coastal ecosystems of the TEP region, whereas the Mexican and the Panamic provinces host 2% and 29% of the endemic component, respectively. Nine percent of the endemic species occur in both the Cortez and Mexican provinces, 10% in both the Mexican and the Panamic provinces, and 37% of the species are found in the three provinces. The endemic fish fauna of the five TEP oceanic islands (Revillagigedo, Galapagos, Cliperton, Coco, and Malpelo) represent, on the other hand, 10% of the total.

The Mexican province is highly productive due to the convergence of the Costa Rica Coastal Current and the California Current, favoring the presence of tropical, temperate, and transitional fish species (Kessler 2006). Based on its lower number of endemic fish species, the Mexican province has been considered a transition zone between the Cortez province in the north and the Panamic to the south (Hastings 2000, Palacios-Salgado 2005, Robertson and Cramer 2009). Attempts to characterize the ichthyofauna of this province are scarce, and most of them refer to a particular group of fishes, region or are based on unpublished reports (Madrid-Vera et al. 1998; Palacios-Salgado 2005, Madrigal-Guridi 2006, Moncayo-Estrada et al. 2006, Chávez-Comparan et al. 2008, López-Pérez et al. 2010, Márquez-Espinoza 2012, Sandoval-Huerta et al. 2012, 2012b, 2014; Palacios-Morales et al. 2014).

The coastline of the Michoacán State, in the Mexican province, is 261.5 km in length and runs from Boca de Apiza, at the mouth of the Coahuayana River, which represents the border with the Colima State to the north, to Barra de San Francisco, at the mouth of the Balsas River, which represents the border with the Guerrero State to the south (Correa and Gómez 2003). There are two contrasting physiographic zones differing markedly in the marine ecosystems and consequently in the fish species present: (1) the municipalities of Lazaro Cardenas and Coahuayana, which are characterized by coastal plains, with a wide sandy coastline, mangroves, and estuary zones, (2) and the municipality of Aquila comprising numerous cliffs extending into the sea and forming wide zones of rocky reefs, coralline patches, and intertidal pools; estuaries in the last zone are scarce and differ in size and dynamism from those found in Lazaro Cardenas and Coahuyana (Correa and Gómez 2003).

Such heterogeneity in a transitional zone potentially produces high fish species richness. Nevertheless, information on the ichthyofauna of the Michoacán coast is limited, including two study focused on artisanal fishery species (Amezcua-Linares 2009, Sánchez-Aguilar 2007), two on estuarine fishes (Madrigal-Guridi 2006, Sandoval-Huerta et al. 2014) and one including all habitats (Medina-Nava et al. 2001). Madrid-Vera et al. (1998) published the previously most extensive list of the fish fauna of the Michoacán coast, with 257 species, 157 genera, and 76 families recorded in a wide variety of environments. This limited knowledge of the fish fauna contrasts with the importance of the fishery to the economy of the region as the main economic activity, with about 11,931 fishermen producing 6525 tons with an estimated economic value of 145,255,860 MXN (CONAPESCA 2014).

The main goal of this study was to provide an updated checklist of the ichthyofauna from the Michoacán coast including information on fish of local commercial importance and their biogeographic affinity. This knowledge will increase the understanding of regional fish diversity and could be of usefulness for conservation and management strategies of the littoral zone of the Central Mexican Pacific and particularly for the Michoacán State.

Materials and methods

The study area encompassed the coastline of Michoacán state, with 110 locations directly sampled (Fig. 1) and information on 50 additional sites obtained from published literature or scientific collections. These data were obtained through extensive review of the biological material deposited at the Colección de Peces de la Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo(CPUM), the Colección Nacional de Peces (UNAM), the Colección Ictiológica del Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (UNAM) and the Marine Vertebrate Collection, Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO). In addition, records from the data base of the fish collection of the California Academy of Sciences(CAS) were reviewed. These investigation also included an extensive review of specialized publications (books, catalogues, and field guides) and reports of specimens deposited in ichthyological collections recognized by the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, México, or specimens of which identification was corroborated by experts.

Figure 1. 

Sampling locations on the coast of Michoacán State.

Field sampling was conducted bimonthly from February 2010 to February 2011, with intermittent sampling in the ensuing year. Sampling was carried out in estuarine zones, rocky intertidal pools, rocky reefs, sandy areas, coralline communities, artificial reefs, and the demersal-pelagic area. Methods were tailored to the ecosystem. Reef species were collected via SCUBA diving using elastic band harpoons. Ecologically cryptic (sensuViesca-Lobatón 2005) and intertidal pool species were collected using eugenol (clove oil) anesthetic at a ratio of 1:5 (eugenol:ethanol) for reef and 0.25:9.75 for intertidal pool species. When the organisms were sedated, they were captured with a slurp gun or hand net. For estuarine locations, nocturnal sampling was done using gill nets (12 × 1.8 m and 0.7 to 1.2 cm mesh) and cast nets. For sandy-bottomed sites, a small fishing net (2 × 1.8 m, 1 cm mesh and 3 m bag) was used using a dragging period of 20 min. Captures from a shrimp fishing boat were also analyzed. Aggregations of debris in the open sea were investigated to collect ocean species rarely found in coastal areas. Cooperation with local artisanal fishermen was established to review incidental and commercial catches. Fishermen used lines of 50, 100, and 200 m at 5, 20, and 40 m depth, with hooks of various sizes, fishing with fishhook at a maximum depth of 80 m and gillnets of 7 to 12 cm mesh size. Information about the commercial value and uses of the species also was recorded.

Most specimens were photographed upon collection; tissue samples were taken and deposited at the tissue collection of the CPUM. Specimens were fixed in 5% or 10% formalin neutralized with sodium borate and posteriorly preserved in 70% ethanol. Fishes were identified using the keys and descriptions from Springer (1962), Allen and Robertson (1991, 1992, 1998), Fisher et al. (1995), Castro-Aguirre et al. (1999), Hastings and Robertson (1999, 1999b), Thomson et al. (2000), Carpenter and Niem (2001), Miller and Stefanni (2001), Miller et al. (2005), and Robertson and Allen (2015). For some groups, specialized literature was required: Balistidae (Latreille 1804, Shaw 1804-1805, Jordan and Evermann 1900, Froese and Pauly 2003), Rhinobatidae (Himaya and Kumada 1940), Gerreidae (Benitez 2004), Atherinopsidae (Lavenberg and Chernoff 1995), Labrisomidae (Hubbs 1953; Springer1959, Rosenblatt and Parr 1969, Rosenblatt and Taylor 1971), Blenniidae (Springer 1962), Chaenopsidae (Hastings and Robertson 1999), Tripterygiidae (Allen and Robertson 1991, 1992, Rosenblatt et al. 2013), and for the genera Abudefduf Forsskål, 1775 (Lessios et al. 1995), Tomicodon Brisout de Barneville, 1846, Gobiesox Lacepède, 1800 (Briggs 1955; Briggs and Miller 1960), and Albula Scopoli, 1777 (Pfeiler 2008). All specimens were deposited at CPUM (MICH-PEC-227-07-09).

The systematic arrangement followed Nelson et al. (2016). The current taxonomic status of each species was corroborated in Eschmeyer et al. (2016). The arrangement of the genera and species was in alphabetical order. In the systematic list, the habitat-type from which each species was collected and the scientific collection by which the specimen was identified, or the scientific document from which information of the specimen was obtained, are indicated.

Finally, a zoogeographical affinity analysis of the species, based on the biogeographical regionalization proposed by Briggs (1974, 1995), was made. Accordingly, the Tropical Eastern Pacific was divided into three provinces. The San Diegan province was also included, since some species tended to have a northern distribution.


Sampling was performed in 13 intertidal pool sites, 20 rocky reef sites, three coralline communities, two artificial reefs, 22 estuarine ecosystems, and 50 soft bottom and open sea sites, collecting 6963 fishes.

The compiled systematic list of ichthyofauna of the Michoacán coast comprises 436 species belonging to two classes, 31 orders, 104 families, and 260 genera (Table 1). The families representing the greatest number of species were Sciaenidae (30), Carangidae (26), Haemulidae (24), Serranidae (21), and Paralichthyidae and Gobiidae (13). The genera with the highest number of species were Lutjanus Bloch, 1790 (9), Carcharhinus Blainville, 1816 (7), Anchoa Jordan and Evermann, 1927 (6), Diplectrum Holbrook, 1855 (6), and Caranx Lacepède, 1801 (5).

Table 1.

Updated checklist of the coastal ichthyofauna from Michoacán, Mexico.

Collected habitat (2010–2011) Ichthyogeographic affinity References and organisms voucher The importance in fisheries
Ginglymostoma unami Del Moral Flores, Ramírez-Antonio, Angulo y Pérez-Ponce de León, 2015 R AA 2, 4, 6, CPUM A
Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 CT 1
Alopias pelagicus Nakamura, 1935 AP 2
Alopias superciliosus (Lowe, 1841) CT 2
Mustelus lunulatus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 D TEP 2, 6
Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell, 1837) CT 2
Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870) CT 2
Carcharhinus cerdale Gilbert, 1898 TEP 1, 2
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) CT 2
Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839) CT 1, 2
Carcharhinus limbatus (Müller & Henle, 1839) D CT 1, 2, 6, CPUM C
Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur, 1818) CT 1, 2
Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) CT 1, 2
Nasolamia velox (Gilbert, 1898) TEP 2
Negaprion brevirostris (Poey, 1868) AA 1, 2
Rhizoprionodon longurio (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) D SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834) D CT 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM C
Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758) CT 2
Narcine entemedor Jordan & Starks, 1895 D TEP 1, 9, CPUM I
*Narcine vermiculatus Breder, 1928 D MP, PP 6, 9, CPUM, ICMYL, CIBNOR I
*Pristis pristis (Linnaeus, 1758) PD AA CPUM-photo C
Rhinobatos glaucostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1883 R TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM, ICMYL C
Rhinobatos productus Ayres, 1856 SP, TEP 2
*Zapteryx xyster Jordan & Evermann,1896 R TEP CPUM, SIO I
Raja equatorialis Jordan & Bollman, 1890 MP, PP 1
Urotrygon aff. aspidura (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) TEP 1
Urotrygon chilensis (Günther, 1872) TEP 1, 2, 9
Urotrygon munda Gill, 1863 TEP 2
Urotrygon nana Miyake & McEachran, 1988 TEP 1, 9
Urotrygon rogersi (Jordan & Starks, 1895) PD TEP 1, 4, 9, CPUM, SIO I
Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1863) SP, TEP 1, 9, CPUM C
Aetobatus laticeps (Euphrasen, 1790) R CT 2, 4, CPUM-photo I
*Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann & Jenkins, 1891 PD TEP CPUM I
*Mobula munkiana Notarbartolo di Sciara, 1987 PD TEP CPUM C
Urobatis concentricus Osburn & Nichols, 1916 R TEP 1, 6, CPUM
Urobatis halleri (Cooper, 1863) R TEP 2, CPUM
Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) D TEP 2, 9, CIBNOR
Dasyatis longus (Garman, 1880) PD SP, TEP 1, CPUM I
Elops affinis Regan, 1909 E SP, TEP 2, CPUM C
Albula pacifica (Beebe, 1942) D MP, PP 1, 2, 9, CPUM C
*Echidna nocturna (Cope, 1872) PM, R CP, MP CPUM
*Enchelycore octaviana (Myers & Wade, 1941) PM, R CP, MP CPUM
Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw, 1797) R AP 2, 6, CPUM I
Gymnothorax castaneus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883) PM, R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
*Gymnothorax equatorialis (Hildebrand, 1946) R TEP 9, CPUM
*Muraena argus (Steindachner, 1870) TEP ICMYL
Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns, 1842 PM, R TEP 2, 4, 5, 9, CPUM
*Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker, 1864) PM TEP CPUM
*Apterichtus equatorialis (Myers & Wade, 1941) R TEP CPUM
*Echiophis brunneus (Castro-Aguirre & Suárez de los Cobos, 1983) R TEP 9, CPUM
*Myrichthys aspetocheiros McCosker & Rosenblatt, 1993 R CP, MP 6, CPUM
Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup, 1856) R TEP 2, CPUM, ICMYL I
Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 R TEP 1, 2, CPUM, ICMYL I
*Ariosoma gilberti (Ogilby, 1898) D MP, PP 9
Heteroconger digueti (Pellegrin, 1923) TEP 2
*Paraconger californiensis Kanazawa, 1961 TEP SIO
*Rhynchoconger nitens (Jordan & Bollman, 1890) D TEP 9, CPUM, ICMYL I
Harengula thrissina (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PM SP, TEP 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM A
Lile gracilis Castro-Aguirre & Vivero, 1990 E MP, PP 1, 12, CPUM
Lile nigrofasciata Castro-Aguirre, Ruiz-Campos & Balart, 2002 E TEP 1, 10, 12, 13, CPUM
Lile stolifera (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) E TEP CPUM
*Opisthonema bulleri (Regan, 1904) PD TEP CPUM A
Opisthonema libertate (Günther, 1867) E SP, TEP 2, 8, CPUM A
*Opisthonema medirastre Berry & Barrett, 1963 PM TEP CPUM A
*Anchoa argentivittata (Regan, 1904) PM TEP CPUM A
Anchoa ischana (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) TEP 2, 5
Anchoa lucida (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) E TEP 2, 12, CPUM
Anchoa mundeola (Gilbert & Pierson, 1898) TEP 2
*Anchoa nasus (Kner & Steindachner, 1867) PM TEP CPUM, ICMYL
Anchoa scofieldi (Jordan & Culver, 1895) PD MP, PP 2, 4, CPUM A
*Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner, 1863) PD SP, TEP CPUM A
Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther, 1867) PD TEP 2, CPUM A
Ilisha fuerthii (Steindachner, 1875) MP, PP 2, 7
*Opisthopterus dovii (Günther, 1868) TEP 8
Pliosteostoma lutipinnis (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) E TEP 1, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, CPUM A
Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) PD CT 2, 7, CPUM C
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 E Introduced CPUM
Bagre panamensis (Gill, 1863) TEP 2
Bagre pinnimaculatus (Steindachner, 1876) TEP 2
Cathorops dasycephalus (Günther, 1864) MP, PP 2
Notarius kessleri (Steindachner, 1877) MP, PP 1, 2
Notarius planiceps (Parr, 1931) MP, PP 1, 2
Occidentarius platypogon (Steindachner, 1877) E, D SP, TEP 1, 8, 9, CPUM C
Sciades guatemalensis (Günther, 1864) E MP, PP 1, 2, CPUM C
Sciades seemanni (Günther, 1864) TEP 1, CNPE-IBUNAM
Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) E Introduced 10, CPUM
*Bathylagoides nigrigenys Garman, 1899 MP, PP SIO
*Cyclothone acclinidens (Garman, 1899) CT SIO
*Vinciguerria lucetia (Garman, 1899) AP SIO
*Bathophilus filifer Gilbert, 1890 AP SIO
*Idiacanthus antrostomus (Parr, 1929) AP SIO
*Scopelarchoides nicholsi Jordan & Bollman, 1890 SP, TEP SIO
*Synodus evermanni Gilbert, 1890 R TEP 9, CPUM, SIO I
*Synodus lacertinus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 R TEP 9, CPUM
Synodus scituliceps Hildebrand, 1946 TEP 1, 2, 9, ICMYL
*Synodus sechurae Parr, 1931 PD TEP CPUM I
*Diaphus pacificus Hubbs, 1944 AP CAS
*Diogenichthys laternatus (Jordan & Bollman, 1890) AP CAS
*Lampanyctus omostigma (Gilbert, 1890) AP CAS
*Lampanyctus parvicauda Parr, 1931 AP SIO
*Myctophum aurolaternatum (Putnam, 1874) AP ANSP
Brotula clarkae Hubbs, 1944 TEP 1
*Lepophidium prorates (Jordan & Bollman, 1890) D TEP 9, SIO, ICMYL
*Otophidium indefatigabile (Richardson, 1844) D TEP 9, ICMYL, CIBNOR
Carapus dubius (Putnam, 1874) AP 1
*Batrachoides waltersi Collette & Russo, 1981 MP, PP ICMYL
*Porichthys ephippiatus Walker y Rosenblatt, 1988 TEP CPUM, SIO I
*Porichthys margaritatus (Richardson, 1844) TEP 9, CIBNOR
Lophiodes caulinaris (Garman, 1899) SP, TEP 1, 9, SIO, ICMYL
Lophiodes spilurus (Garman, 1899) TEP 1
*Antennatus sanguineus (Gill, 1863) SP, TEP 6
*Antennatus strigatus (Gill, 1863) R TEP 6, CPUM, ICMYL
*Fowlerichthys avalonis (Bancroft, 1834) R SP, TEP 6, 9, CPUM
Zalieutes elater (Jordan y Gilbert, 1882) PD SP, TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, SIO, ICMYL I
*Arcos erythrops (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PM, R CP, MP CPUM
*Gobiesox adustus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 PM, R TEP CPUM
Gobiesox mexicanus Briggs & Miller, 1960 E Freshwater CPUM
*Tomicodon petersii (Garman, 1875) R MP, PP CPUM
Tomicodon zebra (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PM CP, MP 2, CPUM
*Atherinella eriarcha Jordan y Gilbert, 1882 PM TEP 4, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
Atherinella guatemalensis (Günther, 1864) E MP, PP 1, 8, 12, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
Atherinella panamensis Steindachner, 1875 E MP, PP 8, 10, 12, CPUM
Poecilia butleri Jordan, 1889 E Freshwater 8, 10, 12, 13, CPUM
Platybelone argalus (Lesueur, 1821) CT 2, SIO, ANSP
Strongylura exilis (Girard, 1854) SP, TEP 2, 6
Tylosurus fodiator Jordan y Gilbert, 1882 PD TEP 2, CPUM C
Hemiramphus saltator Gilbert & Starks, 1904 PD TEP 1, 6, CPUM
Hyporhamphus naos Banford & Collette, 2001 PD TEP 1, CPUM A
*Oxyporhamphus micropterus (Valenciennes, 1847) CT SIO
*Cheilopogon furcatus (Mitchill, 18l5) CT SIO
*Cheilopogon papilio (Clark, 1936) SP, CP, MP SIO
Cypselurus callopterus (Günther, 1866) SP, CP, MP 1, 2, SIO
*Exocoetus monocirrhus Richardson, 1846 AP SIO
Fodiator rostratus (Günther, 1866) TEP 2, SIO
*Prognichthys tringa Breder, 1928 AP SIO
*Scopelogadus mizolepis (Günther, 1878) CT CAS
Sargocentron suborbitale (Gill,1863) PM, R TEP 2, 4, 5, 6, CPUM, SIO, ICMYL
Myripristis leiognathus Valenciennes, 1846 R SP, TEP 2, 5, 6, 9, CPUM
Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838 R AP 1, 2, 6, CPUM
*Fistularia corneta Gilbert & Starks, 1904 R SP, TEP CPUM
*Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup, 1856 R AP CPUM
Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858 R SP, TEP 1, 2, 6, 9, CPUM, ICMYL
Pseudophallus starksii (Jordan & Culver, 1895) E TEP 1, 12, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
Scorpaena histrio Jenyns, 1840 TEP 2
Scorpaena mystes (Jordan & Starks, 1895) R AA 1, 6, 9, CPUM, ICMYL I
Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman, 1890 TEP 1, 9
*Scorpaena sonorae Jenkins & Evermann, 1889 PD CP, PP CPUM I
*Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) R SP, TEP CPUM
*Bellator gymnostethus (Gilbert, 1892) TEP 9
Bellator loxias (Jordan, 1897) TEP 2
Bellator xenisma (Jordan & Bollman, 1890) TEP 1, 2, 9
Prionotus albirostris Jordan & Bollman, 1890 TEP 1, 9
Prionotus horrens Richardson, 1844 TEP 1
Prionotus ruscarius Gilbert & Starks, 1904 R SP, TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, SIO A
Prionotus stephanophrys Lockington, 1881 R SP, TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, ICMYL A
Centropomus armatus Gill, 1863 PD MP, PP 2, 7, 8, CPUM C
Centropomus medius Günther, 1864 PD SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
Centropomus nigrescens Günther, 1864 E TEP 2, 4, 10, 12, 13, CPUM C
Centropomus robalito Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 E TEP 2, 3, CPUM
Centropomus viridis Lockington, 1877 E TEP 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, CPUM
Alphestes inmaculatus Breder, 1936 R TEP 2, 6, CPUM I
Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther, 1867) R TEP 2, 4, 5, 6, CPUM I
Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner, 1877) R TEP 2, 4, 6, CPUM
Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger, 1895) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM-photo
Diplectrum eumelum Rosenblatt & Johnson, 1974 R TEP 1, 9, CPUM, SIO
*Diplectrum euryplectrum Jordan & Bollman, 1890 R TEP CPUM, ICMYL
Diplectrum labarum Rosenblatt & Johnson, 1974 R TEP 1, 9, CPUM, SIO
Diplectrum macropoma (Günther, 1864) R TEP 1, CPUM, SIO
Diplectrum pacificum Meek & Hildebrand, 1925 R TEP 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM
*Diplectrum rostrum Bortone, 1974 PD TEP CPUM A
Epinephelus analogus Gill, 1863 R SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM, ICMYL, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1840) PM, R TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM C
Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert, 1892) R TEP 1, 2, 4, 9, CPUM, ICMYL C
*Hyporthodus exsul (Fowler, 1944) TEP SIO
Hyporthodus niphobles Gilbert & Starks, 1897 R SP, TEP 1, CPUM C
*Paralabrax loro Walford, 1936 R TEP 9, CPUM C
Paranthias colonus (Valenciennes, 1846) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM, ICMYL C
*Pseudogramma thaumasia (Gilbert, 1900) R TEP CPUM
Rypticus bicolor Valenciennes, 1846 PM, R TEP 1, CPUM A
*Rypticus nigripinnis Gill, 1861 TEP 9, ICMYL
Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes, 1846 TEP 2
Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède, 1801) CT 2, 6
Pristigenys serrula (Gilbert, 1891) D TEP 1, 2, 6, 9, CPUM
Apogon pacificus (Herre, 1935) R TEP 1, 6, CPUM-photo, ICMYL
Apogon retrosella (Gill, 1862) PM, R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
*Phtheirichthys lineatus (Menzies, 1791) CT ANSP
*Remora osteochir (Cuvier, 1829) CT SIO
Remora remora (Linnaeus, 1758) D CT 2, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
Alectis ciliaris (Bloch, 1787) PD CT 1, 2, 9, CPUM C
Carangoides otrynter (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883) R SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, CPUM, ICMYL C
Carangoides vinctus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 D SP, TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, ICMYL, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Caranx caballus Günther, 1868 PM, R SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, CPUM, ICMYL C
Caranx caninus Günther, 1867 R, E SP, TEP 1, 2, 9, 12, CPUM, SIO, CIBNOR C
Caranx lugubris Poey, 1860 PD TEP 2, CPUM C
Caranx melampygus Cuvier, 1833 CT 2, 6
Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 R, E AP 2, 7, 8, CPUM C
Chloroscombrus orqueta Jordan & Gilbert, 1883 PM SP, TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM A
*Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker, 1851 PD AP CPUM C
Decapterus muroadsi (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) CT 1, 2
Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) PD CT 1, 2, CPUM C
Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775) AP 2
Hemicaranx leucurus (Günther, 1864) TEP 2
Hemicaranx zelotes Gilbert, 1898 TEP 2, 7
Oligoplites altus (Günther, 1868) PD TEP 2, CPUM C
Oligoplites refulgens Gilbert & Starks, 1904 PD TEP 2, CPUM C
Oligoplites saurus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) E TEP 2, CPUM
Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793) R, E CT 1, 2, 8, CPUM, SIO C
Selene brevoortii (Gill, 1863) R, E SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM A
Selene peruviana (Guichenot, 1866) R TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM A
Seriola peruana Steindachner, 1881 R TEP 2, CPUM C
Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes, 1833 PD CT 2, CPUM C
*Trachinotus kennedyi Steindachner, 1876 E TEP 2, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
Trachinotus paitensis Cuvier, 1832 TEP 1, 2
Trachinotus rhodopus Gill, 1863 PM, R, E SP, MP, PP 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 12, CPUM, ICMYL
Nematistius pectoralis Gill, 1862 PD TEP 2, 4, CPUM C
*Coryphaena equiselis Linnaeus, 1758 CT SIO
Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758 PD CT 2, 4, CPUM-photo C
Hoplopagrus guentherii Gill, 1862 R SP, TEP 1, 2, 6, CPUM C
Lutjanus aratus (Günther, 1864) TEP 1
Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869) PM, R, E SP, TEP 1, 2, 6, 12, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Lutjanus colorado Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 R, E SP, TEP 1, 2,4, 6, 8, CPUM C
Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869) R TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, CPUM, SIO, ICMYL C
Lutjanus inermis (Peters, 1869) R TEP 1, 2, CPUM, ICMYL C
*Lutjanus jordani (Gilbert, 1898) TEP 6
Lutjanus novemfasciatus Gill, 1862 PM, R, E SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, CPUM C
Lutjanus peru (Nichols & Murphy, 1922) R SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 9, CPUM, ICMYL C
*Lutjanus viridis (Valenciennes, 1846) PD TEP 6, CPUM
Lobotes pacificus Gilbert, 1898 PD CT 1, CPUM C
Deckerichthys aureolus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) D TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, ICMYL C
Diapterus brevirostris (Sauvage, 1879) E TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
Eucinostomus currani Zahuranec, 1980 PM, E SP, TEP 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Eucinostomus dowii (Gill, 1863) SP, TEP 1
*Eucinostomus entomelas Zahuranec, 1980 SP, TEP CNPE-IBUNAM
Eucinostomus gracilis (Gill, 1862) TEP 1, 2, 9
*Eugerres axillaris (Günther, 1864) R, E TEP CPUM
Eugerres brevimanus (Günther, 1864) MP, PP 1
*Eugerres lineatus (Humboldt, 1821) E TEP CPUM
Gerres simillimus Reagan, 1907 R, E TEP 1, 2, 4, 7, CPUM C
*Anisotremus caesius (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) R MP, PP CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Anisotremus interruptus (Gill, 1862) R SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, CPUM, ICMYL, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Anisotremus taeniatus Gill, 1861 R SP, TEP 2, 6, CPUM C
Conodon serrifer Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 SP, TEP 1, ICMYL
Genyatremus dovii (Günther, 1864) R TEP 2, CPUM, ICMYL, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Genyatremus pacifici (Günther, 1864) MP, PP 2
Haemulon californiensis (Steindachner, 1876) TEP 2
Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill, 1862 R SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, CPUM, ICMYL C
Haemulon maculicauda (Gill, 1862) R SP, TEP 2, 6, CPUM, ICMYL C
Haemulon scudderii Gill, 1862 R SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
Haemulon sexfasciatum Gill, 1862 R TEP 1, 2, 6, CPUM C
Haemulon steindachneri (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) R AA 2, CPUM, ICMYL, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Haemulopsis axillaris (Steindachner, 1869) R MP, PP 2, CPUM C
Haemulopsis elongatus (Steindachner, 1879) R MP, PP 1, CPUM, ICMYL C
Haemulopsis leuciscus (Günther, 1864) E TEP 1, 2, 6, 9, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Haemulopsis nitidus (Steindachner, 1869) R TEP 1, CPUM
*Microlepidotus brevipinnis (Steindachner, 1869) R TEP CPUM C
Orthopristis chalceus (Günther, 1864) R TEP 2, 4, CPUM
Orthopristis reddingi Jordan & Richardson, 1895 R TEP 1, 2, CPUM
Pomadasys bayanus Jordan & Evermann, 1898 E TEP 1, 2, CPUM
Pomadasys branickii (Steindachner, 1879) E TEP 1, 7, 10, CPUM, ICMYL
Pomadasys macracanthus (Günther, 1864) E TEP 2, CPUM
Pomadasys panamensis (Steindachner, 1876) TEP 1, 2, 9, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Xenichthys xanti Gill, 1863 R SP, TEP 2, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Calamus brachysomus (Lockington, 1880) R SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
Bairdiella armata Gill, 1863 TEP 1, 2
Bairdiella ensifera (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) MP, PP 1, 2
Bairdiella icistia (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) CP, MP 2
*Corvula macrops (Steindachner, 1876) R TEP CPUM
Cynoscion nannus Castro-Aguirre & Arvizu-Martínez, 1976 PD CP, MP 1, CPUM C
Cynoscion phoxocephalus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 MP, PP 1, 9, CPUM, CIBNOR C
Cynoscion reticulatus (Günther, 1864) TEP 1, 2
*Cynoscion stolzmanni (Steindachner, 1879) TEP ICMYL
Elattarchus archidium (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PD TEP 2, CPUM C
Isopisthus remifer Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 TEP 2
Larimus acclivis Jordan & Bristol, 1898 PD TEP 2, CPUM C
Larimus argenteus (Gill, 1863) PD TEP 1, 2, CPUM, ICMYL C
Larimus effulgens Gilbert, 1898 PD TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM C
Menticirrhus elongatus (Günther, 1864) E SP, TEP 2, CPUM C
Menticirrhus nasus (Günther, 1868) TEP 2, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Menticirrhus panamensis (Steindachner, 1875) TEP 1, 2
Menticirrhus undulatus (Girard, 1854) PD SP, TEP 1, CPUM C
Micropogonias altipinnis (Günther, 1864) TEP 2
*Micropogonias ectenes (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PD SP, TEP CPUM C
Micropogonias megalops (Jordan & Gilbert, 1884) CP, MP 1
Odontoscion xanthops Gilbert, 1898 R TEP 2, CPUM
Ophioscion imiceps (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) MP, PP 2, ICMYL, CNPE-IBUNAM
Ophioscion scierus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1884) MP, PP 2, ICMYL
*Ophioscion strabo Gilbert, 1897 TEP ICMYL
*Ophioscion typicus Gill, 1863 TEP CNPE-IBUNAM
*Ophioscion vermicularis (Günther, 1867) PD MP, PP CPUM C
*Pareques fuscovittatus (Kendall & Radcliffe, 1912) R MP 6, CPUM
Umbrina bussingi López S., 1980 PD MP, PP 1, 9, CPUM, ICMYL C
Umbrina dorsalis Gill, 1862 R, E TEP 2, 12, CPUM
Umbrina xanti Gill, 1862 R, E SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
Polydactylus approximans (Lay & Bennett, 1839) E TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, SIO, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Polydactylus opercularis (Gill, 1863) E SP, TEP 1, 2, 8, CPUM C
Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill, 1862) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM, ICMYL C
Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Gill, 1863) R TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM C
Kyphosus analogus (Gill, 1862) R TEP 2, 4, CPUM C
Kyphosus elegans (Peters, 1869) R TEP 2, 4, 5, CPUM C
Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) R CT 1, 2, CPUM, SIO, ICMYL C
Chaetodon humeralis Günther, 1860 PM, R TEP 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, CPUM
Johnrandallia nigrirostris (Gill, 1862) PM, R SP, TEP 2, 6, CPUM I
Holacanthus passer Valenciennes, 1846 R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
Pomacanthus zonipectus (Gill, 1862) R SP, TEP 1, 2, 6, 9, CPUM, ICMYL
Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker, 1855) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
Cirrhitus rivulatus Valenciennes, 1846 PM, R TEP 2, 4, 5, 6, CPUM
Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft, 1882) E AA 1, 3, 10, 12, 13, CPUM, ICMYL
*Chaenomugil proboscideus (Günther, 1861) PM TEP CPUM, ICMYL
Mugil cephalus Linneaus, 1758 CT 1, 2
Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 PM, E AA 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, CPUM C
*Abudefduf declivifrons (Gill, 1862) PM, R TEP 4, 5, CPUM
Abudefduf troschelii (Gill, 1862) PM, R SP, TEP 2, 5, 6, CPUM
Chromis atrilobata Gill, 1862 R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
Microspathodon bairdii (Gill, 1862) PM, R TEP 2, 5, CPUM
Microspathodon dorsalis (Gill, 1862) PM, R SP, TEP 2, 4, 5, 6, CPUM I
Stegastes acapulcoensis (Fowler, 1944) PM, R MP, PP 2, 5, 6, CPUM
Stegastes flavilatus (Gill, 1862) PM, R MP, PP 2, 5, 6, CPUM, ICMYL
Stegastes rectifraenum (Gill, 1862) PM, R SP, CP, MP 2, 5, CPUM, ICMYL
Bodianus diplotaenia (Gill, 1862) R SP, TEP 2, 6, CPUM, ICMYL
Halichoeres chierchiae di Caporiacco, 1947 R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
Halichoeres dispilus (Günther, 1864) PM, R TEP 2, 4, 5, 6, CPUM
Halichoeres nicholsi (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
Halichoeres notospilus (Günther, 1864) PM, R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
*Iniistius pavo (Valenciennes, 1840) R AP CPUM
*Novaculichthys taeniourus (Lacepède, 1801) R AP 6
*Thalassoma grammaticum Gilbert, 1890 R TEP 6, CPUM
Thalassoma lucasanum (Gill, 1862) PM, R TEP 2, 5, 6, CPUM
*Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes, 1840) PD CT 6, CPUM
*Nicholsina denticulata (Evermann & Radcliffe, 1917) R SP, TEP CPUM
*Scarus compressus (Osburn & Nichols, 1916) R TEP 6, CPUM
Scarus perrico Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 R TEP 2, 6, CPUM C
Astroscopus zephyreus Gilbert & Starks, 1897 PD SP, TEP 2, CPUM A
Axoclinus storeyae (Brock, 1940) PM, R CP, MP 2, CPUM
Enneanectes carminalis Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 TEP 2
*Enneanectes glendae Rosemblatt, Miller &Hastings, 2013 R CP, MP CPUM
*Enneanectes macrops Rosemblatt, Miller &Hastings, 2013 R MP CPUM
Brockius striatus (Hubbs, 1953) PM, R CP, MP 2, CPUM
*Labrisomus multiporosus Hubbs, 1953 PM, R TEP CPUM
*Labrisomus xanti Gill, 1860 SP, TEP ICMYL
Malacoctenus ebisui Springer, 1959 R TEP 2, CPUM
Malacoctenus hubbsi Springer, 1959 R TEP 2, 5, CPUM
*Malacoctenus mexicanus Springer, 1959 R TEP CPUM
*Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope, 1877) PM, R TEP CPUM
*Malacoctenus zonifer (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PM TEP CPUM
*Paraclinus mexicanus (Gilbert, 1904) PM TEP CPUM
*Starksia posthon Rosenblatt & Taylor, 1971 R MP, PP CPUM
*Starksia spinipenis (Al-Uthman, 1960) R CP, MP CPUM
Acanthemblemaria balanorum Brock, 1940 TEP 2
*Acanthemblemaria macrospilus Brock, 1940 R CP, MP CPUM
*Coralliozetus boehlkei Stephens, 1963 R TEP CPUM
*Ekemblemaria myersi Stephens, 1963 R TEP CPUM
*Protemblemaria bicirrus (Hildebrand, 1946) R TEP CPUM
Dactyloscopus amnis Miller & Briggs, 1962 E MP, PP 1, 12, CPUM
*Entomacrodus chiostictus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PM TEP CPUM
*Hypsoblennius brevipinnis (Günther, 1861) R TEP CPUM, SIO, ICMYL
Ophioblennius steindachneri Jordan & Evermann, 1898 PM, R TEP 2, 5, 6, CPUM, ICMYL
Plagiotremus azaleus (Jordan & Bollman, 1890) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
Dormitator latifrons (Richardson, 1844) E SP, TEP 1, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
Eleotris picta Kner, 1863 E TEP 1, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
Gobiomorus maculatus (Günther, 1859) E TEP 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, CPUM, CNPE-IBUNAM
*Gobiomorus polylepis Ginsburg, 1953 E Brackish
Awaous banana (Valenciennes, 1837) E SP, TEP 3, 8, 12, CPUM
Barbulifer mexicanus Hoese & Larson, 1985 CP, MP 1
*Bathygobius andrei (Sauvage, 1880) E MP, PP CPUM
Bathygobius ramosus Ginsburg, 1947 PM SP, TEP 1, 2, 5, CPUM, ICMYL
*Bollmannia marginalis Ginsburg, 1939 TEP 9
*Bollmannia stigmatura Gilbert, 1892 TEP ICMYL
*Coryphopterus urospilus Ginsburg, 1938 R TEP CPUM
Ctenogobius sagittula (Günther, 1861) E TEP 12, CPUM
*Elacatinus punticulatus (Ginsburg, 1938) R TEP CPUM
Gobionellus microdon (Gilbert, 1892) E TEP 1, 3, 7, 10, 12, 13, CPUM
*Gymneleotris seminuda (Günther, 1864) R TEP CPUM
Microgobius miraflorensis Gilbert & Starks, 1904 TEP 1
*Sicydium multipunctatum Regan, 1905 E Freshwater CPUM
Clarkichthys bilineatus (Clark, 1936) PM TEP CPUM
Microdesmus dorsipunctatus Dawson, 1968 E TEP 12, CPUM
Chaetodipterus zonatus (Girard, 1858) R SP, TEP 1, 3, 8, 9, CPUM C
Parapsettus panamensis Steindachner, 1876 TEP 1, 3
*Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758) R SP, TEP 6, CPUM
Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758) PM, R AP 2, 5, 6, CPUM
Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes, 1835 R AP 2, 6, CPUM A
Prionurus punctatus Gill, 1862 PM, R TEP 2, 5, 6, CPUM A
Sphyraena ensis Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 R TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
*Trichiurus nitens Garman, 1899 PD CT CPUM I
Auxis brachydorax Collette & Aadland 1996 SP, TEP 2
Euthynnus lineatus Kishinouye, 1920 PD SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM, SIO C
Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus, 1758) CT 2
*Sarda orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) PD AP CPUM C
Scomberomorus sierra Jordan & Starks, 1895 PD SP, TEP 1, 2, CPUM C
*Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1782 PD CT CPUM C
Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre, 1788) CT 1
Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw, 1792) AP 2
Peprilus medius (Peters, 1869) PD TEP 2, CPUM C
*Peprilus snyderi Gilbert & Starks, 1904 PD SP, TEP CPUM C
Ancylopsetta dendrítica Gilbert, 1890 PD TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM C
Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann, 1889 E SP, TEP 1, 8, 12, CPUM
*Citharichthys platophrys Gilbert, 1891 TEP SIO
Cyclopsetta panamensis (Steindachner, 1876) TEP 1
Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman, 1890) PD TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, SIO C
Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882 PD SP, TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, SIO C
*Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889 PD SP, TEP CPUM, SIO
Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand, 1946 TEP 1
Hippoglossina tetrophthalma (Gilbert, 1890) TEP 2
Paralichthys woolmani Jordan & Williams, 1897 D TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, ICMYL C
Syacium latifrons (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) PD SP, TEP 1, 9, CPUM C
*Syacium longidorsale Murakami & Amaoka, 1992 PP CIBNOR
Syacium ovale (Günther, 1864) PD TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM, ICMYL C
Bothus constellatus (Jordan, 1889) PD TEP 1, 2, 9, CPUM A
*Bothus leopardinus (Günther, 1862) TEP 9
Engyophrys sanctilaurentii Jordan & Bollman, 1890 TEP 1, SIO
Achirus klunzingeri (Steindachner, 1879) E MP, PP 12, CPUM
Achirus mazatlanus (Steindachner, 1869) E TEP 1, 7, 12, CPUM
Achirus scutum (Günther, 1862) E TEP 1, CPUM
Trinectes fonsecensis (Günther, 1862) E TEP 1, 9, 10, 12, 13, CPUM I
Symphurus atricaudus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) CP, MP 1
*Symphurus callopterus Munroe & Mahadeva, 1989 TEP CAS
Symphurus elongatus (Günther, 1868) PD SP, TEP 1, CPUM I
*Symphurus leei Jordan & Bollman, 1890 MP, PP 9, SIO, ICMYL
Balistes polylepis Steindachner, 1876 R SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM
*Canthidermis maculata (Bloch, 1786) R CT CPUM
Pseudobalistes naufragium (Jordan & Starks, 1895) R SP, TEP 2, 8, CPUM
Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille, 1804) PD AP 11, CPUM
Sufflamen verres (Gilbert & Starks, 1904) R SP, TEP 2, 4, 6, CPUM C
*Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) R CT 9, CPUM C
Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck, 1765) R CT 1, 6, CPUM- photo
Ostracion meleagris Shaw, 1796 R AP 2, 6, CPUM
*Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) R CT CPUM, ICMYL
Arothron meleagris (Lacèpede, 1798) R CT 2, 6, CPUM I
**Canthigaster janthinoptera (Bleeker, 1855) R AP CPUM
Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther, 1870) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM
*Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) CT 9
*Sphoeroides sechurae Hildebrand, 1946 R TEP 9, CPUM A
Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns, 1842) R, E SP, TEP 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, CPUM, SIO
Sphoeroides lobatus (Steindachner, 1870) R TEP 2, 6, CPUM I
Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus, 1758 R CT 2, 6, 8, 9, CPUM
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, 1758 R CT 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, CPUM I

Of the total identified species, 69% were collected and deposited at the CPUM, 22% were obtained from literature records, 7.5% from the review of museum specimens, and 1% from databases of ichthyological collections (Table 1). In addition, seven species were recorded through video and photographic evidence: Ginglymostoma unami Del Moral Flores, Ramírez-Antonio, Angulo y Pérez-Ponce de León, 2015, Pristis pristis (Linnaeus, 1758), Aetobatus laticeps (Euphrasen, 1790), Apogon pacificus (Herre, 1935), Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758, Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), and Novaculichthys taeniourus (Lacepède, 1801). Of the 436 species, 131 were new records for the Michoacán State, and Canthigaster janthinoptera (Bleeker, 1855) was a new record for Mexico (Table 1).

For the specimens collected during field trips, some were collected from a single habitat type: 123 (40%) were collected in reefs, 57 (19%) in the pelagic-demersal zone, 46 (15%) in estuarine zones, 17 (6%) in the demersal zones, and 14 (5%) in rocky intertidal zones. Forty-seven species were collected in more than one habitat type (Table 1 and Fig. 2).

Figure 2. 

Percent of species collected in each habitat.

The artisanal fishery captures yielded 154 species. The families with the highest number of species were Carangidae (17), Haemulidae (15), Sciaenidae (13), Serranidae (10), and Lutjanidae (7). Of these, 104 (68%) were commercially valuable, 23 (15%) were used for direct consumption or as bait. Twenty-seven (18%) were bycatch, that are normally rejected and thrown back (Fig. 3).

Figure 3. 

Classification of commercial importance of the species captured in the Michoacán coastal fisheries.

Forty-six (11%) of the species were circumtropical, 27 (6%) transpacific, and seven (2%) amphi-American; whereas 350 (81%) belonged to the TEP. Of these 77 (18%) were widely distributed from the San Diegan province to the Panamic province, and 3 (1%) from the San Diegan province to the Mexican province. The largest number of species, 216 (49.2%), were found in the three provinces of the TEP; 15 (3%) were restricted to the Cortez and the Mexican provinces; 35 (8%) were limited to the Mexican and Panamic provinces; and 2 (0.5%) were endemic to the Mexican province (Fig. 4). Six species collected in the estuarine ecosystems occurred in fresh or brackish water habitats and were not included in the marine biogeographical affinity categories: Gobiomorus polylepis Ginsburg, 1953 (brackish), Sicydium multipunctatum Regan, 1905, Gobiesox mexicanus Briggs & Miller, 1960, and Poecilia butleri Jordan, 1889 (fresh water). The introduced species Pterygoplichthys disjuntivus (Weber, 1991) and Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 were also omitted.

Figure 4. 

Biogeographic affinity of the fish fauna recorded on the Michoacán Coast. TEP, Tropical Eastern Pacific; CT, Circumtropical; AP, Transpacific species; AA, Amphi-American species; SP, San Diegan province; CP, Cortez province; MP, Mexican province; PP, Panamic province.


The present checklist represents the most updated and comprehensive systematic list of fishes recorded from the coast of the Mexican State of Michoacán. Of the species cataloged, 30% were first records for this State. The highest proportion of cataloged species was collected in reefs (40%). The pelagic zone accounted for 24% of the species collected, indicated a requirement for future studies of the demersal and pelagic zones with increased sampling effort (Fig. 2). The highest number of new records for Michoacán was found in reefs, chiefly species exhibiting cryptic behavior (Table 1). This could be related to the sampling methods employed, which had not been previously used; the few previously reported species with cryptic behavior were primarily bycatch (Madrid-Vera 1998, Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006, Moncayo-Estrada et al. 2006, Chávez-Comparan 2008, Márquez-Espinoza 2012). Another source of new species records from Michoacán was the intertidal zone (Table 1), for which no published records are available. In general, the number of species in the area may be increased if sampling effort is expanded and records from shrimp and tuna bycatches are included. A new record was obtained for Mexico, two specimens of C. janthinoptera (Bleeker, 1855) were collected from Barco Hundido del Faro de Bucerias (CPUM 4532, N 18°21'8.82'W -103°31'18.71'), which identification was corroborated by BLAST ( and by boldsystems (, searches showing 99% similarity in the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (COX-1) to specimens identified as C. janthinoptera from the south Tropical Eastern Pacific and the Indo-Pacific Ocean (GenBank accession numbers: KX505745 and KX505746). One specimen of Bathygobius andrei (Sauvage, 1880) (Gobiidae) was also reported in the Chuta estuary (CPUM 3296, 18°2'1"N and 102°33'33"W), representing an extension of its previously known northern distribution limit of the coast of Chiapas (Gómez-González et al. 2012). One specimen of Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes, 1840) was collected from rocky reef in Faro de Bucerias location (18°20'50"N and 103°30'37"W), extending its extension range in the TEP.

In artisanal fishing (Fig. 3), the species considered to have the highest economic value belong chiefly to Carangidae (e.g. Alectis ciliaris, (Bloch, 1787)), Lutjanidae (e.g. Lutjanus guttatus, (Steindachner, 1869)), Paralichthyidae (e.g. Cyclopsetta querna, (Jordan & Bollman, 1890)), Centropomidae (e.g. Centropomus armatus, Gill, 1863), and Serranidae (e.g. Epinephelus labriformis, (Jenyns, 1840)) (Table 1). Most of the elasmobranch capture, with the exception of the fins, is considered of low economic value. A high number of neonatal and juvenile hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna sp.), were captured, as well as pregnant Rhinobatos glaucostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1883, Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1863), and Urotrygon spp. In general, the elasmobranchs, due to their unique biological and ecological characteristics, present low population growth and are considered highly vulnerable (Frisk et al. 2005, Hutchings et al. 2012). We accordingly recommend review and enforcement of the relevant legislation.

Bycatch in commercial fishing is frequently used for personal consumption, bait (~50%), or discarded (Fig. 3). Species with no current market value may have high nutrient value; hence the number of species with potential to be commercialized is underestimated. In offshore fisheries, these species often have commercial value. For instance, Scorpaena mystes (Jordan & Starks, 1895) reaches 35.6 cm and is marketed in regions such as Baja California. Trichiurus nitens Garman, 1899 supports a small fishery in the central portion of the littoral zone of Ecuador (pers. obs. Romero-Gallardo), whereas, in Michoacán, this species is not used for human consumption.

It was observed that 49% of the listed species are reported as also occurring throughout the three TEP provinces, with 8% of the species reported only in the Panamic and Mexican provinces, being mostly of tropical affinity, agreeing with previous fish fauna surveys in the area (Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006, Moncayo-Estrada 2006). The presence of 81 species (19%) with affinity to the San Diegan province (Fig. 4), a temperate-warm zone, reflects the dynamics of the current flow system of the Michoacán coast, reaffirming this region as a transition zone.

Although visual censuses and photo identification of fish species is widely used for the study of richness, diversity, and ecology of marine habitats (Aguilar-Palomino 2002, Palacios-Salgado 2005, Galván-Villa 2016), it is necessary to rely on reference organisms for taxonomic corroboration. A high proportion of small, nocturnal, or ecologically cryptic species may not be counted in a visual census, especially when the fish fauna of the area under study is not well known, as is the case for the Michoacán State.

The collections obtained in the present study enriched the records of the CPUM collection by 19%, since the majority of marine species previously collected remain in collections outside of Michoacán. Many species reported in this study as new records (Table 1) were included by Robertson and Allen (2015), although these authors listed them in the littoral zone of Michoacán coastline only as potential distribution based on habitat suitability. We have confirmed the distribution of such fish, as exemplified by the first formal record of 24 ecologically cryptic species. Our work expanded on the most complete fish fauna checklist previously available for the area by 32.5% (Madrid et al. 1998) and will undoubtedly represent important input for decisions about conservation and management of the coastal area of Michoacán State.


We would like to thank to CONABIO for the financial support of the HJ021 Project: Listado taxonómico de la ictiofauna de la costa de Michoacán; to the Coordination of Scientific Research (CIC 2010-UMSNH) for grant support. ODD also thanks CONACYT for partial support under project CB-240875 and for a sabbatical grant. Our special thanks and appreciation must go to the inhabitants, fishermen, and cooperatives of Michoacán who gave us their full support for the completion of this study. We are grateful to Sesángari Galvan, Adrián F. González-Acosta, Felipe Galván Magaña and Leonardo Andrés Abitia Cárdenas (CICIMAR-IPN), Arturo Ramírez-Valdez (UABC), Eduardo F. Balart (CIBNOR), Gorgonio Ruíz Campos (UABC) and Philip A. Hastings (SIO), for their assistance in the identification of the collected organisms and for information provided. We thank Ross Robertson, Arturo Angulo, an anonymous reviewer for the useful comments which improved the manuscript. Thanks are also due to all the members of the HJ021 project, without whose support in field surveys this work might not have been completed. We also thanks to Kathleen Hills and Alan Pike for reviewing the English.


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