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Research Article
A new species of the genus Castoponera (Araneae, Corinnidae) from Sarawak, Borneo, with comparison to a related species
expand article infoTakeshi Yamasaki, Yoshiaki Hashimoto§, Tomoji Endo|, Fujio Hyodo, Takao Itioka#
‡ Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
§ Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Hyogo/Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan
| School of Human Science, Kobe College, Hyogo, Japan
¶ Research Core for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
# Graduate School of Human and Environment Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Open Access

Abstract

A new species of the genus Castoponera Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001, Castoponera christae sp. n., is described here. The species is closely related to C. lecythus Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001, but can be distinguished by the structures of the male palp and the female genitalia.

Keywords

Castianeirinae, taxonomy, myrmecomorphy, Southeast Asia

Introduction

The genus Castoponera Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 is endemic to Southeast Asia, and is currently comprised of three species (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001; World Spider Catalog 2016). From Borneo, two species, C. scotopoda Deeleman-Reinhold, 1993 and C. lecythus Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001, have been recorded. Castoponera species closely resemble Ponerinae ants and they commonly occur on the forest floor. The morphological resemblance to ants is known as myrmecomorphy and is a common phenomenon in the Corinnidae (Cushing 1997, 2012; Haddad 2013; Raven 2015; Reiskind 1969).

Our group has conducted several investigations in Borneo to reveal the association between ant-mimicking spiders and ants. Although the Corinnidae fauna in Southeast Asia has been comprehensively reviewed by Deeleman-Reinhold (1993, 2001), our investigations have resulted in the discovery of an undescribed corinnid species. We here describe it, in comparison with the closely related species, C. lecythus.

Materials and methods

Specimens examined here were collected from the forest floors in Danum Valley Field Centre, Tawau Hills Park and Poring Hot Spring, Sabah, and Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Borneo (Fig. 1). Collected spiders were preserved in 75% ethanol. The morphology was examined using a Nikon SMZ1270 microscope, and specimens were sorted and identified on the basis of descriptions in Deeleman-Reinhold (2001). Multi-focused montage images were produced using Helicon Focus ver. 4.2.9 from several series of source images. The habitus images were obtained using a Canon EOS 60D camera with a Canon MP-E 65mm macro lens and the images of the male palp and female genitalia were obtained by the same camera attached to a Nikon AZ100 microscope.

Figure 1.

Study sites and distribution of Castoponera species on Borneo (modified from Deeleman-Reinhold 2001).

Methodology and terminology for the description follow Deeleman-Reinhold (2001). The leg spination of each segment is described as a row of spines from proximal to distal parts on each side (dorsal, ventral, prolateral and retrolateral sides). However, recognition of spine position on distal part of metatarsi III and IV was very difficult due to the narrow segments. For the distal spines on these segments the total number of spines is given, without positional information. For the width of the eye region, the width of posterior eye row was measured. All measurements are given in millimeters. Abbreviations used in the present paper are as follows: ALE, anterior lateral eyes; AME, anterior median eyes; d, dorsal; pl, prolateral; PLE, posterior lateral eyes; PME, posterior median eyes; rl, retrolateral; v, ventral.

The holotype designated here is deposited in the Forest Research Centre, Sarawak, Malaysia (FRCS), and the paratypes in FRCS and the Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo, Japan (MNHAH).

Taxonomy

Castoponera Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001

Castoponera christae Yamasaki, sp. n.

Figs 2–8, 9–14, 15–18

Type material

Holotype male (FRCS; LCo20090226 Itioka), Sungai Liku (Liku River), 4°14'N, 114°03'E, Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Borneo, 29-II-2009, T. Itioka leg. Paratypes: 1 female (FRCS; LCo20070822-AMS2), same locality as the holotype, 22-VIII-2007, Y. Hashimoto & T. Endo leg.; 1 male (MNHAH; LCo20140331-HYO1), same locality as the holotype, 31-III-2014, F. Hyodo leg.

Diagnosis

In males, C. christae sp. n. is distinguishable from C. ciliata (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1993) and C. scotopoda by the long embolus (Figs 6, 15, cf. figs 445, 449 in Deeleman-Reinhold 2001), and from C. lecythus by the tapering distal region of the bulb: lateral margins are more or less parallel in C. lecythus (Figs 6, 15 vs. Figs 23, 32). In females, C. christae sp. n. is distinguishable from C. ciliata and C. scotopoda by the long and curved insemination ducts (Figs 14, 18, cf. figs 448, 451 in Deeleman-Reinhold 2001), and from C. lecythus by the position of the copulatory opening on the copulatory atrium, the position of insemination duct where it joins the bursa, and the rounded shape of the bursa (Figs 13–14, 17–18 vs. Figs 30–31, 34–35).

Figures 2–8.

Castoponera christae sp. n., male. 2 habitus, dorsal view 3 habitus, lateral view 4 habitus, ventral view 5 chelicera and fang, ventral view 6 palp, ventral view 7 palp, retrolateral view 8 palp, dorsal view. Scales: 1.0 mm (2–4), 0.5 mm (5–8).

Figures 9–14.

Castoponera christae sp. n., female. 9 habitus, dorsal view 10 habitus, lateral view 11 habitus, ventral view 12 chelicera and fang, ventral view 13 epigyne, ventral view 14 internal structures of genitalia, dorsal view. Scales: 1.0 mm (9–11), 0.5 mm (12–14).

Figures 15–18.

Castoponera christae sp. n. 15 male palp, ventral view 16 male palp, retrolateral view 17 epigyne, ventral view 18 internal structures of genitalia. Scales: 0.5 mm (15–16), 0.25 mm (17–18).

Figures 19–25.

Castoponera lecythus, male. 19 habitus, dorsal view 20 habitus, lateral view 21 habitus, ventral view 22 chelicera and fang, ventral view 23 palp, ventral view 24 palp, retrolateral view 25 palp, dorsal view. Scales: 1.0 mm (19–21), 0.5 mm (22–25).

Figures 26–31.

Castoponera lecythus, female. 26 habitus, dorsal view 27 habitus, lateral view 28 habitus, ventral view 29 chelicera and fang, ventral view 30 epigyne, ventral view 31 internal structures of genitalia, dorsal view. Scales: 1.0 mm (26–28), 0.5 mm (29–31).

Figures 32–35.

Castoponera lecythus. 32 male palp, ventral view 33 male palp, retrolateral view 34 epigyne, ventral view 35 internal structures of genitalia, dorsal view. Scales: 0.5 mm (32–33), 0.25 mm (34–35).

Measurements

(holotype male/paratype female). Total length 7.4/8.5. Carapace length 3.07/4.20; width 1.87/2.43; height 0.97/1.20. Clypeus height 0.28/0.37. Eye size: AME 0.18/0.21; ALE 0.12/0.15; PME 0.14/0.18; PLE 0.14/0.18. Width of eye region 0.68/0.98. Distance between PMEs 0.13/0.15. Abdomen length 4.70/8.80; width 1.67/2.33.

Male

(Figs 2–5). Carapace oval, with granulated surface (Fig. 2). Chelicera with three promarginal and two retromarginal teeth on fang furrow (Fig. 5). Retrocoxal hymen obviously smaller than ALE, approximately 0.06 mm in diameter. Pedicel wrapped in tube-like sclerite extending from abdomen (Figs 3–4). Abdomen slender pear-shaped, constricted at middle part; entire surface strongly sclerotized (Fig. 2).

Male palp (Figs 6–8, 15–16). Cymbium slender (Fig. 8). Bulb slender teardrop-shaped, including tapering anterior part and globular posterior part (Figs 6, 15); distal part curved toward retrolateral side (Figs 6, 15). Sperm duct beginning at retrolateral surface of bulb, strongly curving once at retrolateral and twice at ventral surfaces (Figs 6–7, 15–16), then extending to embolus (Figs 6, 15). Embolus very slender, strongly curved on horizontal plan against longitudinal axis (Figs 6, 15).

Leg spination. Femur I 1-1-1d, 1pl; tibia I 2-2-2v; metatarsus I 2-2v; femur II 1-1-1d, 1pl; tibia II 2-2-2v; metatarsus II 2-2v; femur III 1-1-1d, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; tibia III 1d, 1-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus III 2-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl with 5 distal spines; femur IV 1-1-1d, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; tibia IV 1d, 1-2-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus IV 2-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl with 5 distal spines.

Coloration and setation (Figs 2–4). Carapace dark brown, covered with short fine setae; anterior surface near eye region covered with white plumose setae. Chelicera brown; anterior surface sparsely covered with long gray setae and short transparent setae; promargin of fang furrow densely fringed with long thick setae whose surfaces are rough (Fig. 5). Labium, maxilla, sternum brown. Legs covered with black setae, black plumose setae and transparent plumose setae; plumose setae sparse in tarsi; coxae I, II and III brownish cream; coxa III more darker than I and II; coxa IV brown; trochanters almost same coloration as in coxae; femora light brown, tinged with black in femora I, II and III; patellae yellowish cream to brownish cream; tibiae I and II grayish yellow, III and IV light brown; metatarsi almost same coloration as in tibiae; tarsus I cream, tarsi II and III brownish cream, tarsus IV light brown. Pedicel dark brown. Abdomen blackish brown; entire surface covered with white fine plumose setae, posterior surface additionally covered with long setae; thick white plumose setae forming following markings: a pair of patches and transverse band on anterior dorsum, transverse band encircling abdominal constriction, two or three patches and transverse band on posterior dorsum; posterior end bearing tuft of white long plumose setae.

Female

(Figs 9–12). Almost same as in male, except for abdomen. Abdomen without distinct constriction; anterior half covered with strongly sclerotized surface (Figs 10–11).

Female genitalia (Figs 13–14, 17–18). Copulatory atrium round; copulatory opening located at outer margin of atrium (Figs 13, 17). Insemination duct curving, connecting to outer margin of bursa (Figs 14, 18). Bursa round, accompanying slender spermatheca on posterior margin (Figs 14, 18).

Leg spination. Femur I 1-1-1d, 1pl; tibia I 2-2-2v; metatarsus I 2-2v; femur II 1-1-1d, 1pl; tibia II 2-2-2v; metatarsus II 2-2v; femur III 1-1-1d, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; tibia III 1d, 1-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus III 2-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl with 5 distal spines; femur IV 1-1-1d, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; tibia IV 1d, 1-1-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus IV 2-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl with 5 distal spines.

Coloration and setation. Almost same as in male.

Etymology

The specific epithet is a patronym in honor of Dr. Christa L. Deeleman-Reinhold, who has made great contributions in studies of corinnid spiders from Southeast Asia.

Distribution

Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak.

Remarks

For the female paratype, some morphological characters of the abdomen were not observed because the specimen had once been dried and the soft part of the abdomen was shrunken. However, the sclerotized parts of the abdomen and the genitalia have been well preserved and the identification is possible on the basis of these characters.

Castoponera christae sp. n. is closely related to C. lecythus. The male of C. christae sp. n. can be distinguished from the male of C. lecythus by the medially constricted abdomen (Figs 2–4 vs. Figs 19–21), shape of apical part of the bulb and route of the sperm duct running on the surface of the bulb (Figs 6–7, 15–16 vs. Figs 23–24, 32–33). Additionally, among our specimens of each species, the posterior bulb of C. christae sp. n. is more swollen than that of C. lecythus. In the females it is relatively difficult to distinguish the species using superficial characters. However, the internal genitalic structures are clearly distinct (Figs 14, 18 vs. Figs 31, 35).

Castoponera lecythus Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001

Figs 19–25, 26–31, 32–35

Castoponera lecythus Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001: 314, figs 452–463.

Material examined

1 male (MNHAH; AMS-Hy6), Danum Valley Field Centre, 4°58'N, 117°48'E, Sabah, Borneo, 18-XII-2006, Y. Hashimoto leg.; 1 female (MNHAH; AMS3), same locality, 9-I-2008, Y. Hashimoto & T. Endo leg.; 1 female, Tawau Hills Park, 4°23'N, 117°53'E, Sabah, Borneo, 17-XI-2009, T. Yamasaki leg.; 1 male, Poring Hot Spring, Kinabalu Park, 6°02'E, 116°42'E, Sabah, Borneo, 12-XI-2010, T. Yamasaki leg.

Measurements

(Male: AMS-Hy6/Female: AMS3). Total length 7.4/8.7. Carapace length 3.13/3.45; width 1.87/2.13; height 0.98/1.05. Clypeus height 0.26/0.28. Eye size: AME 0.18/0.20; ALE 0.12/0.13; PME 0.15/0.18; PLE 0.15/0.18. Width of eye region 0.70/0.80. Distance between PMEs 0.13/0.16. Abdomen length 3.10/5.00; width 1.58/2.50.

Male

(Figs 19–22). Carapace oval, with granulated surface (Fig. 19). Chelicera with three promarginal and two retromarginal teeth on fang furrow (Fig. 22). Retrocoxal hymen obviously smaller than ALE, approximately 0.05 mm in diameter. Pedicel wrapped in tube-like sclerite extending from abdomen (Figs 19–21). Abdomen slender oval, slightly constricted at anterior part; entire surface strongly sclerotized (Fig. 20).

Male palp (Figs 23–25, 32–33). Cymbium slender (Fig. 25). Bulb teardrop-shaped but retrolateral corner of anterior bulb squarish; posterior part spherical, slightly asymmetrical (Figs 23, 32). Sperm duct beginning at retrolateral surface of bulb, curving twice at retrolateral and once at ventral surfaces, then running directly into embolus through center of bulbal surface (Figs 23–24, 32–33).

Leg spination. Femur I 1-1-1d, 1pl; tibia I 2-2-2v; metatarsus I 2-2v; femur II 1-1-1d, 1pl; tibia II 1-2-2v; metatarsus II 2-2v; femur III 1-1-1d, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; tibia III 1d, 1-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus III 2-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl, with 5 distal spines; femur IV 1-1-1d, 1-1pl, 1rl; tibia IV 1d, 1-1-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus IV 2-1v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl, with 5 distal spines.

Coloration and setation (Figs 19–22). Carapace dark brown, covered with short fine setae; anterior surface near eye region covered with white plumose setae. Chelicera brown; anterior surface sparsely covered with long gray setae and transparent plumose setae; promargin of fang furrow densely fringed with long thick setae whose surfaces are rough (Fig. 22). Labium, maxilla, sternum brown. Legs covered with black setae, black plumose setae and transparent plumose setae; plumose setae sparse in tarsi; coxae I, II and III brownish cream; coxa III darker than I and II; coxa IV brown; trochanters almost same coloration as in coxae; femora brown; patellae I and II yellowish brown, III and IV light brown; tibiae I and II yellowish brown, III light brown, IV brown; metatarsi almost same coloration as in tibiae; tarsi yellowish brown, IV more darker than others. Pedicel dark brown. Abdomen blackish brown; entire surface covered with plumose setae, some white and some light brown, and posterior surface covered with long setae; thick white plumose setae forming following markings: transverse band on anterior dorsum, transverse band encircling middle part, large patch on posterior dorsum; posterior end bearing tuft of long white plumose setae.

Female

(Figs 26–29). Almost same as in male, except for abdomen. Abdomen without distinct constriction; anterior half covered with strongly sclerotized surface (Figs 26–28).

Female genitalia (Figs 30–31, 34–35). Copulatory atrium round; copulatory opening located at anterior margin (Figs 30, 34). Insemination duct, curving, connecting to inner margin of posterior bursa (Figs 31, 35). Bursa oval, accompanying slender spermatheca on posterior margin (Figs 31, 35).

Leg spination. Femur I 1-1-1d, 1-1pl; tibia I 1-2-2v; metatarsus I 2-2v; femur II 1-1d, 1pl; tibia II 2-2-2v; metatarsus II 2-2v; femur III 1-1d, 1pl, 1rl; tibia III 1d, 1-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus III 2-2v; 1-1pl, 1-1rl, with 5 distal spines; femur IV 1-1-1d, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; tibia IV 1d, 1-1-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl; metatarsus IV 2-2v, 1-1pl, 1-1rl, with 5 distal spines.

Coloration and setation (Figs 26–29). Almost same as in male.

Distribution

Danum Valley Feild Centre, Sabah (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001); Tawau Hills Park, Sabah; Poring Hot Spring, Kinabalu Park, Sabah; Niah cave National Park, Sarawak (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001); Kaharian, 2°02S, 113°40'E, SE Kalimantan (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001); Aranio district, SE Kalimantan (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001).

Remarks

We examined 1 male and 1 female collected from the type locality, and these specimens agreed with the original description of C. lecythus. For the comparison with C. christae sp. n., see Diagnosis and Remarks in C. christae sp. n.

Notes on C. christae sp. n. and C. lecythus

The members of Castianeirinae are considered to be myrmecomorphies (Cushing 1997; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). In the fields, C. christae sp. n. or C. lecythus occur sympatrically with Ponerinae ants such as Diacamma Mayr, Odontoponera Mayr and Leptogenys Roger. These ants might be the suitable models of Batesian mimicry for C. christae sp. n. and C. lecythus because they are common and abundant in the forest floor, and have a sting. Castoponera christae sp. n. and C. lecythus are especially similar to Diacamma spp. in the coloration and setation of the abdomen (Figs 36–37). The transversal bands of white setae on the abdomen emphasize the similarity to Diacamma ants.

Figures 36–37.

Diacamma spp. 36 Diacamma sp., Poring Hot Spring, Borneo 37 Diacamma sp. Java.

Acknowledgements

Our study was conducted in accordance with the Memoranda of Understanding signed between University Malaysia Sabah (UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia) and Museum of Nature and Human activities, Hyogo (Japan), between UMS and Kagoshima University (Japan), between the Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC, Kuching, Malaysia) and the Japan Research Consortium for Tropical Forests in Sarawak (JRCTS, Sendai, Japan), and between the Sarawak Forest Department (SFD, Kuching, Malaysia) and JRCTS. A part of the research activities in Sabah was approved by the Economic Planning Unit, Malaysia (EPU: 40/200/19/2479). We would like to thank Assoc. Prof. Katsuyuki Eguchi (Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan) for offering laboratory facilities, and Mr. David John Court, Dr. Christa L. Deeleman-Reinhold, Dr. Charles Richard Haddad and Dr. Jeremy Miller for helpful comments on the manuscript. We also thank the staff of the Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation (UMS), the Danum Valley Management Committee, the Danum Valley Field Centre, SFC and SFD for all their help and support. The study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16657028, 19570094, 24570109, 14J04245, JSPS International Training Program (ITP, Kagoshima University) and Sumitomo Foundation Grant for Basic Science Research Projects No. 130648.

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