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Catalogue
Catalog of the Hydroptilidae (Insecta, Trichoptera)
expand article infoRobin E. Thomson
‡ University of Minnesota, St. Paul, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

The microcaddisfly (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) fauna is catalogued from a review of more than 1,300 literature citations through the end of 2020 to include 2,665 currently recognized, valid species in six subfamilies and 76 genera. Fourteen subspecies are included in the total as well as 23 fossil species and three fossil genera. The family Ptilocolepidae (Trichoptera), also covered in this catalogue, comprises 19 valid species in two genera; two subspecies and two fossil species are included in the total. The monotypic genus Eutonella, currently considered incertae sedis within Trichoptera, was formerly placed in Hydroptilidae and is also included in this catalogue. Genus-group and species-group synonyms are listed. Information on the type locality, type depository, sex of type, distribution by country, and other relevant taxonomic or biological information is included for each nominal species. Summary information on taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, immature stages, and biology are provided for each subfamily, tribe, and genus where known. An index to all nominal taxa is provided to facilitate catalog use.

Keywords

Caddisflies, Trichoptera, microcaddisflies, Hydroptilidae, catalog, taxonomy, distribution, valid names, synonyms, bibliography

Introduction

Hydroptilidae is the largest of the approximately 50 families in the order Trichoptera containing more than 2,600 species found in all faunal regions of the world and distributed in six subfamilies and 76 genera (including three fossil genera) (Table 1). However, the family is also the smallest family in the order in terms of body size, with adults ranging from between 1.5 mm to usually no more than 5 mm in length (Holzenthal et al. 2007b).

Table 1.

Number of extant and fossil species of Hydroptilidae and Ptilocolepidae, by genus.

Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Subgenus No. Species
Extant Fossil
Hydroptilidae
Hydroptilinae
Acanthotrichia 1 -
Acritoptila 16 -
Aenigmatrichia 1 -
Agraylea
Agraylea 8 3
Nanoagraylea - 3
Allotrichia 10 4
Austratrichia 1 -
Cyclopsiella 1 -
Dhatrichia 14 -
Hellyethira 44 -
Hydroptila 495 1
Jabitrichia 4 -
Kholaptila 1 -
Maeyaptila 1 -
Microptila 20 -
Missitrichia 3 -
Mulgravia 2 -
Oxyethira
Argyrobothrus 6 -
Dactylotrichia 16 -
Dampfitrichia 31 -
Holarctotrichia 11 -
Loxotrichia 16 -
Mesotrichia 5 -
Oxyethira 52 -
Oxytrichia 19 -
Pacificotrichia 15 -
Tanytrichia 20 -
Trichoglene 25 -
unplaced 36 1
Paroxyethira 25 -
Paucicalcaria 1 -
Sutheptila 1 -
Tangatrichia 1 -
Tricholeiochiton 10 -
Ugandatrichia 31 -
Vietrichia 1 -
Wlitrichia 1 -
Xuthotrichia 2 -
Leucotrichiinae
Alisotrichiini
Alisotrichia 61 1
Byrsopteryx 16 -
Celaenotrichia 1 -
Cerasmatrichia 10 -
Mejicanotrichia 7 -
Scelobotrichia 3 -
Leucotrichiini
Acostatrichia 15 -
Anchitrichia 8 -
Ascotrichia 6 -
Betrichia 10 -
Ceratotrichia 5 -
Costatrichia 20 -
Leucotrichia 45 1
Peltopsyche 6 -
Tupiniquintrichia 2 -
Zumatrichia 53 -
Neotrichiinae
Kumanskiella 2 -
Mayatrichia 7 -
Neotrichia 205 -
Taraxitrichia 1 -
Ochrotrichiinae
Angrisanoia 5 -
Caledonotrichia 11 -
Dibusa 1 -
Maydenoptila 8 -
Metrichia 141 -
Nothotrichia 6 -
Ochrotrichia 221 5
Ragatrichia 5 -
Rhyacopsyche 30 -
Orthotrichiinae
Ithytrichia 7 -
Orthotrichia 271 1
Saranganotrichia 4 -
Stactobiinae
Bredinia 17 -
Catoxyethira 68 -
Chrysotrichia 70 -
Flintiella 17 -
Maetalaiptila 1 -
Niuginitrichia 24 -
Pseudoxyethira 64 -
Orinocotrichia 3 -
Plethus 27 -
Stactobia 164 -
Stactobiella 22 -
Tizatetrichia 2 -
incertae sedis
Burminoptila - 1
Dicaminus 1 -
Electrotrichia - 1
Macrostactobia 2 -
Novajerseya - 1
Orphninotrichia 20 -
TOTAL HYDROPTILIDAE 2642 23
Ptilocolepidae
Palaeagapetus 9 2
Ptilocolepus 8 -
TOTAL PTILOCOLEPIDAE 17 2
incertae sedis
Eutonella 1 -

Marshall (1979b) proposed that the family Hydroptilidae contains two subfamilies: Hydroptilinae and Ptilocolepinae, with several tribes included within Hydroptilinae. The subfamily Ptilocolepinae was later elevated to family status (Malicky 2001b, 2008b), restricting Hydroptilidae to a single subfamily, Hydroptilinae, as defined by Marshall (1979b). As a result, all of the tribes originally listed by Marshall were raised to subfamily status and remain so today. Thus, Hydroptilidae now consists of six subfamilies and six unplaced (incertae sedis) genera and Ptilocolepidae consists of two genera. One ‘hydroptilid’ genus, Eutonella, is unplaced within the order Trichoptera.

Of the hydroptilid subfamilies, three are largely endemic to the Neotropical faunal region (Leucotrichiinae, Neotrichiinae, and Ochrotrichiinae), though distributions of some of the included species extend well into North America. Hydroptilinae occurs in the Old World, but does include two large cosmopolitan genera (Hydroptila and Oxyethira) and several genera that are endemic to the Australasian or Afrotropical faunal regions. The subfamily Orthotrichiinae is small, but includes the cosmopolitan genus Orthotrichia, and the subfamily Stactobiinae comprises a varied collection of genera that are either endemic to a particular region or occur in a wider distribution throughout multiple regions. Ptilocolepidae is distributed throughout the Holarctic faunal region. No larval stages are described for any species in many genera.

General morphology and biology

Hydroptilids, like all Trichoptera, are holometabolous with a terrestrial adult stage and aquatic larval and pupal stages. Members of the family are typically minute, with few exceeding 5.0 mm in body length, which has led to their common name, of microcaddisflies. The adults are attracted to ultraviolet lights and may congregate in huge numbers at collecting sites, giving them the potential to be one of the most commonly collected of all Trichoptera. An in-depth account of hydroptilid morphology will not be given here; however, features that have traditionally been considered of importance for hydroptilid taxonomy are briefly described.

Larva

Hydroptilids display various structural adaptations to the wide range of aquatic environments they occur in, making them one of the most diverse caddisfly families regarding the form of larvae and larval cases (Marshall 1979b). In Nielsen’s (1948) classic work on hydroptilid larvae, he gave a very detailed account of larval morphology and biology; unfortunately, it is a fairly limited view of the family as a whole, since he expounded on only five of the more specialized genera within Hydroptilidae (Agraylea, Hydroptila, Ithytrichia, Orthotrichia, and Oxyethira). However, Nielsen’s work laid an excellent foundation for future trichopterists and made Marshall’s (1979b) more general account of larval morphology possible.

One of the characteristic features of hydroptilid larvae is the simple form of hypermetamorphosis they undergo. Marshall (1979b) commented that it had not been confirmed if ptilocolepid larvae also undergo hypermetamorphosis, but it has since been confirmed that ptilocolepids do experience the same changes, although not as pronounced as those of the hydroptilids (Wells 2010b). Early instars I–IV of both families are relatively smaller (0.5–2.7 mm in length), of short duration, and caseless, i.e., “free-living”, while final instar V is larger (2.0–7.0 mm in length) and constructs a portable or secondarily fixed case (Marshall 1979b). The final instar also functions as the primary feeding and growing stage in the hydroptilid life cycle, during which the abdomen becomes greatly enlarged (Marshall 1979b) or physogastric. The early instars I–IV can be characterized by features associated by their absence of a case, including narrowly tapering abdomens, freely projecting anal prolegs; the long, fine setae on the body can offer resistance to sinking and help the larva to swim and disperse (Marshall 1979b). The duration of these free-living stages is usually much shorter than the final instar. In only a very few species is the final instar also free-living.

The case-building larvae of instar V are prognathous and campodeiform, similar to the “saddle-case” bearing glossosomatids, as opposed to the hypognathous and eruciform “tube-case” building families (Marshall 1979b). Instar V tends to be more easily identified and distinct among the genera and can be separated from all other Trichoptera larvae by a combination of features, including the enlarged abdomen, three pairs of well-developed thoracic tergites, the absence of segmentally arranged tracheal gills, fusion of the well-developed abdominal prolegs to the sides of abdominal segment X, and, while the number of abdominal tergites may vary, one is always present on abdominal segment IX (Marshall 1979b; Wiggins 1996). Hydroptilid larvae have dorsal sclerotized rings on abdominal segments II/III to VII/VIII which have not been recorded in ptilocolepid larvae; these rings may be regions of specialized chloride epithelial cells adapted for ion absorption and osmoregulation (Wichard 1976; Wiggins 1977). Features of the thoracic legs of instar V have proven useful at the generic level in hydroptilid taxonomy; for example, though basically ambulatory, they may be modified to be robust for clinging to substrate in swiftly moving waters, long and slender in vegetation dwellers, or may bear a specialized process that aids in the manipulation of algal filaments (Marshall 1979b). In instar V, the abdomen becomes hugely distended; the overall form and shape of the abdominal expansion is unique and typically characteristic for each genus (Marshall 1979b). Unique among trichopteran, members of the genus Orthotrichia have a pronounced triangular ‘tooth’ on the larval labrum.

The larval case constructed during the final instar is often referred to as a “purse-case”, a term coined by Ross (1967) to separate hydroptilid cases from glossosomatid “saddle-cases” and phryganidean (sensu Thomas et al. 2020) “tube-cases”. The typical “purse-case” consists of two closely apposed silken halves into which various organic or inorganic particles may be incorporated; the two halves are joined along the lateral margins, leaving narrow openings at the anterior and posterior ends, and may be either laterally or dorso-ventrally compressed (Stephens 1836; Marshall 1979b). As the larval abdomen increases in size during the final instar, the case is expanded by splitting the margins, adding new layers of silk, and then resealing them (Nielsen 1948; Wiggins 1996).

Pupa

As in most Trichoptera, hydroptilid pupae are exarate, dectitious, and do not offer many features useful for identification past the family level (Marshall 1979b). Aside from the absence of any structural features used to positively characterize other caddis families, hydroptilid pupae might be recognized by the absence of abdominal gills or lateral lines, the presegmental dorsal abdominal plates on segments III–VII, the postsegmental plates on segments III–V, and their relatively small size (1.5–6.0 mm in length) (Marshall 1979b). Overall, the pupal case is similar to the larval case, but firmly attached to the substrate with the anterior and posterior openings sealed; once the case is attached and sealed, the larva spins one final internal lining and adopts a characteristic resting posture in which the thorax becomes distended, the abdomen straightens, and the intersegmental grooves become less obvious (Barnard 1971). Ptilocolepid and hydroptilid pupae can be separated based on the presence or absence of medial teeth on the mandibles: in Hydroptilidae medial teeth are absent, while in Ptilocolepidae either one (Palaeagapetus) or two (Ptilocolepus) teeth are present (Marshall 1979b).

Adult

Features that comprise the generally accepted typical hydroptilid form include small size (1.2–6.0 mm forewing length); narrow, pointed wings with long setal fringes along the anal margin and reduced venation; a dense layer of setae on the wings and body parts creates a general appearance of pubescence (Stephens 1836; Marshall 1979b). While most genera bear setae that are white and either black or brown in hue, giving them a mottled appearance, some tropical genera are known to exhibit patches of distinct metallic hues. As the overall size of genera decreases, the wings also become reduced, leading to decreasingly distinct venation and increasingly longer setal fringes that compensate for the loss of wing membrane area (extreme examples or reduced wings and venation can be seen in the genera Chrysotrichia and Neotrichia) (Stephens 1836; Marshall 1979b). Because of this reduction in venation, venational features that are of taxonomic importance in other families of larger caddisflies are not constant in hydroptilid genera and are considered unreliable taxonomic characters.

On the head capsule, dorsal ocelli vary from none to two or three and, posteriorly, there is typically a pair of dorsal postoccipital lobes or warts which may be modified as eversible scent-dispersing organs (e.g., Hydroptila). In some genera (e.g., Leucotrichia), the head may bear modifications, such as patches of scales or setiferous protuberances. Antennal segments, typically the basal-most, in some genera may also be modified to appear elongated or enlarged. On the thorax, the angular warts and near-vertical posterior face of the mesoscutellum are distinct characters for the family. Additional taxonomically important features on the thorax at the subfamily and generic levels include the shape of the meso- and metathoracic nota and the presence or absence of transverse sutures. The posterior mesothoracic katepisternal suture is typically present in ptilocolepids and absent in hydroptilids, a feature first noted by Ross (1956) and later confirmed by Marshall (1979b). Wings of some genera may also bear modifications (e.g., Peltopsyche, Costatrichia), such as patches of scales or a costal “pouch” or “bulla”. The spur formula, which refers to the number of spurs present on the tibiae, is another important diagnostic feature used in hydroptilid taxonomy. The formula indicates the number of spurs on the fore-, mid-, and hind tibiae, respectively, with four being the maximum number of spines on any one leg (two preapical and two apical) (Marshall 1979b); for example, the formula for the genus Leucotrichia is 1, 3, 4.

The hydroptilid abdomen consists of the typical eleven basic segments, with segments X and XI generally being regarded as one, and the sclerites of the posterior segments modified to form the genitalic structures, which provide features of taxonomic importance at both the generic and specific levels; most hydroptilid species are known from male specimens only. Segment IX forms a distinct genital capsule with a membranous posterior concavity, out of which originates segment X, the phallus, and any ventral appendages (Marshall 1979b). Segment X is present as a tergite only, is usually completely membranous but may be weakly sclerotized, varies considerably in size and shape, and may fuse ventrally with structures beneath the phallus to form a structure known as the “phallic tube” or “phallocrypt” (Marshall 1979b). Inferior appendages, often referred to as “claspers”, are single-segmented, in contrast to the 2-segmented condition generally found in many other caddis families, and vary greatly in size, shape, and whether or not they bear additional processes or setae; these appendages can provide taxonomically important features at both the generic and specific levels (Marshall 1979b). The phallus (also sometimes referred to as the aedeagus, penis, or copulatory organ) is essentially a long, slender, sclerotized tube that varies structurally between groups. In the Hydroptilinae, Neotrichiinae, and Orthotrichiinae, the phallus bears a spiral “titillator” and is divided into a proximal half bearing an ejaculatory duct and a distal half bearing an intromittent organ. In Leucotrichiinae, the phallus bears a complicated median complex with “windows”, “loops”, and a membranous apex. In Ochrotrichiinae, the phallus may be very slender or heavily spined, whereas in Stactobiinae, the phallus is essentially a common median duct bearing a pair of lateral processes that may be fused (Marshall 1979b). Overall, not much is really known about the comparative morphology of hydroptilid male genitalia, and the terminology of different structures varies greatly between authors. For example, Marshall (1979b) uses the term “subgenital” to refer to any structures occurring ventral to the phallus; when separate and paired, she calls them “appendages” (which have been referred to variously as “intermediate appendages”, “lateral penis-sheaths”, or “parameres”) and when they are fused refers to the structure as a “plate” (“lower penis cover” or “ventral plate of X”). Oláh and Johanson (2008) argued for the use of appendicular terminology (“gonopods”, “paraprocts”, “cercus”, etc.) over the directional terms (appendages referred to as “inferior”, “intermediate”, “superior”, etc.). Their work, however, addressed Trichoptera as a whole and did not address the complex genitalia of Hydroptilidae in specific, as Marshall’s (1979b) monograph did. Further work regarding hydroptilid male genitalia is needed to infer the homology of these structures.

Female genitalia of hydroptilids are of the generalized trichopteran condition, a simple “telescopic ovipositor” or “oviscapt” which consists of modified abdominal segments VIII–X and a gonopore occurring ventrally between segments IX and X (Scudder 1971; Marshall 1979b). The posterior margin of the ringlike segment VIII provides features that can be of taxonomic importance, such as dorsal and ventral processes or rows or setae (Marshall 1979b).

Ptilocolepidae

While some of the above description can be extended to the ptilocolepids, there are some fundamental differences that can be used to differentiate between the two families. Although ptilocolepid larvae closely resemble those of hydroptilids, the adults look more similar to small rhyacophilids or glossosomatids. They are relatively larger than hydroptilids (4.0–6.0 mm in length) and their wings are relatively broad with rounded apices and short marginal setal fringes (Marshall 1979b). The wings also boast a much more complete venation that resembles that of primitive rhyacophilids, differing in the subcosta of the forewing and the fusion of various veins in the hindwing (Ross 1956). Ptilocolepid venation differs from hydroptilids by the presence of a distinct discoidal cell, separate M3 and M4, and a forked Cu1 in the forewing (Marshall 1979b). Additionally, ptilocolepids bear short, unmodified macrotrichia in a sparse, scattered distribution on their body, which gives them more of an overall granulose appearance, rather than pubescent.

Taxonomic history

Hydroptilidae

The family Hydroptilidae was established in 1836 by Stephens for the genera Hydroptila, Agraylea, and Narycia. However, the only species of the genus Narycia that was figured, Narycia elegans, subsequently proved to be a moth from the family Psychidae. The remaining genera, Hydroptila and Agraylea, could be distinguished from other trichopteran families by the “cleft-like” openings of the larval cases and by the filiform antennae and unfolded posterior wings of the adults (Marshall 1979b). The cases and larvae of Hydroptila pulchricornis and Oxyethira flavicornis had actually been described previously by Pictet (1834) as a unique taxon under the general name “les Hydroptiles”. For this reason, McLachlan (1880) considered Pictet (1834), and not Stephens, to be the true founder of the family Hydroptilidae.

In 1948, Nielsen made the first attempt to divide Hydroptilidae, which was proving to be a large and heterogeneous group, into subfamilies. Based on morphological similarities of the larvae, he proposed the subfamilies Orthotrichiinae for the genera Ithytrichia and Orthotrichia and Hydroptilinae for the genera Agraylea, Hydroptila, and Oxyethira. While other genera, such as Ptilocolepus and Stactobia, had been established by this time, Nielsen commented on their relative position within the family but declined to formally place them in either of his proposed subfamilies. At this time, Nielsen also placed Hydroptilidae between the “saddle-case” building Glossosomatinae and the “tube-case” building Integripalpia, based on features of the larvae and pupae. In this work, Nielsen described in great detail the morphology, life histories, and feeding and case building behaviors of five microcaddisfly genera, which provided a very accurate, but fairly restricted, overview of microcaddisflies in general.

Botosaneanu (1956) established the subfamily Stactobiinae for the previously unplaced genus Stactobia and what he referred to as “its immediate relatives”, which most likely included the genera Plethotrichia, Plethus, Lamonganotrichia, Stactobiella, and probably Catoxyethira (Marshall 1979b).

In Ross’s (1956) new classification, the “purse-case” making hydroptilids, included in the “case-maker division”, were divided into the subfamilies Ptilocolepinae for the genera Palaeagapetus and Ptilocolepus, and Hydroptilinae for the remaining genera; Hydroptilinae was further divided into the tribes Hydroptilini and Neotrichiini. Flint (1970) later declined to follow Ross’s (1956) classification and proposed another new classification with the subfamily Leucotrichinae (subsequently corrected to Leucotrichiinae) for the genus Leucotrichia and its related genera and retained Hydroptilinae, Orthotrichiinae, Ptilocolepinae, and Stactobiinae as separate and distinct subfamilies.

Marshall (1979b) provided the first review of Hydroptilidae at the generic level, including all 42 genera described at the time. For each genus, she included information regarding nomenclature, distribution, morphology of adult and immature stages, biology, and possible species groupings. Marshall also provided keys to the subfamilies, at the time considered tribes, for the adult stage and to the genera for both the adult and immature stages. She discussed the phylogeny of the family and offered a new classification. Marshall’s proposed classification was based on that of Ross (1956) by recognizing only two subfamilies, Hydroptilinae and Ptilocolepinae. However, it also reflected the classification proposed by Flint (1970) by dividing Hydroptilinae into six tribes that corresponded to the subfamilies he had proposed: Hydroptilini, Leucotrichiini, Neotrichiini, Ochrotrichiini, and Stactobiini, and the newly proposed Ochrotrichiini. The morphology-based phylogeny proposed by Marshall was not backed by any statistical analyses and therefore offered no support values for any of the proposed relationships. Marshall’s phylogeny represents the last attempt to assess the relationships of the subfamilies and genera of Hydroptilidae as a whole.

In 2010, Wells wrote a review of hydroptilid studies published from the time of Marshall’s (1979b) review up through 2009; in this work, she reviewed hydroptilid taxonomy, included new discoveries regarding aspects of the biology of some species, and suggested that future work should place emphasis on life history studies.

In 2011, Oláh and Johanson produced a paper in which they described many new species from the Neotropical faunal region and referred to the subfamilies as tribes. In this work, Oláh and Johanson provided several tables containing either features or character states of species groups, subgenera, generic clusters, or genera in tribes. However, the tables did not cover all of the taxa present in the paper, no information on generic features or character states was provided for Hydroptila or any of the included stactobiine genera (Bredinia, Flintiella, and Orinocotrichia), nor was there any discussion of the information outlined in the tables. As interpreted from the tables, several genera were transferred between subfamilies or from incertae sedis status.

The most recent update to hydroptilid classification was based on a phylogenetic assessment of Leucotrichiinae using both molecular and morphological data (Santos et al. 2016a). The nomenclatural modifications proposed in the paper included the recognition of two tribes within Leucotrichiinae, Alisotrichiini, and Leucotrichiini, one generic synonymy, and one newly established genus. Santos et al. also discussed potential convergent evolution between Leucotrichiinae and Stactobiinae in this work.

Ptilocolepidae

The family Ptilocolepidae, which was once considered to be a group within Hydroptilidae and is considered in recent classifications as a distinct family, includes the genera Ptilocolepus and Palaeagapetus. The type species was originally described in Rhyacophila and therefore placed in the family Rhyacophilidae (Pictet 1834), but was subsequently shown to be a senior synonym of Ptilocolepus turbidus, making the type species Ptilocolepus granulatus (Hagen 1855). Thienemann (1904a) noted similarities between the larvae of P. granulatus and both members of Hydroptilidae and Glossosomatidae, which led Ulmer (1907) to transfer the genus to Hydroptilidae. Subsequently, Martynov (1913b) established the subfamily Ptilocolepinae for Ptilocolepus, but it was retained in Rhyacophilidae. Ross (1956) transferred Ptilocolepinae to Hydroptilidae and redefined it to include Palaeagapetus (incorrectly referring to it as Palaeagapetinae). Kristensen (1997) suggested that Ptilocolepus and Palaeagapetus together may represent the sister group of all other Trichoptera.

In 2001, Ptilocolepidae was elevated to the family status, which is currently recognized, effectively also elevating each of the six tribes within Hydroptilinae to the rank of subfamily (Malicky 2001b). Malicky claimed that previous authors had placed differing levels of importance on morphological features of either the adults or the larvae, which led to the group being placed in different families at different times. He stated that, because all these characters should be considered equally, it was appropriate to raise the group to family rank of Ptilocolepidae. Subsequently, the deeper-level relationships within Trichoptera were explored using molecular data and both the monophyly of Ptilocolepidae and its status as a family were questioned (Holzenthal et al. 2007a). According to the work of Holzenthal et al. (2007a), Ptilocolepidae consistently groups with Hydroptilidae, indicating that the elevation to family status might be an unnecessary taxonomic change. Malicky (2008b) countered by referring to the differences in geographical distribution of the two families, stating that the high level of endemism shown by Hydroptilidae and the relictual distribution of Ptilocolepidae were additional evidence that the families are distinct from one another. In their work resolving a higher-level phylogeny of Trichoptera based on multiple genes, Thomas et al. (2020) concluded that Ptilocolepidae is a monophyletic unit, sister to Hydroptilidae.

Other checklists, catalogs, and bibliographies

In preparing this catalog, several published (or electronic) resources concerning Trichoptera fauna were consulted. In all cases, the accuracy of the names, citations, or listings in these works were checked and corrected as necessary before inclusion in the present catalog. However, as these former works may be useful to the user of this catalog in further research on the microcaddisfly fauna, these works are listed and discussed below.

The world catalog, ‘Trichopterorum Catalogus’, Volumes I–XV + Index, 1960–1973, by F.C.J. Fischer is an indispensable and first source of taxonomic and associated literature pertaining to Trichoptera. The catalog and its supplements cover all literature from 1758 to the end of 1960. Volume II and Volume XII (Fischer 1961, 1971) cover literature addressing Hydroptilidae, making them important resources for this catalog. The world bibliography, ‘Bibliographia Trichopterorum’, by A.P. Nimmo (1996) is another important compilation of trichopteran literature references; Volume 1, the only published volume, covers literature from 1961 to 1970. The searchable World ‘Trichoptera Checklist’ is available over the World Wide Web [www.entweb.sites.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/]. Morse (1997b) discussed the format of this checklist. Another important source of information was the checklist of Neotropical Trichoptera fauna first organized by Flint et al. (1999a) and updated by Holzenthal and Calor (2017). This checklist was extremely helpful both for providing an excellent starting point for covering the Neotropical region, an extremely diverse region for microcaddisflies, but also for providing an organizational structure that could be reproduced in this catalog. ‘Zoological Record’ and other electronic abstracting services (e.g., ‘Web of Science’) are of paramount importance in accessing the taxonomic literature.

Purpose of the catalog

A catalog is a list of nominal species and associated taxonomic and nomenclatural references arranged in a logical, easily accessible format. Catalogs are important tools to anyone requiring knowledge of currently accepted names, including synonyms and distributional data. Because the binomen is usually the starting point of the information storage and retrieval system afforded by the Linnaean hierarchy, an accurate list of currently accepted species names is essential for anyone needing information about a species, be it for basic or applied research. By accumulating and organizing all the previously published microcaddisfly (Hydroptilidae, Ptilocolepidae) taxonomic information into a single, easily accessed source, I hope to facilitate and stimulate further exploration and research on the fauna. Furthermore, I hope that this catalog benefits research beyond general Trichoptera systematics, such as ecology, behavior, conservation, and the application of Trichoptera as biological indicators of water quality.

Format of the catalog

This catalog follows the format used in the Neotropical Trichoptera catalogs produced by Flint et al. (1999a) and Holzenthal and Calor (2017): organization is alphabetic by family, subfamily, tribe (when applicable), genus, and species. A single genus currently considered incertae sedis within Trichoptera, but previously included within Hydroptilidae, is listed at the end. Valid family names are presented in boldface type, centered on the page, and followed by the author. A family synonymy follows, which includes the currently recognized, valid family name, followed by its author, date and bibliographic citation of publication, and page number on which the name was formally established. Following this, in square brackets, the type genus with author and date is presented. Other citations containing other important nomenclatural acts, taxonomic revisions, or generic keys are next included with annotations added in square brackets. Following the family synonymy, introductory information, including literature citations, of a general nature is given concerning distribution, diversity, taxonomy, biology, habitat, and knowledge of larval states, if available. For simplicity, unless otherwise specified, the larvae referred to are final instar larvae.

In hierarchical order, valid subfamily and tribe names are next presented in boldface type, centered on the page, and followed by the author, each followed by the synonymy. The currently recognized, valid taxon name is followed by its author, date and bibliographic citation of publication, and page number on which the name was formally established. Following this, in square brackets, the type genus with author and date is presented. Other citations containing other important nomenclatural acts, taxonomic revisions, or generic keys are next included with annotations given in square brackets. Following the subfamily or tribe synonymy, introductory information similar to that presented for the family is given.

Valid generic names are next presented in boldface type, centered on the page, and followed by the author. A generic synonymy follows. The currently recognized, valid genus name is followed by its author, date and bibliographic citation of publication, and page number on which the name was formally established. Following this, in square brackets, the type species in its original combination with author and date is presented, the manner in which the type species was established (e.g., original designation, monotypy, subsequent selection, etc.), and the family in which it was originally described if different from the current family. Other citations containing other important nomenclatural acts, generic revisions, or larval descriptions are included next with annotations added in square brackets. Generic synonyms follow, in chronological order (oldest names first), and are presented in the same format and with the same information as presented for the valid genus name, with the addition of the citation where the generic synonymy was established. Subgeneric names are presented as generic synonyms and with the same information, but the subgeneric status is so indicated and the citation included. Following the generic synonymy, introductory information on the genus, similar to that presented for the family, is given.

All currently recognized, valid species and subspecies names (specific epithets only), in their current orthography, are then listed in alphabetical order and in boldface italic type. Fossil species (and genera) are preceded by the symbol ♰. In cases where subgenera are used, the subgenus name follows the specific epithet, in parentheses. Each species name is followed by author, date and bibliographic citation of publication, and page number on which the name was formally established. Following, in square brackets, the type locality is presented, annotated for clarity, but otherwise given as indicated in the original publication, except the country of origin is always listed first. The type depository is then given if known, and indicated thus if unknown, according to the institution codes presented below. Sex of the type is presented next, if known, and so indicated if not known. Sex of type is followed (separated by a semicolon) by the sex or stage of any other specimens illustrated and described with the type specimen (these also separated by semicolons). Finally, still in square brackets and separated by a semicolon, the genus of the original combination, or the original orthography of the specific epithet if different from present orthography, is presented. In addition, citations for any significant publications containing redescriptions, lectotype or neotype designations or other nomenclatural acts, systematic revisions, larval descriptions, or new distribution records follow their appropriate species’ entries. Synonyms are indicated in italics, preceded by an em dash (—), and listed in chronological order (if more than one) and in their present orthography under the valid species entry. All species-group synonyms are included in the catalog. Information presented for synonyms is the same as presented for the senior name (date and bibliographic citation of the synonymy, sex of type, type depository, genus of original combination or original orthography), but also includes the date and bibliographic reference where the synonymy was established. Lastly, for each species entry the distribution by country, based on published records, is presented.

In addition to original citations and important taxonomic or nomenclatural works, all recent and important literature published after 1960 is included in the catalog. However, the extensive bibliographies presented by Fischer (1960–1973) for the literature prior to 1961 are NOT repeated in this catalog if not of primary importance. The reader is referred to Fischer’s catalog, ‘Trichopterorum Catalogus’ for this additional literature.

All literature cited in the introduction and catalog itself is listed in the References section. The complete title of the journal, book, or other bibliographic source is given to assist the user in obtaining literature. In all cases, the original citation was consulted by the author in compiling the catalog to ensure accuracy of information or to check date of issue.

The catalog includes all literature known to me up to the end of 2020. The user is cautioned, however, that I make no claims to have included all the literature published in 2020, and certainly not later, but I have done my best to do so. Some literature is not abstracted in ‘Zoological Records or Web of Science’ until several years after its date of publication and thus may have been missed. Again, the user should check the appropriate bibliographic sources to ensure complete coverage and overlap by several years the bibliography in this catalog when searching the literature in the future.

The catalog ends with an Index that lists all names presented in the catalog and the primary page number where the name occurs. Format of names in the index generally follows that presented in the catalog: valid species and subspecies epithets are presented in bold italics, followed by the current genus in italics; synonyms of species or subspecies names are presented in italics, followed by the current genus in italics. The original orthography of species names, including synonyms, is also indexed, but referred to the species in its current combination and orthography. For subspecies names, the trinomen is also indexed, but referred to the name in combination with the nominotypical name. Homonyms are also indexed, but with the author of the name and date of publication included. Valid genus names are presented in bold, followed by the family in square brackets. Generic synonyms are presented in italics, except that currently recognized subgeneric names are presented in bold italics, both followed by the family in square brackets. Fossil species are followed by the symbol ♰.

List of type depositories

Depository codes have been sourced from the GBIF Registry of Scientific Collections, The Insect and Spider Collections of the World Website, and original publications (Evenhuis 2021; GBIF 2022). If a code could not be found in these three sources, a code was assigned for use in this catalog.

AMGS Albany Museum, Grahamstown, Cape Province, South Africa

AMNZ Auckland Institute and Museum, Auckland, New Zealand

ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra City, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

ANSP Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA

CBGP Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France

CBM-ZI Natural History Museum and Institute of Chiba, Chiba, Japan

CLEV Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

CMNH Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

CMNZ Canterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand

CMOR Moretti collection, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

CNIN Colección Nacional de Insectos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico (formerly IBUNAM)

Collection Banks private collection, Nathan Banks, likely deposited in MCZ

Collection Henderson private collection, Ian M. Henderson, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

Collection Malicky private collection, Hans Malicky, Lunz am See, Austria

Collection Mey private collection, Wolfram Mey, Berlin, Germany

Collection Moretti private collection, G. Moretti, University of Perugia, Italy

Collection Oláh private collection, János Oláh, Debrecen, Hungary, presently under protection of HNHM

Collection Tillyard private collection, R. J. Tillyard, deposited in NHMUK

Collection Wichard private collection, Wilfried Wichard, Bonn, Germany

COZEM Colección Zoológica Dr. Eustorgio Méndez, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudio de la Salud, Panama City, Panama

CUAC Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA

CZMA Coleção Zoológica do Maranhão, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão, Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil

DSIR Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand

DZRJ Coleção Entomológica Prof. José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

DZUSC M. A. González collection, Department of Zoology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (La Coruña), Galicia, Spain

EIHU Entomological Institute of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

EMEC Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA

ETSI Departamento de Zoología y Entomología, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Montes, Madrid, Spain

ESUW University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA (includes D. G. Denning’s personal collection)

FHCU Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias (Departamento de Artropodos), Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay

FSCA Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville, Florida, USA

HAUZ Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China

HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary

HUAT Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey

IBSS-RAS Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia

ICN Institute of Natural Sciences, Universidad Nacionale de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia

IFML Instituto Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, Argentina

INBIO Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica

INHS Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois, USA

INPA Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

IRSNB Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium

IZSK I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

KMUL Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig, Germany

KUM Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto, Japan

LIPI Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta (Bogor), West Java, Indonesia

LNKD Landessammlung für Naturkunde, Karlsruhe, Germany

MACN Museo Argentina de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina

MBBJ Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Bogor, Indonesia

MBCG Museo di Scienze Naturali “Enrico Caffi”, Bergamo, Italy

MCZ Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

MDLA Museu do Dundo, Luanda, Angola

MHNJP Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru

MIUP Universidad de Panamá Museo de Invertebrados, Panama

MLPA Museo de la Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina

MNHN Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MNRJ Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (including F. Müller material)

MPEG Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brazil

MPMP National Museum of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines

MRAC Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium

MZBS Museo de Zoologia, Barcelona, Spain

MZHF Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki, Finland

MZLS Musée Zoologique, Lausanne, Switzerland

MZLU Lund University, Lund, Sweden

MZPW Polish Academy of Science, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Warsaw, Poland

MZUFBA Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil

MZUSP Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

MZVU Museum of Zoology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania

NHMUK Natural History Museum London, United Kingdom [formerly British Museum (Natural History), BMNH or NHM],

NAUJ Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

NHMB Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland

NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria

NHRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden

NIBR National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea

NMID National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland

NMNH National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA [formerly United States National Museum, USNM]

NMNS National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan

NMPC National Museum (Natural History), Prague, Czech Republic

NMPG Museum der Natur-Gotha, Gotha, Germany

NMV Museums Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [formerly National Museum of Victoria]

NMZ National Museum of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

NTM Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia

NZAC New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand

NZSI National Zoological Collection, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, West Bengal, India

PSUC Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

QMB Queensland Museum, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

QMOR Collection Entomologique Ouellet-Robert, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

RMNH Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden, Netherlands [formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie]

ROM Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

SAMC Iziko Museum of Capetown, Cape Town, South Africa [formerly South African Museum]

SOFM National Museum of Natural History, Sofia, Bulgaria

TAU Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

UMQ University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

UMSP University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

UNHC University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA

UOBF University of Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

UPLB Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

USCM “Luis Iglesias” Museum of Natural History, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (La Coruña), Galicia, Spain

VNMN Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Hanoi, Vietnam

WAM Western Australia Museum, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

ZIN Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia

ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany

ZMUA Zoölogisch Museum, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

ZMUB Zoological Museum, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

ZMUC Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

ZMUH Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universität von Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany [formerly Zoologische Staatsinstitut und Zoologisches Museum]

ZRC Zoological Reference Collection, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, Singapore

ZSM Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munich, Germany

Catalog

Family HYDROPTILIDAE Stephens, 1836

Hydroptilidae Stephens, 1836: 151 [type genus: Hydroptila Dalman, 1819]. —McLachlan 1880: 501 [revision synopsis]. —Betten 1934: 145 [key to genera]. —Barnard 1934: 390 [key to African genera]. —Milne 1936: 74 [key to North American species]. —Mosely 1939b: 252 [key to British genera]. —Ross 1944: 117 119 [generic key to larvae and adults]. —Kimmins 1951: 194 [key to genera of India]. —Leader 1970: 121 [setae]. —Neboiss 1977: 39 [key to Tasmanian genera]. —Marshall 1979b: 135 [family monograph; key to genera]. —Blickle 1979: 3 [key to genera America north of Mexico]. —Wells 1990b: 365 [key to genera of North Sulawesi]. —Wells and Dudgeon 1990: 162 [key to males of Hong Kong]. —Wells 1991: 498 [key to males and mature larvae of genera in New Guinea]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 39 [key to genera in the Levant]. —Wells and Andersen 1995: 145 [key to genera and species in Tanzania]. —Wiggins 1996: 1–457 [larvae of the North American genera]. —Solem and Gullefors 1996: 234 [key to genera for larvae in North Europe]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 89 [keys to the larvae and adults of genera and species in the Interior Highlands of North America]. —Waringer and Graf 1997: 72 [atlas of species in Australia central Europe and Palearctic region; key to larvae]. —Wells 1997: 1–28 [checklist key to Australian larvae]. —Kachalova in Medvedev 1998: 179 [key to the genera of the European part of the USSR]. —Flint et al. 1999a: 82 [catalog of Neotropical species]. —Wallace et al. 2003: 74 [generic key to larvae of United Kingdom and Ireland]. —Posada-García and Roldán-Pérez 2003: 183 [generic key to Colombian]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 48 [key to final instar larvae of Florida USA]. —Waringer and Graf 2011: 72 [key to European larvae]. —Wichard 2013: 37 [key to fossil Hydroptilidae in Baltic amber]. —Rinne and Wiberg-Larsen 2017: 38 [key to larvae of Finland]. —Armitage and Harris 2018b: 95 [review of diversity of Panama]. —Wells 2020: 24 [review of Australian cases].

The family Hydroptilidae exhibits a cosmopolitan distribution, with members occurring in all major faunal regions except for Antarctica. Currently recognized within the family are six distinct subfamilies, containing more than 2,600 species: Hydroptilinae, Leucotrichiinae, Neotrichiinae, Ochrotrichiinae, Orthotrichiinae, and Stactobiinae. Each subfamily can be characterized by fundamental morphological features of the adult, larval, and pupal stages (Marshall 1979b). Despite the heterogeneous nature of the family, these features unite the subfamilies and can be used to separate them from the genera of Ptilocolepidae. Both cool- and warm-adapted genera occur in a variety of habits, including swiftly flowing montane streams, splash zones of waterfalls, seeps, rivers of varying sizes, and even still waters. Some larvae are detritus feeders, while other groups specialize on the intracellular contents of filamentous green algae.

Subfamily HYDROPTILINAE Stephens, 1836

Hydroptilidae Stephens, 1836: 151 [type genus: Hydroptila Dalman, 1819]. —Marshall 1979b: 161 [reviewed as tribe Hydroptilini]. —Wells 1987: 133 [biogeography of Oxyethira group].

Hydroptilinae consists of 26 genera occurring in all biogeographic regions of the world, excluding the polar regions. As Marshall (1979b) noted, the subfamily may seem to be very heterogenous and varied in morphological features of both the adults and larvae, but can be united by a number of basic similarities, including features of the adult thorax and male genitalia and the larval association with filamentous green algae. Marshall (1979b) further divided the subfamily into three subgroups based on characteristics of the male and female genitalia and general larval appearances and habitats. The Agraylea group, including the genera Agraylea, Allotrichia, Dhatrichia, Microptila, and Ugandatrichia, is based on the larger and more generalized appearance of the adults in comparison to other hydroptilids and the distinctive male genitalia. The Hydroptila group, essentially the genus Hydroptila, is also united by the distinct form of the male genitalia and can be separated from other groups and genera by the postoccipital scent caps of the males and the absence of ocelli. The Oxyethira group, including Oxyethira, Paroxyethira, Tricholeiochiton, and Xuthotrichia, exhibits more variety than the others in features of the adults and the genitalic form, but is united by similarities in the larvae. Larval stages are unknown for the genera Aenigmatrichia, Austratrichia, Cyclopsiella, Jabitrichia, Kholaptila, Maeyaptila, Missitrichia, Mulgravia, Paucicalcaria, Sutheptila, Tangatrichia, Vietrichia, Wlitrichia, and Xuthotrichia.

Genus Acanthotrichia Wells, 1982

Acanthotrichia Wells, 1982: 267 [type species: Acanthotrichia bilamina Wells, 1982, original designation]. —Wells 1985b: 15 [larva; pupa; case].

Acanthotrichia is a monotypic genus occurring in Australia. Based on features of the male genitalia, it was placed in Hydroptilinae and may be most closely related to the genera Tricholeiochiton and Paroxyethira (Wells 1982). The larval stage was described by Wells (1985b).

bilamina Wells, 1982: 269 [type locality: Victoria, Genoa River, near Wangarabell; NMV; ♂]. —Wells 1985b: 16 [larva, case]. —Neboiss 1986: 73 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

Genus Acritoptila Wells, 1982

Acritoptila Wells, 1982: 262 [type species: Acritoptila globosa Wells, 1982, original designation]. Wells 1985b: 15 [larva; pupa; case]. —Wells 1997: 1 [checklists; larvae; species]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 1 [generic review of New Caledonian species; key to New Caledonian species].

Acritoptila consists of 16 species occurring in Australia and New Caledonia. It can be distinguished from members of Austratrichia and Mulgravia by differences in the inferior appendages of the male genitalia (Wells 1982). Wells (1985b) described the larvae of A. globosa and A. margaretae and stated that the larvae of Acritoptila are indistinguishable from those of Hellyethira.

>amphapsis Kelley, 1989: 191 [type locality: New Caledonia, Honailu River; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells 1995: 238 [case; distribution]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 14 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

capistra Wells, 1990c: 117 [type locality: [Australia] NE Queensland, Yuccabine Creek; NMV; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

chiasma Kelley, 1989: 192 [type locality: New Caledonia, mountain stream up Boulari River; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 9 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

crinita Kelley, 1989: 193 [type locality: New Caledonia, headwaters of Honailu River; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells 1995: 238 [distribution]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 7 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist]. —karika Oláh & Johanson, 2010a: 7 [type locality: New Caledonia, Province Nord, 50 m upstream bridge on Hienghene-Tnédo road, 3.9 km S summit of Mt Tneda, 2,2 km E Tnédo, 20°43.085'S, 164°49.928'E, 29 m; ♂]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 7 [♂; ♀; distribution; to synonymy].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

csavar Oláh & Johanson, 2010a: 6 [type locality: New Caledonia, d’Amieau Fauna Reserve; MNHN; ♂]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 11 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

disjuncta Kelley, 1989: 193 [type locality: New Caledonia, mountain stream up Boulari River; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells 1995: 235 [case; distribution]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 7 [distribution]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 4 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

forficata Wells & Johanson, 2014: 13 [type locality: New Caledonia, Province Sud, Monts des Koghis, ca 800 m S Koghi Restaurant, 22.18406°S, 166.50383°E, 420 m; MNHN; ♂]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

globosa Wells, 1982: 265 [type locality: Western Australia, Harvey River, near Harvey Falls, 15 km E. of Harvey; NMV; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 15 [larva, case]. —Neboiss 1986: 69 [atlas; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Australia.

glossocercus Kelley, 1989: 193 [type locality: New Caledonia, mountain stream up Boulari River; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 11 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

hamatus Wells, 1982: 265 [type locality: Queensland, Mothar Mountain, 12 km SE. of Gympie; NMV; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 69 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

macrospina Wells & Johanson, 2014: 19 [type locality: New Caledonia, Province Nord, Wemwâdiu stream, 850 m E summit Kögi Mtn, 5 m upstream road, about 200 m S Tiwaka River, 20°49.020'S, 165°14.165'E, 24 m; MNHN; ♂]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

margaretae Wells, 1982: 265 [type locality: Western Australia, Harvey River below Harvey Falls; NMV; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 15 [case]. —Neboiss 1986: 69 [atlas; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Australia.

ouenghica Wells, 1995: 235 [type locality: [New Caledonia], Ouenghi River, nr Boulouparis; ANIC; ♂]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 17 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

parallela Wells & Johanson, 2014: 13 [type locality: New Caledonia, Province Nord, Mt Panié, stream at camp, 20.58139°S, 164.76444°E, 1310 m; MNHN; ♂]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

pearsoni Wells, 1990c: 115 [type locality: [Australia] NE Queensland, Yuccabine Creek; NMV; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

planichela Kelley, 1989: 194 [type locality: New Caledonia, mountain stream up Boulari River; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells and Johanson 2014: 15 [♂; distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 92 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Caledonia.

Genus Aenigmatrichia Wells & de Moor, 2020

Aenigmatrichia Wells & de Moor, 2020: 503 [type species: Aenigmatrichia asymmetrica Wells & de Moor, 2020, original designation].

Aenigmatrichia is a monotypic genus occurring in Angola. Based on a combination of features shared with the Tanzanian genus Tangatrichia, Wells and de Moor placed Aenigmatrichia in the subfamily Hydroptilinae, and also noted similarities with the genera Oxyethira, Pseudoxyethira, and Catoxyethira.

asymmetrica Wells & de Moor, 2020: 505 [type locality: Angola, Moxico Province, Collecting event 3 — Lungue Bungo River, along marshy river banks with swift flowing river containing trailing and marginal aquatic vegetation, light trap downstream of road-bridge, -12.58391, 18.66511; AGMS; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Angola.

Genus Agraylea Curtis, 1834

Agraylea Curtis, 1834: 217 [type species: Agraylea sexmaculata Curtis, 1834, subsequent designation by Westwood 1840]. —Hagen 1864b: 115 [comments on larvae and case]. —McLachlan 1880: 505 [revision]. —Mosely 1939b: 253 [key to the British species]. —Solem 1972: 79 [key to full-grown larvae]. —Marshall 1979b: 193 [generic review]. —Blickle 1979: 6 [key to species of America north of Mexico]. —Kachalova in Medvedev 1998: 182 [key to the species of the European part of the USSR].

Agraules Agassiz, 1846: 32 [Unjustified emendation of Agraylea according to Fischer 1961].

Hydrorchestria Kolenati, 1848: 103 [type species: Agraylea sexmaculata Curtis, 1834, subsequent designation by Kimmins 1950]. —Kimmins 1950: 58 [to synonymy].

Nanoagraylea Botosaneanu, 1995b: 2 [fossil subgenus of Agraylea].

The genus Agraylea currently contains two subgenera. The subgenus Agraylea consists of eleven species, including three fossil species known from Baltic amber, and has a Holarctic distribution. The subgenus Nanoagraylea consists of three fossil species (Botosaneanu 1995b). According to Marshall (1979b), the extant members of the genus are most similar morphologically to Allotrichia, from which they differ in hindwing venation, but features of the male genitalia are similar to those of the genera Dhatrichia and Ugandatrichia. Larval descriptions of A. cognatella, A. multipunctata, and A. sexmaculata were given by Solem (1972), Nielsen (1948), and Barnard (1971), respectively.

costello (Agraylea) Ross, 1941b: 15 [type locality: [Canada], Costello Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario, Ontario Fisheries Research Laboratory, Cage number 4; INHS; ♂]. —Ross 1944: 122 [♂]. —Roy and Harper 1975: 1083 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 150 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 57 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [distribution]. —Etnier 2010: 485 [distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 105 [distribution].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

cretaria (Nanoagraylea) Botosaneanu, 1995b: 2 [type locality: [United States], Sayreville, Middlesex Co., New Jersey; AMNH; ♀; in amber; ♂]. —Wichard and Lüer 2003: 132 [checklist]. —Eskov et al. 2008: 78 [checklist]. —Wichard 2013: 39 [species review]. —Ivanov and Melnitsky 2017: 131 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Jersey amber.

cumsacculo (Agraylea) Wichard, 2013: 40 [type locality: [Baltic region]; ZMHB; ♂; in amber].

Distribution. —Baltic amber.

dactylina (Agraylea) Zhou, Yang, & Morse, 2016: 204 [type locality: China, Si-chuan Province, Kang-ding County, unnamed waterfall, tributary of Da-du River, 100 m upstream of G13 18 at 2824.9 km stone marker, N30.0665°, E102.1178°, 1675 m; NAUJ; ♂].

Distribution. —China.

drosima (Agraylea) Navás, 1917a: 67 [type locality: [Spain], Zaragoza; depository not designated; ♂; as Agraylia]. —Malicky 2005b: 546 [checklist].

Distribution. —Spain.

glaesaria (Agraylea) Wichard, 2013: 38 [type locality: [Baltic region]; ZMHB; ♂; in amber].

Distribution. —Baltic amber.

insularis (Agraylea) (Hagen, 1865a): 219 [type locality: locality not given; depository not designated; ♂; in Hydrorchestria]. —Eaton 1873: 148 [to Agraylea]. —McLachlan 1880: 508 [revision]. —Nybom 1948: 4 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 546 [checklist].

Distribution. —Portugal.

lentiginosa (Nanoagraylea) Botosaneanu, Johnson, & Dillon, 1998: 222 [type locality: United States, New Jersey; ANSP; ♂; in amber]. —Wichard and Lüer 2003: 132 [checklist]. —Eskov et al. 2008: 78 [checklist]. —Ivanov and Melnitsky 2017: 131 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Jersey amber.

multipunctata (Agraylea) Curtis, 1834: 217 [type locality: “Britain”; type not designated]. —McLachla 1865: 92 [♂]. —Eaton 1873: 147 [♂]. —McLachlan 1880: 506 [revision; ♂]. —Morton 1886: 269 [notes on larva and case]. —Morton 1899b: 281 [distribution]. —Morton 1904: 323 [distribution]. —Morton 1905: 74 [♂; distribution]. —Banks 1907a: 49 [catalogue]. —Martynov 1924: 40 [♂]. —Sibley 1926: 204 [biology]. —Betten 1934: 147 [larva; ♂; distribution]. —Martynov 1934: 114 [♂]. —Mosely 1939b: 253 [♂]. —Tjeder 1940: 10 [distribution]. —Kimmins 1943: 154 [distribution]. —Ross 1944: 122 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 170 [distribution]. —Nielsen 1948: 41 [larva]. —Berg 1948: table 14, between pages 124–125 [distribution]. —Ross and Spencer 1952: 46 [distribution]. —Morse and Blickle 1953: 72 [checklist]. —Nybom 1960: 17 [checklist]. —Fischer 1961: 87 [cited as senior synonym]. —Spuris 1962: 57, 61, 70 [distribution]. —Neboiss 1963: 613 [distinct from A. sexmaculata]. —Spuris 1964: 12 [distribution]. —Etnier 1965: 146 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Spuris 1972: 19, 21, 23, 27, 30 [checklist]. —Obr 1975: 128 [distribution]. —Watts 1976: 15 [pupa]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 150 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 57 [checklist; ♂]. —Swegman et al. 1981: 132 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 9 [distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 53, 57 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Steven and Hilsenhoff 1984: 163 [distribution]. —Lake 1984: 219 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1985: 114 [♂]. —Wiberg-Larsen 1985: 40 [checklist]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Levanidova 1988: 173 [distribution; comparison with A. cognatella]. —Harper 1989: 541 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 15[checklist]. —Stroot 1989: 157 [larval coloration patterns]. —Wrubleski and Ross 1989: 163 [ecology]. —Stroot 1989: 157 [larval coloration]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [checklist]. —Ross and Murkin 1993: 27 [ecology]. —Masteller 1993: 134 [distribution]. —Andersen et al. 1993b: 3 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 1994: 31 [distribution]. —Czachorowski and Prishchepchik 1998: 11 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 421 [distribution]. —Wiberg-Larsen and Karsholt 1999: 126 [distribution]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Morse et al. 2001: 102 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2002: 138 [checklist]. —Ujvárosi 2002: 384 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2002: 130 [distribution]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2003: 195 [distribution]. —Mey 2003a: 40 [head]. —Malicky 2004a: 66, 73 [atlas]. —Graf and Hutter 2004: 147 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2005a: 118, 119 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2005b: 138 [distribution]. —Hohmann 2005: 106 [checklist]. —Berlin 2005: 128 [distribution]. —Mey 2005b: 119 [distribution]. —Graf et al. 2005: 55 [distribution]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Zack et al. 2006: 134 [phenology; distribution]. —Morse et al. 2006: 320 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2006: 136, 137 [distribution]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2006: 358 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Berlin and Thiele 2007: 49 [checklist]. —Ivanov and Melnitsky 2007: 32 [distribution]. —Gullefors and Johanson 2007: 64 [distribution]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 14 [checklist]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 113 [checklist]. —Schrankel et al. 2008: 90 [checklist]. —Vieira et al. 2009: 257 [distribution]. —Houghton and Holzenthal 2010: 486 [distribution]. —Corallini and Cianficconi 2011: 628 [checklist]. —Djaernes 2011: 19 [sternum V glands]. —Djaernes and Sperling 2011: 86 [sternum V glands]. —Myers et al. 2011: 105 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 194 [checklist]. —Waringer and Graf 2011: 282 [larval synopsis]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [phenology; habitat]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 13 [checklist]. —Viidalepp et al. 2011: 196 [distribution]. —Zuyderduyn and Tempelman 2013: 25 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2013: 63 [distribution]. —Tempelman and Sanabria 2013a: 20 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 280, 290 [biology; distribution]. —Wright et al. 2013: 466 [biology; distribution]. —Tempelman and Sanabria 2013b: 144 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2014: 272 [distribution]. —Chalkley 2014: 13 [distribution]. —Hohmann et al. 2014: 85 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2015: 28, 71 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2015: 203 [distribution]. —Stojanović et al. 2015: 55 [distribution]. —DeWalt et al. 2016: 51 [distribution]. —Vshivkova et al. 2016: 79 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2016: 165 [distribution]. —Chuluunbat et al. 2016: 101 [distribution]. —Potikha and Vshivkova 2016: 363 [distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —Smirnova et al. 2016: 401 [distribution]. —Buczyńska et al. 2016: 161 [distribution]. —Houghton 2016: 45 [biology]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —Melnitsky and Ivanov 2017: 19 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2018: 80 [distribution]. —O’Connor et al. 2018: 23 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2018: 108 [biology; distribution]. —Lock and van Butsel 2018: 3 [distribution]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 128 [checklist]. —Edmonds-Brown 2020: 91 [checklist]. —Houghton and Lardner 2020: 42 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2020: 140 [distribution].

argyricola (Kolenati, 1848): 104 [type locality: [Sweden], Suecia meridionali ad Holmiam, in Dalecarlia; probably NHMW; probably ♂; in Hydrorchrestia]. —Eaton 1873: 147 [treated as possibly distinct species; to Agraylea]. —McLachlan 1880: 508 [revision]. —Malicky 2005b: 546 [as synonym].

cognatella McLachlan, 1880: 507 [type locality: Finland; depository not designated; ♂]. —Siltala 1908: 14 [distribution]. —Martynov 1924: 40 [♂]. —Martynov 1934: 121 [♂]. —Nybom 1960: 17 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Solem 1970a: 2 [distribution]. —Solem 1972: 77 [larva]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Lillehammer 1978: 256 [distribution]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Levanidova 1988: 173 [distribution; comparison with A. multipunctata]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —Andersen et al. 1993a: 51 [distribution]. —Andersen et al. 1993b: 2 [distribution]. —Wiggins and Parker 1997: 794 [distribution]. —Zasypkina and Ryabukhin 2001: 45 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2002: 138 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005b: 546 [to synonymy]. —Ivanov 2011: 194 [checklist]. —Andersen and Hagenlund 2012: 135 [distribution]. —Kendrick and Huryn 2014: 280 [distribution]. —Zasypkina 2016: 486 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist].

flavida (Banks, 1907b): 164 [type locality: [United States], Ft. Collins, Colorado; MCZ; ♂; in Allotrichia]. —Ross 1938b: 8 [lectotype designated]. —Ross 1944: 295 [to synonymy].

fraterna Banks, 1907b: 164 [type locality: [United States], Falls Church, Va.; MCZ; ♂]. —Milne 1936: 77 [as synonym]. —Ross 1939b: 8 [lectotype designated; to synonymy].

multiguttata Uljanin, 1869: 37, 100 [type locality: Russia; no depository designated, no type specimen designated]. —Fischer 1961: 92 [treated as a synonym].

signata (Banks, 1904a): 215 [type locality: [United States], Virginia, Falls Church; Collection Banks; ♂; in Allotrichia]. —Banks 1907a: 50 [catalogue]. —Betten 1934: 149 [checklist]. —Milne 1936: 77 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Austria, Belarus, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Serbia, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Sweden, Ukraine, U.S.A.

parva (Nanoagraylea) Wichard & Bölling, 2000: 346 [type locality: [United States], New Jersey, Middlesex Co., Sayreville, White Oaks Pit; AMNH; ♂; in amber]. —Wichard and Lüer 2003: 132 [checklist]. —Eskov et al. 2008: 78 [checklist]. —Ivanov and Melnitsky 2017: 131 [checklist].

Distribution. —New Jersey amber.

saltesea (Agraylea) Ross, 1938a: 114 [type locality: [United States], Montana, Saltese; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 57 [checklist; ♂]. —Vineyard 1982: 73 [distribution]. —Ruiter 1999: 165 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 290 [biology; distribution]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 118 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

sexmaculata (Agraylea) Curtis, 1834: 217 [type locality: “Britain”, Sept. Lisson Grove (according to Neboiss 1963: 619, “most likely a street near Marylebone Station, London and the northern end of it crosses the Grand Union Canal”); NMV; ♂]. —Kolenati 1848: [revision; distribution; as Hydrochorestia]. —Eaton 1873: 147 [treated as synonym of A. multipunctata]. —Neboiss 1963: 619 [designation of lectoholotype [sic]; treated as species distinct from A. multipunctata]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Barnard 1971: 253 [larva]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 15 [♂; distribution]. —Moretti et al. 1981: 350, 354 [biology; distribution]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Moretti et al. 1981: 239 [ecology; distribution]. —Bagge 1982: 78 [distribution]. —Andrikovics and Ujhelyi 1983: 6 [distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 53, 57 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —González and Otero 1983: 118 [distribution]. —Wiberg-Larsen 1985: 40 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1985: 113 [♂]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 106, 107 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Hanrahan 1988: 478 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —Usseglio-Polatera and Bournau 1989: 254 [distribution]. —Andersen et al. 1990: 52 [distribution]. —González et al. 1990: 212 [checklist]. —Andersen et al. 1993b: 3 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 1994: 31 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1997: 461 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1998: 52 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 1998: 339 [distribution]. —Czachorowski and Prishchepchik 1998: 11 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999a: 57 [distribution]. —Wiberg-Larsen and Karsholt 1999: 126 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999c: 96 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 421 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 2001: 95 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2001: 297 [checklist]. —Valle 2001: 67 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Ujvárosi 2002: 384 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2002: 130 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2002: 138 [checklist]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2003b: 33 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2003: 194 [distribution]. —Urbanič 2004: 51 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 66, 73 [atlas]. —Berlin 2005: 128 [distribution]. —Mey 2005b: 119 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 546 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 57 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2005a: 118 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2005b: 138 [distribution]. —Hohmann 2005: 106 [checklist]. —Graf et al. 2005: 55 [distribution]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Sweeney 2006: 300 [distribution]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2006: 358 [distribution]. —Kiss et al. 2006: 139 [biology]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2006: 77 [distribution]. —Waringer and Graf 2006: 356 [distribution]. —Schiess-Bühler and Rezbanyai-Reser 2006: 73 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Berlin and Thiele 2007: 49 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 576 [distribution]. —Schrankel et al. 2008: 90 [checklist]. —Waringer and Graf 2008: 142 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 113 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 14 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2008: 188 [distribution]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —Oláh 2010: 91 [distribution]. —González and Menénde 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Waringer and Graf 2011: 282 [larval synopsis]. —Cianficconi et al. 2011: 47 [distribution]. —Valladolid et al. 2011: 501 [distribution]. —Gombeer et al. 2011a: 362 [distribution]. —Gombeer et al. 2011b: 112 [distribution]. —Nowinszky et al. 2011: 231 [biology]. —Viidalepp et al. 2011: 196 [distribution]. —Kiss 2012: 28 [distribution]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2012: 718 [distribution]. —Zuyderduyn and Tempelman 2013: 25 [distribution]. —Tempelman and Sanabria 2013a: 20 [distribution]. —Tempelman et al. 2013: 288 [distribution]. —Mey 2014: 187 [distribution]. —Chalkley 2014: 13 [distribution]. —Hohmann et al. 2014: 85 [distribution]. —Chalkley 2015: 44 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2015: 28, 74 [distribution]. —Stanić-Kroštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2016: 165 [distribution]. —Oláh and Beshkov 2016: 100 [distribution]. —Smirnova et al. 2016: 401 [distribution]. —Buczyńska et al. 2016: 161 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2016: 262 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2017b: 12 [distribution]. —Melnitsky and Ivanov 2017: 19 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2017a: 243 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2017b: 52 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2018: 81 [distribution]. —O’Connor et al. 2018: 23 [distribution]. —Edmonds-Brown 2020: 91 [checklist].

flabellifera (Bremi) in Hagen 1864b: 116 [type locality not given; type not designated; in Hydroptila]. —Lauterborn 1934: 220 [specimens re-identified as A. pallidula and Tricholeiochiton fagesii].

pallidula McLachlan, 1875: 46 [type locality: [Russia]; type not designated]. —McLachlan 1880: 507 [♂; distribution]. —McLachlan 1884: 70 [distribution]. —Morton 1904: 324 [distribution]. —Martynov 1924: 39 [♂]. —Martynov 1927: 176 [distribution]. —Martynov 1934: 118 [♂]. —Mosely 1939b: 255 [♂]. —Tjeder 1940: 10 [distribution]. —Kimmins 1943: 154 [distribution]. —Berg 1948: table 14, between pages 124–125 [distribution]. —Jacquemart 1958: 1 [larva]. —Schmid 1959b: 686 [distribution]. —Nybom 1960: 17 [checklist]. —Spuris 1962: 61 [distribution]. —Neboiss 1963: 619 [to synonymy]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [as synonym]. —Spuris 1972: 27, 28 [checklist].

Distribution. —Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine.

spathifera (Agraylea) Ulmer, 1912a: 39 [type locality: [Baltic region]; holotype missing, originally deposited in “Museum Königsberg” (no. 11883); ♂; in amber]. —Eskov et al. 2008: 78 [checklist]. —Wichard 2013: 37 [species review].

Distribution. —Baltic amber.

taymyrensis (Agraylea) Mey, 2003a: 39 [type locality: Russia, Northern Siberia, Norilsk, 40 km östlich, Pyany Insel; ZMHB; ♂]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist].

Distribution. —Russia.

Genus Allotrichia McLachlan, 1880

Allotrichia McLachlan, 1880: 508 [type species: Agraylea pallicornis Eaton, 1873, monotypic]. —Marshall 1979: 196 [generic review]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 51 [key to species in the Levant; as subgenus of Agraylea]. —Kachalova in Medvedev 1998: 182 [key to the species of the European part of the USSR]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [treated as genus]. —Ivanov 2011: 183 [referred to as distinct genus].

Allotrichia consists of 14 species, including four fossil species known from Baltic amber. The genus has a Palaearctic distribution. Marshall (1979b) noted that the genus is morphologically very similar to Agraylea, and that Agraylea may be a junior subjective synonym of Allotrichia. The larvae of A. pallicornis were described by Giudicelli and Vaillant (1967).

ampullata Ulmer, 1912a: 40 [type locality: [Baltic region]; holotype missing, originally deposited in “Museum Königsberg” (no. 14038); ♂; in amber]. —Eskov et al.2008: 78 [checklist]. —Wichard 2013: 45 [species review].

Distribution. —Baltic amber.

clara Wichard, 2013: 46 [type locality: [Baltic region]; ZMHB; ♂; in amber].

Distribution. —Baltic amber.

galaica González & Malicky, 1980: 214 [type locality: Spain, Provinz Lugo, 500 m, Fluß Moreira; USCM; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 56 [atlas; ♂]. —González et al. 1986: 113 [distribution]. —Malick 2004a: 67 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist]. —Coppa and González 2007: 95 [distribution]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2016: 262 [distribution].

Distribution. —France, Portugal, Spain.

heterocera Navás, 1917b: 17 [type locality: [Spain], Seo de Urgel (Lérida), a orillas del Segre; depository not designated; ♀]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist; may be nomen dubium].

Distribution. —Spain.

laerma Malicky, 1976: 92 [type locality: Greece, Insel Rhodos, Laerma; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 56 [atlas; ♂]. —Malick 2004a: 67, 73 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 58 [distribution].

Distribution. —Greece.

marinkovicae Malicky, 1977: 65 [type locality: Herzegovina, Mostar; NHMW; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 67, 73 [atlas]. —Malicky 1983b: 56 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 58 [distribution]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 4 [distribution]. —Stanić-Koštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —Oláh 2017: 136 [distribution].

Distribution. —Bosnia-Herzegovina, Greece, Serbia.

militsa Malicky, 1992b: 40 [type locality: Greece, Peloponnes, Methoni, 6 km westlich von Militsa; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 67 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 58 [distribution].

Distribution. —Greece.

pallicornis (Eaton, 1873): 148 [type locality: [Italy], Turin (Chiliani); NHMUK; ♂; in Agraylea]. —McLachlan 1880: 509 [revision; ♂; ♀; to Allotrichia]. —McLachlan 1884: 70 [distribution]. —Morton 1896: 102 [distribution]. —Morton 1904: 324 [distribution]. —Mosely 1930a: 183 [checklist]. —Racięcka 1936: 98 [distribution]. —Mosely 1939b: 256 [♂]. —Kimmins 1957a: 107 [lectotype designation]. —Schmid 1959b: 685 [distribution]. —Jacquemart 1960: 1 [♂; distribution]. —Giudicelli and Vaillant 1967: 29 [larva]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Malicky 1974: 122 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 17 [♂; distribution]. —Moretti et al. 1981: 350, 354 [biology; distribution]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Moretti et al. 1981: 239 [ecology; distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 53, 56 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Kumanski and Malicky 1984: 199 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1985: 115 [♂]. —González et al. 1986: 113 [distribution]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 112, 129, 143 [distribution]. —Malicky and Lounaci 1987: 15 [checklist]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —Usseglio-Polatera and Bournaud 1989: 254 [distribution]. —Krušnik 1991: 13 [distribution]. —Duke 1994: 7 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 421 [distribution]. —Valle 2001: 68 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2002: 130 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi 2002: 384 [distribution]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. —Bonada et al. 2004: 52 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2004b: 330 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 67, 73 [atlas]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Bonada et al. 2005: 787 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 58 [distribution]. —Coppa and Tachet 2005: 132 [distribution]. —Graf et al. 2005: 55 [distribution]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Schiess-Bühler and Rezbanyai-Reser 2006: 73 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 569 576 [distribution]. —Dohet et al. 2008: 46 [distribution; ecology]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 14 [checklist]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 113 [checklist]. —Schrankel et al. 2008: 90 [checklist]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —Hohmann 2010: 40 [distribution]. —Corallini and Cianficconi 2011: 628 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Waringer and Graf 2011: 282 [larval synopsis]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Viidalepp et al. 2011: 196 [distribution]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2012: 718 [distribution]. —Wolf et al. 2012: 75 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013b: 26 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2014: 72 [distribution]. —Malicky 2014b: 8 [teratological structures]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 14 [distribution]. —Martínez et al. 2015: 40 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2015: 75 [distribution]. —Stanić-Koštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2015: 28 75 [distribution]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2016: 18 [distribution]. —Martínez et al. 2016: 52 [distribution]. —Sekhi et al. 2016: 58 [distribution]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution]. —Valle and Lodovici 2018: 146 [distribution]. —Mabrouki et al. 2020: 11 [distribution].

tauri Jacquemart, 1965: 5 [type locality: [Turkey] 69 km avant Gülek, St. 37; IRSNB; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, England, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Scotland, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine.

rhynchophyllum Zhou, Yang, & Morse, 2016: 206 [type locality: China, Hei-long-jiang Province, Yi-chun City, Wu-yi-ling, Wu-yun River in the Town of Yong-sheng, N47.54°, E128.53°, 160 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Ito and Shimura 2019: 32 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. —China, Japan.

succinica Ulmer, 1912a: 41 [type locality: [Baltic region]; holotype missing, originally deposited in the “Klebs collection” (no. 14038); ♂; in amber]. —Eskov et al. 2008: 78 [checklist]. —Wichard 2013: 44 [species review; as succinea].

Distribution. —Baltic amber.

superba Wichard, 2013: 48 [type locality: [Baltic region]; ZMHB; ♂; in amber].

Distribution. —Baltic amber.

teldanica Botosaneanu, 1974: 164 [type locality: [Israel], Tel el Kadi (Tel Dan); TAU; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 56 [atlas; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 87 [♂; ♀]. —Sipahiler 2003b: 33 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 67, 73 [atlas]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 58 [distribution]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2016: 18 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2018: 41 [distribution].

Distribution. —Greece, Israel, Lebanon, Turkey.

vilnensis orientalis Botosaneanu, 1992: 54 [type locality: [Lebanon], Nabaa Joun spring, basin of the Nahr el Aouali (one of the small coastal basins of Lebanon), 50 m]; ZMUA; ♀; ♂]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [note on subspecies differences].

Distribution. —Iran, Lebanon.

vilnensis vilnensis Racięcka, 1937: 477 [type locality: [Lithuania], Wilno; MZVU; ♂; ♀]. —Racięcka 1936: 98 [distribution; not treated as new species]. —Schmid 1959b: 685 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Çakin 1983: 246 [distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 56 [atlas; ♂]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 122 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 67, 73 [atlas]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 545 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 59 [distribution]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 19 [distribution]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 12 [distribution].

Distribution. —Greece, Iran, Lebanon, Lithuania, Russia, Turkey.

Genus Austratrichia Wells, 1982

Austratrichia Wells, 1982: 259 [type species: Austratrichia neboissi Wells, 1982, original designation].

The monotypic genus Austratrichia is endemic to Australia. It is most similar to the genus Hellyethira. According to Wells (1982), the genus can be distinguished using characters of the male genitalia (Wells 1982). The larval stage is unknown.

neboissi Wells, 1982: 260 [type locality: Victoria, Mitta Mitta River-Snowy Creek junction; NMV; ♂; ♀]. —Neboiss 1986: 68 [atlas; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Australia.

Genus Cyclopsiella Kjærandsen, 1997

Cyclopsiella Kjærandsen, 1997: 234 [type species: Cyclopsiella anderseni Kjærandsen, 1997, original designation].

The monotypic genus Cyclopsiella, recorded only from Ghana, can be distinguished from all other hydroptilid genera by having only a single medial ocellus and lacking postoccipital lobes (Kjærandsen 1997). Kjærandsen (1997) noted that the male genitalia of Cyclopsiella share some similarities with the genera Hydroptila and Hellyethira, yet, in the accompanying parsimony analysis, Cyclopsiella grouped with the genera Jabitrichia, Oxyethira, and Tangatrichia. The larval stage is unknown.

anderseni Kjærandsen, 1997: 235 [type locality: Ghana, Western Region, Ankasa Game Production Preserve, station 8; ZMUB; ♂].

Distribution. —Ghana.

Genus Dhatrichia Mosely, 1948

Dhatrichia Mosely, 1948b: 78 [type species: Dhatrichia inasa Mosely, 1948b, original designation]. —Marshall 1979b: 199 [generic review]. —Kjærandsen 2004: 131 [revision; phylogenetic analysis; species group designation; keys to males, females, fifth instar larvae, and pupae].

The genus Dhatrichia consists of 14 species recorded from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Madagascar, Tanzania, Yemen, and Zaire. Marshall (1979b) stated that Dhatrichia shares similarities in the male genitalia with Agraylea and in the thorax with Microptila, Kjærandsen (2004), however, postulated that the genus is actually sister to either Kumanskiella or Microptila, although Kumanskiella is currently placed in the Neotrichiinae. The larvae of D. ankasaensis, D. hunukani, D. lerabae, D. minuta, and D. wliensis were described by Kjærandsen (2004).

anderseni Kjærandsen, 2004: 168 [type locality: Tanzania, Tanga Region, West Usambara Mountains, Mazumbai, Kaputu stream, loc. 10, 1420 m asl; ZMUB; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Tanzania.

ankasaensis Kjærandsen, 2004: 148 [type locality: Ghana, Western Region, Ankasa Game Production Reserve, site 4; ZMUB; ♂; ♀, larva, pupa].

Distribution. —Ghana.

bipunctata Statzner, 1977: 394 [type locality: Zaire, Kivu Region, Kalengo stream 10 km west of Lake Kivu; ZMHB; ♂; ♀]. —Kjærandsen 2004: 164 [♂, ♀; distribution].

Distribution. —Congo, Zaire.

botiensis Kjærandsen, 2004: 168 [type locality: Ghana, Eastern Region, Boti Waterfalls; ZMUB; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Ghana.

cinyra Wells & Andersen, 1995: 157 [type locality: Tanzania, Tanga region, West Usambara Mts, Mazumbai, Kaputu Stream, loc. 4, 1680 m a.s.l.; ZMUB; ♂]. —Kjærandsen 2004: 158 [♂, ♀; distribution].

Distribution. —Tanzania.

divergenta Wells & Andersen, 1995: 156 [type locality: Tanzania, Tanga region, West Usambara Mts, Mazumbai, Kaputu Stream, loc. 7, 1535 m a.s.l.; ZMUB; ♂]. —Kjærandsen 2004: 173 [♂, ♀].

Distribution. —Tanzania.

giboni Kjærandsen, 2004: 161 [type locality: Madagascar, Rianila river basin, Analamazaotra Nature Reserve, small brook near Andasibe, 18°54'37"S, 48°25'14"E, 890 m asl; ZMUB; ♂].

Distribution. —Madagascar.

hunukani Kjærandsen, 2004: 150 [type locality: Ghana, Volta Region, Wli, Agumatsa Waterfalls, site 5; ZMUB; ♂; ♀, larva, pupa].

Distribution. —Ghana.

inasa Mosely, 1948b: 78 [type locality: Yemen, Wadi Dhahr, north-west of San’a, c. 7900 ft; NHMUK; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1973: 66 [taxonomic note]. —Malicky 1983b: 57 [atlas; ♂]. —Kjærandsen 2004: 165 [♂]. —Kjærandsen 2004: 165 [♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 66 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 547 [checklist].

Distribution. —Yemen.

lerabae (Gibon, Guenda, & Coulibaly, 1994): 109 [type locality: sur la haute Léraba (bassin de la Comoé, région de Banfora, Burkina Faso); MNHN; ♂; in Ugandatrichia]. —Kjærandsen and Andersen 1997: 244 [distribution]. —Kjærandsen 2004: 145 [♂, ♀, larva, pupa; distribution, to Dhatrichia].

Distribution. —Burkina Faso, Ghana.

madagascarensis Kjærandsen, 2004: 159 [type locality: Madagascar, Efaho River basin, River Ambahibe near Ezoambo Village, 24°49'10"S, 46°51'59"E, 25 m asl; ZMUB; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Madagascar.

minuta Kjærandsen, 2004: 167 [type locality: Ghana, Western Region, Ankasa Game Production Reserve, site 4; ZMUB; ♂; ♀, larva, pupa].

Distribution. —Ghana.

paraminuta Kjærandsen, 2004: 165 [type locality: Ghana, Volta Region, Wli, Agumatsa Waterfalls, site 1; ZMUB; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Ghana.

wliensis Kjærandsen, 2004: 152 [type locality: Ghana, Volta Region, Wli, Agumatsa Waterfalls, site 5(C); ZMUB; ♂; ♀, larva, pupa].

Distribution. —Ghana.

Genus Hellyethira Neboiss, 1977

Hellyethira Neboiss, 1977: 42 [type species: Hellyethira vallecula Neboiss, 1977, original designation]. —Wells 1979b: 312 [revision, key to males]. —Wells 1985b: 10 [key to cased larvae]. —Wells 1991: 494 [key to males of New Guinea]. —Wells 1997: 1 [checklist; key to larvae of Australian species].

The genus Hellyethira consists of 44 species, 30 occurring in Australia (one of which is also found in New Caledonia), others in New Guinea and Southeast Asia, and a single species described from Ethiopia. It can be distinguished from the genera Paroxyethira and Orthotrichia by differences in wing venation (Neboiss 1977). Wells (1985b) stated that the larvae of the genus are indistinguishable from those of Acritoptila; she described the larval stages of H. simplex and final instar larvae of many others in the genus.

Hellyethira agosana Mey, 2003b: 433 [type locality: Philippines, Luzon, Quezon province, east of Infanta, Magsaysay; ZMHB, to be transferred to either MPMP or UPLB; ♂]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1028 [distribution]. —Malicky 2009b: 10 [distribution].

Distribution. —Philippines.

Hellyethira allynensis Wells, 1979b: 316 [type locality: [Australia] New South Wales, Upper Allyn River; ANIC; ♂]. —Wells 1985b: 11 [case]. —Neboiss 1986: 78 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

Hellyethira amutiel Malicky, Melnitsky, & Ivanov, 2014a: 833 [type locality: [Indonesia] Papua, Insel Biak, Warsa, Wafsarak Wasserfall, 0°47'39"S, 135°55'31"E, 50 m; ZIN; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

Hellyethira babuyana Wells & Mey, 2002: 131 [type locality: [Philippines] Palawan, Cayasan, Babuyan River, LF; ZMHB; ♂]. —Mey and Freitag 2020: 57 [distribution].

Distribution. —Philippines.

Hellyethira basilobata Wells, 1979b: 316 [type locality: [Australia] Victoria, Yarra River, below Upper Yarra Dam; NMV; ♂]. —Wells 1985b: 10 [larva, case]. —Neboiss 1986: 76 [atlas; ♂]. —Neboiss 2002: 53 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 8 [distribution].

Distribution. —Australia.

Hellyethira bulat Wells & Huisman, 1992: 110 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, Long Pa Sia, Sg. Ritan-Rurun, 1040 m; RMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1028 [distribution]. —Malicky 2007a: 177 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010b: 26 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 40 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky et al. 2018: 1322, 1323 [distribution]. —Melnitsky et al. 2019: 539 [distribution].

Distribution. —Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand.

Hellyethira cornuta Wells, 1979b: 325 [type locality: [Australia] Queensland, Little Mulgrave River; ANIC; ♂]. —Wells 1985b: 13 [larva, case]. —Neboiss 1986: 78 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 10 [distribution].

Distribution. —Australia.

Hellyethira cubitans Wells, 1979b: 317 [type locality: [Australia] Queensland, Palmer River; ANIC; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 11 [case]. —Neboiss 1986: 76 [atlas; ♂]. —Wells et al. 2019: 33 [detection frequency].

Distribution. —Australia.

Hellyethira davidi Wells, 2005: 388 [type locality: Australia, N Queensland, 11°42.9'S, 142°20.0'E, Gunshot Creek, Telegraph Crossing; QM; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

dentata Wells, 1979a: 319 [type locality: [Australia] Western Australia, Mitchell Plateau, Camp Creek; WAM; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 78 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

digitata Wells, 2005: 387 [type locality: Australia, N Queensland, 11°42.9'S, 142°20.0'E, Gunshot Creek, Telegraph Crossing; QM; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

eskensis (Mosely, 1934a): 141 [type locality: [Australia] Esk, Queensland; Collection Tillyard (transferred to NHMUK); ♂; in Xuthotrichia]. —Mosely and Kimmins 1953: 526 [♂]. —Wells 1979b: 321 [♂, ♀, to Hellyethira]. —Wells 1985b: 12 [larva, case]. —Neboiss 1986: 79 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1991: 495 [distribution].

Distribution. —Australia, Papua New Guinea.

exserta Wells, 1979a: 319 [type locality: [Australia] New South Wales, Boonoo Boonoo River; NMV; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 11 [larva, case, biology]. —Neboiss 1986: 77 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Neboiss 2002: 53 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 10 [distribution].

Distribution. —Australia.

fimbriata (Mosely, 1934a): 142 [type locality: [Australia] Heathcote, New South Wales; Collection Tillyard (transferred to NHMUK according to Mosely and Kimmins 1953: 525); ♂; in Xuthotrichia]. —Mosely and Kimmins 1953: 523 [♂]. —Wells 1979b: 320 [to Hellyethira]. —Neboiss 1986: 78 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

forficata Wells, 1990c: 111 [type locality: [Australia] Northern Territory, Kakadu National Park, Radon Springs, 12°45'S 132°55'E; NTM; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

haitimlain Wells, 1991: 497 [type locality: Papua New Guinea, Central Province, Laloki River at Rouna Falls, 9°25'S 147°27'E; ANIC; ♂; case].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

imparalobata Wells, 1990c: 113 [type locality: [Australia] NE Queensland, Yuccabine Creek; NMV; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

khukri Wells & Dostine, 2016: 596 [type locality: [Australia], Northern Territory, Petherick’s Rainforest Reserve; ANIC; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

kukensis Wells, 1991: 495 [type locality: Papua New Guinea, East Highlands Province, Ukarumpa, Ba’i River, 6°17'S 145°50'E; ANIC; ♂; ♀; case].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

lacustris Mey, 2006b: 203 [type locality: Indonesia, Sulawesi Selatan, Soroako, Lake Matano; LIPI; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 2013: 42 [possible junior synonym to H. lititia].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

litita Wells, 1990b: 393 [type locality: [Indonesia] Sulawesi Utara, Dumoga-Bone N.P., Toraut and Tumpah R. junction; NMV; ♂; ♀; case]. —Wells and Huisman 2001: 210 [distribution]. —Malicky et al. 2010: 163 [distribution]. —Malicky 2013: 42 [possible senior synonym to H. lacustris].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

litua Wells, 1979b: 328 [type locality: [Australia] Western Australia, Jandakota; ANIC; ♂]. —Wells 1985b: 13 [larva, case]. —Neboiss 1986: 77 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

loripes Wells, 1979b: 322 [type locality: [Australia] Western Australia, Mitchell Plateau, Camp Creek; WAM; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 76 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

maai Wells, 1991: 498 [type locality: [Indonesia], Irian Jaya (West New Guinea), Waris, 3°30'S 140°55'E; BPBM; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

marioch Malicky & Graf, 2015: 31 [type locality: Ethiopia, Kleiner Waldbach N von Addis Abeba, 9°05'N, 38°43'E, 2800 m; Collection Malicky; ♂].

Distribution. —Ethiopia.

malleoforma Wells, 1979b: 325 [type locality: [Australia] South Australia, Uraidla, farm dam; ANIC; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 13 [larva, case, biology]. —Neboiss 1986: 77 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1995: 232 [distribution]. —Neboiss 2002: 54 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 11 [distribution]. —Wells and Johanson 2015: 85 [distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 93 [checklist].

Distribution. —Australia, New Caledonia.

multilobata Wells, 1979b: 326 [type locality: [Australia] Victoria, Lake Purrumbete; ANIC; ♂; ♀]. —Neboiss 1986: 77 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Neboiss 2002: 53 [checklist].

Distribution. —Australia.

narakain Wells, 1991: 497 [type locality: Papua New Guinea, Central Province, Iomari Creek on Bereina-Port Morseby road, 9°04'S 147°06'E; ANIC; ♂; ♀; case].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

naumanni Wells, 1990c: 113 [type locality: [Australia] Western Australia, Charnley River, 2 km SW Roly Hill, CALM Site 25/2; NMV; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

piala Wells & Huisman, 1992: 109 [type locality: Brunei, 45 km on Labir road, Sg. Madoram, 50 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1028 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 40 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Brunei, Malaysia.

pulvina Wells, 1979b: 324 [type locality: [Australia] Western Australia, Mitchell Plateau, Camp Creek; WAM; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 76 [atlas; ♂]. —Wells et al. 2019: 33 [detection frequency].

Distribution. —Australia.

quadrata Wells, 1990c: 115 [type locality: [Australia] NE Queensland, Yuccabine Creek; NMV; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

radonensis Wells, 1990c: 113 [type locality: [Australia] Northern Territory, Kakadu National Park, Radon Springs, 12°45'S 132°55'E; NTM; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

ramosa Wells, 1983: 632 [type locality: Australia, Northern Territory, Goanna Lagoon, 1 km W. of Jabiru off Arnhem Highway; NMV; ♂]. —Wells 1985b: 12 [larva; case]. —Neboiss 1986: 78 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Wells et al. 2019: 33 [detection frequency].

Distribution. —Australia.

rovid Oláh & Johanson, 2010a: 11 [type locality: Malaysia, Sabah, Tawau, Maliau Basin, Nepenthes Camp, crossing stream, 4°43'58.9"N 116°52'40.7"E, 994 m; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Malaysia.

sarina Oláh, 2012: 48 [type locality: Indonesia, Papua, Raja Empat Archipelago, Batanta Island, Sarinam River, 0°50'04.24"S 130°47'59.22"E; Collection Oláh; ♂]. —Oláh 2016: 109 [distribution]. —Oláh and Kovács 2018: 178 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

selaput Wells & Huisman, 1992: 109 [type locality: Brunei, Sg. Temburong, 140 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 40 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Brunei.

sentisa Wells, 1979b: 322 [type locality: [Australia] Western Australia, Millstream H.S., 21°35'S 117°04'E; ANIC; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 79 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

sheldoni Wells, 2005: 388 [type locality: Australia, N Queensland, 18°57'S 146°10'E, Mt Spec State Forest, Camp Creek tributary. 760 m; NMV; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

simplex (Mosely, 1934a): 145 [type locality: [Australia] Warwick, Queensland; Collection Tillyard (since transferred to NHMUK according to Neboiss 2002: 53); ♂; in Xuthotrichia]. —Mosely and Kimmins 1953: 521 [♂]. —Wells 1979b: 315 [♂, ♀, to Hellyethira]. —Wells 1985b: 10 [larva, case]. —Neboiss 1986: 76 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Neboiss 2002: 53 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 13 [distribution].

vallecula Neboiss, 1977: 42 [type locality: [Australia] Hellyer River Gorge, Tasmania; NMV; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1979b: 315 [to synonymy].

hiana Oláh & Johanson, 2010a: 10 [type locality: Australia, Queensland, Brisbane Forest Park, Northbrook Creek, downstream 3rd bridge on Northbrook Parkway from Cedar Flats, 27°18.203'S, 152°41.380'E, 174 m; ANIC; ♂]. —Wells 2012: 66 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Australia.

spinosa Wells, 1990c: 115 [type locality: [Australia] NE Queensland, Yuccabine Creek; NMV; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia.

tros Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1027 [type locality: Thailand, Kao Soi Dao NP, 13°06'N 102°12'E, 300 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Melnitsky and Malicky 2008: 25 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 40 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand.

vernoni Wells, 1983: 632 [type locality: Australia, Queensland, Crystal Creek, nr turnoff to Mt Spec; NMV; ♂]. —Wells 1985b: 12 [larva; case]. —Neboiss 1986: 79 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Wells et al. 2019: 33 [detection frequency].

Distribution. —Australia.

veruta Wells, 1985a: 97 [type locality: Australia, Northern Territory, Magela Creek, S. of Georgetown Billabong; NTM; ♂; ♀]. —Neboiss 1986: 79 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Wells et al. 2019: 33 [detection frequency].

Distribution. —Australia.

Genus Hydroptila Dalman, 1819

Hydroptila Dalman, 1819: 125 [type species: Hydroptila tineoides Dalman, 1819, monotypic]. —Kolenati 1848: 104 [revision]. —McLachlan 1880: 5010 [revision]. —Mosely 1939b: 257 [key to the British species]. —Ross 1944: 141, 142 [diagnosis of larvae; species key for adults]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 83 [revision of Mexican and Central American species]. —Wells 1978: 746 [key to adults of Australian species]. —Kumanski 1979: 7 [key to species of Bulgaria]. —Marshall 1979b: 200 [generic review]. —Blickle 1979: 11 [key to species of America north of Mexico]. —Lewis and Fairchild 1983: 134 [phoretic association observed]. —Wells 1984: 263 [key to males from New Guinea and New Britain]. —Wells 1985b: 3 [larva; pupa; case; key to cased Australian larvae]. —Wells 1990b: 379 [key to adults of North Sulawesi species]. —Flint 1991b: 46 [key to Antioquian species]. —Wells 1991: 491 [key to males of New Guinea]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 59 [key to species in the Levant]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 92 [key to species of the Interior Highlands of North America]. —Wells 1997: 1 [checklist; key to species of larvae]. —Kachalova in Medvedev 1998: 185 [key to the species of the European part of the USSR]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 16 [key to Central American species]. —Zhou et al. 2009a: 909 [key to Chinese species].

Phrixocoma Eaton, 1873: 132 [type species: Hydroptila sparsa Curtis, 1834, original designation]. —McLachlan 1880: 511 [to synonymy].

Hydropneuma Enderlein, 1929: 232 [type species: Hydropneuma juba Enderlein, 1929, original designation]. —Kimmins 1957a: 107 [transferred to Hydroptila].

Hydroptilina Martynov, 1934: 117 [type species: Hydroptilina angustipennis Martynov, 1934, monotypic]. —Fischer 1971: 289 [to synonymy, following Lepneva, 1953: 406]. —Marshall 1979b: 200 [considered as a synonym of Hydroptila].

Oxydroptila Martynov, 1935: 114 [type species: Oxydroptila furcata Martynov, 1935, original designation]. —Marshall 1979b: 200 [to synonymy].

Oeceotrichia Ulmer, 1951: 85 [type species: Oeceotrichia elongata Ulmer, 1951, original designation]. —Marshall 1979b: 200 [to synonymy].

Pasirotrichia Ulmer, 1951: 90 [type species: Pasirotrichia crenata Ulmer, 1951, original designation]. —Marshall 1979b: 200 [to synonymy].

Sumatranotrichia Ulmer, 1951: 87 [type species: Sumatranotrichia trullata Ulmer, 1951, original designation]. —Marshall 1979b: 200 [to synonymy].

Hydroptila is a large, cosmopolitan genus occurring in all regions excluding polar regions. It is the most species-rich genus in the family, consisting of 495 extant species and one fossil species. Marshall (1979b) divided Hydroptila into thirteen species groups (capensis, consimilis, dikirilagoda, forcipata, losida, occulta, pulchricornis, sparsa, tigurina, tineoides, uncinata, vectis, waubesiana) which she thought might one day be recognized as subgenera, based on distribution and form of the male and female genitalia. Despite the large number of species and the proposed species groups, she also listed several characters that unite the genus, including basic structure of the genitalia, thorax, absence of ocelli, presence of dorsal postoccipital scent-organs in male adults, and the general appearance of the immature stage. The larvae of H. delineata were described by Sibley (1926), and larvae of many other species have been described since (Lepneva 1932, 1964; Ross 1944; Nielsen 1948; Hanna 1961; Jacquemart and Coineau 1962; Botosaneanu and Sykora 1963; Flint 1964; Jacquemart 1965; Hicken 1967; Fahy 1971; Ito and Kawamura 1980; Botosaneanu and Giudicelli 1981; Wells 1985b, 1997; Keiper and Foote 1999).

abantica Sipahiler, 1996: 30 [type locality: [Turkey, Bolu, Abant, 1400 m. (from the spring); ZSM; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 2004a: 55 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2008: 104 [checklist].

Distribution. —Turkey.

abbotti Moulton & Harris, 1997: 494 [type locality: United States, Texas, Anderson Co., Skeet Branch, Engeling Wildlife Management Area, 3.2 km W Blackfoot; NMNH; ♂]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

acadia Ross, 1941a: 63 [type locality: [Canada], Nova Scotia, Hubbard; INHS; ♂; ♀]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 69 [checklist; ♂]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [♂; checklist]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

acantha Wells & Mey, 2002: 128 [type locality: [Philippines] Panay, San Reminigio, Aningalan; ZMHB; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

acinacis Wells, 1978: 755 [type locality: [Australia] Victoria, Koornalla, Traralgon Creek, La Trobe River Environmental Survey, Site 24a; NMV; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 6 [larva]. —Neboiss 1986: 63 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Neboiss 2002: 52 [checklist].

Distribution. —Australia.

acuminata Bueno-Soria, 1984: 88 [type locality: Mexico, Tamaulipas, 40 km S Ciudad Victoria, Río Purificación; CNIN; ♂]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology].

Distribution. —Mexico, U.S.A.

acuta Mosely, 1930a: 177 [type locality: [France], Corsica, Corte; NHMUK; ♂; ♀]. —Jacquemart and Coineau 1962: 50 [♂; larva]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 340 [checklist]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 46 [atlas; ♂]. —González et al. 1990: 214 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 139 [distribution; ♂]. —Valle 2001: 65 [distribution]. —Malicky 2002: 4 [distribution]. —Coppa and Tachet 2004: 124 [♀]. —Malicky 2004a: 57 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 136 [distribution]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 3 [distribution].

Distribution. —France, Italy, Spain.

acutangulata Yang & Wang in Yang, Wang, and Leng 1997: 285 [type locality: [China], Longyuwan forest farm, 1000 m, Luanchuan County, Henan Prov.; NAUJ; ♂].

Distribution. —China.

adana Mosely, 1948b: 81 [type locality: [Yemen], Western Aden Protectorate, Jebel Harir, c. 5000 ft; NHMUK; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Gasith 1971: 99 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu, 1973: 66 [♂]. —Botosaneanu 1982b: 11 [habitat threat]. —Malicky 1983b: 50, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 63 [wings; head; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 1999a: 345 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 62 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Chvojka 2006: 253 [distribution]. —Malicky 2014b: 17 [teratological structures].

Distribution. —Iran, Israel, Yemen.

aegyptia Ulmer, 1963: 267 [type locality: [Egypt], Maadi, Nilufer; ZMUH; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 340 [checklist]. —Moretti et al. 1978: 28 [larva; ecology]. —Moretti and Bicchierai 1979: 173 [androconial structure]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Moretti et al. 1981: 350, 354 [biology; distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 43 [atlas; ♂]. —Kumanski and Malicky 1984: 199 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1985: 135 [♂]. —Moubayed and Botosaneanu 1985: 63 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —Malicky and Lounaci 1987: 15, 17 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 81 [♂; ♀]. —Bicchierai and Moretti 1994: 108, 111 [palps]. —Dallai and Afzelius 1995: 166 [sperm structure]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999a: 57 [distribution]. —Valle 2001: 65 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2002: 146 [distribution]. —Spinelli and Corallini 2002: 32 [leg morphology]. —Sipahiler 2003b: 33 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 52 [atlas]. —Cianficconi et al. 2004a: 256, 257, 258 [distribution; case; biology]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 59 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Chvojka 2006: 253 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 569, 575 [distribution]. —Corallini 2007: 76 [absence of goblet cells]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 14 [checklist]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 112 [checklist]. —Oláh 2010: 91 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2011: 47 [distribution]. —Corallini and Cianficconi 2011: 628 [checklist]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 14 [distribution]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 136 [distribution]. —Corallini and Bicchierai 2016: 151 [biology]. —Sipahiler 2018: 41 [distribution].

kurnas Malicky, 1974: 109 [type locality: [Greece], Kreta, Kournas-See]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 340 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Italy, Lebanon, Tunisia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine.

africana Kimmins, 1958a: 364 [type locality: [Zimbabwe], S. Rhodesia, Victoria Falls; NHMUK; ♂].

Distribution. —Zimbabwe.

agosensis Mey, 2003b: 431 [type locality: Philippines, Luzon, Quezon province, east of Infanta, Magsaysay; ZMHB, to be transferred to either MPMP or UPLB; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

ajax Ross, 1938a: 127 [type locality: United States, Illinois, Oakwood, along Salt Fork River; INHS; ♂]. —Ross 1944: 153 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 174 [distribution]. —Etnier 1965: 146 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 71 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 9 [distribution]. —Hamilton et al. 1983: 18 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 109 [♂; distribution]. —Tarter 1990: 239 [checklist]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [checklist]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 95 [♂; distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Ruiter 1999: 165 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2005: 68 [distribution; biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2006: 332 [biology; distribution]. —Zeullig et al. 2006: 42 [distribution]. —Zack et al. 2006: 134 [phenology; distribution]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al. 2007: 42 [checklist]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2009a: 304 [biology] —Blinn and Ruiter 2009b: 186 [phenology; distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2011a: 388 [distribution; biology]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 13 [checklist]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 291 [biology; distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [♂; distribution]. —de Walt et al. 2016: 51 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 118 [checklist].

Distribution. —Mexico, Nicaragua, U.S.A.

alabama Harris & Kelley, 1984a: 572 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Escambia County, Little Escambia Creek at Hwy. 31; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 166 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [checklist]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 41 [phenology; distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 105 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [distribution]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

alai Johanson, Wells, Malm, & Espeland, 2011: 291 [type locality: [Vanuatu] Espiritu Santo, Central Santo, stream in small canyon crossing path to village, 5.5 km NW Nambel, 208 m, loc#21, 15°27.459'S, 167°04.022'E; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Vanuatu.

alara Sipahiler, 1994: 12 [type locality: Turkey, Antalya, Gündogmus, Güneycik Köyü, Alara çayi, Alibey köprüsü, 31°48'E, 36°46'N, 180 m; depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 63 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist] —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

albicornis Hagen, 1861: 275 [type locality: Canada (Osten Sacken), St. Lawrence River; MCZ; ♂]. —Eaton 1873: 138 [distribution; as Phrixocoma]. —Banks 1907a: 50 [catalogue]. —Betten 1934: 157 [♂; distribution]. —Ross 1938b: 9 [lectotype designated; ♂]. —Ross 1944: 151 [♂; ♀; larva; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 174 [distribution]. —Etnier 1965: 146 [checklist]. —Unzicker et al. 1970: 172 [distribution]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 150 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 69 [checklist; ♂]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 9 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 238 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 95 [♂; distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 105 [checklist]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —DeWalt et al. 2016: 5 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —Bowles et al. 2020: 7 [distribution].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

aldricki Bueno-Soria, 1984: 108 [type locality: Mexico, Guerrero, Cocula; NHMUK; ♂].

Distribution. —Mexico.

amoena Ross, 1938a: 124 [type locality: [United States], Illinois, Herod; INHS; ♂]. —Ross 1944: 150 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 173 [distribution]. —Morse and Blickle 1953: 72 [distribution]. —Etnier 1965: 146 [distribution]. —Unzicker et al. 1970: 172 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1975: 1082 [distribution]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 150 [distribution]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47 63 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 238 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 167 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Floyd and Morse 1993: 176 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 96 [♂; distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Etnier 2010: 485 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14, 32 [checklist; ♂]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [phenology; habitat; distribution]. —Houghton 2016: 46 [biology]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

ampoda Ross, 1941b: 16 [type locality: [Canada], Moser River, Nova Scotia, Gold Mine Brook; INHS; ♂; ♀]. —Etnier 1968: 191 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1975: 1082 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 150 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 63 [checklist; ♂]. —Roy and Harper 1981: 105 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 9 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Flint 2014: 90 [distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 105 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

ancistrion Flint, 1968b: 48 [type locality: Jamaica, Portland, Rio Grande, at Fellowship; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Flint 1968a: 82 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop 1998: 15 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist].

Distribution. —Jamaica.

andalusiaca González & Cobo, 1994: 253 [type locality: Spain, Cadiz, Puente de la Terrona, river Guadalete, 360 m; DZUSC; ♂]. —Malicky 1997: 140 [distribution; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2015: 74 [distribution].

Distribution. —Spain.

angulata Mosely, 1922: 179 [type locality: [England], “Britain”; NHMUK; ♂]. —Mosely 1923: 292 [scent organ]. —Martynov 1934: 130 [♂]. —Mosely 1939b: 262 [♂]. —Schmid 1952: 650 [distribution]. —Nybom 1960: 18 [checklist]. —Schmid 1960: 98 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Malicky 1974: 122 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 340 [checklist]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 47, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Kumanski 1985: 123 [♂]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Malicky and Lounaci 1987: 15, 17 [checklist]. —Rojas-Camousseight and Tachet 1988: 313–314 [♀]. —Usseglio-Polatera and Bournaud 1989: 25 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —González et al. 1990: 214 [distribution]. —Oláh 1994: 282 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 140 [distribution; ♂]. —Malicky 1999c: 96 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999b: 278 [distribution]. —Morse et al. 2001: 102 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2002: 138 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2003: 194, 195 [distribution]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. — Cibaitė 2003b: 8 [distribution]. —Urbanič 2004: 51 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 57 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Coppa and Tachet 2005: 132 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Graf et al. 2005: 55 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2005a: 118 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2005b: 138 [distribution]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2005: 65 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005a: 59 [distribution]. —Hohmann 2005: 106 [checklist]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2006: 136 [distribution]. —Morse et al. 2006: 309, 321 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Wiggers et al. 2006: 54 [checklist]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Ivanov and Melnitsky 2007: 32 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 569, 575 [distribution]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —González and Menéndez 2008: 188 [distribution]. —Schrankel et al. 2008: 90 [checklist]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —Neu 2010: 149 [♀]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Corallini and Cianficconi 2011: 628 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2011: 47 [distribution]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution]. —Lukáš and Chvojka 2011: 116 [distribution]. —Viidalepp et al. 2011: 194, 196 [distribution]. —Lock and Goethals 2012: 28 [checklist]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2012: 719 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —O’Connor 2013: 63 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2014: 273 [distribution]. —O’Connor and Bond 2014: 24 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2015: 28, 76 [distribution]. —Stanić-Koštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —Stanić-Kroštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 137 [distribution]. —Chuluunbat et al. 2016: 102[distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2016: 165 [distribution]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —Corallini and Bicchierai 2016: 151 [biology]. —Küttner et al. 2016: 178 [distribution]. —Wallace 2016: 15, 18, 24 [conservation status]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2017b: 52 [distribution]. —Lock and van Butsel 2017: 33 [distribution; ♂; ♀]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2018: 81 [distribution]. —Valle and Lodovici 2018: 146 [distribution]. —O’Connor et al. 2018: 23 [distribution]. —Kroča and Komzák 2020: 146 [distribution]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist]. —Navara et al. 2020: 46 [distribution]. —Smirnova et al. 2020: 68 [distribution].

emarginata Martynov, 1927: 175 [type locality: [Uzbekistan], Tashkent; depository not designated; ♂]. —Martynov 1934: 133 [♂]. —Schmid 1959b: 692 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1970: 289 [distribution; ♀]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Mey 1981: 56 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1990: 46 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Malicky 1997: 140 [to synonymy]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [to synonymy]. —Huang et al. 2005: 469 [distribution]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

bajgirana Botosaneanu, 1983: 139 [type locality: Iran Bajgiran Ostan 9 5500 ft au col du Karaul Dagh petite source dans un ravin sec; CNC; ♂]. —Kumanski 1990: 46 [as synonym of H. emarginata]. —Xue and Yang 1991: 21 [distribution]. —Xue et al. 1992: 353–356 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 140 [to synonymy]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [to synonymy]. —Lonsdale 2020: 32 [holotype depository].

Distribution. —Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, China, Czech Republic, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mongolia, Netherlands, Pakistan, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Uzbekistan.

angulifera Kumanski, 1974: 71 [type locality: [Bulgaria], Le Rhodope, la rivière Trigradskä, juste avant sa confluence avec la rivière Tchairska, 800 m; SOFM; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 340 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 14 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky and Moretti 1987: 194 [♂]. —Kumanski 1993: 39 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 53 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Oláh 2017: 136 [distribution].

Distribution. —Bulgaria.

angusta Ross, 1938a: 130 [type locality: United States, Illinois, Muncie, along Stony Creek; INHS; ♂]. —Ross 1944: 152 [♂; ♀]. —Edwards 1973: 506 [distribution]. —Hamilton et al. 1975: 1003 [biology]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978: 201 [distribution]. —Resh et al. 1978: 383 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 47 73 [checklist; ♂]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 9 [distribution]. —Hamilton et al. 1983: 18 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 122 [♂; distribution]. —Ruiter 1990: 91 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 168 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [checklist]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Moulton et al. 1993: 21 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 96 [♂; distribution]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Houghton and Stewart 1998: 105 [biology; distribution]. —Ruiter 1999: 165 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Baumgardner and Bowles 2005: 11 [distribution]. —Zeullig et al. 2006: 42 [distribution]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —de Walt et al. 2016: 51 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 128 [checklist].

Distribution. —Mexico, U.S.A.

angustata Mosely, 1939c: 46 [type locality: Egypt; NHMUK; ♂]. —Ulmer 1963: 267 [distribution]. —Dia and Botosaneanu 1982: 140 [description of gynandromorphous specimen]. —Malicky 1983b: 47 [atlas; ♂]. —Kumanski and Malicky 1984: 199 [distribution]. —Moubayed and Botosaneanu 1985: 63 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1985: 124 [♂]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 106, 122 [distribution]. —Rojas-Camousseight and Tachet 1988: 315 [♀]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —González et al. 1990: 214 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 63 [♂; ♀]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 1994: 31 [distribution]. —Nógrádi 1994: 277 [♂ ♀]. —Malicky 1997: 141 [distribution; ♂]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1997: 461 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999c: 96 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 420 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999f: 31 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 2001: 95 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2001: 297 [checklist]. —Valle 2001: 66 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi 2002: 384 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2003b: 33 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 57 [atlas]. —Huang et al. 2005: 469, 471 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005a: 59 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 396 [distribution]. —Chvojka 2006: 253 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 14 [checklist]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 112 [checklist]. —Oláh 2010: 91 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution]. —Komzák and Kroča 2011: 189 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2012a: 7 [distribution]. —Kiss 2012: 28 [distribution]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2012: 719 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Malicky 2014b: 17 [teratological structures]. —Martín et al. 2015: 75 [distribution]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 12 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 139 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 12 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Melnitsky et al. 2017: 6 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2017b: 12 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2018: 41 [distribution].

neglecta Kumanski, 1983: 15 [type locality: [Bulgaria], from the outflow of limestone spring “Topliza” near Goze Delchev; SOFM; ♂; ♀]. —Kumanski 1985: 124 [to synonymy]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 84 [treated as likely synonym]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist].

Distribution. —Austria, Bulgaria, China, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Romania, Russia, Spain, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

angustipennis (Martynov, 1934): 144 [type locality: [Russia]; depository not designated; ♂; in Hydroptilina]. —Spuris 1989: 16 [checklist]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist].

Distribution. —Russia.

annulicornis Maatsumura, 1931: 1136 [type locality: [Japan]; holotype not designated; as Hydroptilia].

Distribution. —Japan.

anongraksa Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1016 [type locality: Thailand, Sai Yok NP, 14°26'N 98°51'E, 100 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 27 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand.

antennopedia Sykora & Harris, 1994: 68 [type locality: [United States], Pennsylvania, Fayette Co., Youghiogheny River Lake outflow near Confluence; CMNH; ♂]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

antilliarum Flint, 1968a: 58 [type locality: Dominica, Pont Casse, 1.6 mi W; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 1983c: 264 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1989: 100 [♂; scent organ; distribution]. —Flint and Sykora 1993: 50 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1994a: 40 [distribution]. —Sheath et al. 1995: 890 [red algal association]. —Botosaneanu 2000: 256 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Thomas 2005: 40 [distribution].

Distribution. —Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia.

apalachicola Harris, Pescador, & Rasmussen, 1998: 221 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Liberty County, Nature Conservancy Apalachicola Bluffs and Ravines Preserve, Little Sweetwater Creek; NMNH; ♂]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 132 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

arctia Ross, 1938a: 129 [type locality: United States, Idaho, Bear River Narrows; INHS; ♂]. —Ross and Spencer 1952: 47 [distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 175 [distribution]. —Flint and Herrmann 1976: 898 [distribution]. —Resh and Sorg 1978: 396 [distribution; as arcita]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 97 [♂; distribution]. —Moulton et al. 1994: 169 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Ruiter 1999: 165 [distribution]. —Houghton 2001: 90 [distribution]. —Flint et al. 2003: 31 [distribution; does not occur in Hawaii misidentification of H. potosina]. —Baumgardner and Bowles 2005: 11 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2005: 68 [distribution; biology]. Blinn and Ruiter 2006: 332 [biology; distribution]. —Zack et al. 2006: 134 [phenology; distribution]. —Bueno-Soria et al. 2007: 33 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2009a: 303 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2009b: 186 [phenology; distribution]. —Vieira et al. 2009: 257 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 280, 291 [biology; distribution]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 118 [checklist]. —Razo-González et al. 2020: 5 [distribution].

acoma Denning, 1947b: 175 [type locality: United States, California, Morgan Hill; ♂; UMSP]. —Blickle1979: 47 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Canada, Mexico, U.S.A.

arethusa Malicky, 1997: 148 [type locality: Portugal, Mantelaes; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution]. —Martínez et al. 2016: 51 [distribution].

Distribution. —Portugal, Spain.

argentinica Flint, 1983: 43 [type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Tucumán, S Concepción; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Angrisano 1995a: 509 [distribution]. —Angrisano 1999: 32 [checklist]. —Blahnik et al. 2004: 5 [distribution]. —Paprocki et al. 2004: 11 [checklist]. —Angrisano and Sganga 2007: 32 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Dumas et al. 2009: 366 [distribution]. —Calor 2011: 321 [checklist]. —Rueda Martín 2011: 6 —Dumas and Nessimian 2012: 15 [checklist]. —Paprocki and França 2014: 45 [checklist]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín 2014: 199 [distribution].

Distribution. —Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay.

argosa Ross, 1938a: 131 [type locality: [United States], Wyoming, Parco, along North Platte River; INHS; ♂]. —Denning 1947a: 149 [distribution]. —Resh and Sorg 1978: 396 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 73 [checklist; ♂]. —Newell et al. 2001: 192 [distribution; phenology]. —Zack et al. 2006: 134 [phenology; distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 291 [biology; distribution]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 118 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

armata Ross, 1938a: 123 [type locality: [United States], Indiana, Winamac, drainage ditch west of town; INHS; ♂; ♀]. —Ross 1944: 147 [♂; ♀; larva; case; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 173 [distribution]. —Etnier 1965: 146 [distribution] —Unzicker et al. 1970: 172 [distribution]. —Edwards 1973: 506 [distribution]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [distribution]. —Roy and harper 1979: 150 [distribution]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 65 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1982a: 510 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 9 [distribution]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Hamilton et al. 1983: 18 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 238 [distribution]. —Tarter 1990: 239 [distribution]. —Floyd and Schuster 1990: 130, 132 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 169 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [distribution]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Masteller 1993: 134 [distribution]. —Floyd et al. 1993: 90 [phenology; distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 97 [♂; distribution]. —Keiper and Foote 1999: 515 [biology; larva]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 41 [phenology; distribution]. —Zeullig et al. 2006: 42 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [phenology; habitat; distribution]. —Flint 2011: 104 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [checklist]. —DeWalt et al. 2016: 51 [distribution]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —Bowles et al. 2020: 7 [distribution].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

armathai Schmid, 1959b: 688 [type locality: Iran, Garna; CNC; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 45 [atlas; ♂]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 143 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 54 [atlas]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2018: 41 [distribution]. —Lonsdale 2020: 32 [holotype depository]. —Oláh et al. 2020: 45 [distribution].

Distribution. —Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey.

artemis Malicky, 1997: 148 [type locality: [Armenia], Asat bei Chuts; ZMHB; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist].

Distribution. —Armenia.

artesa Mathis & Bowles, 1990: 87 [type locality: [United States], Missouri, Shannon County, Alley Spring, Ozark National Scenic Riverways (O.N.S.R.), 5 mi W Eminence, Hwy 106; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 97 [♂; distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 33 [♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

asteria Malicky, 1997: 148 [type locality: [Turkey], Siirt, Botan Cayi-Tal; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

astraia Malicky, 1997: 148 [type locality: Iran, 65 km W Schiras; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [distribution].

Distribution. —Iran.

asymmetrica Kumanski, 1990: 50 [type locality: Korea, Province Kangvon, stream and small torrents of the plain near Casan vill., 1–3 km from the sea (ca. 25 km E of Vonsan); SOFM; ♂; ♀]. —Arefina et al. 2002: 97 [distribution]. —Nozaki and Tanida 2007: 245 [distribution]. —Ito et al. 2011: 15 [♂, ♀; distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Ito and Nagasaka 2014: 9 [distribution]. —Ito 2015: 15 [distribution]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist]. —Potikha and Vshivkova 2016: 364 [distribution]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

Distribution. —Japan, Korea, Russia.

atalante Malicky, 1997: 147 [type locality: [Bulgaria], Strandscha-Gebirge, 1 km S Kruschewez, 100 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Oláh 2017: 137 [distribution].

Distribution. —Bulgaria.

atargatis Malicky, 1997: 147 [type locality: [Lebanon], Jabboulé; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2012a: 7 [distribution]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 12 [distribution].

Distribution. —Lebanon, Turkey.

ate Malicky, 1997: 146 [type locality: Pakistan, Penjab, Hassan Abdal; CNC; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist].

Distribution. —India, Pakistan.

auge Malicky, 1997: 146 [type locality: [Greece], Insel Lesbos, Agiassos, 300 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Malicky 2005a: 59 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2016: 18 [distribution].

Distribution. —Greece, Turkey.

auriscuspa Harris, Rasmussen, & Denson, 2012: 3 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Okaloosa Co., Blackwater River at Florida A&M University Biological Station, 4.5 mi NW Holt; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

aurora Malicky, 1997: 146 [type locality: [Tunisia], Oued Maden, 3 km S Nefza, 9°06'E, 36°55'N, 50 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution].

Distribution. —Morocco, Spain, Tunisia.

autonoe Malicky, 1997: 145 [type locality: [Morocco], El Ksiba, 1100 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution].

Distribution. —Morocco, Portugal, Spain.

banmaekap Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1022 [type locality: Thailand, Ban Mae Kap, Nam Mae To, 18°51'N 98°37'E, 600 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 31 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand.

batang Wells & Huisman, 1992: 98 [type locality: Brunei, Sg. Temburong, 140 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 24 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Brunei.

batanta Oláh in Oláh and Kovács 2018: 178 [type locality: Indonesia, West Papua, Batanta Island, Northern cost, Warmon stream, above second waterfall, S00°50'29.47", E130°42'29.16"; Collection Oláh; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

baukis Malicky, 1998a: 798 [type locality: [Indonesia, Central Java], Jawa Tengah, Gunung Selamat, Awu; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 25 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky et al. 2014a: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

begap Wells & Huisman, 1992: 102 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, Tenom; NTM; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 2010a: 34 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —East Malaysia.

bellona Malicky, 1998a: 798 [type locality: [Indonesia], Sumatra, Fort de Kock; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [distribution]. —Malicky 2007a: 177 [checklist]. —Malicky 2010a: 29 [atlas; ♂]. —Melnitsky et al. 2019: 539 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand.

bengkoka Wells, 1990b: 390 [type locality: [Indonesia] Sulawesi Utara, Dumoga-Bone N.P., Tumpah R. a1 km above Toraut R. junction; NMV; ♂; ♀; case]. —Malicky et al. 2010: 163 [distribution]. —Malicky et al. 2014b: 832 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

berkait Wells & Huisman, 1992: 101 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, 8.5 km S Long Pa Sia, Sg. Malabit, 04°21'N 115°41'E, 1180 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 34 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Malaysia.

berneri Ross, 1941a: 67 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Alachua County, Santa Fe River; INHS; ♂; ♀]. —Etnier 1965: 146 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 69 [checklist; ♂]. —Roy and Harper 1975: 1082 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Roy and Harper 1981: 105 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1982a: 510 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 238 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 170 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 97 [♂; distribution]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [checklist]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

biankii Ivanov, 1992: 234[type locality: [Kyrgyzstan], West Tianshan, Kyzart-Ouzy on the river Kara-Su under Chom-Tash mountain chain; ZIN; ♂].

Distribution. —Kyrgyzstan.

bibir Wells & Huisman, 1992: 102 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, Kinabalu National Park, Liwagu River; NTM; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 2010a: 34 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —East Malaysia.

bichromata Mey, 1998a: 557 [type locality: [Philippines, Mindanao], northern slope of Mt. Atuuganon range, 1050 m; ZMHB; ♂]. —Wells and Mey 2002: 134 [checklist].

Distribution. —Philippines.

bidens Flint, 1983: 45 [type locality: Argentina, Ocia. Jujuy, Aguas Calientes; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Angrisano 1999: 32 [checklist]. —Rueda Martín 2011: 7 [♂; distribution]. —Isa Miranda and Rueda Martín 2014: 199 [distribution].

Distribution. —Argentina, Bolivia.

bispina Kimmins, 1962: 106 [type locality: [Indonesia], Papua, Kokoda, 1200 ft; NHMUK; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1984: 269 [distribution]. —Neboiss 1986: 61 [atlas; ♂]. —Wells 1991: 501, 526 [distribution; checklist].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

bispinatella Mey, 2003b: 426 [replacement name for H. bispina Wells & Mey, 2002: 126, preoccupied by H. bispina Kimmins, 1962: 106] [type locality: [Philippines] Luzon, Camarines Sur, Mt Isarog, Pili, 600–800 m; BPBM; ♂]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [distribution]. —Malicky 2009b: 10 [distribution].

Distribution. —Philippines.

biuncialis Zhou & Yang in Zhou, Sun, and Yang 2009a: 905, 910[type locality: [China], Jiangxi Province, Wuyishan National Nature Preserve, Litoujian Stream, 100 m upstream of protected area, 27.99°N, 117.86°E, 342 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

blicklei Sykora & Harris, 1994: 72 [type locality: [United States], Maine, Dennistown; UNHC; ♂]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

botosaneanui Kumanski, 1990: 48 [type locality: Korea, Province Kangvon, Kumgang Mts., the foothills near the hotel Go-song and Ondžong vill.; SOFM; ♂; ♀]. —Arefina et al. 2002: 97 [distribution]. —Ito et al. 2011: 20 [♂, ♀; distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Ito 2015: 8 [checklist]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist]. —Potikha and Vshivkova 2016: 364 [distribution]. —Nozaki et al. 2019: 167 [distribution]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

Distribution. —Japan, Korea, Russia.

bozontos Oláh, 2012: 48 [type locality: Indonesia, Papua, Raja Empat Archipelago, Batanta Island, Warmon Creek, 2. waterfall, 0°50'23.25"S 130°42'35.18"E; Collection Oláh; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

brailovskyi Bueno-Soria, 1984: 122 [type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Chicontepec; CNIN; ♂]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 34 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Mexico.

bribriae Harris, 2002: 50 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Santa Rosa County, Indigo Creek, at Base Rd. 213, Eglin Air Force Base; NMNH; ♂]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

brigittae Gibon, 1987a: 128 [type locality: sur le Niandan à Bambaya; MNHN; ♂]. —Wells and de Moor 2020: 500 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. —Angola, Guinea.

brincki Jacquemart, 1963a: 409 [type locality: [South Africa], National Park, Tugela Valley, 5000 ft, at stony river (Loc. N° 258); IRSNB; ♂].

Distribution. —South Africa.

brissaga Malicky, 1996a: 101 [type locality: [Switzerland], Tessin, Gordevio im Maggiatal; depository not designated; ♂]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999b: 278 [distribution]. —Malicky 2002: 4 [distribution]. —Urbanič 2004: 51 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 60 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005a: 60 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 14 [checklist]. —Corallini and Cianficconi 2011: 628 [checklist]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 14 [distribution]. —Malicky 2016b: 22 [morphological comparison with H. tacheti]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 139 [distribution].

Distribution. —Greece, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland, Ukraine.

broweri Blickle, 1963: 18 [type locality: [United States], Maine, Allagash; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 71 [checklist; ♂]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 98 [♂; distribution]. —Etnier 2010: 485 [distribution]. —Bowles et al. 2020: 7 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

bugata Wells, 1984: 267 [type locality: [Papua] New Guinea, NE., Bugu River, E. of Lae, 100 m; BPBM; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 62 [atlas; ♂]. —Wells 1991: 526 [checklist].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

bumbulensis Wells & Andersen, 1995: 161 [type locality: Tanzania, Tanga region, West Usambara Mts, Dule, Bumbuli River, 1220 m a.s.l.; ZMUB; ♂].

Distribution. —Tanzania.

bureschi Kumanski, 1972: 1261 [type locality: [Bulgaria], Balkangebirge, kleiner Bach, Nebenfluß des Iskār beim Dorf Bov; SOFM; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [possible synonym of H. vichtaspa].

Distribution. —Bulgaria.

caesariata Zhou & Yang in Zhou et al. 2009b: 355 [type locality: China, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Shangsi City, Nalin He, tributary of Mingjiang He, 2.0 km NW of main entrance to Shiwandashan National Forest Park, 21°54'N 107°53'E, 281 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

calcara Wells, 1978: 753 [type locality: [Australia], New South Wales, Maclaughlin River, near Ando; NMV; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 6 [case]. —Neboiss 1986: 63 [atlas; ♂; ♀].

Distribution. —Australia.

callia Denning, 1947a: 149 [type locality: [United States], North Carolina, Raleigh; ESUW; ♂]. —Morse and Blickle 1953: 72 [checklist]. —Etnier 1968: 191 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1975: 1082 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 63 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Morse et al. 1989: 22 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 171 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 69 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 41 [phenology; distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist; as calia].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

calundoensis Marlier, 1965: 68 [type locality: [Angola] Moxico, Zambèze, Rives du Lac Calundo, Loc. 4647-17; MDLA; ♂]. —Wells and de Moor 2020: 512 [checklist].

Distribution. —Angola.

caminopa Mey, 1998a: 555 [type locality: [Philippines, Mindanao], northern slope of Mt. Atuuganon range, 1050 m; ZMHB; ♂]. —Wells and Mey 2002: 134 [checklist].

Distribution. —Philippines.

campanulata Morton, 1896: 103 [type locality: [Algeria]; NHMUK; ♂]. —Morton 1904: 324 [distribution]. —Schmid 1952: 650 [distribution; ♂]. —Kimmins 1957a: 107 [lectotype designation]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 46 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky and Lounaci 1987: 15, 17 [checklist]. —González et al. 1990: 214 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 142 [distribution; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2015: 75 [distribution]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution].

Distribution. —Algeria, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia.

caperata Wells, 1984: 264 [type locality: [Papua] New Guinea, SE., Kokoda, 400 m; BPBM; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 64 [atlas; ♂]. —Wells 1991: 526 [checklist].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

carara Mey, 1998a: 557 [type locality: Costa Rica, San José, Reserva Biológica Carara, Quebrada Bonita, 9.775°N, 84.605°W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —Costa Rica.

carolae Holzenthal & Kelley, 1983: 466 [type locality: [United States], South Carolina, Aiken Co., Savannah River Plant, Upper Three Runs Creek at SRP road 8-1; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

catamarcensis Flint, 1983: 45 [type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Catamarca, Arroyo El Pintado, near La Viña; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Angrisano 1999: 32 [checklist].

Distribution. —Argentina.

chattanooga Frazer & Harris, 1991b: 6 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, DeKalb County, West Fork of the Little River at Union covered bridge, near Cloudmont Resort (Sec. 9, T6S, R 10 E); NMNH; ♂]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [distribution]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 41 [phenology; distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

cheaha Harris, 1991: 14 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Talladega County, Dry Creek at Co. Hwy. 234, Talladega National Forest, 4.8 km SW Waldo (Sec. 23, T 19 S, R 5 E); NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 172 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

chelops Harris, 1985a: 249 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Choctaw County, unnamed spring along Hwy. 17, 4 miles SW Butler, T12N, R3W, S10; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 173 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

chinensis Xue & Yang, 1990: 126 [type locality: [China] Wudalianchi, Heilongjiang; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Morse et al. 2001: 201 [distribution]. —Arefina et al. 2002: 97 [♂, ♀; distribution]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Ito et al. 2011: 5 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Ito and Nagasaka 2014: 9 [distribution]. —Ito 2015: 8 [checklist]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Potikha and Vshivkova 2016: 364 [distribution].

Distribution. —China, Japan, Russia.

cintrana Morton, 1904: 324 [type locality: Portugal, Cintra; depository not designated; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 46 [atlas; ♂]. —González et al. 1990: 214 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 142 [distribution; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 118 [distribution]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution]. —Mabrouki et al. 2020: 12 [distribution].

Distribution. —Morocco, Portugal, Spain.

circangula Harris, 1985b: 606 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Baldwin County, Pine Log Creek at Hwy. 59; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 175 [distribution]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 5 [checklist]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

cochlearis Xue & Yang, 1990: 127 [type locality: [China] Linxian Qihe, Henan; NAUJ; ♂]. —Xue et al. 1992: 353–356 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

cognata Mosely, 1930b: 245 [type locality: France, Pyrénées-Orientales, Quillan; NHMUK; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 49 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 1998b: 396 [♂; distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999a: 57 [distribution]. —Valle 2001: 66 [distribution]. —Coppa and Tachet 2004: 124 [♀]. —Malicky 2002: 4 [distribution]. —Urbanič 2004: 51 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 61 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Coppa and Tachet 2005: 130 [♀]. —Cianficconi and Corallini 2010: 87 [distribution]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Šemnički et al. 2011: 149 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Martín et al. 2015: 75 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 139 [distribution].

Distribution. —Croatia, France, Italy, Slovenia, Spain.

consimilis Morton, 1905: 65 [type locality: [United States] “Ithaca New York and Belfrage Texas”; depository not designated; ♂]. —Banks 1907a: 50 [catalogue]. —Mosely 1923: 293 [scent-organ]. —Betten 1934: 158 [♂; distribution]. —Ross 1944: 153 [♂; ♀; larva; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 174 [distribution]. —Ross and Spencer 1952: 47 [distribution]. —Etnier 1965: 147 [checklist]. —Unzicker et al. 1970: 172 [distribution]. —Edwards 1973: 506 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 47, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Swegman et al. 1981: 132 [distribution]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 10 [distribution]. —Light and Adler 1983: 77 [distribution; biology]. —Hamilton et al. 1983: 18 [distribution]. —Lake 1984: 219 [distribution]. —Steven and Hilsenhoff 1984: 163 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 238 [distribution]. —Floyd and Schuster 1990: 130, 132 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 176 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [checklist]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Masteller 1993: 134 [distribution]. —Moulton et al. 1993: 21 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 98 [♂; distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Ruiter 1999: 165 [distribution]. —Keiper and Foote 2000: 226 [distribution; biology]. —Houghton 2001: 89 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2005: 68 [distribution; biology]. —Zeullig et al. 2006: 42 [distribution]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology]. —Houghton and Holzenthal 2010: 486 [distribution]. —Biondi 2010: 60 [distribution]. —Flint 2011: 104 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2011a: 388 [distribution; biology]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [distribution; biology]. —Houghton et al. 2011a: 388 [distribution; biology]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2013: 37 [distribution; biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 291 [biology; distribution]. —Ruiter et al. 2013: 3 [distribution; DNA barcoding; larval-adult association]. —DeWalt et al. 2016: 51 [distribution]. —Houghton 2016: 46 [biology]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 128 [checklist]. —Bowles et al. 2020: 7 [distribution].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

constricta Bueno-Soria, 1984: 99 [type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, La Prusia; NHMUK; ♂]. —Flint 1991b: 47 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Flint and Reyes 1991: 484 [distribution]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 34 [♂; distribution]. —Muñoz-Quesada 2000: 277 [checklist]. —Mey and Ospina-Torres 2018: 28 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. —Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Peru.

coreana Kumanski, 1990: 52 [type locality: Korea, Province Phyongan pukdo (Northern Phyongan), Myohyang Mts., the foothills, the hotel; SOFM; ♂]. —Arefina et al. 2002: 98 [distribution]. —Mey and Nozaki 2006: 24 [distribution]. —Ito et al. 2011: 18 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Ito 2015: 8 [checklist]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist]. —Kobayashi et al. 2017: 17 [distribution]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

Distribution. —Japan, Korea, Russia.

cornea Yang & Xue, 1994: 10 [type locality: [China], Sichuan, Ping-wu county, 19 km E of Ping-wu, tributary of Fu-jiang River, 1090 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

cornuta Mosely, 1922: 179 [type locality: [England], “Britain”; NHMUK; ♂]. —Mosely 1923: 292 [scent-organ]. —Martynov 1934: 129 [♂]. —Racięcka 1936: 98 [distribution]. —Mosely 1939b: 262 [♂]. —Tjeder 1941: 10 [♀; distribution]. —Berg 1948: table 14 [distribution]. —Nybom 1960: 17 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1960: 148 [distribution]. —Kimmins 1961: 32 [comparison with H. lotensis; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Spuris 1972: 20 28 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 46 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Kumanski and Malicky 1984: 199 [distribution]. —Wiberg-Larsen 1985: 40 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1985: 122 [♂]. —González et al. 1986: 113 [distribution]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 129 [distribution]. —Rojas-Camousseight and Tachet 1988: 315 [♀]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —González et al. 1990: 212 [checklist]. —Andersen et al. 1993b: 3 [distribution]. —Bagge 1995: 94, 95 [distribution; biology]. —Maier et al. 1995: 147 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 142 [♂]. —Gullefors 2002: 138 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2003: 194 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 57 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 543 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2006: 137 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 14 [checklist]. —Neu 2010: 149 150 [♀]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Viidalepp et al. 2011: 196 [distribution]. —Kiss 2012: 28 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —O’Connor 2015: 28, 79 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2015: 203 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 139 [distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —Wallace 2016: 15, 20, 22, 23, 26, 48 [conservation status]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2017b: 52 [distribution]. —Küçükbasmaci and Kiyak 2017: 488 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2018: 81 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2018: 108 [biology; distribution]. —O’Connor et al. 2018: 23 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2018: 41 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2020: 140 [distribution].

Distribution. —Bulgaria, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine.

cortensis Mosely, 1937a: 121 [type locality: [France], Corsica; NHMUK; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 42 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 51 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 536, 544 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007a: 67 [proposed as Italian endemic]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 139 [distribution].

Distribution. —France, Italy.

coscaroni Flint, 1983: 46 [type locality: Argentina, Pcia. Salta, 5 km S Oran; NMNH; ♂]. —Angrisano 1999: 32 [checklist].

Distribution. —Argentina.

cottaquilla Harris, 1994: 284 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Calhoun County, South Branch to Cane Creek on Fort McClellan Military Reservation, Area 15C, 3 miles northeast Anniston; NMNH; ♂].

setigera Harris, 1986a: 610 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Calhoun County, South Branch to Cane Creek on Fort McClellan Military Reservation, Area 15C, 3 miles northeast Anniston; NMNH; ♂; preoccupied by Wells, 1984: 270]. —Harris et al. 1991: 205 [distribution]. —Harris 1994: 284 [replaced].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

coweetensis Huryn, 1985: 444 [type locality: [United States], North Carolina, Macon County, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Experimental Watershed 27; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva]. —Harris et al. 1991: 177 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

crenata (Ulmer, 1951): 91 [type locality: [Indonesia], Java, Sarangan, quelliger Zufluß am See Pasir; ZMUH; ♂; in Pasirotrichia]. —Malicky 1998a: 797 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky 2007a: 177 [checklist]. —Malicky 2010a: 29 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky et al. 2014a: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

cressae Thomson & Holzenthal, 2012: 23 [type locality: Venezuela, Bolívar, Gran Sabana, E. Pauji, “Río Curvita”, 04°31.237'N, 61°31.591'W, 869 m; UMSP; ♂].

Distribution. —Venezuela.

cretosa Harris, 1985b: 611 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Greene County, Trussels Creek at Co. Hwy. 23; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 178 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

criokera Harris, Rasmussen, & Denson, 2012: 2 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Liberty County, Gregory Mill Creek at CR-379, Apalachicola National Forest, N30°10'26", W85°00'48"; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

cruciata Ulmer, 1912b: 83 [type locality: [Tanzania], Deutsch-Ostafrika, Langenburg; ZMHB; ♂]. —Mosely 1934a: 149 [illustration of scent-organ]. —Johanson 1992: 118 [checklist]. —Wells and Andersen 1995: 160 [distribution]. —Kjærandsen and Andersen 1997: 244 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999a: 344 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999b: 492 [distribution]. —de Moor et al. 2000: 112 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 2002a: 323 [discussion of male genitalia; ♂; distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 62 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —de Moor 2007: 216 [distribution]. —Johanson and Mary 2009: 7 [distribution]. —Mey 2011: 343, 345 [distribution; checklist]. —de Moor 2011: 354 [distribution]. —Malicky 2015: 43 [checklist]. —Mey 2016: 305, 307 [distribution]. —Englmaier et al. 2020: 10 [distribution]. —Mey and de Moor 2019: 137, 139 [checklist; distribution]. —de Moor and Bellingan 2019: 157 [distribution]. —Wells and de Moor 2020: 500 [♂; distribution].

capensis Barnard, 1934: 391 [type locality: [South Africa]; holotype not designated; depository not designated; ♂; ♀; larva; pupa]. —Scott 1963: 475 [distribution]. —Jacquemart 1963a: 405 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 2002a: 323 [to synonymy].

hirra Mosely, 1948b: 81 [type locality: [Yemen], Western Aden Protectorate, Wadi Dareija, near Dhala, c. 4600 ft; NHMUK; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Gasith 1971: 99 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1973: 66 [♂]. —Botosaneanu and Giudicelli 1981: 21 [larva; biology; distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1982b: 11 [habitat threat]. —Malicky 1983a: 106 [to synonymy; distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 50, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Gibon 1987a: 125 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 78 [head; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 1999a: 344 [distribution].

airensis Jacquemart, 1980b: 2 [type locality: [Niger], Guelta de Timia; IRSNB; ♂]. —Malicky 1983a: 106 [to synonymy; distribution].

Distribution. —Angola, Benin, Cabo Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Israel, Madagascar, Namibia, Niger, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, the Comoros, Yemen.

cubana Kumanski, 1987: 30 [type locality: Cuba, Province Las Villas, the massive of Guamuaya, Rio Nabujina near El Piojillo village; SOFM; ♂; ♀]. —Flint 1996a: 16 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo 2005: 149 [checklist].

pseudomeralda Botosaneanu, 1979: 51 [nomen nudum, attributed to Sykora]. —Kumanski 1987: 30 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Cuba.

cuembica Wells & de Moor, 2020: 498 [type locality: Angola, Moxico Province, Cuando River, Site 6 — Cuando campsite bridge, -13.5265, 19.27921; AMGS; ♂].

Distribution. —Angola.

cuneata Wells & Dudgeon, 1990: 169 [type locality: Hong Kong, Tai Po Kao Forest stream; NHMUK; ♂]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 38 [♂; distribution]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —Hong Kong.

curvata Bueno-Soria, 1984: 123 [type locality: Honduras, El Zamorano; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Honduras.

dampfi Ulmer, 1929: 264 [type locality: [Germany]; depository not designated; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Andrikovics and Ujhelyi 1983: 6 [distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 43 [atlas; ♂]. —Nógrádi 1986: 137 [distribution; ♀]. —Spuris 1989: 15 [checklist]. —Xue and Yang 1991: 21 [distribution]. —Xue et al. 1992: 353–356 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 1994: 31 [distribution]. —Czachorowski 1995: 279 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1997: 461 [distribution]. —Graf et al. 1998: 206 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999f: 31 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 420 [distribution]. —Turunen 1999: 2 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 2001: 95 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2001: 297 [checklist]. —Malicky 2002: 4 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 52 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005a: 60 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Bochert 2007: 119 [distribution; biology; ♂]. —Ito et al. 2011: 11 [♂ ♀; distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Ito 2015: 8 [checklist]. —Vshivkova et al. 2016: 78, 79 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist]. —Graf and Leitner 2016: 37 [distribution]. —Graf et al. 2017: 48 [distribution]. —Kobayashi et al. 2017: 17 [distribution]. —Park et al. 2018: 102 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

itoi Kobayashi 1977: 5 [type locality: [Japan] Utonai Pond Utonai Tomakomai-shi Hokkaido; depository not designated; ♂; ♀]. —Ito and Kawamura 1980: 113 [larva; pupa; case; biology]. —Ito et al. 1993: 142 [checklist]. —Morse et al. 2001: 102 [distribution]. —Arefina 2002: 8 [distribution]. —Tanida et al. 2005: 442 [larva; ♂]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Ito et al. 2011: 11 [to synonymy]. —Potikha and Vshivkova 2016: 364 [distribution].

ezoensis (Kobayashi, 1977): 5 [type locality: [Japan], Utonai Pond, Utonai, Tomakomai-shi, Hokkaido; depository not designated; ♂; in Oxyethira]. —Ito and Kawamura 1984: 315 [as synonym of H. itoi]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [as synonym of H. dampfi]. —Ito and Oláh 2017: 24 [to synonymy].

volgensis Kachalova & Muhametšina, 1979: 82 [type locality: [Russia, Volga delta]; type depository not given; ♂; larva]. —Spuris 1989: 16 [checklist]. —Malicky 1999f: 32 [to synonymy]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist].

Distribution. —Austria, China, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Japan, Poland, South Korea, Russia, Switzerland.

dandik Oláh & Johanson, 2010a: 14 [type locality: Malaysia, Sabah, Tawau, Maliau Basin, Nepenthes Camp, Camel Trophy Hut, 4°43'59.3"N 116°52'39.7"E, 999 m; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Malaysia.

danieli Harris & Armitage in Armitage et al. 2011: 30 [type locality: [United States], Ohio, Erie County, Margaretta Twp., Resthaven Wildlife Area, N41.4067, W82.81813; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

darda Oláh, 2016: 110 [type locality: Philippines, Negros Patag NR, 750 m; Collection Oláh; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

daun Wells & Huisman, 1992: 103 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, Bundu Tuhan, Sg. Laidan, 05°58'N 116°31'E, 950 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 31 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Malaysia.

dayung Wells & Huisman, 1992: 105 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, 60 km W Lahad Datu, DVFC, confluence Sg. Segama - Sg. Palum Tambun, 04°58'N 117°48'E, 150 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1024 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 33 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 2014a: 1622 [checklist]. —Malicky et al. 2016: 92 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

decia Etnier & Way, 1973: 425 [type locality: [United States], Ten-mile creek at bridge 0.5 air miles south of Kingston Pike (U.S. Highway 11 and 70), near Ebeneezer Road, Knox Co., Tenn.; NMNH; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 69 [checklist; ♂]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [checklist].

choccolocco Harris, 1985b: 609 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Calhoun County, Choccolocco Creek, unmarked county road, 1.5 miles east Jenkins; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 174 [distribution]. —Harris and Etnier 1994: 262 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

dejaloni Botosaneanu, 1980: 166 [type locality: central Spain, Rio Jarama; ZMUA; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 43 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky and Lounaci 1987: 15, 17 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 52 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution].

Distribution. —Portugal, Spain.

delineata Morton, 1905: 6 [type locality: [United States], Ithaca, New York; depository not designated; ♂; as delineatus]. —Banks 1907a: 50 [catalogue]. —Mosely 1923: 293 [scent-organ]. —Sibley 1926: 205 [biology]. —Betten 1934: 158 [♂; distribution]. —Etnier 1968: 191 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 65 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Roy and Harper 1981: 105 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 10 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Usis and Foote 1989: 84 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 238 [distribution]. —Tarter 1990: 239 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 1991: 179 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [checklist]. —Floyd et al. 1993: 90 [phenology; distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 99 [♂; distribution]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 41 [phenology; distribution]. —Biondi 2010: 61 [distribution]. —Flint 2011: 104 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

dentata Ross, 1938a: 126 [type locality: [United States], Virginia, Luray; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

dentina Mey, 1998a: 557 [type locality: [Philippines, Mindanao], northern slope of Mt. Atuuganon range, 1050 m; ZMHB; ♂]. —Wells and Mey 2002: 134 [checklist].

Distribution. —Philippines.

denza Ross, 1948: 204 [type locality: Mexico, Tamaulipas, Hacienda Santa Engracia; INHS; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978: 201 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 71 [checklist; ♂]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983b: 354 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983c: 414 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 114 [♂; distribution]. —Holzenthal 1988: 61 [distribution]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 49 [head]. —Maes 1999: 1193 [checklist]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al. 2007: 42 [checklist].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua, U.S.A.

desertorum Mey, 1993: 336 [type locality: China, Xinjiang, Kashi (=Kaschgar), Teichabfluß am Kaschgar-Fluß (39.29/75.59); ZMHB; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Huang et al. 2005: 469 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

disgalera Holzenthal & Kelley, 1983: 466 [type locality: [United States], South Carolina, Aiken Co., Savannah River Plant, Upper Three Runs Creek at SRP road 8-1; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 180 [distribution]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [checklist]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

ditalea Flint, 1968b: 46 [type locality: Jamaica, St. Andrew, Fresh River, Ferry; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Flint 1968b: 82 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 119 [♂; distribution]. —Flint and Reyes 1991: 484 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1995a: 27 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Hyslop 1998: 16 [distribution]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert 1999: 39 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist]. —Flint and Sykora 2004: 31 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert 2008: 300 [checklist]. —Ríos-Touma et al. 2017: 9 [checklist].

Distribution. —Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru.

dominicana Botosaneanu, 1995a: 27 [type locality: Dominican Republic, La Descubierta, north shore Lago Enriquillo, south from Sierra de Neiba; ZMUA; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert 1999: 39 [checklist]. —Flint and Sykora 2004: 31 [distribution]. —Pérez-Gelabert 2008: 300 [checklist].

Distribution. —Cuba, Dominican Republic.

dorcas Mey, 1998a: 557 [type locality: [Philippines, Mindanao], northern slope of Mt. Atuuganon range, 1050 m; ZMHB; ♂]. —Wells and Mey 2002: 134 [checklist].

Distribution. —Philippines.

dorsoprocessuata Botosaneanu, 1993a: 186 [type locality: [Russia], South Siberia, Tchitinskaia Oblasti (east from Tchita), at Ukurei - a village situated on Kuenga, a tributary of Shilka River (basin of Argun River); ZIN; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1993c: 247 [addenda]. —Arefina 2004: 211 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Potikha and Vshivkova 2016: 364 [distribution]. —Ito and Shimura 2019: 27 [♂; ♀; distribution].

Distribution. —Japan, Russia.

dumoga Oláh, 2016: 112 [type locality: [Indonesia}, Dumoga-Bone N. P. Sulawesi; “specimens were not available; species description is based on the published drawings”; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

ebroensis Harris, Rasmussen, & Denson, 2012: 4 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Bay Co., Little Crooked Creek at SR-79, 1.5 mi S Ebro, Pine Log State Forest, N30°24'48", W85°52'04"; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

eglinensis Harris, 2002: 49 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Okaloosa County, Rogue Creek, 0.6 km S Base Rd. 232, Eglin Air Force Base, 30°33'19"N, 86°34'51"W; NMNH; ♂]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

eileithyia Malicky, 1999a: 345 [type locality: [Yemen], Provinz Al-Mahwit, 30 km NE Bajil, 5 km NNE Khamis Bani Sa’d, 750 m, 15°11'N, 43°32'E; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 55 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist].

Distribution. —Yemen.

elongata (Ulmer, 1951): 86 [type locality: [Indonesia], Java, Kali Tjiwalen bei Tjibodas, ca. 1370 m; ZMUH; ♂; in Oeceotrichia]. —Malicky 1998a: 797 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 29 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky et al. 2014a: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

englishi Hamilton in Morse et. al 1989: 26 [type locality: [United States], South Carolina, Oconee County, Thompson River at North Carolina border, about 1,440 ft [439 m], Duke Power Company locality #583.2; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

engywuck Malicky & Lounaci, 1987: 6 [type locality: [Tunisia], Oued Titria (5 km E Ain Sobah); depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 1997: 143 [distribution; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 58 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution].

Distribution. —Spain, Tunisia.

eramosa Harper, 1973: 393 [type locality: [Canada], Eramosa River at Cedar Valley, Wellington County, Ontario; QMOR; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

erawan Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1018 [type locality: Thailand, Prov. Kanchanaburi, Erawan NP, 14°22'N 99°08'E, 200 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 25 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand.

erkakanae Sipahiler, 1997: 15 [type locality: Turkey, Ankara, Beypazari, Urus, Kirmir Çayi; depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 56 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

ernstreichli Malicky, 1998b: 395 [type locality: [Uzbekistan], Turapsaj, 1500–1700 m, 38°32'N, 67°31'E; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 62 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist].

Distribution. —Uzbekistan.

explicata Wells, 1984: 264 [type locality: [Papua] New Guinea, SE., Kokoda, 400 m; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells 1990b: 382 [as junior synonym of H. obscura]. —Neboiss 1986: 61 [atlas; ♂]. —Oláh 2016: 111 [diagnosed as distinct species; ♂]. —Oláh and Kovács 2018: 179 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia, Papua New Guinea.

extrema Kumanski, 1990: 50 [type locality: Korea, Province Phyongan pukdo (Northern Phyongan) Myohyang Mts., the foothills, the hotel; SOFM; ♂; ♀]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

Distribution. —Korea.

felfela Oláh & Johanson, 2011: 119 [type locality: Mexico, State of Veracruz, Los Manantioles, Tlilapan, 18°47.944'N 097°06.270'W, 1171 m; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Mexico.

fiorii Malicky & Moretti, 1987: 193 [type locality: [Italy], Sardinien, Domusdemaria; depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 53 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007a: 67 [proposed as Italian endemic]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 139 [distribution].

Distribution. —Italy.

fiskei Blickle, 1963: 19 [type locality: [United States], Maine, Dennistown; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 63 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Morse et al. 1989: 22 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [checklist]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 41 [phenology; distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution]. —Houghton 2020: 2 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

flinti Bueno-Soria, 1984: 107 [type locality: Costa Rica, Turrialba; NMNH; ♂]. —Holzenthal 1988: 61 [distribution]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 38 [♂; distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2015b: 5 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2015a: 6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Harris 2018b: 97 [checklist]. —Armitage and Harris 2018c: 283 [distribution]. —Harris and Armitage 2019: 4 [distribution].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Panama.

florestani de Souza, Santos, & Takiya, 2014b: 640 [type locality: Brazil, Piauí, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, Riacho Piedade, 04°06'34"S 41°43'39"W, 169 m; CZMA; ♂].

Distribution. —Brazil.

fonsorontina Botosaneanu & Moubayedin Moubayed and Botosaneanu 1985: 64 [type locality: [Lebanon], Liban, Hermel, l’Oronte en aval de la source Zarka - une source principale de cette rivière, 650 m; ZMUA; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 73 [♂; ♀]. —Malicky 2004a: 61 [atlas; as fonsorentina]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist; as fonsorentina]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution].

Distribution. —Lebanon.

forcipata (Eaton, 1873): 135 [type locality: [England], Oakamoor, Staffordshire, and the River Dove, near Norbury and Ashbourne, Derbyshire; NHMUK; ♂; in Phrixocoma]. —McLachlan 1880: 513 [revision; ♂; ♀]. —Morton 1899a: 54 [distribution]. —Morton 1899b: 281 [distribution]. —Klapálek 1900b: 3 [distribution]. —Martynov 1913b: 11 [♂]. —Mosely 1919a: 395 [scent-organ]. —Martynov 1924: 44 [♂]. —Tjeder 1930b: 201 [distribution]. —Martynov 1934: 137 [♂]. —Mosely 1939b: 270 [♂]. —Kimmins 1943: 154 [distribution]. —Kimmins 1957a: 109 [lectotype designation]. —Nybom 1960: 18 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Spuris 1972: 21, 27, 28, 30 [checklist]. —Fahy 1972: 202 [distribution]. —Malicky 1974: 122 [checklist]. —Szczęsny 1975: 41 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 12 [♂; distribution]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 45, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Kumanski and Malicky 1984: 199 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1985: 137 [♂]. —Wiberg-Larsen 1985: 40 [checklist]. —Nógrádi 1986: 137 [distribution; ♀]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 84, 136 [♂; distribution]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Cooter 1987: 148 [distribution]. —Usseglio-Polatera and Bournaud 1989: 253 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 16 [checklist]. —Krušnik 1991: 13 [distribution]. —Andersen et al. 1993b: 3 [distribution]. —Andersen et al. 1993a: 51 [distribution]. —Bagge 1995: 93 [distribution; biology]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1997: 461 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1998: 52 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 1998: 338 [distribution]. —Peissner and Kappus 1998: 162 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999c: 96 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 420 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999a: 57 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2001: 297 [checklist]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2002: 130 [distribution]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. —Graf and Hutter 2004: 147 [distribution]. —Graf et al. 2005: 55 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2005a: 119 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 2001: 95 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2002: 138 [checklist]. —Ujvárosi 2002: 384 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 54, 64 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005a: 60 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Wiggers et al. 2006: 54 [distribution]. —Mey 2006a: 159 [distribution]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2006: 358 [distribution]. —Schiess-Bühler and Rezbanyai-Reser 2006: 72 [distribution]. —Ivanov and Melnitsky 2007: 32 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 569, 575 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 112 [checklist]. —Schrankel et al. 2008: 90 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 15 [checklist]. —Flint and Thomas 2008: 40 [distribution]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —Hohmann 2010: 40 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Viidalepp et al. 2011: 196 [distribution]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2012: 719 [distribution]. —Wolf et al. 2012: 75 [distribution]. —Andersen and Hagenlund 2012: 135 [distribution]. —Ibrahimi et al. 2012: 76 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Corallini et al. 2013b: 26 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2013: 64 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2014: 273 [distribution]. —Hohmann et al. 2014: 85 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2015: 203 [distribution]. —Stanić-Kroštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —Stanić-Koštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2015: 28, 80 [distribution]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 14 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 139 [distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —Küttner et al. 2016: 179 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 15 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2017b: 53 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2018: 81 [distribution]. —Lock and van Butsel 2018: 3 [distribution]. —Kučinić et al. 2019: 450 [distribution]. —Cerjanec et al. 2020: 13 [distribution]. —Kroča and Komzák 2020: 147 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2020: 140 [distribution]. —Navara et al. 2020: 46 [distribution].

Distribution. —Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Republic of Kosovo, Serbia, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine.

fortunata Morton, 1893: 76 [type locality: [Spain, Canary Islands]; NHMUK; ♂]. —Nybom 1948: 5 [distribution; transferred to Hydropneuma; H. juba considered junior synonym]. —Nybom 1954: 2 [distribution; in Hydropneuma]. —Kimmins 1957a: 107 [lectotype designation]. —Nybom 1963: 114 [distribution]. —Nybom 1965: 89 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1981a: 183 [♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 44 [atlas; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Dumont 1987: 115 [♂]. —Malicky 1988a: 23 [considered species distinct from H. juba] —Botosaneanu 1993b: 160 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 2003: 107 [considered distinct from H. juba; H. espada considered junior synonym]. —Malicky 2004a: 53 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Hughes 2006: 29 [biology].

Distribution. —Portugal, Spain.

fowlesi Harris & Sykora, 1996: 19 [type locality: [United States], West Virginia, Lewis County, Right Fork of the West Fork River, Walkersville; CMNH; ♂]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

friedeli Malicky, 1972: 31 [type locality: [Turkey], Asia minor, 20 km westlich von Kizilcahamam, 1400 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 47 [atlas; ♂]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 122 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 143 [♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution; as friedli]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey

fuentaldeala Schmid, 1952: 650 [type locality: Spain; CNC; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 42 [atlas; ♂]. —González et al. 1986: 113[distribution]. —González et al. 1990: 212 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 51 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2014: 72 [distribution]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution]. —Lonsdale 2020: 34 [holotype depository].

Distribution. —Portugal, Spain.

fuentelarbola Schmid, 1952: 651 [type locality: Spain; CNC; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 48 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 60 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Lonsdale 2020: 35 [holotype depository].

Distribution. —Spain.

furcata (Martynov, 1935): 114 [type locality: [India], above Kapildhara Fall, Rewah State, C. I.; NZSI; ♂; in Oxydroptila]. —Schmid 1958b: 66 [♂; distribution].

Distribution. —India, Sri Lanka.

furcilla Yang & Xue, 1994: 10 [type locality: [China], Anhui, Jin-xian, Song-cun, Ding-xi River, 33 km E of Jin-xian, 120 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

furcula Wells, 1984: 269 [type locality: [Papua] New Guinea, SE., Kokoda, 400 m; BPBM; ♂]. —Wells 1991: 501 [distribution].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

furtiva Bueno-Soria, 1984: 104 [type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca, Puerta de Uxpanapa; CNIN; ♂]. —Barba-Álvarez et al. 2019: 85 [distribution].

Distribution. —Mexico.

fuscina Harris, 1985b: 611 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Tuscaloosa County, Turkey Creek at Hwy. 69; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 181 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

gandhara Schmid, 1960: 94 [type locality: [Pakistan] Himalaya, Naran; CNC; ♂]. —Schmid 1958c: 220 [as new species, nomen nudum]. —Malicky 1983b: 48 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 62 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Lonsdale 2020: 35 [holotype depository].

Distribution. —Pakistan.

gapdoi Oláh, 1989: 283 [type locality: Vietnam, Tamdao, 200 m a.s.l.; HNHM; ♂]. —Wells and Malicky 1997: 183 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2005: 27 [checklist]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [distribution]. —Malicky 2007a: 177 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 14 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 30 [atlas; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

acrodonta Xue & Yang, 1990: 126 [type locality: [China], Bawangling (320 m), Hainan; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Wells and Malicky 1997: 183 [to synonymy]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [as synonym]. —Malicky 2013: 42 [as synonym].

Distribution. —China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam.

gaya Oláh, 1989: 278 [type locality: Vietnam, Tamdao, 200 m a.s.l.; HNHM; ♂]. —Armitage et al. 2005: 27 [checklist]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 32 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand, Vietnam.

geniel Malicky, 2014a: 1610 [type locality: Taiwan, Prov. Pingtung, Huang-Lion, Forest recr. area; Collection Malicky; ♂].

Distribution. —Taiwan.

giama Oláh, 1989: 285 [type locality: Vietnam, Tamdao, 1300 m a.s.l.; HNHM; ♂]. —Armitage et al. 2005: 27 [checklist]. —Mey 2005a: 280 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [distribution]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 15 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 33 [atlas; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

hubenovi Kumanski, 1990: 54 [type locality: Korea, Province Kangvon, Kumgang Mts., the foothills near the hotel Go-sung and Ondžong vill.; SOFM; ♂; ♀]. —Malicky 2013: 42 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —China, Korea, Laos, Vietnam.

gingoog Wells & Mey, 2002: 128 [type locality: [Philippines] Mindanao, Misamis Or., Dinawihan, Gingoog, 26 km E of Gingoog City, 100–300 m; BPBM; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

giudicellorum Botosaneanu, 1980: 167 [type locality: France, Provence, le complexe de sources et de ruisselets de 1’ “Etang du Comte”, à ca. 8 km N de St. Martin de Crau; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1982b: 31 [habitat threat]. —González and Otero 1983: 118 [distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 43 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky and Lounaci 1987: 15, 17 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999b: 278 [distribution]. —Valle 2001: 66 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Giudicelli 2004: 15 [♀; distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 52 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Corallini and Cianficconi 2011: 628 [checklist]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 140 [distribution].

Distribution. —France, Italy, Portugal, Spain.

grandiosa Ross, 1938a: 126 [type locality: [United States], Illinois, Oakwood, along Salt Fork River; INHS; ♂]. —Ross 1944: 151 [♂; ♀; larva; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 174 [distribution]. —Etnier 1965: 147 [distribution]. —Unzicker et al. 1970: 172 [distribution]. —Edwards 1973: 506 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1982a: 510 [distribution]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 10 [distribution]. —Hamilton et al. 1983: 18 [distribution]. —Steven and Hilsenhoff 1984: 163 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 239 [distribution]. —Tarter 1990: 239 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 182 [distribution]. —Floyd 1992: 50 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [distribution]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 99 [♂; distribution]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 41 [phenology; distribution]. —Biondi 2010: 61 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [phenology; habitat; distribution]. —Wright et al. 2013: 466 [biology; distribution]. —DeWalt et al. 2016: 51 [distribution]. —Houghton 2016: 46 [biology]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —Bowles et al. 2020: 7 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

grenadensis Flint, 1968a: 58 [type locality: Grenada, 2 mi W Grand Etang; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Flint and Reyes 1991: 484 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora 1993: 57 [distribution]. —Flint 1996b: 97 [distribution]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 27 [♂]. —Maes 1999: 1193 [checklist]. —Muñoz-Quesada 2000: 277 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al. 2007: 43 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2011: 120 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2015a: 6 [checklist]. —Ríos-Touma et al. 2017: 10 [checklist]. —Armitage and Harris 2018b: 97 [checklist]. —Armitage and Harris 2018c: 283 [distribution].

acutissima Botosaneanu in Botosaneanu and Alkins-Koo 1993: 24 [type locality: Trinidad, upper course of River Guanapo (3rd order and upper part of 4th order stream); ZUA; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu and Sakal 1992: 202 [distribution; ecology]. —Flint 1996b: 97 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Colombia, Ecuador, Grenada, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Tobago, Trinidad, Venezuela.

grucheti Marlier & Marlier, 1982: 12 [type locality: La Réunion, Station 53, Rivière Langevin, à la lumière; IRSNB; ♂; ♀; larva]. —Botosaneanu 2002a: 326 [♂].

Distribution. —Réunion.

gunda Milne, 1936: 76 [type locality: [United States], Virginia, Falls Church; MCZ; ♂]. —Morse and Blickle 1953: 72 [checklist]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 1982a: 510 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 10 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Morse et al. 1989: 22 [distribution]. —Usis and Foote 1989: 84 [distribution]. —Floyd and Schuster 1990: 130, 132 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 183 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [checklist]. —Floyd and Morse 1993: 177 [distribution]. —Floyd et al. 1997: 136 [distribution]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —Flint 2011: 104 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [distribution]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

dodgei Denning, 1947a: 19 [type locality: [United States], Georgia, Macon; ESUW; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

gurdi Wells, 1990b: 379 [type locality: [Indonesia] Sulawesi Utara, Dumoga-Bone N.P., Tumpah R. and tributary junction; NMV; ♂; ♀; case]. —Malicky et al. 2010: 163 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

halus Wells & Huisman, 1992: 104 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, Bundu Tuhan, Sg. Laidan, 05°58'N 116°31'E, 950 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 34 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —East Malaysia.

hamata Morton, 1905: 67 [type locality: [United States], New York, Ithaca; depository not designated; ♂]. —Banks 1907a: 50 [catalogue]. —Mosely 1923: 293 [scent-organ]. —Betten 1934: 159 [distribution]. —Ross 1944: 149 [♂; larva; distribution]. —Denning 1947b: 173 [distribution]. —Morse and Blickle 1953: 72 [checklist]. —Etnier 1965: 147 [checklist]. —Edwards 1973: 506 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978: 201 [distribution]. —Resh et al. 1978: 383 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Etnier and Schuster 1979: 17 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 63 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Roy and Harper 1981: 105 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1982a: 510 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1982b: 81 [distribution]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 10 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 89 [distribution]. —Steven and Hilsenhoff 1984: 163 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1989: 239 [distribution]. —Morse et al. 1989: 22 [distribution]. —Floyd and Schuster 1990: 130, 132 [distribution]. —Tarter 1990: 239 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 1991: 184 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [checklist]. —Mathis and Bowles 1992: 24 [distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 99 [♂; distribution]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Floyd et al. 1997: 136 [distribution]. USA —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —Houghton 2001: 90 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2005: 68 [biology; distribution]. —DeWalt and Heinold 2005: 42 [phenology; distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2006: 332 [biology; distribution]. —Zeullig et al. 2006: 43 [distribution]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology]. —Bueno-Soria et al. 2007: 33 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2009a: 303 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2009b: 186 [phenology; distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [biology; distribution]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [checklist]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 280, 291 [biology; distribution]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 118 [checklist]. —Bowles et al. 2020: 7 [distribution].

Distribution. —Canada, Mexico, U.S.A.

hamiltoni Harris, 2002: 54 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Okaloosa County, Rogue Creek, 0.6 km S Base Rd. 232, Eglin Air Force Base, 30°33'19"N, 86°34'52"W; NMNH; ♂]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

hamistyla Xue & Wang, 1995: 208 [type locality: [China], Baotianman, Henan Province; HAUZ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

harpagula Mey, 1998a: 555 [type locality: [Philippines, Mindanao], northern slope of Mt. Atuuganon range, 1050 m; ZMHB; ♂]. —Wells and Mey 2002: 134 [checklist].

Distribution. —Philippines.

harpeodes Yang & Xue, 1994: 9 [type locality: [China], Fujian, Cong-an City, 29 km N of Cong-an, 408 km marker; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

helicina Flint, 1991b: 49 [type locality: Colombia, Depto. Antioquia, Quebrada Espadera, 7 km E Medellín, road to Sta. Elena; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Muñoz-Quesada 2000: 277 [checklist].

Distribution. —Colombia.

helmali Chantaramongkol & Malicky, 1986: 515 [type locality: [Sri Lanka], Sabaraganuwa Province, Kitulgala, 21 mi N von Ratnapura, 60–150 m; MZLU; ♂].

Distribution. —Sri Lanka.

hirsuta Wells & Mey, 2002: 126 [type locality: [Philippines] Misamis Or., Dinawihan, Gingoog, 26 km E of Gingoog City, 100–300 m; BPBM; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

hochyangha Schmid, 1959b: 692 [type locality: Iran, Firouzkuh (Ost. 2); CNC; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 47 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 1997: 143 [distribution; ♂]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 59 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Lonsdale 2020: 35 [holotype depository].

Distribution. —Iran.

hodkovae Chvojka, 2006: 246 [type locality: Iran, Khuzestan prov., 10 km SW Izeh, 31°45'N 49°48'E, 880 m a.s.l.; NMPC; ♂]. —Malicky 2007b: 51 [checklist].

Distribution. —Iran.

hoffmannae Bueno-Soria & Santiago-Fragoso, 1996: 345 [type locality: Mexico, Veracruz, Los Tuxtlas, Arroyo Tebanca, 15 k SE La Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas; CNIN; ♂].

Distribution. —Mexico.

holzenthali Sykora & Harris, 1994: 73 [type locality: [United States], Mississippi, Stone Co., Flint Creek, Hwy 26, 7.9 km E Wiggins; CUAC; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

homochitta Harris & Sykora, 1996: 21 [type locality: [United States], Mississippi, Franklin County, Porter Creek (T5N, R4E, S8NW); CMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

hossa Oláh & Johanson, 2011: 121 [type locality: Peru, San Martin Prov., stream crossing Juan Guerra-Chazuta rd., 10 km (rd.) W Chazuta, 6°37.157'S 76°10.905'W; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Peru.

howelli Houp, Houp, & Harris, 1998: 99 [type locality: [United States], Kentucky, LaRue-Marion County line, Salt Lick Creek on Salt Lick Road; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

huaivat Malicky, Suwannarat, & Laudee, 2018: 1319 [type locality: Thailand, Huai Vat (Nebenbach des Klong Kay) bei Ban Pak Lang, nahe der Grenze zum Kao Nan Nationalpark, 8°47'N, 99°35'E, 140 m; Collection Malicky; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand.

hyllos Malicky, 2004b: 292 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), unweit des Wehrs des Babai Flusses, über das die Brücke der Ost-West-Haupstraße Nepals (Mahindra Highway), 28°25'N, 81°23'E, 190 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Mattern 2015: 500 [distribution].

Distribution. —Nepal.

icona Mosely, 1937b: 161 [type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Dolores; NHMUK; ♂]. —Edwards 1973: 506 [distribution]. —Cloud and Stewart 1974: 806 [biology; distribution]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978: 201 [distribution]. —Resh et al. 1978: 383 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 71 [checklist; ♂]. —Unzicker et al. 1982: 9, 13 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 110 [♂; distribution]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Moulton et al. 1993: 21 [distribution]. —Moulton et al. 1994: 169 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 100 [♂; distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Houghton and Stewart 1998: 106 [biology; distribution]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 38 [♂; distribution]. —Maes 1999: 1193 [checklist]. —Flint et al. 2003: 33 [♀; distribution; introduced to Hawaii]. —Baumgardner and Bowles 2005: 11 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2005: 68 [biology; distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2006: 332 [biology; distribution]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology]. —Bueno-Soria et al. 2007: 33 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al. 2007: 43 [checklist]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2009a: 305 [biology]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2009b: 186 [phenology; distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [♂; distribution]. —Barba-Álvarez et al. 2019: 85 [distribution]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 118 [checklist].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, U.S.A.

idefix Malicky, 1979: 6 [type locality: Portugal, Foz do Alva; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 42 [atlas; ♂]. —González et al. 1986: 113 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 51 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Martín et al. 2016: 261 [distribution].

Distribution. —Portugal, Spain.

incertula Mosely, 1934a: 145 [type locality: [Australia, Queensland] Brisbane; Collection Tillyard (transferred to NHMUK according to Wells, 1978: 761); ♂]. —Mosely and Kimmins 1953: 507 [♂]. —Wells 1978: 761 [♂]. —Wells 1978: 761 [♂]. —Wells 1984: 269 [distribution]. —Wells 1985b: 7 [case]. —Neboiss 1986: 61 [atlas; ♂]. —Wells 1990b: 385 [♂; ♀; case; distribution]. —Wells 1991: 501 [distribution]. —Malicky et al. 2010: 163 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 27 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky et al. 2014b: 832 [distribution]. —Wells et al. 2019: 33 [detection frequency].

Distribution. —Australia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Vanuatu.

inornata Flint, 1991b: 47 [type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Quebrada Espadera, 7 km E Medellín, road to Sta. Elena; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Muñoz-Quesada 2000: 277 [checklist].

Distribution. —Colombia.

insubrica Ris, 1903: 16 [type locality: [Switzerland], Kantons Tessin, Mendrisio; depository not designated; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Moretti et al. 1981: 350, 354 [biology; distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 45 [atlas; ♂]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999a: 57 [distribution]. —Valle 2001: 66 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 54 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 569, 575 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 140 [distribution].

Distribution. —Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland.

introspinata Zhou & Sun in Zhou et al. 2009a: 906, 910 [type locality: [China], Heilongjiang Province, Yichun City, 21°43'N, 128°53'E, Wuyiling, Ximiganhe, 310 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Malicky 2014a: 1610 [possible junior synonym to H. spinosa]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Park et al. 2018: 103 [♂; distribution]. —Ito and Shimura 2019: 30 [♂; ♀; distribution]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

Distribution. —China, Japan, Korea.

ion Malicky, 2004b: 292 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), bei dem Dorf Babai Basar in der Nähe der Straße von Nepalganj nach Birendranagar, ungefähr 30 km flussaufwärts vom Lager 1 (28°21'N, 81°42'E), lag das Ufer des Babai Nadi in wenigen Metern Entfemung, Kyuban Khola, 460 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Mattern 2015: 500 [distribution].

Distribution. —Nepal.

isabellae Gibon, 1987a: 129 [type locality: sur le Niouniourou à Zakpabéri (bassin du Niouniourou (Côte d’Ivoire); MNHN; ♂]. —Kjærandsen and Andersen 1997: 244 [distribution].

Distribution. —Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana.

ivisa Malicky, 1972: 30 [type locality: Austria inf., Lunz, Biologische Station; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 12 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 45 [atlas; ♂]. —Kumanski 1985: 139 [♂]. —Cianficconi and Moretti 1987: 670 [distribution]. —Weinzierl and Dorn 1995: 43 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999a: 57 [distribution]. —Urbanič 2004: 51 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 54, 64 [atlas]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Graf et al. 2005: 55 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 15 [checklist]. —Coppa 2010: 23 [distribution]. —Komzák and Kroča 2011: 190 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Malicky 2014b: 15 [teratological structures]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 140 [distribution].

Distribution. —Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Ukraine.

jackmanni Blickle, 1963: 17 [type locality: [United States], Maine, Dennistown; INHS; ♂]. —Etnier 1965: 147 [distribution]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Swegman et al. 1981: 132 [distribution]. —Huryn and Foote 1983: 790 [distribution]. —Huryn 1983: 93 [♀]. —Waltz and McCafferty 1983a: 10 [distribution]. —Steven and Hilsenhoff 1984: 164 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 1996: 240 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [distribution; biology]. —Houghton et al. 2011a: 388 [distribution; biology]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Houghton 2016: 46 [biology]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

jamin Malicky, O’Connor, Ashe, & Dowling, 2010: 157 [type locality: Indonesia, Sulawesi, Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, second waterfall on the Sungai Elok (waterfall stream), 0°36'N 123°54'E; NMID; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

jaruma Wells, 1990b: 388 [type locality: [Indonesia] Sulawesi Utara, Dumoga-Bone N.P., Site 6; NHMUK; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

jeannae Gibon, 1987a: 128 [type locality: [Côte d’Ivoire], sur le Cavally à Taï; MNHN; ♂]. —Kjærandsen and Andersen 1997: 244 [distribution].

Distribution. —Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana.

juba Enderlein, 1929: 232 [type locality: [Spain], Tenerife SW, in vorderen Teile des Baranco del Infierno, oberhalb von Adeje, am Rande eines in Felsen eingehauenen Wasserlaufes, dermit niederen Pflanzen bestanden; depository not designated; ♂]. —Nybom 1948: 5 [considered synonym of H. fortunata]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [as synonym of H. fortunata]. —Malicky 1987: 30 [considered distinct from H. fortunata]. —Malicky 1988a: 23 [morphological comparison with H. fortunata]. —Botosaneanu 2003: 107 [considered distinct from H. fortunata]. —Malicky 2004a: 53 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Hughes 2006: 29 [biology]. —González and Menéndez 2008: 188 [distribution]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution].

espada Malicky, 1981a: 182 [type locality: Portugal, Porto Espada; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 44 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky 1987: 30 [to synonymy]. —Malicky 1988a: 23 [as synonym of H. juba]. —Botosaneanu 2003: 107 [as synonym of H. fortunata].

Distribution. —Portugal, Spain.

judithae Gibon, 1987a: 128 [type locality: [Guinea], sur le Niger en amont de Kissidougou; MNHN; ♂].

Distribution. —Guinea.

juram Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1012 [type locality: Malaysia, Pahang: Merapoh, Taman Negara, Kuala Juram, 4°38'N 102°07'E, 150 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 27 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Malaysia.

kairos Malicky, 2004b: 293 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), bei dem Dorf Babai Basar in der Nähe der Straße von Nepalganj nach Birendranagar, ungefähr 30 km flussaufwärts vom Lager 1 (28°21'N, 81°42'E), lag das Ufer des Babai Nadi in wenigen Metern Entfemung, vom “östlicher” Bach, 320 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Mattern 2015: 500 [distribution].

Distribution. —Nepal.

kakidaensis Nozaki & Tanida, 2007: 246 [type locality: Japan, Kakida, Shimizu-ho, Shizuoka, 35°06'N 138°54'E; CBM-ZI; ♂; ♀]. —Ito et al. 2011: 19 [♂, ♀; distribution]. —Ito 2015: 8 [checklist]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist].

Distribution. —Japan.

kalchas Malicky, 2004b: 293 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), bei dem Dorf Babai Basar in der Nähe der Straße von Nepalganj nach Birendranagar, ungefähr 30 km flussaufwärts vom Lager 1 (28°21'N, 81°42'E), lag das Ufer des Babai Nadi in wenigen Metern Entfemung, vom “östlicher” Bach, 320 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [checklist]. —Malicky 2010a: 23 [atlas; ♂]. —Mattern 2015: 500 [distribution].

Distribution. —Nepal, Thailand.

kalonichtis Malicky, 1972: 30 [type locality: [Greece], Kreta, Kalonichtis; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 1974: 122 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 14 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky 1981a: 183 [♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 44 [atlas; ♂]. —Kumanski 1985: 127 [♂]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 129 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 53 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005a: 60 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist; distinct from H. vichtaspa]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 14 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2017b: 12 [distribution]. —Oláh 2017: 137 [distribution].

Distribution. —Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey.

karikatla Oláh & Johanson, 2011: 123 [type locality: Peru, San Martin Prov., creek crossing rd. Tarapoto-Yurimaguas, ca. 30 km (rd.) NE Tarapoto, 6°24.904'S 76°18.756'W; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Peru.

karima Oláh & Johanson, 2011: 123 [type locality: Peru, Amazonas Prov., river crossing Olmos-Tarapoto rd., 371 km (rd.) E Olmos Desv. Jaén, 5°41.178'S 77°46.421'W; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Peru.

kaschgari Mey, 1993: 335 [type locality: China, Xinjiang, Kashi (=Kaschgar), Abzugsgräben der Reisfelder im Süden; ZMHB; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Huang et al. 2005: 469 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

kebawah Wells & Huisman, 1992: 104 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, 20 km NE Ranau, Kg Nalumad, Sg. Mokodou, 06°06'N 116°43'E, 400 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 34 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Malaysia.

keres Malicky, 2004b: 293 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), unweit des Wehrs des Babai Flusses, über das die Brücke der Ost-West-Haupstraße Nepals (Mahindra Highway), 28°25'N, 81°23'E, 190 m, Budhi Khola; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [checklist]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 15 [♂; distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 24 [atlas; ♂]. —Mattern 2015: 500 [distribution]. —Bunlue et al. 2012: 15 [distribution]. —Malicky 2018: 49 [checklist]. —Malicky et al. 2018: 1323 [distribution].

Distribution. —Laos, Nepal, Thailand.

khonga Oláh & Johanson, 2010a: 16 [type locality: Vietnam, Lamdong Province, Baoloc, Baco stream; Collection Oláh; ♂]. —Malicky 2013: 43 [possible junior synonym to Hydroptila trullata].

Distribution. —Vietnam.

kieneri Marlier & Marlier, 1982: 20 [type locality: La Réunion, Station 58, sud de Piton Sainte-Rose, Anse des Cascades, 20–30 m, dans Cascade d’eau très claire et ruisselet; IRSNB; ♂; larva]. —Botosaneanu 2002a: 328 [♂].

Distribution. —Réunion.

kirilawela (Schmid, 1958b): 66 [type locality: [Sri Lanka], Ceylan, Kitulgala (Sab., 750 ft) 2-III, Kelani Ganga, belle rivière coulant dans une vallée étroite et boisée, à la sortie des montagnes; depository not designated; ♂; in Oxydroptila].

Distribution. —Sri Lanka.

klapperichi Malicky, 1996b: 203 [type locality: Jordan, Amman; LNKD; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 64 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist].

Distribution. —Jordan.

koropa Wells, 1984: 266 [type locality: [Papua] New Guinea, NE., Korop, Upper Jimmi Valley, 1300 m; BPBM; ♂]. —Neboiss 1986: 64 [atlas; ♂]. —Wells 1991: 503 [distribution].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

koryaki Harris & Sykora, 1996: 17 [type locality: [United States], West Virginia, Lewis County, Right Fork of the West Fork River, Walkersville; CMNH; ♂]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

kreusa Malicky, 2004b: 294 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), bei dem Dorf Babai Basar in der Nähe der Straße von Nepalganj nach Birendranagar, ungefähr 30 km flussaufwärts vom Lager 1 (28°21'N, 81°42'E), lag das Ufer des Babai Nadi in wenigen Metern Entfemung, Kyuban Khola, 460 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Mattern 2015: 500 [distribution]. —Malicky 2018: 49 [checklist].

Distribution. —Nepal.

kuehnei Houp, Houp, & Harris, 1998: 100 [type locality: [United States], Kentucky, LaRue-Marion County line, Salt Lick Creek on Salt Lick Road; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

kurukepitiya Schmid, 1958b: 62 [type locality: [Sri Lanka], Ceylan, Nuwara Eliya (C. P.) 26-II, cours supérieur de la Nanu Oya, petite rivière rapide, sur lit caillouteux; depository not designated; ♂].

Distribution. —Sri Lanka.

lacandona Bueno-Soria, 1984: 118 [type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, 10 km from Bonampak; CNIN; ♂]. —Barba-Álvarez et al. 2019: 85 [distribution].

Distribution. —Mexico.

lagoi Harris, 1985a: 248 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Tuscaloosa County, Big Sandy Creek at spring, 4 miles S Coaling, T22N, R7E, S25; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 185 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

laloka Wells, 1991: 503 [type locality: Papua New Guinea, Central Province, Laloki River at Rouna Falls, 9°25'S 147°27'E; ANIC; ♂].

Distribution. —Papua New Guinea.

latifilis Zhou & Yang in Zhou et al. 2009b: 355 [type locality: China, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Shangsi City, Nalin He, tributary of Mingjiang He, 2.0 km NW of main entrance to Shiwandashan National Forest Park, 21°51'N 107°53'E, 281 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

latosa Ross, 1947: 148 [type locality: [United States], Georgia, Tharpes’ Pond; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle, 1979: 48, 73 [checklist; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1982b: 81 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 186 [distribution]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Biondi 2010: 60 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [♂; checklist]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

lennoxi Blickle, 1969: 79 [type locality: [United States], Jefferson, New Hampshire; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 65[checklist; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 187 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

lenora Blickle & Denning, 1977: 295 [type locality: [United States], Oregon, Malheur County, Three Forks, 40 miles south of Jordan Valley, on the main branch of the Owyhee River, one mile upriver of the confluence of the 3 branches of the river; FSCA; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 69 [checklist; ♂].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

leptocera Zhou & Yang in Zhou et al. 2009a: 905, 910[type locality: [China], Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Shangsi City, Nalinhe, Trib of Mingjiang He, 2.0 km NW of main entrance to Shiwandashan National Forest Park, 21°54'N, 107°53'E, 281 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

libanica Botosaneanu & Dia in Dia and Botosaneanu 1983: 130 [type locality: [Lebanon], Station 9, Le Nahr ed Damour à 500 m en aval de son confluent avec Nahr el Hammam, il s’agit des 4 derniers km du cours d’eau, avant qu’il ne se jette à la mer, de 40 à 0 m; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 71 [♂, ♀]. —Malicky 2004a: 61 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution].

Distribution. —Lebanon.

licina Frazer & Harris, 1991b: 6 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, DeKalb County, West Fork of the Little River at DeSoto State Park, 50 m downstream mouth of Laurel Creek (Sec. 20, T 6 S, R 10 E); NMNH; ♂]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

lidah Wells & Huisman, 1992: 101 [type locality: East Malaysia, Sabah, 12 km NNE Ranau, Poring Hot Springs, Sg. Langanan, 06°03'N 116°43'E, 450 m; RMNH; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 34 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —East Malaysia.

lingigi Mey, 1998b: 4 [type locality: [Philippines], Mindanao, Surigao del Sur, Lingig; ZMHB; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

lloganae Blickle, 1961: 131 [type locality: [United States], Chattahoochee, Florida; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 69 [checklist; ♂]. —Etnier and Baxter 1999: 147 [♂]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [♂; checklist].

morsei Sykora & Harris, 1994: 71 [type locality: [United States], South Carolina, Dorchester Co., Four Holes Swamp, Goodsons Lake; CUAC; ♂]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Etnier and Baxter 1999: 147 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

lonchera Blickle & Morse, 1954: 122 [type locality: [United States], Lee, N. H.; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Usis and Foote 1989: 84 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 188 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution]. —Flint 2014: 90 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

longidorsalis Zhou & Yang in Zhou et al. 2009a: 908, 911 [type locality: [China], Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Shangsi City, Shiwandashan National Forest Park, Shitouhe at Second Trib, 3.4 km SW of main entrance to park, 21°53'N, 107°54'E, 392 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist; as longitabularis].

Distribution. —China.

longifilis Yang & Xue, 1994: 10 [type locality: [China], Sichuan, Pingwu county, 19 km E of Pingwu, tributary of Fujiang River, 1090 m; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist].

Distribution. —China.

longissima Bueno-Soria, 1984: 97 [type locality: Mexico, Guerrero, Acahuizotla; CNIN; ♂; as longissimus].

Distribution. —Honduras, Mexico.

losida Mosely in Mosely and Kimmins 1953: 505 [type locality: [Australia] Queensland, Eidswold; ANIC; ♂]. —Wells 1978: 757 [♂; ♀; distribution]. Wells 1985b: 6 [case; larva]. —Neboiss 1986: 60 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1995: 231 [distribution]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 18 [distribution]. —Wells and Johanson 2015: 82 [distribution]. —Johanson and Wells 2019: 93 [checklist].

Distribution. —Australia, New Caledonia.

lotensis Mosely, 1930b: 243 [type locality: France, Lot, Cahors; NHMUK; ♂]. —Martynov 1934: 133 [♂]. —Racięcka 1936: 98 [distribution]. —Schmid 1959b: 691 [distribution]. —Nybom 1960: 17 [checklist]. —Kimmins 1961: 32 [distribution; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Szczęsny 1975: 41 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 9 [♂; distribution]. —Çakin 1983: 246 [distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 47, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Kumanski and Malicky 1984: 199 [distribution]. —Nógrádi 1985: 131 [distribution; ♂]. —Kumanski 1985: 123 [♂]. —Nógrádi 1986: 139 [distribution]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 122 [distribution]. —Cooter 1987: 148 [distribution]. —Rojas-Camousseight and Tachet 1988: 313–314 [♀]. —Usseglio-Polatera and Bournaud 1989: 253 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 16 [checklist]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 1994: 31 [distribution]. —Nógrádi 1994: 277 [♂ ♀]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1997: 461 [distribution]. —Malicky 1997: 143 [distribution; ♂]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1998: 52 [distribution]. —Graf et al. 1998: 206 [distribution]. —Peissner et al. 1998: 169 [distribution]. —Peissner and Kappus 1998: 162, 163 [distribution]. —Malicky 1999f: 31 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 420 [distribution]. —Urbanič et al. 2000: 45 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 2001: 95 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2001: 297 [checklist]. —Coppa 2001: 94 [distribution]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Ujvárosi 2002: 384 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2002: 130 [distribution]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 57 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2005: 65 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005a: 61 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2006: 137 [distribution]. —Mey 2006a: 159 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 15 [checklist]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 112 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2008: 64 [checklist]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —Neu 2010: 150 [♀]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2012: 719 [distribution]. —Lock and Goethals 2012: 28 [checklist]. —Kiss 2012: 28 [distribution]. —Stanić-Koštroman et al. 2015: 85 [distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 12 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —Wallace 2016: 15, 20, 22, 23, 26, 50 [conservation status]. —Melnitsky et al. 2017: 6 [distribution]. —Ibrahimi et al. 2017: 189 [distribution]. —Lock and van Butsel 2018: 3 [distribution; ♀]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2019: 229 [distribution]. —Cerjanec et al. 2020: 13 [distribution]. —Oláh et al. 2020: 45 [distribution]. —Navara et al. 2020: 46 [distribution].

Distribution. —Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine.

luzonensis Mey, 2003b: 433 [type locality: Philippines, Luzon, Quezon province, east of Infanta, Magsaysay; ZMHB, to be transferred to either MPMP or UPLB; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

lyaios Malicky, 2004b: 294 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), bei dem Dorf Babai Basar in der Nähe der Straße von Nepalganj nach Birendranagar, ungefähr 30 km flussaufwärts vom Lager 1 (28°21'N, 81°42'E), lag das Ufer des Babai Nadi in wenigen Metern Entfemung, Ratomate Khola, 350 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Mattern 2015: 501 [distribution].

Distribution. —Nepal.

maculata (Banks, 1904b): 116 [type locality: [United States], Virginia, Falls Church; MCZ; ♂; in Allotrichia]. —Banks 1904a: 215 [distribution]. —Banks 1907a: 50 [catalogue]. —Betten 1934: 148 [checklist]. —Milne 1936: 76 [to Hydroptila]. —Ross 1938b: 9 [lectotype designated; ♂]. —Ross 1944: 296 [checklist]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 65 [checklist; ♂]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [♂; checklist].

transversa Banks, 1907b: 163 [type locality: [United States], Washington, D. C.; MCZ; ♂]. —Banks 1907a: 50 [catalogue]. —Milne 1936: 77 [as synonym of albicornis]. —Ross 1938b: 9 [lectotype designated; to synonymy].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

maetalai Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1014 [type locality: Thailand, Mae Talai (Süd), 19°16'N 98°37'E, 400 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 29 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand.

makaplag Wells & Mey, 2002: 126 [type locality: [Philippines] Leyte, Makaplag; BPBM; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

malacitana González & Ruiz in González et al. 2013: 397 [type locality: [Spain], Júzcar (36°37'10"N, 005°09'13.9"W), Vado del Genal, Río Genal, Serranía de Ronda, 521 m, Málaga; DZUSC; ♂]. —Ruiz-García et al. 2016: 4 [distribution].

Distribution. —Spain.

manavgatensis Malicky & Çakin in Çakin and Malicky 1983: 270 [type locality: [Turkey], Antalya, Manavgat, Besonak; depository not designated; ♂]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 129 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 53 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2017b: 12 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2018: 41 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

maoae Gibon, Guenda, & Coulibaly, 1994: 110 [type locality: sur la haute Léraba (bassin de la Comoé, région de Banfora, Burkina Faso); MNHN; ♂]. —Wells and de Moor 2020: 497 [distribution].

Distribution. —Angola, Burkina Faso.

mariatheresae Gibon, 1987a: 127 [type locality: sur le Bakoye à Kita (bassin du Sénégal, Mali); MNHN; ♂]. —Kjærandsen and Andersen 1997: 244 [distribution].

Distribution. —Ghana, Mali.

marighellai de Souza, Santos, & Takiya, 2014b: 640 [type locality: Brazil, Ceará, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, Rio das Minas próximo ao teleférico, 03°48'58"S 40°53'53"W, 420 m; CZMA; ♂]. —Moreno et al. 2020: 265 [distribution].

Distribution. —Brazil.

maritza Harris & Holzenthal, 1999: 21 [type locality: Costa Rica, Guanacaste, Parque Nacional Guanacaste, Maritza, Río Tempisquito, 10.958°N, 85.497°W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —Costa Rica.

martini Marshall, 1977: 116 [type locality: [England], R. Lambourne, Berkshire; NHMUK; ♂; ♀; H. occulta sensu aucttorum nec (Eaton, 1873)]. —Mosely 1939: 265 [[♀; as H. occulta]. —Schmid 1947: 529 [♀; as H. occulta]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 1980: 167 [distribution]. —Moretti et al. 1981a: 350, 354 [biology; distribution]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 48, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Maier et al. 1995: 147 [distribution]. —Hohmann 1998: 73 [distribution]. —Hohmann 1999: 34, 35 [distribution; checklist]. —Wiberg-Larsen and Holm 1999: 118 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 1999b: 278 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2001: 297 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2002: 146 [distribution]. —Urbanič 2004: 51 [distribution]. —Malicky 2004a: 60 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Coppa and Tachet 2005: 130 [♀]. —Cianficconi et al. 2005: 96 [habitat; distribution]. —Graf et al. 2005: 55 [distribution]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2006: 358 [distribution]. —Gullefors and Johanson 2007: 62 [distribution; ♂; ♀]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 569, 575 [distribution]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 112 [checklist]. —Cianficconi and Corallini 2010: 87 [distribution]. —Corallini and Cianficconi 2011: 628 [checklist]. —Cianficconi et al. 2011: 47 [distribution]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —O’Connor 2015: 28, 82 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 140 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —Wallace 2016: 21, 24 [conservation status]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2017b: 53 [distribution]. —Valle and Lodovici 2018: 146 [distribution]. —Komzák and Kroča 2018: 166 [distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 2018: 82 [distribution]. —Edmonds-Brown 2020: 91 [checklist].

Distribution. —Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Slovenia, Romania, Spain, Sweden.

martorelli Flint, 1964: 52 [type locality: Puerto Rico, Maricao, at fish hatchery; NMNH; ♂; ♀; larva; case]. —Flint 1968a: 82 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983c: 264 [distribution]. —Flint and Sykora 1993: 50 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1994a: 41 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 2000: 256 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu and Thomas 2005: 55 [checklist].

Distribution. —Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico.

maza Harris & Holzenthal, 1999: 29 [type locality: Costa Rica, San José, Reserva Biológica Carara, Río de Sur, 1.5 km (rd) S Carara, 9.769°N, 84.531°W; NMNH; ♂]. —Armitage et al. 2016: 7 [distribution]. —Armitage and Harris 2018b: 97 [checklist]. —Harris and Armitage 2019: 4 [distribution].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Panama.

mazumbaiensis Wells & Andersen, 1995: 160 [type locality: Tanzania, Tanga region, West Usambara Mts, Mazumbai, Kaputu Stream, loc. 7, 1535 m a.s.l.; ZMUB; ♂].

Distribution. —Tanzania.

medinai Flint, 1964: 54 [type locality: Puerto Rico, Maricao, at fish hatchery; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Flint 1968a: 82 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1977: 271 [♂; variation; distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1979: 51 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1987: 30 [distribution]. —Botosaneanu 1991: 130 [distribution]. —Flint 1996a: 16 [checklist]. —Flint and Pérez-Gelabert 1999: 39 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 2002b: 83 [checklist]. —Flint and Sykora 2004: 31 [distribution]. —Naranjo López and González Lazo 2005: 149 [checklist]. —Pérez-Gelabert 2008: 300 [checklist].

Distribution. —Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico.

melia Ross, 1938a: 128 [type locality: [United States], Oklahoma, Turner Falls State Park, along Honey Creek; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 69 [checklist; ♂]. —Bowles and Mathis 1992: 32 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 100 [♂; distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

mendli mendli Malicky, 1980a: 7 [type locality: [Morocco], Gorges du Todra, 1400 m; depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 1983b: 49 [atlas; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1984: 136 [♂]. —Malicky and Lounaci 1987: 15, 17 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 61 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution].

Distribution. —Morocco, Turkey.

mendli levanti Botosaneanu, 1984: 137 [type locality: [Lebanon], sur le Nahr ed Damour en aval de son confluent avec le Nahr el Hammam, Liban Central, il s’agit des 4 derniers kilomètres d’une petite rivière prenant ses sources dans le versant occidental de la montagne du Barouk et se jetant à la Méditerranée entre Saïda et Beyrouth; ZMUA; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 67 [♂]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution].

Distribution. —Lebanon.

meralda Mosely, 1937b: 162 [type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Esmeralda; NHMUK; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978: 201 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 109 [♂;]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 42 [♂; distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al. 2007: 43 [checklist]. —Barba-Álvarez et al. 2019: 85 [distribution].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua.

metoeca Blickle & Morse, 1954: 127 [type locality: [United States], Lee, N. H.; INHS; ♂]. —Etnier 1968: 191 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 65 [checklist; ♂]. —Parker and Voshell 1981: 4 [checklist]. —Marshall and Larson 1982: 30 [distribution]. —Lake 1984: 219 [checklist]. —Usis and Foote 1989: 84 [distribution]. —Masteller and Flint 1992: 70 [checklist]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Houghton and Holzenthal 2003: 37 [not found in MN; conservation status]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution]. —Armitage et al. 2011: 14 [checklist]. —Houghton et al. 2011b: 5 [phenology; habitat]. —Wright et al. 2013: 466 [biology; distribution]. —Houghton 2016: 46 [biology]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

metteei Harris, 1991: 12 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Houston County, Cowarts Creek at unnumbered Co. Hwy., 8.8 km ENE Cottonwood (Sec. 10, T 1 N., R 28 E); NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 189 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [distribution]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

mexicana Mosely, 1937b: 160 [type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Dolores; NHMUK; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978: 201 [distribution]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 109 [♂; distribution]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 42 [♂; distribution]. —Maes 1999: 1193 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria et al. 2005: 75 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al. 2007: 43 [checklist]. —Armitage et al. 2016: 7 [distribution]. —Armitage and Harris 2018b: 97 [checklist]. —Harris and Armitage 2019: 4 [distribution]. —Razo-González et al. 2020: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.

micropotamis Harris, 1989: 312 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, De Kalb County, Little River at Canyon Park, 4 miles E Dog Town, T8S, R9E, S10; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 190 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

mindamontana Mey, 1998a: 553 [type locality: [Philippines, Mindanao], northern slope of Mt. Atuuganon range, 1050 m; ZMHB; ♂]. —Wells and Mey 2002: 134 [checklist]. —Malicky 2013: 43 [possible junior synonym to H. pedemontana].

Distribution. —Philippines.

misolha Bueno-Soria, 1984: 127 [type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Cascada de Misolha; CNIN; ♂]. —Maes and Flint 1988: 4 [distribution]. —Harris and Holzenthal 1999: 45 [♂; distribution]. —Maes 1999: 1193 [checklist]. —Bueno-Soria et al. 2005: 75 [distribution]. —Chamorro-Lacayo et al. 2007: 43 [checklist].

Distribution. —Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua.

mitirigalla Schmid, 1958b: 64 [type locality: [Sri Lanka], Ceylan, Lauderdale (Sab., 3500 ft) 5-II, torrent très raide, avec chutes; depository not designated; ♂].

Distribution. —Sri Lanka.

modica Mosely, 1937b: 163 [type locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Dolores; NHMUK; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria and Flint 1978: 202 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 63 [checklist; ♂]. —Bueno-Soria 1984: 90 [♂; distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [distribution]. —Newell et al. 2001: 192 [distribution; phenology]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2005: 68 [distribution; biology]. —Bowles et al. 2007: 21 [distribution; biology]. —Bueno-Soria et al. 2007: 33 [distribution]. —Vieira et al. 2009: 257 [distribution]. —Blinn and Ruiter 2013: 291 [biology; distribution]. —Mendez et al. 2019: 128 [checklist].

Distribution. —Mexico, U.S.A.

mokowu Wells & Huisman, 2001: 208 [type locality: Sulawesi Tenggara, N slope of Gunung Watuwila, 250 m, Sungai Mokowu; RMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

molsonae Blickle, 1961: 132 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Highlands Hammock State Park, Highlands Co.; INHS; ♂]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 67 [checklist; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1982a: 510 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 191 [distribution]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [♂; checklist]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

montatan Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1019 [type locality: Thailand, Doi Suthep NP, Montatan WF, 18°49'N 98°55'E, 550 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 25 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand.

morogorensis Wells & Andersen, 1995: 158 [type locality: Tanzania, Morogoro region, Morogoro, Sokoine University of Agriculture, 550 m a.s.l.; ZMUB; ♂].

Distribution. —Tanzania.

morpheus Malicky, 2004b: 294 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), unweit des Wehrs des Babai Flusses, über das die Brücke der Ost-West-Haupstraße Nepals (Mahindra Highway), 28°25'N, 81°23'E, 190 m, Budhi Khola; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Mattern 2015: 501 [distribution].

Distribution. —Nepal.

moselyi Ulmer, 1932: 42 [type locality: [China], Peiping; ZMUH; ♂]. —Kumanski 1990: 48 [distribution]. —Xue et al. 1992: 353–356 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Park and Kong 2020: 297 [checklist].

Distribution. —China, Korea.

moxica Wells & de Moor, 2020: 498 [type locality: Angola, Moxico Province, Cuando River, Site 8 — Cuando campsite bridge, -13.607, 19.53235; AMGS; ♂].

Distribution. —Angola.

mugla Sipahiler, 1989: 131 [type locality: Turkey, Mugla, Fethiye, 30 km to Köycegiz, 29°02'N, 36°45'E; depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 63 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Melnitsky et al. 2017: 6 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

murtlei Harris, Rasmussen, & Denson, 2012: 2 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Bay Co., Little Crooked Creek at SR-79, Pine Log State Forest, 2.4 km S Ebro, N30°24'48", W85°52'04"; NMNH; ♂]. —Denson et al. 2016: 5 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

nago Ito, in Ito and Shimura 2019: 27 [type locality: Japan, Ryukyu, Okinawa-jima, Nago-shi, Genka, Genka-gawa, Hogen-hashi (26.6292 N, 128.0847 E, 90 m above sea level); CBM-ZI; ♂].

Distribution. —Japan.

nambelensis Johanson, Wells, Malm, & Espeland, 2011: 290 [type locality: [Vanuatu] Espiritu Santo, Central Santo, stream in small canyon crossing path to village, 5.5 km NW Nambel, 208 m, loc#21, 15°27.459'S, 167°04.022'E; NHRS; ♂].

Distribution. —Vanuatu.

namcattien Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1020 [type locality: Vietnam, Nam Cat Tien, 11°26'N 107°26'E, 200 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2010a: 32 [atlas; ♂].

motminh Oláh & Johanson, 2010a: 18 [type locality: Laos, Luang Namtha Prov., Nam Ha NBCA, Nam Gnang stream, 300 m upstr. Namgnen Village, 558 m; NHRS; ♂]. —Malicky 2013: 43 [to synonymy].

Distribution. —Laos, Vietnam.

nanseiensis Ito, in Ito et al. 2011: 15 [type locality: Japan, Okinawa, Yaeyima Islands, Ishigaki-jima, Omoto-dake, 24°25'N 124°11'E, 80 m; CBM-ZI; ♂]. —Ito 2015: 8, 15 [distribution]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist].

Distribution. —Japan.

narifer Flint, 1991b: 47 [type locality: Colombia, Dpto. Antioquia, Quebrada La Jiménez, Sopetrán; NMNH; ♂; ♀]. —Muñoz-Quesada 2000: 278 [checklist].

Distribution. —Colombia.

nasuli Wells & Mey, 2002: 130 [type locality: [Philippines] Mindanao, Nasuli nr Malaybalay, Bukidnon; BPBM; ♂]. Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1024 [distribution]. —Malicky 2009b: 10 [distribution].

Distribution. —Philippines.

neciel Malicky, Melnitsky, & Ivanov, 2020: 538 [type locality: [Indonesia], Papua, 3 k S Wamena, Helaluwa river, 1679 m, 4°08'S, 138°56'E; ZIN; ♂].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

nemtompa Oláh, 2012: 48 [type locality: Indonesia, Papua, Raja Empat Archipelago, Batanta Island, Ron Creek, 0°49'16.37"S 130°49'23.72"E; Collection Oláh; ♂]. —Oláh 2016: 113 [distribution]. —Oláh and Kovács 2018: 179 [distribution].

Distribution. —Indonesia.

neoleonensis Bueno-Soria, 1984: 113 [type locality: Mexico, Nuevo Leon, Linares; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —Mexico.

ngaythibaya Oláh, 1989: 283 [type locality: Vietnam, Ngoclac; HNHM; ♂]. —Armitage et al. 2005: 27 [checklist]. —Malicky 2010a: 26 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Vietnam.

nicoli Ross, 1941a: 69 [type locality: [Canda], Nova Scotia, Moser River, Gold Mine Brok; INHS; ♂; ♀]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 65 [checklist; ♂]. —Myers et al. 2011: 106 [distribution]. —Flint 2014: 90 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 62 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

nigrovalvata Mey, 2003b: 433 [type locality: Philippines, Luzon, Laguna, Pangil; ZMHB, to be transferred to either MPMP or UPLB; ♂].

Distribution. —Philippines.

novicola Blickle & Morse, 1954: 124 [type locality: [United States], Durham, N. H.; INHS; ♂]. —Etnier 1968: 191 [distribution]. —Blickle 1979: 48, 73 [checklist; ♂]. —Roy and Harper 1979: 151 [checklist]. —Roy and Harper 1981: 105 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1982a: 510 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1984: 108 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 1991: 192 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 19 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist]. —Abbott et al. 1997: 44 [distribution]. —Huryn and Harris 2000: 193 [distribution]. —Houghton et al. 2001: 504 [distribution]. —Houghton and Holzenthal 2003: 39 [distribution]. —Pescador et al. 2004: 133 [checklist]. —Myers et al. 2011: 107 [distribution]. —Harris et al. 2012: 6 [♂; checklist]. —Houghton 2016: 46 [biology]. —Houghton et al. 2017: 63 [checklist].

Distribution. —Canada, U.S.A.

nusagandia Harris & Holzenthal, 1999: 29 [type locality: Panama, San Blas, Quebrada Pingad, 9 km N Nusagandi; NMNH; ♂]. —Armitage et al. 2015a: 6 [checklist]. —Armitage and Harris 2018b: 97 [checklist].

Distribution. —Panama.

oakmulgeensis Harris, 1985b: 612 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Choctaw County, Tallawampa Creek at Co. Hwy. 23; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 193 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

obscura Wells, 1978: 758 [type locality: [Australia], Queensland, Palmer River; ANIC; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1985b: 7 [pupa case]. —Neboiss 1986: 62 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Wells 1990b: 382 [♂; ♀; case; distribution]. —Wells 1991: 504 [distribution]. —Wells and Huisman 1992: 97 [distribution]. —Wells and Mey 2002: 128 [distribution]. —Malicky and Chantaramongkol 2007: 1023 [distribution]. —Malicky 2009b: 10 [distribution]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 19 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 23 [atlas; ♂]. —Malicky et al. 2010: 163 [distribution]. —Oláh 2012: 49 [distribution]. —Oláh 2016: 111 [distribution; ♂].

Distribution. —Australia, Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines.

occulta (Eaton, 1873): 135 [type locality: [England], Mappleton, near Ashbourne, Derbyshire, between the bridge and the weir; NHMUK; ♂; in Phrixocoma]. —McLachlan 1880: 512 [revision; ♂]. —Morton 1899b: 281 [distribution]. —Mosely 1919a: 396 [scent-organ]. —Ulmer 1929: 263 [morphological notes]. —Racięcka 1936: 98 [distribution].—Nielsen 1951: 122 [distribution; ♂; ♀]. —Kimmins 1957a: 109 [lectotype designation]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Spuris 1972: 28, 30 [checklist]. —Marshall 1977: 119 [revision; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Kumanski 1979: 12 [♂; distribution]. —O’Connor and O’Connor 1980: 167 [distribution]. —Mey 1981: 56 [distribution]. —Moretti and Cianficconi 1981: 201 [checklist]. —Çakin 1983: 246 [distribution]. —Malicky 1983b: 48, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Kumanski and Malicky 1984: 199 [distribution]. —Kumanski 1985: 130 [♂]. —Andersen and Tysse 1985: 84 [distribution]. —Wiberg-Larsen 1985: 40 [checklist]. —Glapska 1986: 30 [distribution]. —Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 112, 129, 143 [distribution]. —Andersen and Wiberg-Larsen 1987: 168 [checklist]. —Usseglio-Polatera and Bournaud 1989: 254 [distribution]. —Spuris 1989: 16 [checklist]. —Andersen et al. 1990: 52 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1998: 52 [distribution]. —Uherkovich and Nógrádi 1999: 420 [distribution]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2001: 297 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2002: 138 [checklist]. —Mirmoayedi and Malicky 2002: 164 [checklist]. —Nógrádi and Uherkovich 2002: 130 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi 2002: 384 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2003b: 33 [distribution]. —Cibaitė 2003a: 10 [checklist]. —Malicky 2004a: 60, 64 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Coppa and Tachet 2005: 127, 130 [♂; ♀]. —Weinzierl et al. 2005: 46 [distribution]. —Malicky 2005a: 61 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Lubini-Ferlin and Vicentini 2005: 67 [checklist]. —Hohmann et al. 2006: 111 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2007b: 569, 575 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Gullefors and Johanson 2007: 64 [distribution]. —Robert 2007: 82 [checklist]. —Szczęsny and Godunko 2008: 15 [checklist]. —Gullefors 2008: 64 [checklist]. —Chvojka and Komzák 2008: 13 [distribution]. —Ujvárosi et al. 2008: 112 [checklist]. —Chvojka et al. 2009: 82 [distribution]. —Višinskienė 2009: 27 [checklist]. —González and Menéndez 2011: 119 [distribution]. —Crofts 2011: 72 [distribution]. —Ivanov 2011: 195 [checklist]. —Šemnički et al. 2011: 149 [distribution]. —Viidalepp et al. 2011: 196 [distribution]. —Komzák and Chvojka 2012: 720 [distribution]. —Lock and Goethals 2012: 28 [checklist]. —Wolf et al. 2012: 75 [distribution]. —Corallini et al. 2013a: 38 [checklist]. —Karaouzas and Malicky 2015: 14 [distribution]. —O’Connor 2015: 28, 84 [distribution]. —Dia 2015: 51 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 12 [distribution]. —Smirnova et al. 2016: 401 [distribution]. —Cianficconi et al. 2016: 141 [distribution]. —Pan’kov and Krasheninnikov 2016: 333 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2016: 12 [distribution]. —Gullefors 2016: 155 [checklist]. —Wallace 2016: 21, 24 [conservation status]. —Sipahiler 2017b: 12 [distribution]. —Melnitsky et al. 2017: 6 [distribution]. —Komzák and Kroča 2018: 166 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2018: 41 [distribution].

insignis Martynov, 1927: 176 [type locality: [Kazakhstan?], Turkestan, River Boroldai, near the vill. Alexeievka, district Katchkar-ata, East Kara-tau; depository not designated; ♂]. —Martynov 1934: 143 [♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [suggested synonym]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [to synonymy]. —Spuris 1989: 16 [checklist].

kimminsi Mosely, 1930b: 245 [type locality: France, Lozère, Mende; NHMUK; ♂]. —Schmid 1947: 531 [distribution]. —Nybom 1960: 18 [checklist]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [distribution]. —Marshall 1977: 119 [to synonymy]. —Spuris 1989: 16 [checklist].

parthava Schmid, 1959b: 686 [type locality: [Iran] Durb Adam (Ost. 9); CNC; ♂]. —Botosaneanu 1967: 294 [probable synonym]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [to synonymy]. —Lonsdale 2020: 38 [holotype depository].

Distribution. —Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

oemerueneli Sipahiler, 2003a: 20 [type locality: Turkey, Kastamonu, Pinarbasi, Varla Mahallesi, Devrekani Kanyonu, Devrekani Deresi, 41°36'N, 33°54'E; depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 63 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2007: 38 [distribution]. —Sipahiler 2008: 104 [checklist]. —Küçükbasmaci and Kiyak 2017: 488 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

ogasawaraensis Ito in Ito et al. 2011: 7 [type locality: Japan, Ogasawara Islands, Chichi-jima, Ogasawara-mura, a headwater of Yasse-gawa, 27°03'55"N 142°13'08"E; CBM-ZI, 210 m; ♂]. —Ito 2015: 8 [checklist]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist].

Distribution. —Japan.

oguranis Kobayashi, 1974: 68 [type locality: [Japan], Mt. Ogura, Shiroyama-Machi, Tsukuigun, Kanagawa Prefecture; depository not designated; ♂]. —Ito et al. 1993: 142 [checklist]. —Morse et al. 2001: 102 [distribution]. —Tanida et al. 2005: 441 [♂]. —Nozaki and Tanida 2007: 245 [distribution]. —Ito et al. 2011: 8 [♂, ♀; distribution]. —Ito 2015: 8, 15 [checklist]. —Tanida and Kuranishi 2016: 70 [checklist].

Distribution. —Japan, Russia.

okaloosa Harris, 2002: 53 [type locality: [United States], Florida, Okaloosa County, Rogue Creek, 0.6 km S Base Rd. 232, Eglin Air Force Base, 30°33'19"N, 86°34'52"W; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 2012: 7 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

oknos Malicky, 2004b: 294 [type locality: [Nepal, Bardia National Park], am Rande der nordindischen Ebene im Südwesten von Nepal im Bereich des ersten Hügelkammes des Himalaya (Siwalik Range), bei dem Dorf Babai Basar in der Nähe der Straße von Nepalganj nach Birendranagar, ungefähr 30 km flussaufwärts vom Lager 1 (28°21'N, 81°42'E), lag das Ufer des Babai Nadi in wenigen Metern Entfemung, vom “östlicher” Bach, 320 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Malicky 2006: 252 [checklist]. —Mattern 2015: 501 [distribution].

Distribution. —Nepal.

oneili Harris, 1985b: 618 [type locality: [United States], Alabama, Bibb County, spring at Schutlz Creek Church, 2.5 miles southwest of West Blocton; NMNH; ♂]. —Harris et al. 1991: 194 [distribution]. —Frazer et al. 1991: 20 [distribution]. —Moulton and Stewart 1996: 101 [♂; distribution]. —Etnier 2010: 485 [distribution].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

orion Malicky & Chantaramongkol, 2007: 1018 [type locality: Thailand, Tung Salaeng NP, 16°49'N 100°57'E, 600 m; Collection Malicky; ♂]. —Oláh and Johanson 2010a: 19 [distribution]. —Malicky 2010a: 26 [atlas; ♂].

Distribution. —Thailand, Vietnam.

ornithocephala Yang & Xue, 1992: 27 [type locality: [China] Wudalianchi, Heilongjiang; NAUJ; ♂]. —Yang et al. 1997b: 93 [checklist]. —Morse et al. 2001: 102 [distribution]. —Yang et al. 2005: 458 [checklist]. —Yang et al. 2016: 476 [checklist]. —Potikha and Vshivkova 2016: 364 [distribution].

Distribution. —China, Russia.

ortaca Sipahiler, 1989: 129 [type locality: Turkey, Mugla, Fethiye, 10 km to Köycegiz, 29°02'N, 36°45'E; depository not designated; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 53 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

osa Harris & Holzenthal, 1999: 21 [type locality: Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Quebrada Pita, ca 3 km (air) W Golfito, 8.642°N, 83.193°W; NMNH; ♂].

Distribution. —Costa Rica.

ouachita Holzenthal & Kelley, 1983: 468 [type locality: [United States], Louisiana, Jackson Parish, Schoolhouse Spring, T17N, R1W, Sec. 12; NMNH; ♂]. —Moulton and Stewart 1997: 350 [checklist].

Distribution. —U.S.A.

ovacikensis Sipahiler in Sipahiler and Malicky 1987: 86 [type locality: Turkey, Tunceli, 15 km NE Ovacik, Mercan Vadisi, Mollaaliler Köyü; type depository not given; ♂]. —Malicky 2004a: 64 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005: 397 [distribution].

Distribution. —Turkey.

palaestinae Botosaneanu & Gasith, 1971: 99 [type locality: [Israel], Beit She’an; TAU; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu and Malicky 1978: 341 [checklist]. —Malicky 1983b: 49, 52 [atlas; ♂; ♀]. —Botosaneanu 1992: 69 [♂; ♀]. —Malicky 2004a: 61 [atlas]. —Malicky 2005b: 544 [checklist]. —Sipahiler 2005