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Research Article
The jumping spiders from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China (Araneae, Salticidae)
expand article infoQi Cao, Shuqiang Li, Marek Żabka§
‡ Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
§ Siedlce University, Siedlce, Poland
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Abstract

Twenty one jumping spider species from South Yunnan are reported, diagnosed, described and illustrated; 19 of them are described as new: Afraflacilla ballarini Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Agorius tortilis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Bavia exilis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Carrhotus kevinlii Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Carrhotus sarahcrewsae Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Chinattus wengnanensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Chinophrys mengyangensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Cocalus menglaensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Cosmophasis xiaolonghaensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Cytaea yunnanensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Gedea pinguis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Gelotia zhengi Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Icius bamboo Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Nannenus menghaiensis Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Pancorius latus Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Phintella lepidus Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), Phintella sancha Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂), Ptocasius paraweyersi Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂♀), and Stenaelurillus fuscus Cao & Li, sp. n. (♂). Females of Bavia capistrata (C.L. Koch, 1846) and Phintella suavisoides Lei & Peng, 2013 are described for the first time. DNA barcodes of 12 species were obtained for future use.

Keywords

Description, diagnosis, new species, Southeast Asia, taxonomy

Introduction

Of 598 salticid genera and 5912 species known worldwide (World Spider Catalog 2016), 95 genera and 473 species are recorded from China, with 44 genera and 94 species recorded from Yunnan (Li and Lin 2016). The lists are far from being complete as large parts of the country are still poorly studied.

Being a border area with Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar, Yunnan shares the jumping spider taxa with those countries, of which the fauna of Vietnam is the best studied, with 56 genera and 116 species (Ono et al. 2012), the majority described and recorded by Żabka (1985). From other countries, 18 species are known from Laos and 55 from Myanmar (World Spider Catalog 2016).

While studying spiders in Xishuangbanna in South Yunnan, 21 salticid species were found. The goal of this paper is to report these species, including descriptions of 19 new species and the redescriptions of two known species.

Material and methods

The material came from Xishuangbanna in South Yunnan (21°08'N–22°36'N, 99°56'E–101°50'E). The area belongs to the transitional zone from tropical South to subtropical East Asia (Zhu et al. 2004). The region has an area of 19,120 km2, with mountain ridges running north-south, and the elevation decreasing southwards. The current study is based on 10 years of collecting in Xishuangbanna. More details on the spider diversity in the area and collection methods can be found in Zheng et al. (2015).

The specimens were preserved in 95% ethanol and were examined and measured with Olympus SZX12 and BX41 microscopes. Photos were taken with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera mounted on an Olympus SZX12 stereomicroscope. The images were processed with Helicon image stacking software. Vulvae were removed and digested with lactic acid or a 10% warm solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH). All measurements are in millimetres. References to figures in the cited papers are listed in lowercase type (fig. or figs); figures in this paper are noted with an initial capital (Fig. or Figs).

Abbreviations used

AER anterior eye row

ALE anterior lateral eyes

AL abdomen length

AME anterior median eyes

AW abdomen width

CD copulatory ducts

CL carapace length

CO copulatory opening

CW carapace width

DB dorsal-basal bulge

DTA dorsal tibial apophysis

E embolus

EB embolus base

EC extension of cymbium

EFL length of eye field

FD fertilization ducts

H hood

LP lamellar process

P pocket

PE posterior extension

PER posterior eye row

PLE posterior lateral eyes

PME posterior median eyes

PP prolateral process

R receptacles

RBB retrolateral bulbal bump

RP retrolateral process

RTA retrolateral tibial apophysis

RVA retrolateral ventral tibial apophysis

S serration

SA sclerotized apophysis

SD seminal duct

RP retrolateral process

SDA seminal duct angle

TA tegular apophysis

TD translucent duct

TP tegulum protrusion

VTA ventral tibial apophysis

The leg spination pattern is given after Platnick and Shadab (1975): d, p, v, r for dorsal, prolateral, ventral and retrolateral sides of a segment.

For 12 species the DNA barcodes were obtained for future use (the samples collected in 2006, 2007 and 2009 were not extracted successfully). A partial fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was amplified and sequenced following the protocol in Miller et al. (2010). Primers used in this study are: LCO1490 (5’-CWACAAAYCATARRGATATTGG-3’) and HCO-N-2198 (5’- TAAACTTCAGGGTGACCAAAAAATCA-3’) (Folmer et al. 1994). Voucher information and GenBank accession number for all samples are listed in Table 1. All specimens, including voucher specimens, are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China.

Voucher specimen information,

Species Sequence length GenBank accession number Collecting localities in Xishuangbanna
Agorius tortilis sp. n. 629 bp KU893260 Mengyang, Jinghong
Bavia capistrata 629 bp KU893261 Menglun, Mengla
Carrhotus kevinlii sp. n. 629 bp KU893263 Menglun, Mengla
Carrhotus sarahcrewsae sp. n. 629 bp KU893264 Menglun, Mengla
Chinattus wengnanensis sp. n. 629 bp KU893265 Menga, Jinghong
Chinophrys mengyangensis sp. n. 629 bp KU893266 Mengyang, Jinghong
Cocalus menglaensis sp. n. 629 bp KU893267 Xiaolongha, Mengla
Cosmophasis xiaolonghaensis sp. n. 629 bp KU893268 Xiaolongha, Mengla
Nannenus menghaiensis sp. n. 629 bp KU893269 Menghai, Jinghong
Phintella lepidus sp. n. 629 bp KU893270 Mengyang, Jinghong
Phintella suavisoides 629 bp KU893271 Menglun, Mengla
Ptocasius paraweyersi sp. n. 629 bp KU893272 Menglun, Mengla

Taxonomy

Family Salticidae Blackwall, 1841

Genus Afraflacilla Berland & Millot, 1941

Afraflacilla ballarini Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 1, 2, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, rubber plantation (21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, 585 m), 7 March 2006, G. Zheng leg.

Etymology

The new species is named after Francesco Ballarin (IZCAS) for his study on the spiders of Asia; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

The male resembles A. grayorum Żabka, 1993 (Żabka 1993: figs 7A–D, 8A–C) by having similar embolus (Fig. 1C–D) and body shape (Fig. 2), but differs in the shape of the tegulum (Fig. 1D) and embolus set at nine o’clock vs. six o’clock in A. grayorum. Also, the course of the seminal duct and tegular protrusion are in different positions (six o’clock vs. four o’clock in A. grayorum). The tibial apophysis lacks a dorsolateral protrusion (vs. this character in A. grayorum) (Fig. 1B).

Figure 1.

Palp of Afraflacilla ballarini sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 2.

Habitus of Afraflacilla ballarini sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B lateral.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 3.85, CL 1.85, CW 1.20, AL 2.00, AW 1.40. Eye measurements: AME 0.32 ALE 0.18 PME 0.08 PLE 0.15; AER 1.00, PER 1.00, EFL 0.85. Clypeus 0.12 high. Legs: I 3.58 (1.05, 0.70, 0.85, 0.60, 0.38); II 2.31 (0.78, 0.33, 0.50, 0.40, 0.30); III 2.60 (0.80, 0.35, 0.55, 0.50, 0.40); IV 3.34 (1.00, 0.50, 0.75, 0.64, 0.45).

Carapace brown with grey and white hairs (Fig. 2A). Sides and clypeus with white marginal band. Ocular area dark brown. Chelicerae and labium brown. Maxillae brown with white tips. Sternum greyish brown. Abdomen oval, brownish, anterior and sides with white hairs. Venter and spinnerets dark brown. Leg I more robust and darker than the other legs, which are yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-1; tibia p0-1-0, metatarsus v2-0-2. Palpal tibia short, about 1/3 length of cymbium. Cymbial tip about 1.5 times as long as tibia. RTA pointed, subequal to the length of the tibia (Fig. 1B). Bulb oval, with blunt outgrowth and posterior protrusion (Fig. 1D). Seminal duct with loops. Embolus elongate, starting at nine o’clock and coiled more than once around the bulb (Fig. 1C).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Agorius Thorell, 1877

Agorius tortilis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 3, 4, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Jinghong City, Mengyang Town, tunnel in Mt. Baihuashan (22°69.529'N, 101°55.210'E, 856 m), 16 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratype: 1♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

From Latin tortilis (coiled), in reference to the shape of embolus; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male is similar to that of A. lindu Prószyński, 2009 (Prószyński 2009: figs 7–8, 29–30, 54, 59) by body shape (Fig. 4C) and tegulum (Fig. 3C–D), but the embolus has 3 coils (Fig. 3D) vs. 1; dorsal-retrolateral tibial apophysis lacking, without terminal hook (Fig. 3B), which is present in A. lindu. The female differs from that of A. lindu by the shape of the copulatory openings (Fig. 4A), which are small circular holes vs. slanted ovals in A. lindu, and the copulatory openings are separated by about two diameters vs. only 1/4 diameter in A. lindu.

Figure 3.

Palp of Agorius tortilis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 4.

Agorius tortilis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bar equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 5.23, CL 1.83, CW 1.50, AL 3.40, AW 1.09. Eye measurements: AME 0.48, ALE 0.27, PME 0.01, PLE 0.25, AER 1.48, PER 1.49, EFL 1.47. Clypeus 0.04 high. Legs: I 18.26 (3.28, 4.00, 2.64, 0.50, 0.46); II 3.95 (1.55, 0.55, 1.31, 1.06, 0.45); III missing; IV 7.50 (2.13, 0.73, 2.13, 1.88, 0.63).

Carapace greyish-yellow (Fig. 4C). Chelicerae yellow, sparsely covered with fine grey hairs. Maxillae yellow with black anterior margin and grey hairs on inner margins. Labium dark yellow, tip with black hairs. Sternum yellowish. Abdomen thin, elongate with median constriction. Venter and spinnerets yellow. Legs I thin and long, especially the patella. Spination of leg I: tibia v2-2-2-2; metatarsus p2-0-2. Palp: patella large, thicker than tibia. Tibia with two large apophyses, RVA and DTA (Fig. 3B). Cymbium with dorsal-basal small bulge (Fig. 3A). Tegulum with a broad prolateral flap. Seminal duct encircling retrolateral part of tegulum. Embolus with tapering spiral (Fig. 3C).

Female (paratype). Total length 5.54, CL 2.35, CW 1.38, AL 3.19, AW 1.23. Eye measurements: AME 0.44, ALE 0.25, PME 0.01, PLE 0.25, AER 1.30, PER 1.32, EFL 1.36. Clypeus 0.04 high. Legs: I 7.64 (2.50, 2.56, 1.80, 0.40, 0.38); II 4.15 (1.25, 0.56, 1.04, 0.90, 0.40); III missing; IV 4.31 (1.22, 0.56, 1.09, 1.00, 0.44).

Abdomen higher and broader than in male, other characters similar. Epigyne heavily sclerotised along the posterior margin (Fig. 4A). Copulatory opening grooves round and separated from each other by two diameters, located 1 diameter from the posterior margin. Vulva: copulatory ducts short and sclerotised, anterior part thicker than the posterior. Receptacles pyriform. Fertilisation ducts elongate and located at the posterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 4B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Bavia Simon, 1877

Bavia capistrata (C.L. Koch, 1846)

Figs 5, 6, 43

Maevia capistrata C.L. Koch, 1846: 76, fig. 1331 (♂).

Bavia capistrata : Żabka 1988: 435, figs 37–39 (♂, removed from synonymy with Evarcha flavocincta).

Material examined

1♂, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve: nearby fish pond (21°57.883'N, 101°12.147'E, 839 m), ravine rainforest, 15 August 2011, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.; 1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve: Biological diversity corridor (21°24.265'N, 101°37.300'E, 653 m), seasonal rainforest, 27 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Diagnosis

Differs from the closely related B. aericeps Simon, 1877 (see Żabka 1988: figs 29–36) by the tibia with a distinct dorsal apophysis (Fig. 5B) and serrated embolus (Fig. 5D). The females differ from B. aericeps by the horizontal position of the copulatory openings (Fig. 6A) vs. the inclined copulatory organs and the arc-shaped posterior epigynal margin (Fig. 6A) vs. triangular.

Figure 5.

Palp of Bavia capistrata, male from Xishuangbanna. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 6.

Bavia capistrata, female and male from Xishuangbanna. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male. Well described by Żabka (1988).

Female. Total length 8.70, CL 3.44, CW 2.75, AL 5.26, AW 1.92. Eye measurements: AME 0.69, ALE 0.28, PME 0.06, PLE 0.29, AER 2.00, PER 2.00, EFL 1.88. Clypeus 0.16 high. Legs: I 6.92 (2.13, 1.35, 1.75, 1.14, 0.55); II 5.50 (1.70, 1.06, 1.26, 0.98, 0.50); III 5.33 (1.60, 0.95, 1.00, 1.19, 0.59); IV 9.09 (2.25, 1.00, 1.74, 1.74, 0.63).

Carapace reddish-brown, lighter dorsally, ocular area dark brown (Fig. 6C) with white setae. Chelicerae dark brown. Maxillae elongate with white tips. Labium dark brown with white tips. Sternum yellowish. Abdomen long with light broad median stripe and grey margins. Venter with few longitudinal rows of white dots. Spinnerets brownish grey. Legs I more robust and darker than others. Legs II–IV yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, metatarsus p2-0-2. Epigyne strongly sclerotised along the posterior midline margin (Fig. 6A). Copulatory openings slit shaped, with strongly sclerotised edges. Distance between the openings subequal to 1.5 times the length of a copulatory opening. Copulatory ducts short and strongly sclerotised, receptacles close to each other. The length and width of receptacles subequal to the copulatory ducts. Fertilisation ducts located at the joined part of the copulatory ducts and receptacles (Fig. 6B).

Distribution

Malaysia to Australia, Pacific Islands, and South China.

Remark

Female of B. capistrata is described for the first time.

Bavia exilis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 7, 8, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve: Biological diversity corridor (21°24.230'N, 101°36.262'E, 715 m), seasonal rainforest, 4 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

From Latin exilis (slender), in reference to the shape of the abdomen; adjective.

Diagnosis

Similar to B. aericeps, but RTA much larger (Fig. 7B) and embolus with retrolateral membranous margin (Fig. 7C). Compared to B. capistrata (Fig. 5B–D), the tibia lacks a distinct dorsal apophysis, and the embolus is not serrated.

Figure 7.

Palp of Bavia exilis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 6.65, CL 2.75, CW 1.75, AL 3.90, AW 1.10. Eye measurements: AME 0.60, ALE 0.21, PME 0.06, PLE 0.16, AER 1.52, PER 1.55, EFL 1.41. Clypeus 0.08 high. Legs: I 6.15 (1.75, 1.00, 1.55, 1.00, 0.85); II 4.00 (1.15, 0.70, 0.85, 0.70, 0.60); III 3.55 (1.00, 0.60, 0.65, 0.80, 0.50); IV 4.35 (1.25, 0.65, 0.90, 1.00, 0.55).

Carapace dark brown with central lighter trapezoid dorsally (Fig. 8A). Chelicerae brown. Maxillae and labium brown, light tips with greyish-brown hairs. Sternum yellowish. Abdomen elongate, slender and grey. Venter and spinnerets dark greyish. Legs I more robust and darker than others, legs II–IV yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d1-0-0; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Palp: tibia short, about 1/4 length of cymbium. Tibial apophysis bent, subequal to the length of tibia (Fig. 7B). Embolus short and pointed, with retrolateral membranous margin (Fig. 7C).

Figure 8.

Habitus of Bavia exilis sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B ventral.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Carrhotus Thorell, 1891

Carrhotus kevinlii Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 9, 10, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Lüshilin (21°54.398'N, 101°16.754'E, 705 m), seasonal rainforest, 19 August 2011, K. Li leg. Paratypes: 1♂, same data as holotype; 1♂2♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve: Biological diversity corridor (21°24.213'N, 101°36.995'E, 834 m), seasonal rainforest, 3 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The new species is named after Mr Kevin Li (=Kaiwen Li) for his assistance in field work; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

Cymbium twice as long as bulb (Fig. 9C) vs. approximately equal to bulb length in other congeners and embolus accompanied by a membrane (Fig. 9D). The female resembles C. viduus (see Prószyński 2009b: figs 22–23), but the copulatory openings are highly sclerotised (Fig. 10A) vs. oval in C. viduus. Also, the receptacles are subglobose (Fig. 10B) vs. irregular in C. viduus.

Figure 9.

Palp of Carrhotus kevinlii sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 10.

Carrhotus kevinlii sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 6.08, CL 3.20, CW 2.64, AL 2.88, AW 1.95. Eye measurements: AME 0.55, ALE 0.24, PME 0.08, PLE 0.37, AER 2.41, PER 2.35, EFL 2.00. Clypeus 0.24 high. Legs: I 5.93 (1.85, 1.10, 1.38, 0.82, 0.78); II 5.86 (1.80, 1.12, 1.30, 0.86, 0.78); III 6.37 (2.15, 1.00, 1.36, 1.26, 0.60); IV 6.48 (0.70, 1.47, 1.41, 0.94, 1.96).

Carapace brown (Fig. 10C). Lower margin and area around eyes darker with white hairs, clypeus brown. Chelicerae dark brown, maxillae and labium brown with white tips. Sternum yellowish. Abdomen grey with irregular beige patches and beige sides, entire surface covered with a few short, whitish hairs. Venter grey. Spinnerets grey-brown. Legs dark brown. Spination of leg I: femur d3-1-1; patella p0-1-0, r0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p2-0-1, r1-0-0; metatarsus v2-0-2, p1-0-0. Palpal tibia and cymbium long, tibia about 4/5 length of cymbium. Retrolateral apophysis almost as wide as tibia, with pointed tip (Fig. 9B). Cymbium with long and dark brown bristles. Bulb about half the length of the cymbium. Embolus with membrane, bow-shaped, and subequal to half the length of the tegulum (Fig. 9C).

Female (one of paratypes) very similar to the male, with clypeus brown and legs light brown. Total length 7.05, CL 3.25, CW 2.66, AL 3.80, AW 2.97. Eye measurements: AME 0.75, ALE 0.39, PME 0.08, PLE 0.37, AER 2.45, PER 2.55, EFL 1.36. Clypeus 0.24 high. Legs: I 6.17 (1.90, 1.28, 1.41, 0.95, 0.63); II 5.68 (1.84, 1.22, 1.20, 0.79, 0.63); III 6.66 (2.15, 1.02, 1.36, 1.33, 0.80); IV 7.07 (2.15, 1.22, 1.41, 1.45, 0.84). Spination of leg I: femur d3-1-1; patella p0-1-0, r0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p1-0-0, r1-0-0; metatarsus v2-0-2. Copulatory openings slit shaped with strongly sclerotised edges. The distance between openings subequal to the length of openings (Fig. 10A). Copulatory ducts short and broad. Receptacles subglobular and diameter equal to the width of copulatory ducts. Fertilisation ducts located at the anterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 10B).

Distribution

Known from several localities in Xishuangbanna.

Carrhotus sarahcrewsae Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 11, 12, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, 48 km landmark in Nature Reserve (21°38.853'N, 101°09.625'E, 1001 m), seasonal rainforest, 30 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The new species is named after Dr Sarah Crews for her contribution to the study of the spider family Selenopidae; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

The male resembles that of C. sannio (see Żabka 1985: figs 63–65), but the length of the tibia is nearly equal to the cymbium (Fig. 11A) vs. 2/3 of the length of the cymbium in C. sannio, and the cymbium has no apical process (Fig. 11C). Compared to C. kevinlii sp. n., the bulb length is subequal to the cymbium vs. less than half the length, the embolus has no membrane and the angle between the RTA and tibia is early 20° vs. about 45° in C. kevinlii sp. n.

Figure 11.

Palp of Carrhotus sarahcrewsae sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype).Total length 5.77, CL 2.97, CW 2.25, AL 2.80, AW 1.94. Eye measurements: AME 0.63, ALE 0.29, PME 0.05, PLE 0.25, AER 1.84, PER 1.70, EFL 1.64. Clypeus 0.25 high. Legs: I 8.22 (2.25, 1.40, 2.13, 1.64, 0.80); II 6.38 (1.96, 1.06, 1.48, 1.25, 0.63); III 6.44 (2.00, 1.00, 1.33, 1.30, 0.81); IV 6.47 (1.93, 1.00, 1.41, 1.34, 0.79).

Carapace dark brown, margin and area around eyes dark with white hairs (Fig. 12A). Chelicerae dark brown, with dense greyish hairs. Maxillae and labium dark brown, tips with dark setae. Sternum light brown. Abdomen dark grey with irregular beige patches. Venter and spinnerets dark greyish. Legs brown. Spination of leg I: femur d3-1-1; patella p0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p2-0-2, r2-0-2; metatarsus v2-0-2, p1-0-1, r1-0-1. Palp: tibia subequal to the length of cymbium. Cymbium with long, dark brown bristles. Tibial apophysis triangular (Fig. 11B). Bulb equal to the length of the cymbium. Embolus short, about 1/4 the length of the tegulum, bent (Fig. 11D).

Figure 12.

Habitus of Carrhotus sarahcrewsae sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B lateral. Scale bar equal for A and B.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Chinattus Logunov, 1999

Chinattus wengnanensis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 13, 14, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Jinghong, Menga Town, Wengnan Village (22°05.020'N, 100°22.087'E, 1118 m), secondary forest, 24 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 2♀, same data as holotype; 1♂, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, 48 km landmark in Nature Reserve (21°53.997'N, 101°16.957'E, 593 m), secondary forest, 11 August 2011, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The species name is derived from the name of type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male can be distinguished from the other congeners by the broad and bifurcate embolus and the nearly rectangular tegulum (in ventral view) (Fig. 13C–D). The female is similar to C. undulatus (Song & Chai, 1992) (see Prószyński 1992: figs 22–27), but the copulatory openings have a semicircular highly-sclerotised lobe (Fig. 14A), epigyne with posterior projection and two pockets vs. only one in C. undulatus (Fig. 14A).

Figure 13.

Palp of Chinattus wengnanensis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 4.25, CL 2.25, CW 1.75, AL 2.00, AW 1.44. Eye measurements: AME 0.49, ALE 0.34, PME 0.09, PLE 0.24, AER 1.72, PER 1.56, EFL 1.40. Clypeus 0.13 high. Legs: I 4.85 (1.50, 0.86, 1.13, 0.80, 0.56); II 5.93 (1.25, 0.69, 0.85, 0.70, 0.44); III 4.73 (1.56, 0.80, 0.90, 1.00, 0.47); IV 4.40 (1.41, 0.59, 0.90, 1.00, 0.50).

Carapace dark brown (Fig. 14C). Chelicerae dark brown, maxillae brown with white tips, grey hairs on inner margins. Labium dark brown, light at tip with black hairs. Sternum greyish brown. Abdomen oval, greyish brown. Venter and spinnerets dark greyish. Legs I more robust and darker than others, which are yellow and black. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-1; tibia p0-2-0, r0-2-0; metatarsus v2-0-2. Palp: tibia short, subequal to half the length of the cymbium. Tibial apophysis triangular and very short, about 1/5 the length of the tibia (Fig. 13B). Tegulum large, nearly rectangular. Embolus short, broad with bifurcate tip (Fig. 13D).

Female (one of paratypes) very similar to the male. Total length 6.00, CL 3.00, CW 2.10, AL 3.00, AW 1.76. Eye measurements: AME 0.60, ALE 0.40, PME 0.09, PLE 0.27, AER 2.00, PER 1.84, EFL 1.60. Clypeus 0.20 high. Legs: I 4.96 (1.50, 1.00, 1.13, 0.80, 0.53); II 4.31 (1.41, 0.75, 0.90, 0.75, 0.50); III 5.62 (1.85, 0.94, 1.13, 1.00, 0.70); IV 5.38 (1.64, 0.71, 1.13, 1.20, 0.70).

Figure 14.

Chinattus wengnanensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Legs light brown. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-1; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Epigyne wider than long, with posterior projection and two pockets (Fig. 14A). Copulatory openings with two semicircular highly sclerotised lobes. Copulatory ducts broad, anteriorly broader, receptacles massive, slightly curved and closely spaced. Fertilisation ducts at the anterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 14B).

Distribution

Known from several localities in Xishuangbanna.

Genus Chinophrys Zhang & Maddison, 2012

Chinophrys mengyangensis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 15, 16, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Jinghong City, Mengyang Town, seasonal rainforest (22°09.765'N, 100°52.553'E, 862 m), 22 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 1♂, same data as holotype; 1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, 48 km landmark of Nature Reserve (21°38.853'N, 101°09.625'E, 1001 m), seasonal rainforest, 30 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.; 1♂1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, 48 km landmark in Nature Reserve (21°58.704'N, 101°19.748'E, 1088 m), seasonal rainforest, 12 August 2011, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The species name is derived from the name of type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

Similar to C. liujiapingensis (Yang & Tang, 1997) (cf. Yang and Tang 1997: figs 6–10) in having a similar tegulum (Fig. 15D), but the embolus base is much wider. Compared to C. pengi (Zhang and Maddison 2012: figs 1–9), the tibial apophysis is located retrolaterally vs. dorso-retrolaterally. The epigyne of the new species resembles that of C. pengi, but the copulatory openings are different (the copulatory openings of the new species have fewer coils than in C. pengi) (Fig. 16A), and the receptacles lack spherical terminals vs. have spherical terminals in C. pengi (Fig. 16B).

Figure 15.

Palp of Chinophrys mengyangensis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 16.

Chinophrys mengyangensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 4.80, CL 2.25, CW 1.75, AL 2.55, AW 1.60. Eye measurements: AME 0.48, ALE 0.31, PME 0.05, PLE 0.29, AER 1.62, PER 1.70, EFL 1.44. Clypeus 0.10 high. Legs: I 4.40 (1.45, 0.70, 1.05, 0.70, 0.50); II 3.95 (1.30, 0.65, 0.80, 0.70, 0.50); III 4.60 (1.40, 0.50, 1.00, 1.00, 0.70); IV 4.85 (1.40, 0.60, 1.00, 1.10, 0.75).

Carapace dark brown, tegument iridescent with a few sparse colourless setae (Fig. 16C). Chelicerae, maxillae and labium greyish brown with white tips. Sternum greyish yellow. Abdomen oval and greyish brown. Venter and spinnerets grey. Legs light brown. Spination of leg I: femur d5-1-1; patella p0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p1-0-1, r1-0-1; metatarsus v2-0-2, p1-0-1 r1-0-1. Palp: tibia short, about 1/3 the length of the cymbium. Tibial apophysis straight, rod-like and subequal to the length of the tibia (Fig. 15B). Cymbium with long, dark brown bristles. Tegulum twice as long as wide. Seminal duct broad and coiled. Embolus a narrow helix (Fig. 15C).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length 4.73, CL 2.30, CW 2.03, AL 2.43, AW 1.94. Eye measurements: AME 0.60, ALE 0.33, PME 0.03, PLE 0.29, AER 1.79, PER 1.81, EFL 1.44. Clypeus 0.10 high. Legs: I 4.24 (1.39, 0.75, 0.90, 0.75, 0.45); II 4.04 (1.38, 0.70, 0.85, 0.66, 0.45); III 4.93(1.60, 0.80, 0.93, 1.05, 0.55); IV 5.32 (1.56, 0.75, 1.13, 1.25, 0.63).

Abdomen dark brown. Legs grey. Other characters similar to those of male. Epigyne: Copulatory ducts stout, receptacles kidney-shaped, with anteriorly bent translucent ducts (Fig. 16B). Fertilisation ducts located at the anterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 16B).

Distribution

Known from several localities in Xishuangbanna.

Genus Cocalus C.L. Koch, 1846

Cocalus menglaensis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 17, 18, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Biological diversity corridor (21°24.330'N, 101°37.002'E, 801 m), secondary forest, 30 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Biological Diversity Corridor (21°24.265'N, 101°37.300'E, 653 m), seasonal rainforest, 27 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.; 1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, 48 km landmark in Nature Reserve (21°58.704'N, 101°19.748'E, 1088 m), seasonal rainforest, 12 August 2011, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The species name is derived from the name of the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

Similar to C. gibbosus Wanless, 1981 (see Wanless 1981: fig. 4A–D) by the shape of tegulum and embolus (Fig. 17C–D), but different in the shape of RTA. Female copulatory openings (Fig. 18A) resemble C. murinus Simon, 1899 (see Wanless, 1981: 256, fig. 3A–E), but the epigynal plate has two rectangular and strongly sclerotised posterior projections (Fig. 18A)

Figure 17.

Palp of Cocalus menglaensis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 18.

Cocalus menglaensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 8.75, CL 3.75, CW 2.25, AL 5.00, AW 1.50. Eye measurements: AME 0.60, ALE 0.25, PME 0.22, PLE 0.26, AER 1.86, PER 2.00, EFL 1.74. Clypeus 0.31 high. Legs: I 8.10 (2.10, 1.25, 2.00, 1.75, 1.00); II 6.80 (2.00, 1.00, 1.50, 1.50, 0.80); III 7.27 (1.95, 1.20, 1.75, 1.57, 0.80); IV 8.95 (2.50, 1.15, 2.00, 2.20, 1.10).

Carapace dark brown with short recumbent and white setae (Fig. 18C). Eyes surrounded with black except AME. Clypeus covered with dark grey hairs. Chelicerae dark brown, sparsely covered with fine black hairs. Maxillae brownish with dull white tips and dark grey hairs on inner margins. Labium dark brown, tip dull white. Sternum grey-brown, with few black hairs. Abdomen dorsally orange-brown to greyish brown, clothed in short recumbent white hairs. Venter dark greyish. Spinnerets dark brown. Legs generally amber. Spination of leg I: femur d4-1-1; patella p0-1-0; tibia v2-0-2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1; metatarsus v0-2-0, p0-1-0 r0-1-0 d2-1-2. Palp: densely covered by hairs. Cymbium with posterior triangular extension prolaterally (Fig. 17C). Tegulum ovoid, with tegular furrow and dark peripheral seminal duct. Embolus stout, bending ventrally (Fig. 17C).

Female (one of the paratypes). Total length 10.67, PL 4.00, PW 2.67, OL 6.67, OW 2.19. Eye measurements: AME 0.60, ALE 0.30, PME 0.25, PLE 0.35, AER 2.00, PER 2.45, EFL 1.74. Clypeus 0.20 high. Legs: I 8.08 (2.23, 1.53, 2.05, 1.47, 0.80); II 7.10 (2.00, 1.36, 1.74, 1.25, 0.75); III 7.27 (2.10, 1.20, 1.66, 1.41, 0.90); IV 9.91 (2.66, 1.40, 2.25, 2.40, 1.20).

Abdomen dorsally greyish. Spination of leg I: femur d4-1-1; patella p0-1-0, r0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p1-0-1, r1-0-1, d1-1-1; metatarsus v0-2-0, d2-0-2. Other characters similar to those of male. Epigyne: dark amber clothed in creamy hairs. Epigyne with two rectangular and strongly sclerotised posterior projections (Fig. 18A). Receptacles massive and phaseoliform, fertilisation ducts located at the posterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 18B).

Distribution

Known from several localities in Xishuangbanna.

Genus Cosmophasis Simon, 1901

Cosmophasis xiaolonghaensis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 19, 20, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve: Biological diversity corridor (21°24.798'N, 101°37.880'E, 693 m), seasonal rainforest, 28 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 1♂1♀, same data as holotype; 1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve: Biological diversity corridor (21°24.230'N, 101°36.262'E, 715 m), seasonal rainforest, 4 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The species name is derived from the name of the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

Similar to C. courti Żabka & Waldock, 2012 (Żabka and Waldock 2012: figs 52A–H, 53A–D), but tibia is subequal to cymbium (Fig. 19A–B) vs. twice as long in C. courti, RTA with one small apical hook (Fig. 19B), lacking in C. courti. Copulatory openings widely separated (Fig. 20A), about three diameters vs. only 1/4 the diameter of a copulatory opening.

Figure 19.

Palp of Cosmophasis xiaolonghaensis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 20.

Cosmophasis xiaolonghaensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 5.20, CL 2.30, CW 1.72, AL 2.90, AW 1.05. Eye measurements: AME 0.55, ALE 0.24, PME 0.05, PLE 0.20, AER 1.59, PER 1.59, EFL 1.44. Clypeus 0.09 high. Legs: I 4.34 (1.34, 0.94, 1.00, 0.56, 0.50); II 3.64 (1.13, 0.70, 0.76, 0.58, 0.47); III 3.84 (1.30, 0.55, 0.71, 0.80, 0.48); IV 4.31 (1.41, 0.56, 0.70, 1.06, 0.50).

Carapace dark brown (Fig. 20C). Chelicerae dark brown, sparsely covered with fine grey hairs. Maxillae brown with light tips and grey hairs on inner margins. Labium brown, tip with black hairs. Abdomen light, with irregular black patches. Venter and spinnerets dark grey. Legs I more robust and darker than others. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-0; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Palpal tibia white, subequal to the cymbium. The apophysis short, about 1/4 the length of the cymbium, with a small apical hook (Fig. 19B). Embolus starting at the prolateral part of the bulb, bent (Fig. 19C).

Female (same locality of holotype). Total length 6.46, CL 2.66, CW 1.90, AL 3.80, AW 1.64. Eye measurements: AME 0.60, ALE 0.22, PME 0.06, PLE 0.22, AER 1.59, PER 1.59, EFL 1.44. Clypeus 0.08 high. Legs: I 4.34 (1.34, 0.94, 1.00, 0.56, 0.50); II 3.64 (1.13, 0.70, 0.76, 0.58, 0.47); III 3.84 (1.30, 0.55, 0.71, 0.80, 0.48); IV 4.31 (1.41, 0.56, 0.70, 1.06, 0.50).

Carapace yellow (Fig. 20D). Abdominal venter grey-white. Legs yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-0; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Other characters similar to those of male. Epigynal plate weakly sclerotized. Copulatory opening grooves with sclerotised edges, openings widely separated (about three diameters). Posterior margin projecting in midline (Fig. 20A). Copulatory ducts broad, located posteriorly. Receptacles round, strongly sclerotised. Fertilisation ducts elongate, located at the anterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 20B).

Distribution

Known from several localities in Xishuangbanna.

Genus Cytaea Keyserling, 1882

Cytaea yunnanensis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 21, 22, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Menglun Nature Reserve (21°57.669'N, 101°11.893'E, 790 m), 23 April 2007, G. Zheng leg.

Etymology

The species name derived from the name of the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

Differs from all known congeners by the shape of the tegulum (prolateral large bulge and posterior translucent extension) (Fig. 21).

Figure 21.

Palp of Cytaea yunnanensis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 5.75, CL 2.75, CW 2.05, AL 3.00, AW 1.75. Eye measurements: AME 0.55, ALE 0.36, PME 0.10, PLE 0.36, AER 1.90, PER 1.80, EFL 1.50. Clypeus 0.13 high. Legs: I 4.76 (1.38, 0.75, 1.13, 0.90, 0.60); II 5.56 (1.63, 0.88, 1.20, 0.95, 0.90); III missing; IV 5.63 (1.63, 0.75, 1.30, 1.20, 0.75).

Carapace brown, covered with dense, white setae (Fig. 22A). Lateral eyes surrounded with black. Chelicerae dark orange-brown. Maxillae brownish, with dull white tips. Labium dark brown, tip dull white. Sternum light brown. Abdomen oval, dorsally greyish brown, narrower than carapace. Venter greyish. Spinnerets light greyish. Legs whitish. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-1; tibia v2-2-2, p1-0-1; metatarsus v2-0-2, p0-1-0. Palpal tibia short, about 1/4 length of cymbium. The tibial apophysis subequal to the tibia, with a slightly bent tip (Fig. 21B). Cymbium whitish. Tegulum with meandering seminal duct and prominent prolateral bulge. Embolus with circular basal pad (Fig. 21C).

Figure 22.

Habitus of Cytaea yunnanensis sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B lateral.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Gedea Simon, 1876

Gedea pinguis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 23, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, G213 road, Banyan tree (21°54.089'N, 101°17.024'E, 579 m), 28 November 2009, G. Tang & Z. Yao leg.

Etymology

From Latin pinguis (fat), in reference to the shape of the palp; adjective.

Diagnosis

Similar to G. tibialis Żabka, 1985 (see Żabka 1985: figs 263–267), but the cymbium is shorter (about 1/3 the length of the bulb in the new species vs. nearly equal in G. tibialis), embolus base with membrane (without in G. tibialis) (Fig. 23C–D), tibial apophysis with two branches, both with clusters of long apical bristles (only one without bristles in G. tibialis) (Fig. 23B).

Figure 23.

Palp of Gedea pinguis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). In poor condition. Precise description of the habitus unavailable. Palpal tibia short, subequal to the tip of the cymbium, about 1/3 the length of the bulb. Tibial apophysis with two branches, each with clusters of long apical bristles (Fig. 23B). Tegulum with posterior lobe, and the width about 2/3 of the length. Embolus base hidden by the fold of the membranous structure of the tegulum (Fig. 23C). Embolus accompanied by a membrane, membrane with a triangular outgrowth (Fig. 23D).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Gelotia Thorell, 1890

Gelotia zhengi Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 24, 25, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences: Lvshilin (21°54.705'N, 101°16.898'E, 656 m), 11 November 2009, G. Zheng leg.

Etymology

The specific is named in honour of the collector Guo Zheng from Shenyang Normal University; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

Differs from the similar G. bouchardi (Simon, 1903) (see Prószyński and Deeleman-Reinhold 2012: figs 47–50) by the shorter embolus (subequal to the tip of the cymbium vs. nearly twice as long in G. bouchardi) (Fig. 24C) and the straight RTA (Fig. 24B) vs. bent in G. bouchardi.

Figure 24.

Palp of Gelotia zhengi sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 5.90, CL 2.75, CW 1.80, AL 3.15, AW 1.60. Eye measurements: AME 0.50, ALE 0.28, PME 0.15, PLE 0.20, AER 1.68, PER 1.68, EFL 1.40. Clypeus 0.25 high. Legs: I 8.15 (2.05, 0.85, 2.10, 2.10, 1.05); II 6.85 (1.90, 0.80, 1.75, 1.55, 0.85); III 6.30 (1.75, 0.70, 1.45, 1.55, 0.85); IV 8.30 (2.15, 0.85, 1.90, 2.35, 1.05).

Carapace dark brown (Fig. 25A), sides and clypeus margins encircled with a wide band of white hairs. Chelicerae light brown, inner margin with greyish brown setae. Maxillae brown, tips with grey hairs. Labium dark brown, light tip with grey hairs. Sternum greyish brown. Abdomen oval, greyish brown. Venter and spinnerets dark greyish. Legs brown, slender. Spination of leg I: femur d4-1-1; patella p0-1-0, r0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p1-0-1, d1-1-1, r1-0-1; metatarsus v2-0-2, p1-1-1, d2-0-2, r1-1-1. Palpal tibia short, about 1/5 the length of the cymbium. The ventral tibial apophysis short and obtuse, retrolateral apophysis broad at the base and sharp apically (Fig. 24B). Cymbium flattened and semilunar. Tegulum subovoid with peripheral seminal duct. Embolus base with one stout lobe (Fig. 24D).

Figure 25.

Habitus of Gelotia zhengi sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B lateral.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Icius Simon, 1876

Icius bamboo Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 26, 27, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Bamboo plantation, G213 (21°53.646'N, 101°16.975'E, 589 m), 26 November 2009, G. Tang & Z. Yao leg.

Etymology

The species was collected from a bamboo plantation; noun.

Diagnosis

The male resembles I. hamatus (see Andreeva et al. 1984: figs 1–4), but the embolus is straight and digitiform (Fig. 26D) vs. bent and needle-like; the RTA is entire (unbranched) and bent dorsally (Fig. 26B) vs. with two branches and nearly triangular apophyses in I. hamatus.

Figure 26.

Palp of Icius bamboo sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bars: equal for A, B and C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 4.23, CL 1.53, CW 0.90, AL 1.70, AW 0.80. Eye measurements: AME 0.31, ALE 0.15, PME 0.03, PLE 0.16, AER 1.00, PER 1.10, EFL 0.81. Clypeus 0.05 high. Legs: I 2.05 (0.65, 0.39, 0.49, 0.30, 0.22); II 1.70 (0.50, 0.30, 0.38, 0.27, 0.25); III 1.81 (0.56, 0.25, 0.40, 0.35, 0.25); IV 2.25 (0. 75, 0.32, 0.46, 0.44, 0.28).

Carapace dark brown (Fig. 27A). Sides and clypeus margins with a strip of white hairs. Chelicerae dark brown. Maxillae greyish yellow, inner margin with dense setae. Labium brown, tip with greyish hairs. Sternum greyish brown. Abdomen oval, with transverse alternating dark and light stripes. Venter and spinnerets grey. Legs I more robust and darker than other legs, which are yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d4-1-1; tibia v2-0-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Palpal tibia short, about 1/3 the length of cymbium, RTA bent, strong and with blunt tip (Fig. 26B). Bulb about twice as long as wide. Seminal duct encircling tegulum retrolaterally. Embolus short, digitiform, (Fig. 26D).

Figure 27.

Habitus of Icius bamboo sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B lateral.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Genus Nannenus Simon, 1902

Nannenus menghaiensis Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 28, 29, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Jinghong City, Menghai County, Menghai Village (22°01.702'N, 100°23.700'E, 1188 m), secondary forest, 28 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 1♀, same data as holotype; 1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Biological diversity corridor (21°24.213'N, 101°376.995'E, 834 m), seasonal rainforest, 3 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

The species name is derived from the name of the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male resembles that of N. maughami Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012 (see Prószyński and Deeleman-Reinhold 2012: figs 97–99), but the RTA is straight and shorter, about 1/4 the length of the cymbium (Fig. 28B) vs. apically bent in N. maughami. The female can be distinguished from other congeners by the boomerang-like copulatory openings (Fig. 29A).

Figure 28.

Palp of Nannenus menghaiensis sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 29.

Nannenus menghaiensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 7.25, CL 3.50, CW 2.43, AL 3.75, AW 1.50. Eye measurements: AME 0.70, ALE 0.32, PME 0.15, PLE 0.25, AER 2.10, PER 2.15, EFL 1.80. Clypeus 0.25 high. Legs: I 6.00 (2.00, 1.10, 1.25, 0.90, 0.75); II 5.45 (1.65, 1.00, 1.20, 0.85, 0.75); III 5.48(1.70, 0.85, 1.00, 1.10, 0.83); IV 6.52 (1.95, 0.92, 1.50, 1.35, 0.80).

Carapace dark brown (Fig. 29C). Lateral eyes with surrounded with black. Chelicerae dark orange-brown, sparsely covered with fine grey hairs. Maxillae brownish with dull white tips and with grey hairs on the inner margins. Labium dark brown, with dull white tip and black hairs. Sternum orange-brown. Abdomen with central light stripe, black laterally. Venter dark greyish. Spinnerets black. Legs I more robust and darker than the other legs, which are yellow. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-1; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Palpal tibia short, about 1/5 the length of the cymbium, RTA straight, as long as tibia (Fig. 28B). Cymbium bent. Bulb elongate, set obliquely, with peripheral seminal duct. Embolus arising from basal-retrolateral part of the bulb, running parallel to bulb and extending to the tip of the cymbium (Fig. 28C).

Female (one of paratypes, same locality as holotype). Total length 9.26, CL 4.00, CW 2.56, AL 5.26, AW 2.38. Eye measurements: AME 0.79, ALE 0.39, PME 0.08, PLE 0.34, AER 2.28, PER 2.30, EFL 2.10. Clypeus 0.13 high. Legs: I 6.57 (2.15, 1.34, 1.48, 0.90, 0.70); II 6.02 (1.90, 1.20, 1.25, 0.95, 0.72); III 6.11 (1.90, 1.08, 1.00, 1.34, 0.79); IV 7.77 (2.28, 1.18, 1.72, 1.80, 0.79).

Spination of leg I: femur d0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Other characters similar to those of male. Epigyne with two rectangular posterior projections and central bulge formed by the copulatory ducts (Fig. 29A). Copulatory openings boomerang-like, located anteriorly. Copulatory ducts short, receptacles round, fertilisation ducts at the anterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 29B).

Distribution

Known from several localities in Xishuangbanna.

Genus Pancorius Simon, 1902

Pancorius latus Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 30, 31, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Paramichelia baillonii plantation (21°54.200'N, 101°16.923'E, 608 m), 7 April 2007, leg. G. Zheng Guo.

Etymology

From Latin latus (wide), in reference to the shape of the carapace; adjective.

Diagnosis

Similar to P. crassipes (Karsch, 1881) (see Żabka 1997: figs 108–109), but bulb triangular (Fig. 30D) vs. oval, embolus beak-like with broad base (Fig. 30C) vs. needle-like; RTA rectangular with three little tips (Fig. 30B) vs. triangular in P. crassipes.

Figure 30.

Palp of Pancorius latus sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 6.45, CL 3.20, CW 2.80, AL 3.25, AW 1.80. Eye measurements: AME 0.60, ALE 0.36, PME 0.07, PLE 0.36, AER 2.25, PER 2.20, EFL 1.90. Clypeus 0.31 high. Legs: I 8.40 (2.35, 1.25, 2.30, 1.60, 0.90); II 6.35 (2.00, 0.95, 1.45, 1.20, 0.75); III 6.80 (1.00, 1.30, 1.45, 0.95, 2.10); IV missing.

Carapace dark brown, moderately high and slightly broadened posteriorly, with white or greyish hairs and lighter mediodorsally (Fig. 31A). Clypeus with dense white setae. Chelicerae dark brown, with greyish hairs. Maxillae and labium dark brown, tips with dark setae. Sternum light brown. Abdomen oval, generally grey. Venter and spinnerets greyish-= brown. Legs brown with hairs and spines. Spination of leg I: femur d3-1-1; patella p0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p1-0-1; metatarsus v2-0-2, p1-0-0. Palpal tibia about 1/2 the length of the cymbium. RTA rectangular, with three little apical tips (Fig. 30B). Bulb with posterior lobe. Embolus beak-like with broad base, subequal to the length of the RTA (Fig. 30C).

Figure 31.

Habitus of Pancorius latus sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B lateral.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known from the type locality.

Genus Phintella Strand, 1906

Phintella lepidus Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 32, 33, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Jinghong City, Mengyang Town (22°09.765'N, 100°52.553'E, 862 m), seasonal rainforest, 22 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 1♂1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Biological diversity corridor (21°24.192'N, 101°37.025'E, 657 m), seasonal rainforest, 29 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

From Latin lepidus (nice), in reference to the body appearance; adjective.

Diagnosis

Male can be distinguished from other congeners by the wrench-like structure comprising the embolus and lamellar process (Fig. 32C–D). The epigyne (Fig. 33A–B) resembles that of P. piatensis Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 (see Barrion and Litsinger 1995: fig. 36a–f), but the copulatory ducts are broader, about 1/2 the length of the receptacle diameter vs. 1/4 the length in P. piatensis.

Figure 32.

Palp of Phintella lepidus sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 5.10, CL 2.25, CW 1.75, AL 2.85, AW 1.50. Eye measurements: AME 0.50, ALE 0.30, PME 0.05, PLE 0.20, AER 1.75, PER 1.70, EFL 1.35. Clypeus 0.40 high. Legs: I 6.25 (1.75, 1.00, 1.50, 1.25, 0.75); II 4.83 (1.35, 0.73, 1.15, 0.90, 0.70); III 5.60(1.60, 0.70, 1.25, 1.30, 0.75); IV 5.80 (1.65, 0.70, 1.35, 1.35, 0.75).

Carapace dark brown (Fig. 33C). Ocular area with metallic lustre, anteriorly with black hairs. Posterior median and margin with white strip of hairs. Clypeus with white strip of hairs. Chelicerae dark brown. Maxillae and labium greyish brown, tips with grey hairs. Sternum yellow with dark margin. Atrium with distinct anterior margin. Abdomen oval, dorsomedially yellow, the rest dark grey with a metallic lustre. Venter dark grey. Spinnerets grey-brown. Legs I more robust and darker than others, which are yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d3-1-1; tibia v2-2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Palp: tibia short, about 1/3 the length of the cymbium. Tibial apophysis about 2/3 the length of the tibia, with pointed tip (Fig. 32B). Bulb about twice as long than wide, with distinct outgrowth and one retrolateral process (in prolateral or retrolateral views). Embolus subequal to length of the RTA, accompanied with one lamellar process (Fig. 32D).

Figure 33.

Phintella lepidus sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Female (one of paratypes). Total length 4.42, CL 1.70, CW 1.30, AL 2.72, AW 1.72. Eye measurements: AME 0.43, ALE 0.22, PME 0.04, PLE 0.23, AER 1.25, PER 1.23, EFL 1.13. Clypeus 0.37 high. Legs: I 3.35 (0.92, 0.62, 0.91, 0.61, 0.39); II 3.34 (0.90, 0.63, 0.88, 0.56, 0.37); III 3.57(1.06, 0.50, 0.71, 0.86, 0.44); IV 4.15 (1.33, 0.47, 0.96, 0.87, 0.52).

Posterior part of carapace with broader white stripe of hairs than in male. Abdomen with broad, dark decorative pattern. Legs yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-1; tibia v2-2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Other characters similar to these of male. Epigyne sclerotised along the anterior margin (Fig. 33A). Copulatory openings with strongly sclerotised edges. Two pockets near posterolateral edge. Copulatory ducts bent, short. Receptacles spherical, their diameter about 2 times as wide as copulatory ducts. Fertilisation ducts located anteriorly to the receptacles (Fig. 33B).

Distribution

Known from two localities in Xishuangbanna.

Phintella sancha Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 34, 35, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, rubber plantation (21°54.684'N, 101°16.319'E, 585 m), 8 April 2007, G. Zheng leg.

Etymology

From Chinese Pinyin san cha (trident), in reference to the trifurcate RTA; noun.

Diagnosis

Similar to P. suavisoides Lei & Peng, 2013 (Fig. 36), but can be distinguished by: (1) trifurcate RTA in new species (Fig. 34B) vs. bifurcate in P. suavisoides; (2) the terminal seminal duct angle almost 30° (Fig. 34C) vs. about 60° in P. suavisoides; (3) the embolus of the new species is accompanied by one digitiform lamellar process (Fig. 34D), lacking in P. suavisoides.

Figure 34.

Palp of Phintella sancha sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 3.60, CL 1.75, CW 1.40, AL 1.85, AW 1.09. Eye measurements: AME 0.45, ALE 0.13, PME 0.04, PLE 0.14, AER 1.25, PER 1.20, EFL 1.06. Clypeus 0.15 high. Legs: I 4.63 (1.50, 0.80, 1.13, 0.80, 0.40); II 3.50 (1.05, 0.6, 0.75, 0.65, 0.45); III 4.08 (1.25, 0.55, 0.88, 0.90, 0.50); IV 4.10 (1.05, 0.50, 1.00, 1.00, 0.55).

Carapace brown (Fig. 35A). Chelicerae dark brown. Maxillae and labium brown, tips white with greyish hairs. Sternum light brown. Abdomen oval, greyish. Venter and spinnerets grey. Legs I more robust and darker than others, which are yellowish. Spination of leg I: femur d2-1-1; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Palp: tibia short, about 1/3 the length of the cymbium. RTA trifurcate (Fig. 34B), short, about 1/4 the length of the cymbium. Bulb 2 times longer than wide, with anterior semi-transparent lobe. Embolus very short, slightly bent (Fig. 34C).

Figure 35.

Habitus of Phintella sancha sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B ventral.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Phintella suavisoides Lei & Peng, 2013

Figs 36, 37, 43

Phintella suavisoides Lei & Peng, 2013: 103, figs 5, 6a–e (♂).

Material examined

1♂1♀: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, 48 km landmark in Nature Reserve (21°38.853'N, 101°09.625'E, 1001 m), seasonal rainforest, 30 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. 1♂, CHINA, Yunnan, Jinghong City, Menga Town, Wengnan Village (22°05.020'N, 100°22.086'E, 1118 m), secondary forest, 24 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.; 1♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Jinghong City, Menghai County, Manda Village (22°01.702'N, 100°23.700'E, 1188 m), secondary forest, 28 July 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Comparative material examined

Holotype ♂ (Hunan Normal University, China): CHINA, Yunnan, Tengchong County, Jietou Township, Zhoujiapo Village (25°32.086'N, 98°40.139'E, 1620 m), 13 May 2006, C. Yin, X. Peng, J. Hu & P. Hu leg.

Diagnosis

Male well diagnosed by Lei and Peng (2013). The female resembles P. cavaleriei (Schenkel, 1963) (see Peng et al. 1993: figs 537–539), but the copulatory openings and copulatory ducts located medially (Fig. 37A–B) vs. laterally; copulatory ducts bent dorsally (Fig. 37B) vs. facing each other in P. cavaleriei.

Figure 36.

Palp of Phintella suavisoides, male from Xishuangbanna. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 37.

Phintella suavisoides, female and male from Xishuangbanna. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male. Well described by Lei and Peng (2013).

Female. Total length 3.25, CL 1.50, CW 1.28, AL 1.75, AW 1.10. Eye measurements: AME 0.38, ALE 0.20, PME 0.03, PLE 0.15, AER 1.19, PER 1.20, EFL 1.00. Clypeus 0.10 high. Legs: I 3.01 (0.98, 0.50, 0.63, 0.50, 0.40); II 2.62 (0.80, 0.40, 0.52, 0.50, 0.40); III 3.09 (1.00, 0.40, 0.56, 0.73, 0.40); IV 3.73 (1.18, 0.44, 0.85, 0.86, 0.40).

Carapace light grey with dense setae (Fig. 37C). Clypeus light brown, covered by white, flat hairs. Chelicerae brown. Maxillae and labium greyish, tips with black hairs. Sternum greyish brown with light margin. Abdomen oval and white, clothed in dense setae. Venter greyish. Spinnerets green-grey. Legs white. Spination of leg I: femur d0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2; metatarsus v2-0-2. Copulatory openings small and located anteromedially (Fig. 37A). Copulatory ducts bent, short. Receptacles spherical, diameters four times wider than copulatory ducts. Fertilisation ducts located anteriorly to receptacles (Fig. 37B).

Distribution

Known from Gaoligong Mountains and Xishuangbanna in Yunnan, China.

Genus Ptocasius Simon, 1885

Ptocasius paraweyersi Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 38, 39, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, 48 km landmark in Nature Reserve (21°58.704'N, 101°19.748'E, 1088 m), seasonal rainforest, 12 August 2011, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg. Paratypes: 1♂2♀, CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve, Biological diversity corridor (21°24.192'N, 101°37.025'E, 657 m), seasonal rainforest, 29 June 2012, Q. Zhao & Z. Chen leg.

Etymology

From Greek prefix para and weyersi, a patronym from Weyers, referring to similarities with P. weyersi.

Diagnosis

Similar to P. weyersi (see Żabka 1985: figs 530–532), but the tegulum has one small bump (Fig. 38D) and the RTA is straight (Fig. 38B) vs. bent backward in P. weyersi. The female resembles P. weyersi, but differs by having two epigynal hoods (Fig. 39A) vs. one. Compared to P. songi Logunov, 1995, the hoods are located medially (Fig. 39A) vs. laterally and the receptacles are elongate (Fig. 39B) vs. spherical.

Figure 38.

Palp of Ptocasius paraweyersi sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Figure 39.

Ptocasius paraweyersi sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A epigyne, ventral B vulva, dorsal C male habitus, dorsal D female habitus, dorsal E female habitus, ventral. Scale bars equal for A and B; equal for D and E.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 6.10, CL 2.60, CW 2.00, AL 3.50, AW 1.65. Eye measurements: AME 0.63, ALE 0.31, PME 0.05, PLE 0.30, AER 1.90, PER 1.90, EFL 1.60. Clypeus 0.15 high. Legs: I 5.20 (1.50, 1.00, 1.25, 0.85, 0.60); II 4.45(1.35, 0.75, 1.10, 0.70, 0.55); III 5.15 (1.55, 0.75, 1.10, 1.05, 0.70); IV 5.25 (1.55, 0.75, 1.10, 1.10, 0.75).

Carapace dark brown with dense white hairs on both sides of the posterior edge (Fig. 39C). Chelicerae, clypeus and labium dark brown. Maxillae brown with wide, white tips. Sternum dark brown. Abdomen elongate, brownish. Venter puce with longitudinal rows of dots. Legs dark brown. Spination of leg I: femur d5-1-1; patella p0-1-0, r0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1; metatarsus v2-0-2, p1-0-1, r1-0-1. Palp: tibia short, about 1/3 the length of the cymbium. RTA short, with a pointed tip (Fig. 38C). Cymbium nearly flabellate with retrolateral fold. Seminal duct encircling tegulum prolaterally. Embolus elongate, its base at two o’clock (Fig. 38C–D).

Female (one of paratypes). Total length 6.25, CL 2.81, CW 2.03, AL 3.44, AW 1.85. Eye measurements: AME 0.63, ALE 0.33, PME 0.05, PLE 0.28, AER 1.98, PER 2.00, EFL 1.72. Clypeus 0.10 high. Legs: I 4.57 (1.41, 1.00, 1.00, 0.63, 0.53); II 4.37 (1.41, 0.90, 0.93, 0.63, 0.50); III 4.80 (1.56, 0.76, 1.00, 0.92, 0.56); IV 5.37 (1.70, 0.80, 1.13, 1.10, 0.64).

Abdomen light brown with irregular white patches. Venter yellowish with black longitudinal stripe. Spination of leg I: femur d3-1-1; patella p0-1-0; tibia v2-2-2, p1-0-1; metatarsus v2-0-2. Other characters similar to the male. Copulatory ducts long, broad and located laterally. Receptacles long and convoluted, forming four loops. Fertilisation ducts located at the anterior part of the receptacles (Fig. 39B).

Distribution

Known from several localities in Xishuangbanna.

Genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886

Stenaelurillus fuscus Cao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 40, 41, 42, 43

Type

Holotype ♂: CHINA, Yunnan, Mengla County, Menglun Town, Rubber-Tea plantation (21°55.551'N, 101°16.923'E, 561 m), 11 December 2006, G. Zheng leg.

Etymology

From Latin fuscus (dark), in reference to the dark carapace; adjective.

Diagnosis

Similar to S. minutus Song & Chai, 1991 (see Wesołowska 2014: fig. 4A–D), but embolus straight (Fig. 40C) vs. bent; sclerotized apophysis (the longer one) located anteriorly to embolus (Fig. 40C) vs. posteriorly; RTA almost triangular (Fig. 40B) vs. broad with thin, long, pointed apex in S. minutus.

Figure 40.

Palp of Stenaelurillus fuscus sp. n., male holotype. A prolateral B retrolateral C ventral D bulb, ventral. Scale bar equal for A–C.

Description

Male (holotype). Total length 5.30, CL 2.80, CW 2.35, AL 2.50, AW 1.60. Eye measurements: AME 0.48, ALE 0.30, PME 0.06, PLE 0.29, AER 1.75, PER 1.60, EFL 1.30. Clypeus height 0.31 high. Legs: I 4.50 (1.50, 0.75, 1.00, 0.75, 0.50); II 6.85 (1.50, 0.65, 0.95, 0.70, 0.50); III 5.35 (1.80, 0.70, 1.15, 1.15, 0.55); IV 5.85 (2.00, 0.75, 1.25, 1.25, 0.60).

Carapace dark, moderately high and slightly broadened posteriorly (Fig. 42A). Lateral carapace margins with long, dense brush-like setae. Chelicerae dark brown. Maxillae and labium brown, tips light with greyish hairs. Sternum dark, oval. Abdomen shield-shaped, anterior edge with long dense bristles. Venter and spinnerets dark grey. Legs dark with dense hairs and numerous spines. Palpal tibia white and short, about 1/3 the length of the cymbium. Tibia with ventral, digitiform, obtuse apophysis and triangular RTA (Fig. 40B). Seminal duct encircling retrolateral part of tegulum. Tegulum oval, with long and triangular posterior lobe.

Figure 41.

Stenaelurillus fuscus sp. n., male holotype. A embolus, prolateral B embolus, retrolateral C embolus, dorsal D habitus, front. Scale bars equal for A–C.

Figure 42.

Habitus of Stenaelurillus fuscus sp. n., male holotype. A dorsal B lateral.

Figure 43.

Four main collection localities in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. 1 Mengla Town 2 Menglun Town 3 Mengyang Town 4 Menghai Town.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Acknowledgements

The manuscript benefitted greatly from comments by Yuri M. Marusik (Magadan, Russia), Galina N. Azarkina (Novosibirsk, Russia) and Dmitri Logunov (Manchester, UK). Sarah Crews (Oakland, USA) kindly checked the English of the manuscript. This study was supported by the Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015CASEABRI005, Y4ZK111B01) and the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (NSFC-31272280, 31471960, 31530067). MŻ’s contribution is a part of 18/91/S project supported by his university.

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