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Research Article
Three new species of the genus Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) from China
expand article infoSong-lin Li, Ping Liu, Xian-jin Peng
‡ Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China
Open Access

Abstract

Three new species of Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804 are described from China: T. bifurcata Li & Liu, sp. nov. (♂♀) and T. tortilis Li & Liu, sp. nov. (♂♀) from Yunnan Province, and T. bimaculata Li & Liu, sp. nov. (♂♀) from Hubei and Hunan provinces. Detailed descriptions, photographs of somatic features and copulatory organs, and a distribution map of these three species are provided.

Keywords

Araneoidea, long-jawed spider, taxonomy, Tetragnathinae

Introduction

Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804 is the largest genus of the family Tetragnathidae, currently comprising 322 species distributed worldwide, of which 51 species are known from China (Li and Lin 2016; WSC 2022). The Chinese species of Tetragnatha are relatively well studied by Zhu et al. (2003), who reviewed the Chinese fauna comprising 36 species. Since 2003, an additional seven species have been reported from this country (Zhao and Peng 2010; Barrion et al. 2011, 2013). However, approximately half of the species recorded or described from China are only known from a single sex (Li and Lin 2016).

While examining specimens collected from the Gaoligong and Wuling mountains, three new species of Tetragnatha were recognized and are described here.

Materials and methods

Specimens were collected by beating shrubs and hand picking, and were stored in 75% ethanol. The epigyne were cleaned with trypsin solution before examination and photography. Left male palps and chelicerae were used for description and photography. Specimens were examined and measured with a Leica M205C stereomicroscope. Photographs were taken with a Kuy Nice E3IS PM digital camera mounted on an Olympus BX53 compound microscope and focus-stacked images were generated using Helicon Focus v. 7.6.1 and then modified in Adobe Photoshop CS2. The map was created by the online mapping software SimpleMappr (Shorthouse 2010). All measurements are given in millimeters (mm). Leg measurements are given in the following order: total length (femur, patella + tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). All specimens are deposited in the College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha City, China (HNU). The terminology follows Castanheira and Baptista (2020).

Abbreviations used in the text and figures

Eyes:

ALE anterior lateral eye;

AME anterior median eye;

AME–AME distance between AME;

AME–ALE distance between AME and ALE;

PLE posterior lateral eye;

PME posterior median eye;

PME–PME distance between PME;

PME–PLE distance between PME and PLE;

MO median ocular quadrangle.

Chelicera:

AXl auxiliary guide tooth of the lower row of chelicera;

AXu auxiliary guide tooth of the upper row of chelicera, above Gu;

Ds dorsal spur of chelicera;

Gl guide tooth of the lower row of chelicera;

Gu guide tooth of the upper row of chelicera;

L2–n teeth on the lower row of chelicera numbered from the distal end after Gl;

OC outer cusp;

rsu remaining proximal teeth on the upper row of male chelicera after ‘T’;

sl first major tooth after Gu in the upper row of male chelicera;

T elongated tooth in the upper row of male chelicera;

U2–n teeth on the upper row of chelicera numbered from the distal end after Gu.

Palps and epigyne:

C conductor;

E embolus;

F fold;

K knob;

P paracymbium;

Sp spermatheca;

TL translucent lobe;

Y cymbium.

Taxonomic account

Family Tetragnathidae Menge, 1866

Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804

Type species

Aranea extensa Linnaeus, 1758 from Sweden.

Tetragnatha bifurcata Li & Liu, sp. nov.

Figs 1, 2, 7

Type material

Holotype ♂: China, Yunnan Province: Tengchong County, Houqiao Township, Zhaobitang Village, 25.5378°N, 98.2094°E, 2480 m, 29.V.2006, X.P. Wang & P. Hu leg. (Wang060529-1). Paratypes: 2♂♂ 3♀♀, same data as holotype (Wang060529-1); 5♂♂, Tengchong County, Houqiao Township, Zhaobitang Village, 25.3986°N, 98.3053°E, 2374 m, 27.V.2006, X.P. Wang & P. Hu leg. (Wang060527-2); 1♂ 1♀, Lushui County, Luzhang Township, Yaojiaping River 25.9772°N, 98.7109°E, 2527 m, 19.V.2005, D. Kavanaugh et al. leg. (2005-015A).

Etymology

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin adjective bifurcus, referring to the bifurcate distal end of the conductor.

Diagnosis

The new species resembles T. tortilis sp. nov. (Figs 5, 6). Males of the two species are similar in having a tapered dorsal spur on the chelicera, and the conductor with 2 folds, but can be distinguished by: (1) the distal portion of conductor bifurcated in T. bifurcata sp. nov. (Fig. 1L) (vs. not bifurcated; Fig. 5K); (2) the paracymbium with a pointed tip and terminal part located beyond the tegulum in ventral view (Fig. 1I) (vs. with blunt tip and terminal part located at the middle part of the tegulum; Fig. 5I). Females of the two species are similar in the shape of the epigynal fold and the absence of a central membranous sac in the vulva, but can be distinguished by: (1) the distance between the guide tooth and the second tooth of the upper row of chelicera slightly longer than the distance between the second tooth and the third tooth of the upper row of chelicera in T. bifurcata sp. nov. (Fig. 2E) (vs. the distance between the guide and the second tooth of the upper row of chelicera 3× longer than the distance between the second tooth and the third tooth of the upper row of chelicera; Fig. 6E); (2) the spherical anterior spermathecae are ~ 1.5× larger than the posterior spermathecae (Fig. 2H) (vs. anterior spermathecae oval and ~ 5× larger than the posterior spermathecae; Fig. 6H).

Description

Male (holotype) (Fig. 1A–F). Total length 3.60. Carapace 1.31 long, 0.92 wide, yellowish brown, fovea and cervical and radial grooves distinct. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.12, PME 0.12, PLE 0.10; AME–AME 0.08, AME–ALE 0.12, PME–PME 0.12, PME–PLE 0.10. MO anterior width 0.17, posterior width 0.24, length 0.22. Clypeus 0.08 high. Labium dark brown, with thickened edge. Sternum brown with dark edge. Legs yellowish brown, with sparse spines. Leg measurements: I, 11.45 (3.12, 3.84, 3.23, 1.26); II, 8.15 (2.38, 2.72, 2.19, 0.86); III, 3.73 (1.32, 1.04, 0.91, 0.46); IV, 7.16 (2.42, 2.21, 1.86, 0.67). Chelicera: ~ 1/2 carapace length; dorsal spur tapered, with blunt tip; AXu absent; upper row with 5 teeth: Gu slightly smaller than U2, U2 almost equal to U3 in size, distance between U2 and Gu longer than distance between U2 and U3, other teeth decreasing in size gradually; AXl absent; lower row with 5 teeth: Gl slightly smaller than L2, L2 largest, other teeth decreasing in size gradually. Abdomen 2.26 long, 0.72 wide, dorsum yellowish brown, with 5 pairs of dark spots laterally and brown longitudinal line medially, both lateral sides with longitudinal dark band throughout entire abdomen; venter yellowish brown, median band brown.

Figure 1. 

Tetragnatha bifurcata sp. nov., holotype ♂ A–C habitus A dorsal view B lateral view C ventral view D–F left chelicera D upper view E inner view F lower view G, K, L conductor and embolus detail G dorsal view H–J left palp H prolateral view I ventral view J retrolateral view. Scale bars: 1 mm (A–C); 0.5 mm (D–F); 0.1 mm (G); 0.2 mm (H–J); 0.05 mm (K, L).

Palp (Fig. 1G–L). Paracymbium with pointed tip, notch shallow, translucent lobe elongated, ~ 1/3 width of paracymbium, knob thumb-shaped. Tegulum oval, ~ 2× as wide as long. Conductor with 2 folds, distal portion bifurcated, upper branch thicker with slightly swollen tip, lower branch thinner with blunt tip. Embolus partly enveloped by conductor.

Female (Wang060529-1) (Fig. 2A–F). Total length 4.02. Carapace 1.38 long, 0.91 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.06, PME 0.07, PLE 0.07; AME–AME 0.05, AME–ALE 0.10, PME–PME 0.09, PME–PLE 0.09. MO anterior width 0.17, posterior width 0.24, length 0.20. Clypeus 0.04 high. Leg measurements: I, 10.31 (2.85, 3.50, 2.92, 1.04); II, 7.13 (2.13, 2.30, 1.92, 0.78); III, 3.24 (1.09, 0.94, 0.80, 0.41); IV, 6.39 (2.20, 1.98, 1.63, 0.58). Chelicera: AXu absent; upper row with 5 teeth: Gu slightly smaller than U2, U2 largest, other teeth almost equidistant and decreasing in size gradually; AXl absent; lower row with 6 teeth: Gl slightly smaller than L2, L2 largest, other teeth decreasing in size gradually. Abdomen 2.71 long, 0.85 wide, dorsum without dark spots but with dispersed pale spots; venter with pale spots on both sides. Color paler than that in male.

Figure 2. 

Tetragnatha bifurcata sp. nov., paratype ♀ A–C habitus A dorsal view B lateral view C ventral view D–F left chelicera D upper view E inner view F lower view G, H female genitalia G epigynal fold, ventral view H vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1 mm (A–C); 0.5 mm (D–F); 0.2 mm (G, H).

Epigyne (Fig. 2G, H). Fold ~ 3× wider than long. Vulva composed of 2 pairs of spherical spermathecae, diameter of anterior pair ~ 1.5× of posterior pair, anterior pair spaced by 1 diameter of anterior spermatheca, posterior pair spaced by 3 diameters of posterior spermatheca. Central membranous sac absent.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 7).

Tetragnatha bimaculata Li & Liu, sp. nov.

Figs 3, 4, 7

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Hubei Province, Xuanen County: Shadaogou Township, Yuquan River, 29.7114°N, 109.7278°E, 805 m, 1.V.2016, W. Liu et al. leg. (HNU-HB-IV-1610). Paratypes: 4♂♂ 4♀♀, same data as holotype (HNU-HB-IV-1610); 1♂, Sidaoshui Village, 29.6846°N, 109.5791°E, 602 m, 2.V.2016 (HNU-HB-IV-1611), 6♂♂, Wanzhai Township, Dongping Dam, 30.1470°N, 109.6127°E, 519 m, 4.V.2016 (HNU-HB-IV-1613), W. Liu et al. leg. Hunan Province, Shimen County, Huping Township: 2♀♀, Quanping Village, Zhipeng River, 30.0131°N, 110.5980°E, 611 m, 15.VI.2014 (HPS140615), 2♀♀, Jinbanshan Village, Yanshan Road, 30.0066°N, 110.5653°E, 520 m, 13.VI.2014 (HPS140613), 1♀, Quanping Village, 30.0123°N, 110.5432°E, 935 m, 18.VI.2014 (HPS140618), J.H. Gan et al. leg.

Etymology

The specific epithet is the combination of the prefix bi- (two) and the Latin adjective maculatus (with spot), referring to the two dark spots on the posterior part of the abdomen.

Diagnosis

The males of this new species resemble those of T. tanigawai Okuma, 1988 (Okuma 1988: fig. 3A–G) in the elongate and curved dorsal spur of chelicera, the fang with an outer cusp, and the expanded proximal part of the conductor, but can be distinguished by: (1) the distance between the guide tooth and the second tooth of the upper row of chelicera almost equal to the distance between the second and third teeth of the upper row of chelicera in males of T. bimaculata sp. nov. (Fig. 3D) (vs. the distance between the guide tooth and the second tooth of the upper row of chelicera > 3× longer than the distance between the second and third teeth of the upper row of chelicera; fig. 3A in Okuma [1988]); (2) the conductor is ~ 3× longer than tegulum (Fig. 3I) with proximal 2/3 expanded (Fig. 3H) (vs. the conductor is ~ 2× longer than the tegulum (fig. 3G in Okuma [1988]) with proximal 1/2 part expanded; fig. 3D in Okuma [1988]); (3) the distal portion of conductor is almost rounded (Fig. 3G, H) (vs. with notch; fig. 3E, G in Okuma [1988]). The females of this new species resemble that of T. esakii Okuma, 1988 (Zhu et al. 2003: fig. 62A–F) in the shape of epigynal fold, the presence of a pair of spermathecae, and the absence of a central membranous sac in the vulva, but can be distinguished by the spermathecae that are bean-shaped and ~ 2× longer than wide in T. bimaculata sp. nov. (Fig. 4H) (vs. almost claviform and ~ 4× longer than wide; fig. 62F in Zhu et al. [2003]).

Figure 3. 

Tetragnatha bimaculata sp. nov., holotype ♂ A–C habitus A dorsal view B lateral view C ventral view D–F left chelicera D upper view E inner view F lower view G, K, L conductor and embolus detail H–J left palp H prolateral view I ventral view J retrolateral view. Scale bars: 1 mm (A–C); 0.3 mm (D–J); 0. 1 mm (K, L).

Description

Male (holotype) (Fig. 3A–F). Total length 5.85. Carapace 1.59 long, 1.20 wide, yellow, fovea and cervical and radial grooves distinct. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.11, ALE 0.08, PME 0.08, PLE 0.09; AME–AME 0.10, AME–ALE 0.17, PME–PME 0.15, PME–PLE 0.15. MO anterior width 0.28, posterior width 0.30, length 0.29. Clypeus 0.16 high. Labium yellow. Sternum pale yellow. Legs yellow, with sparse spines. Leg measurements: I, 20.04 (5.24, 6.43, 6.56, 1.81); II, 14.25 (4.16, 4.69, 4.24, 1.16); III, 7.53 (2.70, 2.21, 1.99, 0.63); IV, 12.23 (4.18, 3.80, 3.49, 0.76). Chelicera: almost as long as carapace; dorsal spur elongated, with pointed and curved tip; AXu present, with blunt tip; upper row with 7 teeth: Gu largest, distance between U2 and Gu almost equal to distance between U2 and U3, U2U4 almost equal in size, other teeth decreasing in size gradually; AXl present, thumb-shaped; lower row with 5 teeth: Gl largest, with widened base, other teeth gradually decreasing in size; fang with an outer cusp at base. Abdomen 4.27 long, 0.94 wide, dorsum pale yellow with serried pale spots and single pair of dark spots posteriorly; venter pale yellow, with paler spots on both sides.

Palp (Fig. 3G–L). Paracymbium with blunt tip, notch inconspicuous, translucent lobe elongate, ~ 1/6 of width of paracymbium, knob with a truncated tip. Tegulum oval, ~ 2× wider than long. Conductor without fold, proximal 2/3 of conductor expanded dorsally, distal portion twisted and curved towards dorsal side. Embolus completely enveloped by conductor.

Female (paratype HNU-HB-IV-1610) (Fig. 4A–F). Total length 6.82. Carapace 1.75 long, 1.16 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.10, ALE 0.08, PME 0.09, PLE 0.10; AME–AME 0.12, AME–ALE 0.16, PME–PME 0.14, PME–PLE 0.15. MO anterior width 0.27, posterior width 0.28, length 0.28. Clypeus 0.12 high. Leg measurements: I, 18.40 (4.78, 5.92, 6.07, 1.62); II, 13.39 (3.83, 4.32, 3.98, 1.26); III, 6.89 (2.35, 2.03, 1.87, 0.64); IV, 11.77 (4.14, 3.54, 3.34, 0.75). Chelicera: AXu absent; upper row with 7 teeth: Gu much smaller than U2, U2 largest, other teeth decreasing in size gradually; AXl absent; lower row with 6 teeth: Gl largest, other teeth decreasing in size gradually. Abdomen 5.06 long, 1.7 wide, dark grey, pattern same as in male.

Figure 4. 

Tetragnatha bimaculata sp. nov., paratype ♀ A–C habitus A dorsal view B lateral view C ventral view D–F left chelicera D upper view E inner view F lower view G, H female genitalia G epigynal fold, ventral view H vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1 mm (A–C); 0.5 mm (D–H).

Epigyne (Fig. 4G, H). Fold slightly longer than wide. Vulva with 1 pair of bean-shaped spermathecae, ~ 2× longer than wide, and spaced by ~ 5× width. Central membranous sac absent.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 7).

Tetragnatha tortilis Li & Liu, sp. nov.

Figs 5, 6, 7

Type material

Holotype ♂: China, Yunnan Province, Tengchong County: Jietou Township, Datang Village: 25.4277°N, 98.4129°E, 1952 m, 18.V.2006, P. Hu leg. (Hu060518). Paratypes: 1♂ 1♀, same data as holotype (Hu060518); 1♀, 25.7456°N, 98.6963°E, 2030 m, 20.V.2006, X.J. Peng & P. Hu leg. (Peng060520); 1♂, 25.4202°N, 98.4095°E, 1870 m, 17.V.2006 (Peng060517), 2♂♂, 25.7456°N, 98.6963°E, 2030 m, 15.V.2006 (Peng060515), 3♂♂ 2♀♀, 25.7572°N, 98.6946°E, 2078 m, 16.V.2006 (Peng060516), 1♂, 25.4202°N, 98.4095°E, 1878 m, 19.V.2006 (Peng060519), X. J. Peng et al. leg.; 1♂, Houqiao Township: 25.3539°N, 98.2549°E, 1785 m, 28.V.2006 (Wang060528-1), 1♀, Gaoshidong Village, 25.3986°N, 98.3053°E, 2374 m, 27.V.2006 (Wang060527-2), 3♀♀, Zhaobitang Village, 25.5380°N, 98.2094°E, 2480 m, 29.V.2006 (Wang060529-1), X.P. Wang & P. Hu leg.; 2♂♂ 1♀, Mingguang Township: Zizhi Village, Cizhu River, 25.7666°N, 98.6174°E, 2120 m, 21.V.2006, C.M. Yin & J.F. Hu leg. (YHY09).

Etymology

The specific epithet is derived from the Latin adjective tortilis (twisted), referring to the twisted distal end of conductor.

Diagnosis

The new species resembles T. pinicola L. Koch, 1870 (Zhu et al. 2003: figs 87A–G, 88A–G; Marusik 2010: fig. 7). Males of the two species are similar in the presence of an elongated tooth in the upper row of the chelicera in males (T), the conductor having 2 folds, and the shape of paracymbium, but can be distinguished by: (1) the dorsal spur of chelicera is straight in ventral view in T. tortilis sp. nov. (Fig. 5E) (vs. distal end curved; fig. 88C in Zhu et al. [2003]); (2) the absence of an auxiliary guide tooth of the lower row of the chelicera (Fig. 5E, F) (vs. present; fig. 88C in Zhu et al. [2003]); (3) the distal portion of conductor is twisted and has a small knot (Fig. 5G) (vs. hook-shaped; fig. 7 in Marusik [2010]). Females of the two species are similar in the presence of 2 pairs of spermathecae and the absence of a central membranous sac in the vulva, but can be distinguished by the anterior spermathecae 4× larger than posterior in T. tortilis sp. nov. (Fig. 6H) (vs. anterior spermathecae ~ 1/2× posterior spermathecae; fig. 87G in Zhu et al. [2003]). Both sexes of the two species can be distinguished by the sternum which is yellowish brown and without a stripe in T. tortilis sp. nov. (vs. dark brown with yellow stripe).

Figure 5. 

Tetragnatha tortilis sp. nov., holotype ♂ A–C habitus A dorsal view B lateral view C ventral view D–F left chelicera D upper view E inner view F lower view G, K conductor and embolus detail H–J left palp H prolateral view I ventral view J retrolateral view. Scale bars: 1 mm (A–C); 0.2 mm (D–F, H–J); 0. 1 mm (G, K).

Description

Male (holotype) (Fig. 5A–F). Total length 4.97. Carapace 1.72 long, 1.05 wide, yellowish brown, fovea, cervical, and radial grooves distinct. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.06, ALE 0.07, PME 0.08, PLE 0.09; AME–AME 0.10, AME–ALE 0.14, PME–PME 0.15, PME–PLE 0.13, MO anterior width 0.24, posterior width 0.31, length 0.27. Clypeus 0.10 high. Labium brown, with thickened edge. Sternum yellowish brown with dark edge. Legs yellowish brown, with sparse spines. Leg measurements: I, 15.59 (4.04, 5.27, 4.87, 1.41); II, 9.96 (2.90, 3.10, 2.98, 0.98); III, 4.46 (1.50, 1.24, 1.12, 0.60); IV, 8.96 (2.93, 2.64, 2.66, 0.73). Chelicera: yellow, ~ 2/3 length of carapace; dorsal spur tapered; AXu absent; upper row with 7 teeth: Gu curved and almost equal to sl in size, T present, 4 rsu decreasing in size gradually; AXl absent; lower row with 7 teeth: Gl tiny, L2 slightly smaller than L3, L3 largest, all other teeth smaller than L2 and almost equal in size. Abdomen 3.23 long, 0.85 wide, dorsum grayish yellow, dark folium covering almost complete dorsum, with scattered pale spots and a brown longitudinal line medially, 2 pairs of sigillae; venter grayish yellow, anterior part with sparse pale spots.

Palp (Fig. 5G–K). Paracymbium with blunt distal end, notch inconspicuous, translucent lobe elongated, extended to the end, ~ 1/3 of the width of paracymbium, knob spherical. Tegulum oval, ~ 2× wider than long. Conductor with 2 folds, distal portion twisted considerably, and directed to dorsal side. Embolus partially enveloped by conductor.

Female (paratype Hu060518) (Fig. 6A–F). Total length 5.70. Carapace 1.77 long, 1.24 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.07, ALE 007, PME 0.08, PLE 0.08; AME–AME 0.10, AME–ALE 0.18, PME–PME 0.12, PME–PLE 0.14. MO anterior width 0.25, posterior width 0.33, length 0.3. Clypeus 0.07 high. Leg measurements: I, 15.33 (4.21, 5.05, 4.73, 1.34); II, 9.48 (2.91, 2.94, 2.70, 0.93); III, 4.4 (1.48, 1.25, 1.00, 0.67); IV, 8.25 (2.72, 2.50, 2.28, 0.75). Chelicera: AXu absent; upper row with 7 teeth: Gu curved, U2 largest, other teeth decreasing in size gradually; AXl absent; lower row with 6 teeth: Gl almost equal to L3 in size, L2 largest, other teeth decreasing in size gradually. Abdomen 3.92 long, 1.32 wide, dorsum pale yellow; venter with pale spots on both sides; otherwise, remaining pattern same as in male.

Figure 6. 

Tetragnatha tortilis sp. nov., paratype ♀ A–C habitus A dorsal view B lateral view C ventral view D–F left chelicera D upper view E inner view F lower view G, H female genitalia G epigynal fold, ventral view H vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1 mm (A–C); 0.5 mm (D–F); 0.2 mm (G, H).

Epigyne (Fig. 6G, H). Fold ~ 3× wider than long. Vulva composed of 2 pairs of spermathecae, anterior pair larger, oval and almost touched each other, posterior pair smaller, spherical, and spaced by 3 diameters. Central membranous sac absent.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 7).

Figure 7. 

Collection localities for Tetragnatha bifurcata sp. nov., Tetragnatha bimaculata sp. nov., and Tetragnatha tortilis sp. nov. in China.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Yuri Marusik and two reviewers for their high quality and constructive reviews. We also thank Stephanie F. Loria (American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA), Junxia Zhang (Zootaxa editor, Araneae: Salticidae, Hebei, China) and Nathalie Yonow (Wales, UK) for reviewing the English of manuscript, and Xinping Wang (New York, USA); Hongbin Liang (Beijing, China); Peng Hu, Wang Liu, Chen Zeng, Tian Tian, Cheng Wang, Bing Zhou, Jiahui Gan, Yuhui Gong, Yi Huang and Mingyong Liao (all at Hunan, China); and David Kavanaugh and Charles Griswold (San Francisco, USA) for collecting the specimens. This research was sponsored by the Scientific Research Projects of Hunan Education Department (no. 21B0055).

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