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Research Article
Notes on the green lacewing subgenus Chrysopidia (s. str.) Navás, 1910 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), with description of a new species from China
expand article infoYunlong Ma
‡ Engineering Research Center for Forest and Grassland Disaster Prevention and Reduction, Mianyang Normal College, Mianyang, China
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Abstract

A taxonomic study of the green lacewing subgenus Chrysopidia (s. str.) from China is presented. Based on the examination of type specimens of the genus reported by previous Chinese scholars and the line drawings of Chrysopidia manipurensis provided by Ghosh (1990), I proposed five new combinations: Apertochrysa platypa (Yang & Yang, 1990), comb. nov., Apertochrysa yangi (Yang, 1997), comb. nov., Apertochrysa shennongana (Yang & Wang, 1990), comb. nov., Apertochrysa zhaoi (Yang & Wang, 1990), comb. nov., and Apertochrysa manipurensis (Ghosh, 1990), comb. nov. As for Chrysopidia sinica Yang & Wang, 1990, I still treat it as a valid species until supplementary specimens are available because the gonarcal complex of the type specimen is missing. A new species Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia) tjederi sp. nov. is also described based on new materials. A key to all known species of this subgenus is also provided.

Keywords

Key, new species, taxonomic study

Introduction

The green lacewing genus Chrysopidia was established by Navás (1910), with Chrysopidia nigrata Navás, 1910 as its type species by monotypy. The genus currently includes 19 species in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions. The genus is characterized by the broad costal area of the forewing, sinuate radial crossveins in the apical half, the slightly inclined or straight long costal setae, the presence of a dorsoapical invagination on tergite 9, as well as ectoproct in males and long vela and shallow spermathecal impression in females. Previously, this genus consisted of three subgenera, i.e., Chrysopidia (s. str.), Chrysotropia Navás, and Anachrysa Hölzel. The subgenus Chrysotropia was established as an independent genus by Navás (1911) and subsequently treated as a subgenus of Chrysopidia (s.l.) on account of similar external and genital characters. The subgenus Anachrysa was excluded from Chrysopidia (s.l.) and raised to generic level by Breitkreuz et al. (2022) and Ma and Liu. (2021). Thus, the genus Chrysopidia (s.l.) includes at present two subgenera, Chrysopidia (s. str.) and Chrysotropia Navás. The study of type specimens of the four species of this subgenus described from China suggests that they should be excluded from Chrysopidia (s. str.) and transferred to Apertochrysa, based on morphological and genital characters. I did not examine the type specimen of Chrysopidia manipurensis Ghosh, 1990, but morphological and genital characters showed by line drawings support the removal of this taxon from Chrysopidia and the transfer to Apertochrysa. Thus, I herein propose five new combinations: i.e., Apertochrysa platypa (Yang & Yang, 1990), comb. nov., Apertochrysa yangi (Yang, 1997), comb. nov., Apertochrysa shennongana (Yang & Wang, 1990), comb. nov., Apertochrysa zhaoi (Yang & Wang, 1990), comb. nov., and Apertochrysa manipurensis (Ghosh, 1990), comb. nov. Finally, Chrysopidia sinica Yang & Wang, 1990, it is quite similar to Chrysopidia remanei Hölzel, 1973, but no significant external differences between them were found. Unfortunately, the gonarcal complex of C. sinica is missing. Here, I still treat C. sinica as a valid species until additional specimens are available. This study aims to present an overview of the species of Chrysopidia (s. str.) from China, describe a new species based on novel material from China, and provide a key to all known species.

Materials and methods

Terminology of wing venations used in this paper follows Tillyard (1916), Tauber (2003), and Tauber et al. (2017). Terminology of genitalia follows Tjeder (1970), Principi (1977), Adams and Penny (1985), Brooks and Barnard (1990), Tauber (2003), and Tauber et al. (2017). Measurements on the methodology of head width, ratio of head width to eye width, and the length and width of prothorax and wings were provided in our previous work (Ma et al. 2020). The holotype of Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia) tjederi sp. nov. is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of Engineering Research Center for Forest and Grassland Disaster Prevention and Reduction, Mianyang Normal College, Mianyang, China (MYNC). Other collections with primary types of species cited in this paper are Entomological Museum, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAU), Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (IZCAS) and National Zoological Collection, Zoological Survey of India, West Bengal, India (NZSI) and Zoologische Staatsammlunge, Munich, Germany (ZSM).

Taxonomy

Chrysopidia Navás, 1910

Chrysopidia Navás 1910: 54; Hölzel 1973: 359; Brooks and Barnard 1990: 207.

Type species

Chrysopidia nigrata Navás, 1910, by monotypy.

Diagnosis

(adapted from Brooks and Barnard 1990). Forewing 13.00–16.00 mm. Head unmarked or with red stripe on scape, gena, and between scape and vertex (supra-antennal area). Head width/eye width ratio 2.00–2.50; left mandible with small tooth; antenna as long as or longer than forewing. Pronotum slightly elongate; unmarked or with brown lateral spot or red median spot; mesonotum unmarked or with red lateral spot on prescutum. Forewing with costal area broadened; costal and radial crossveins black at each end; costal setae long, slightly inclined or erect; pterostigma unmarked; radial crossveins in apical half sinuate; gradates in three rows. Hind wing often with black suffusion on apical posterior margin; gradates in three rows. Male genitalia: callus cerci ovate or rounded; apodemes usually absent; tergite 9 + ectoproct with deep dorsoapical invagination; tignum, gonapsis, and median plate absent; entoprocessus short; gonarcus long and narrow; mediuncus long, expanded subapically, strongly curved ventrally; gonosaccus large; gonosetac long, dense. Female genitalia: sternite 7 straight apically; subgenitale bilobed; spermatheca narrow, with shallow ventral impression; vela long; spermathecal duct long or short, sinuous.

Species of the subgenus

Chrysopidia ignobilis (Walker, 1860) (“Hindostan”, India), Chrysopidia fuscata (Navás, 1914) (Sichuan and Yunnan, China), Chrysopidia nigrata (Navás, 1914) (Darjeeling, India), Chrysopidia numerosa (Navás, 1914) (Darjeeling, China), Chrysopidia regulata (Navás, 1914) (Sichuan and Yunnan, China), Chrysopidia jiriana Hölzel, 1973 (Jiri, Nepal), Chrysopidia jocasta Hölzel, 1973 (Jiri, Nepal), Chrysopidia junbesiana Hölzel, 1973 (Junbesi, Nepal), Chrysopidia junbesiana Hölzel, 1973 (Junbesi, Nepal), Chrysopidia remanei Hölzel, 1973 (Junbesi, Nepal), Chrysopidia sinica Yang & Wang, 1990 (Hubei, China), Chrysopidia flavilineata Yang & Wang, 1994 (Yunnan, China), and Chrysopidia tjederi sp. nov. (Sichuan, China).

Distribution

Oriental region.

Species previously attributed to Chrysopidia (s. str.)

Apertochrysa platypa (Yang & Yang, 1991), comb. nov.

Chrysopidia platypa Yang and Yang 1991a: 215 (original: Tjederina; type locality: Haikou (Hainan); holotype in CAU); Yang et al. 2005: 126 Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia))

Material examined

Holotype 1♂ (CAU), Hainan, Haikou (海口), Hainan Institute of Tropical Crops [= Hainan University], 13.IX.1981.

Distribution

China (Hainan).

Remarks

The species Chrysopidia platypa (Yang & Yang, 1991), reported by Yang and Yang (1991) originally belongs to the genus Tjederina, which is a nomen nudum appearing in Yang and Wang (1990). Later, it was transferred to the genus Dichochrysa by Yang (1997). Yang et al. (2005) transferred it in the genus Chrysopidia based on sternite 8 exceeding the apex of tergite 9 + ectoproct. I re-examined the holotype and found it has the characters typical of Apertochrysa, a genus erected by Tjeder (1966) and re-established as a senior synonym of Pseudomallada Tsukaguchi, 1995 by Breitkreuz et al. (2021). Apertochrysa is characterized by presence of straight radial crossveins, basal inner gradate crossveins not meeting pseudomedia (Psm) in both wings, and gonapsis present. These characters suggest transferring this species to Apertochrysa.

Apertochrysa yangi (Yang, 1997), comb. nov.

Chrysopidia yangi Yang and Lin 1997: 599 (original: Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia); type locality: Xingshan (Hubei); holotype in IZCAS); Yang et al. 2005: 133 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)).

Material examined

Holotype 1♂ (IZCAS), Huibei, Xingshan, Longhe Forestry (龙河林场), 14.IX.1994 Yaojian (姚建).

Distribution

China (Hubei).

Remarks

Chrysopidia yangi was described from both sexes by Yang in Yang and Lin (1997), but only the holotype (male) was available to me for study. After re-examination, I found it has these characters: (1) narrow costal areas on forewing; (2) radial crossveins straight; (3) basal inner gradate crossveins not meeting pseudomedia (Psm) in both wings; (4) tignum present. All these characters fit with the diagnosis of Apertochrysa, so I transfer it to this genus. Moreover, I confirm that the presence of three series of gradate crossveins on both wings of this species is caused by doubled occasional crossveins.

Apertochrysa shennongana (Yang & Wang, 1990), comb. nov.

Chrysopidia shennongana Yang and Wang 1990: 154 (original: Chrysopidia; shennongjia (Hubei); holotype in CAU); Yang et al. 2005: 128 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)).

Material examined

Holotype 1♀ (CAU), Hubei, Shennongjia (神农架), 2.VI.1984, 1700 m, Chikun Yang (杨集昆).

Distribution

China (Hubei).

Remarks

Chrysopidia shennongana was described by Yang and Wang (1990) based on a single female. After re-examination the holotype, I discovered it has typical characters of Apertochrysa, e.g., narrow costal areas on the forewings, straight radial crossveins, basal inner gradate crossveins not meeting pseudomedia (Psm) in both wings, and the spermatheca with long vela. Thus, I exclude it from Chrysopidia (s.l.) and allocate it to Apertochrysa. The presence of three series of gradate crossveins on both wings is the same case as C. platypa and C. yangi.

Apertochrysa zhaoi (Yang & Wang, 1990), comb. nov.

Chrysopidia zhaoi Yang and Wang 1990: 156 (original: Chrysopidia; type locality: Shennongjia (Hubei); holotype in CAU); Yang et al. 2005: 133 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)).

Material examined

Holotype 1♀ (CAU), Hubei, Shennongjia, Songbai Town (松柏镇), 24.VI.1984, 700–800 m, Xinli Wang (王心丽).

Distribution

China (Hubei).

Remarks

The case is same with A. shennongana, and therefore I exclude it from Chrysopidia (s.l.) and allocate it to Apertochrysa.

Apertochrysa manipurensis (Ghosh, 1990), comb. nov.

Chrysopidia manipurensis Ghosh 1990: 344 (original: Chrysopidia; type locality: Manipur (India); holotype in NZSI).

Distribution

India (Manipur).

Remarks

As for Chrysopidia manipurensis, I did not examine the type material, but it is easy to recognize diagnostic characters from the original literature and line drawings. Although it has three gradates on the forewing, the shape of the gonarcal complex is typical of Apertochrysa. Based on the narrow costal areas on forewing, straight radial crossveins, basal inner gradate crossveins not meeting pseudomedia (Psm) in both wings, and the shape of its gonarcal complex, I exclude it from Chrysopidia (s.l.) and assign it to Apertochrysa.

Chinese species

Chrysopidia (C.) flavilineata Yang & Wang, 1994

Fig. 1A–H

Chrysopidia (C.) flavilineata Yang and Wang 1994: 65 (orignial: Chrysopidia; type locality: Nanjingli (Yunnan, Ruili); holotype in CAU); Yang et al. 2005: 124 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)).

Material examined

Holotype ♂, Yunnan, Ruili, Nanjingli (南京里), 5.V.1981, Li Fasheng (李法圣).

Figure 1. 

Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia) flavilineata (Yang & Wang, 1994) (holotype, male, CAU) A habitus B head, frontal view C head and thorax, dorsal view D head and prothorax, lateral view E pretarsal claw (emphasized) F segment A-terminus, lateral view G segment A8 terminus, dorsal view H sternite 8. Abbreviations: cc callus cerci inv dorsal invagination S8 sternite 8 T8 tergite 8 T9+e tergite 9 + ectoproct. Scale bar: 5.0 mm (A).

Diagnosis

Circumocular with reddish stripe; epistomal suture with light stripe; gena unmarked; scape and pedicel without any stripe; pretarsal claw with basal dilation circa half as long as claw hook. Gradate crossveins pale green on both wings. Tergite 9 + ectoproct with straight dorsal and posterior margin; sternite 8 moderately exceeding the apex of tergite 9 + ectoproct.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Chrysopidia (C.) fuscata Navás, 1914

Chrysopidia (C.) fuscata Navás 1914: 12 (original: Chrysopidia; type locality: “Tali” [Dali] (Yunnan); holotype depository unknown); Banks 1942 [1940]: 188 (Chrysopidia); Banks 1947: 98 (Chrysopidia); Brooks and Barnard 1990: 271 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)); Yang et al. 2005: 125 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)).

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

Remarks

The depository of the type is unknown (probably missing). I also did not examine other specimens belonging to this species, so additional information cannot be provided at present.

Chrysopidia (C.) regulata Navás, 1914

Chrysopidia (C.) regulata Navás 1914: 12 (original: Chrysopidia; type locality: “Tali” [Dali] (Yunnan) and Darjeeling (India); syntype depository unknown); Banks 1942 [1940]: 187 (Chrysopidia); Yang et al. 2005: 127 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)).

Distribution

China (Sichuan, Yunnan).

Remarks

For similar reasons mentioned above for C. fuscata, supplementary description and photographs of characters cannot be given at this time.

Chrysopidia (C.) remanei Hölzel, 1973

Fig. 2A–H

Chrysopidia (C.) remanei Hölzel 1973: 360 (original: Chrysopidia; type locality: Junbesi (Nepal); holotype in ZSM); Yang et al. 2005: 127 Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia).

Material examined

1♂ (CAU), Xizang, Yatung, 2018.VII.12, light trap, Yang Qicheng (杨棋程).

Figure 2. 

Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia) remanei Hölzel, 1973 (Xizang, Yatung, male, CAU) A habitus B head, frontal view C head and thorax, dorsal view D head and prothorax, lateral view E pretarsal claw F segment A7-terminus, dorsal view G callus cerci H segment A8 terminus, dorsal view I sternite 8 J gonarcal complex, dorsal view K gonarcal complex, lateral view. Abbreviations: ent entoprocessus gsac gonosaccus gon gonarcus inv dorsal invagination mu mediuncus S7 sternite 7 S8 sternite 8 T7 tergite 7 T8 tergite 8 T9+e tergite 9 + ectoproct. Scale bar: 5.0 mm (A).

Diagnosis

Circumocular without reddish stripe; epistomal suture with short reddish stripe; gena unmarked; scape and pedicel without any stripe; pretarsal claw with basal dilation about half as long as claw hook. Forewing with costal area expanded outwards at median part; gradate crossveins brownish. Tergite 9 + ectoproct with straight dorsal and posterior margin; sternite 8 slightly exceeding the apex of tergite 9 + ectoproct; entoprocessus of gonarcal complex with unarticulated process near apex.

Distribution

China (Xizang); Nepal (Junbesi).

Remarks

The specimen from Yatung has characters typical of Chrysopidia (C.) remanei, e.g., forewing with median costal area expanded and entoprocessus with subapical process, which confirms the identification of this species.

Chrysopidia (C.) sinica Yang & Wang, 1990

Chrysopidia (C.) sinica Yang and Wang 1990: 155 (original: Chrysopidia; type locality: Shennongjia (Hubei); holotype in CAU); Yang et al. 2005: 129 (Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia)).

Material examined

Holotype 1♂ (CAU), Hubei, Shennongjia (神农架), 1700 m, 2.VI.1984, Yang Chikun (杨集昆).

Distribution

China (Hubei).

Remarks

I re-examined the holotype and did not find any significant external differences between C. remanei and C. sinica. I doubt that this species may be a junior synonym of C. remanei. Yang and Wang (1990) stated the gonarcal complex of this species was different from that of C. remanei and provided line drawings of gonarcal complex. Based on my re-examination of many types described by Chikun Yang, the line drawing of the gonarcal complex is often inaccurate. Therefore, it is necessary to re-examine the gonarcal complex of the species. Unfortunately, the sclerite is missing and, thus, I could not make any determination. This species is not included in the present key, but still treated as a valid species until more specimens are available.

Chrysopidia (C.) tjederisp. nov.

Fig. 3A–J

Material examined

Holotype 1♂ (MYNC), Sichuan, Mianyang, Mojia town, Mianyang Normal College (磨家镇, 绵阳师范学院), 24.X.2021, Ma Yunlong (马云龙). Paratype ♂, the same data as holotype.

Figure 3. 

Chrysopidia (Chrysopidia) tjederi sp. nov. (holotype, male, MYNC) A habitus B head, frontal view C head and thorax, dorsal view D head and prothorax, lateral view E line drawing of pretarsal claw F segment A8-terminus, dorsal view G tergite 9 + ectoproct H sternite 8 I gonarcal complex, dorsal view J gonarcal complex, lateral view. Abbreviations: ent entoprocessus g.c. gonarcal complex gsac gonosaccus gon gonarcus inv dorsal invagination mu mediuncus S8 sternite 8 T8 tergum 8 T9+e tergite 9 + ectoproct. Scale bar: 5.0 mm (A).

Diagnosis

Circumocular with reddish stripe extending to inner ocular margin; epistomal suture with reddish markings connected with clypeal markings; gena unmarked; scape, pedicel, and flagellum with reddish stripe; pretarsal claw with basal dilation circa half as long as claw hook. Forewing with gradate crossveins black. Tergite 9 + ectoproct with rounded dorsal and posterior margin; sternite 8 greatly exceeding the apex of tergite 9 + ectoproct; entoprocessus of gonarcal complex broad, without unarticulated process.

Description

Measurements : head width 1.00 mm; ratio of head width/eye width 2.20; prothorax 0.70 mm long, 0.77 mm wide. Forewing 13.00 mm long, 4.50 mm wide; 11 radial cells; 5 Banksian cells (b cells), 4 lower Banksian cells (b′ cells); 6 inner gradates, 3 median gradates, 7 outer gradates. Hind wing 11.50 mm long, 3.50 mm wide; 10 radial cells; 4 Banksian cells (b cell), 4 lower Banksian cell (b′ cells); 5–6 inner gradates, 0–1 median gradates, 5 outer gradates.

Head : vertex pale green, immaculate, with shallow groove; circumocular with reddish stripe extending to inner ocular margin; epistomal suture of frons with reddish markings; gena unmarked; tentorial pits with reddish margins; scape, pedicel, and flagellum with reddish stripe; clypeus with reddish markings connected with frontal markings; labrum with reddish markings; maxillary palp with palpomeres 3–5 brownish; labial palp with palpomere 3 brownish.

Thorax : pronotum with reddish lateral stripe and with yellowish median stripe; mesonotum and metanotum with yellowish median stripe; pretarsal claw with basal dilation circa half the length of claw hook.

Wings : forewing narrow, hyaline; most costal and radial crossveins at each end, basal part of radial sector, branches of radial sector at junctions with pseudomedia (Psm), gradate crossveins, crossveins between pseudomedia (Psm) and pseudocubitus (Psc) except the first one, crossvein between the first cubital cell and the second cubital cell (cu2) and crossvein between the second cubital cell (cu2) and distal cubital cell (cu3) black; hind wing narrow, more acutely tapered apically than forewing, hyaline; most costal crossveins black at each end or entirely black; apical posterior margin with black suffusion.

Abdomen : pale green, having yellowish median stripe, with reddish brown markings on terga 1–7. Abdominal setae white, microsetae dense, and long setae sparse.

Male: tergite 9 + ectoproct oval, circa 3× as long as tergite 8, with rounded dorsal and posterior margin, dorsal invagination about half length of tergite 9 + ectoproct; callus cerci rounded, as long as wide. Sterna 8 + 9 fused, very narrow, circa 3.5× as long as wide, with line of fusion not demarcated, lateral margin straight and abruptly tapered near apex, posterior margin rounded, greatly exceeding the apex of tergite 9 + ectoproct. Tignum, gonapsis, and hypandrium internum absent; gonarcus narrow, slightly longer than mediuncus; entoprocessus broad; mediuncus straight at basal half, abruptly curved at apical half, forming right angles with gonarcus.

Female: unknown.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Etymology

The new species is dedicated to Prof. Bo Tjeder, great Swedish neuropterist and dipterist.

Remarks

The new species is distinguished by the presence of a reddish brown stripe on scape (absent in C. flavilineata, C. jocasta, C. junbesiana, and C. regulata), absence of black spots on the mesonotum and metanotum (present in C. nobilis); forewing span (<15.00 mm in C. tjederi versus >15.00 mm in C. numerosa, C. fuscata, and C. nirgrata), costal area not expanded (median part of costal area expanded in C. remanei and C. sinica), and angles between gonarcus and entoprocessus (right angles in C. tjederi versus obtuse angles in C. jiriana).

Key to all species of Chrysopidia (s. str.) Navás, 1910*

*C. sinica is not included in the key. See remarks for this species.

1 Mesonotum or/and metanotum with black spots 2
Mesonotum or/and metanotum without black spots 3
2 Mesonotum and metanotum with black spots C. jocasta Hölzel, 1973
Only mesonotum with black spots C. ignobilis (Walker, 1860)
3 Forewing >20.00 mm C. numerosa Navás, 1914
Forewing <20.00 mm 4
4 Forewing with costal area expanded medially (Fig. 2A) C. remanei Hölzel, 1973
Forewing with costal area not expanded medially 5
5 Scape without reddish brown stripe 6
Scape with reddish brown stripe (Fig. 3D) 8
6 Maxillary and labial palp pale green or yellowish C. regulata Navás, 1914
Maxillary and labial palp with apical segment brownish (Figs 2B, 3B) 7
7 Forewing with basal radial crossveins entirely black; most gradate crossveins black or brownish C. junbesiana Hölzel, 1973
Forewing with radial crossveins pale green; gradate crossveins pale green (Fig. 1A) C. flavilineata Yang & Wang, 1994
8 Forewing >15.00 mm 9
Forewing <15.00 mm 10
9 Mesonotum with reddish spots C. fuscata Navás, 1914
Mesonotum without reddish spots C. nigrata Navás, 1910
10 Gonarcus longer than mediuncus; mediuncus forming right angles with gonarcus (Fig. 3J) C. tjederi sp. nov.
Gonarcus shorter than mediuncus; mediuncus forming obtuse angles with gonarcus C. jiriana Hölzel, 1973

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by a pilot grant (QD2021A30) provided by Mianyang Normal College.

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