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Research Article
The green lacewing genus Anachrysa Hölzel, 1973 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): a new species, two new combinations, and updated key to species
expand article infoYunlong Ma
‡ Engineering Research Center for Forest and Grassland Disaster Prevention and Reduction, Mianyang Normal College, Mianyang, China
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Abstract

A new species, Anachrysa adamsi sp. nov., from Yunnan, China is described. Two new combinations are proposed, namely Anachrysa alviolata (Yang & Yang, 1990), comb. nov. and Anachrysa triangularis (Yang & Wang, 1994), comb. nov. An updated key to species is also provided.

Keywords

Key, new combinations, new species

Introduction

Anachrysa was established as a subgenus of the genus Chrysopidia Navás, 1910 by Hölzel (1973). A taxonomic study of the genus was conducted (Ma and Liu 2021), in which we raised Anachrysa to full generic status, reported two new species from China, and proposed five new combinations. Following these taxonomic changes, the genus contained seven species occurring in the Oriental Region. Breitkreuz et al. (2022) also suggested that Anachrysa should be elevated to generic rank and excluded from Chrysopidia. For the work on the genus Apertochrysa Tjeder, 1966 from China, I re-examined many type specimens of species in the genus. I found that Chrysopidia alviolata Yang & Yang, 1990 and Chrysopidia triangularis Yang & Wang, 1994 should be transferred to the genus Anachrysa based on their external morphology and genital characters. Thus, here I propose two new combinations, Anachrysa alviolata (Yang & Yang, 1990), comb. nov. and Anachrysa triangularis (Yang & Wang, 1994), comb. nov. I also describe a new species, Anachrysa adamsi sp. nov., from Yunnan, China based on novel material. Finally, I update the previous key to the species of Anachrysa provided in our previous paper (Ma and Liu 2021). These changes increase the number of species in the genus to ten, all of which occur in the Oriental Region.

Materials and methods

Terminology for wing venation used in this paper follows Tillyard (1916), Tauber (2003), and Tauber et al. (2017). Terminology for genitalia follows Tjeder (1970), Principi (1977), Adams and Penny (1985), Brooks and Barnard (1990), Tauber (2003), and Tauber et al. (2017). Measurements on the methodology of head width, ratio of head width to eye width, and lengths and widths of prothorax and wings were provided in one of our previous works (Ma et al. 2020). The holotype of Anachrysa adamsi sp. nov. is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of Engineering Research Center for Forest and Grassland Disaster Prevention and Reduction, Mianyang Normal College, Mianyang, China (MYNC). Other collections with primary types of relevant species cited in this paper are Entomological Museum, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAU).

Taxonomy

Anachrysa Hölzel, 1973

Anachrysa Hölzel, 1973: 356 (as a subgenus of Chrysopidia Navás); Brooks and Barnard 1990: 206; Ma and Liu 2021: 282 (as an independent genus); Breitkreuz et al. 2021: 17.

Type species

Chrysopidia (Anachrysa) elegans Hölzel, 1973.

Diagnosis

See Ma and Liu (2021).

Anachrysa alviolata (Yang & Yang, 1990), comb. nov.

Fig. 1A–H

Navasius alviolatus Yang & Yang, 1990: 329 (original: Navasius Yang and Yang (nec Esben-Petersen); type locality: Jianfengling (Hainan); holotype in CAU); Yang 1995: 29 (Dichochrysa); Yang et al. 2005: 149 (Dichochrysa); Breitkreuz et al. 2021: 219 (Apertochrysa).

Material examined

Holotype ♀ (CAU), Hainan, Jianfengling (尖峰岭), 20.IV.1982.

Figure 1. 

Anachrysa alviolata (Yang & Yang, 1990) (holotype, female, CAU) A habitus B head, frontal view C head and thorax, dorsal view D head and prothorax, lateral view. The arrow indicates the reddish-brown stripe E pretarsal claw (emphasized) F segment A7-terminus, lateral view G subgenitale H spermatheca. Abbreviations: cc callus cerci g.l. gonaphophyses lateralis S7 sternite 7 sg.d. dorsal lobe of subgenitale sg.v. ventral lobe of subgenitale T7 tergite 7 T8 tergite 8 T9+e tergite 9 + ectoproct. Scale bar: 5.0 mm (A).

Diagnosis

Epistomal suture with reddish-brown stripe; gena with brownish stripe connected to clypeal markings; scape with reddish-brown stripe. Pronotum without small medio-lateral spots; pretarsal claw with basal dilation ca. half as long as claw hook. Forewing with clearly discernible markings; gradates brownish; distal cubital cell (dcc) without reddish-brown spots.

Distribution

China (Neimenggu, Hainnan, Sichuan, Ningxia).

Remarks

After re-examination of the holotype of Navasius alviolata, I noticed that it has clearly discernible markings, reddish-brown prestigmatic spots, and three series of gradate crossveins on the forewing and reddish-brown prestigmatic spots on the hind wing, all of which fit well with the generic characters of Anachrysa. Thus, I hereby transfer this species to Anachrysa. Although I did not examine specimens from Neimenggu, Sichuan, and Ningxia, I suggest that these distribution reports are incorrect, because of a misidentification of the species. Anachrysa species are characterized by narrow distributions, thus, the old data should be used with caution, awaiting confirmation.

Anachrysa triangularis (Yang & Wang, 1994), comb. nov.

Fig. 2A–K

Dichochrysa triangularis Yang & Wang, 1994: 68 (original: Dichochrysa; type locality: Ruili (Yunnan); holotype in CAU); Yang et al. 2005: 199 (Dichochrysa); Breitkreuz et al. 2021: 219 (Apertochrysa).

Material examined

Holotype ♂ (CAU), Yunnan, Ruili, Mengxiu (勐休), 5.V.1981, Yang Chikun (杨集昆).

Figure 2. 

Anachrysa triangularis (Yang & Wang, 1994) (holotype, male, CAU) A habitus B head, frontal view C head and thorax, dorsal view D head and prothorax, lateral view E pretarsal claw (emphasized) F segment A7-terminus, lateral view G tignum H gonarcal complex, dorsal view I gonarcal complex, lateral view J gonarcal complex and hypandrium internum K line drawing of gonapsis. Abbreviations: cc callus cerci ent entoprocessus gon gonarcus h.i. hypandrium internum mu mediuncus S7 sternite 7 S8 sternite 8 T7 tergite 7 T8 tergite 8 T9+e tergite 9+ectoproct. Scale bar: 5.0 mm (A).

Diagnosis

Frontoclypeal sulcus with brownish stripe; gena with brownish stripe connected to clypeal markings; scape and pedicel with reddish-brown stripe. Pronotum without small medio-lateral spots; pretarsal claw with basal dilation ca. half as long as claw hook. Forewing with clearly discernible markings, with two series of brownish gradate crossveins; distal cubital cell (dcc) with reddish brown spots. Tergite 9 + ectoproct without projected peak in lateral view.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Remarks

The holotype of Dichochrysa triangularis has reddish-brown prestigmatic spots and reddish-brown markings on the forewing. The gonarcal complex of this species also fits the typical shape of Anachrysa. Based on these characters, the species is transferred to Anachrysa and its diagnostic characters, e.g., two series of gradate crossveins on the forewing and hind wing, are considered to be interspecific variation within the genus.

Anachrysa adamsi sp. nov.

Fig. 3A–L

Material examined

Holotype ♂ (MYNC), Yunnan, Honghe, lyuchun county (绿春县), 1800 m, V.2021, Li Shen (李申).

Figure 3. 

Anachrysa adamsi sp. nov. (holotype, male, MYNC) A habitus B head, frontal view C head and thorax, dorsal view D head and prothorax, lateral view. The arrow indicates the reddish-brown stripe E pretarsal claw (emphasized) F segment A7-terminus, dorsal view G segment A7-terminus, lateral view. The arrow indicates the angulate peak H tignum I gonarcal complex, dorsal view J gonarcal complex, lateral view K gonapsis L hypandrium internum. Abbreviations: cc callus cerci ent entoprocessus gon gonarcus inv dorsal invagination mu mediuncus S7 sternite 7 S8 sternite 8 T7 tergite 7 T8 tergite 8 T9+e tergite 9+ectoproct. Scale bar: 5.0 mm (A).

Diagnosis

Epistomal suture with light stripe; gena with brownish stripe connected to clypeal markings; scape and pedicel with reddish-brown stripe. Pronotum with medio-lateral spots; pretarsal claw with basal dilation ca. one third as long as claw hook. Forewing with indistinct markings, gradates brownish; distal cubital cell (dcc) with reddish-brown spots. Tergite 9 + ectoproct with projected peak in lateral view.

Description

Measurements : Head width 1.30 mm; ratio of head width to eye width 2.00; prothorax 0.70 mm long, 0.90 mm wide. Forewing 17.00 mm long, 5.50 mm wide; 14 radial cells; 3 Banksian cells (b cells), 5 lower Banksian cells (b’ cells); 9 inner gradates, 5 median gradates, 8 outer gradates. Hind wing 15.50 mm long, 4.50 mm wide; 13 or 14 radial cells; 2 Banksian cells (b cell), 5 lower Banksian cell (b’ cells); 8 inner gradates, 2 or 3 median gradates, 6 or 7 outer gradates.

Head. Not spotted; frons with epistomal suture marked with light reddish stripe; gena marked with brownish stripe connected with clypeal markings; tentorial pits unmarked; scape and pedicel with reddish stripe; clypeus with lateral area marked with light brownish markings; maxillary palp with palpomeres 3–5 brownish; labial palp with palpomere 3 brownish.

Thorax. Pronotum with reddish lateral stripe and medio-lateral spots. Pretarsal claw with basal dilation ca. one third as long as claw hook.

Wings. Forewing narrow, hyaline, without clearly discernible markings; some basal costal crossveins, crossveins between the first cubital cell and the second cubital cell (cu2), distal cubital cell (dcc) and first anal vein (1A) brownish; hind wing narrow, more acutely tapering apically than forewing, hyaline; almost all veins, except some costal crossveins, pale green.

Abdomen. Pale green. Abdominal setae white, microsetae dense, and long setae sparse.

Male. Tergite 9 + ectoproct triangular, ca. twice as long as tergite 8, base proximally prominent dorsally, with an angulate peak in lateral view, dorsal invagination ca. 2/3 length of tergite 9 + ectoproct; callus cerci circular. Sternite 8 + 9 fused, with line of fusion not demarcated, posterior margin rounded. Tignum, gonapsis, and hypandrium internum present; tignum narrow, with relatively weak projection; gonarcus narrow, ca. half the length of mediuncus; entoprocessus long, narrow, slightly shorter than gonarcus, without unarticulated process; mediuncus relatively straight; gonapsis with triangular lateral wings, stem long and expanded subapically; hypandrium internum small, with two short, dense arms, with mesal comes.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Etymology

The new species is dedicated to Prof. Phillip Anthony Adams, who made great contributions to the taxonomy of Chrysopidae.

Remarks

The new species can be distinguished from its conqeners by the following characters: pronotum with medio-lateral spots (absent in A. holzeli, A. triangularis, and A. alviolata), scape with a reddish-brown stripe (absent in A. lifashengi and A. luna) and absence of an unarticulated process on the entoprocessus (present in A. lifashengi and A. luna), cubital cell (dcc) with reddish-brown spots (absent in A. xiangana) and tergite 9 + ectoproct with a dorsally projected peak in lateral view (absent in A. trigonia). Anachrysa adamsi resembles A. erato in having medio-lateral spots on the pronotum and a similar gonarcal complex. However, A. adamsi differs from A. erato by the scape having a reddish-brown stripe (absent in A. erato) and gonapsis with small and narrow lateral wings (large and broad wings in A. erato). Anachrysa adamsi is also similar to A. elegans in having medio-lateral spots on the pronotum and a similar gonarcal complex and gonapsis. The two species differ in several details, such as scape with a reddish-brown stripe (absent in A. elegans), the absence of discernible markings on the forewing (present in A. elegans) and few brownish crossveins (several in A. elegans), the relatively straight mediuncus (curved in A. elegans) and triangular lateral wings on the gonapsis (rounded in A. elegans).

Updated key to species of Anachrysa by Ma and Liu (2021)

1 Pronotum without distinct medio-lateral spots 2
Pronotum with distinct medio-lateral spots (Fig. 3C) 4
2 Scape without reddish-brown stripe A. holzeli (Wang & Yang, 1992)
Scape with reddish-brown stripe (Figs 1D, 2D, 3D) 3
3 Distal cubital cell (dcc) with reddish-brown spots (Fig. 2A) A. triangularis (Yang & Wang, 1994), comb. nov.
Distal cubital cell (dcc) without reddish-brown spots (Fig. 1A) A. alviolata (Yang & Yang, 1990), comb. nov.
4 Scape with reddish-brown stripe (Figs 1D, 2D, 3D) 5
Scape without reddish-brown stripe 7
5 Male tergite 9 + ectoproct without dorsally projected peak in lateral view A. trigonia (Wang & Yang, 2005)
Male tergite 9 + ectoproct with dorsally projected peak in lateral view (Fig. 3G) 6
6 Distal cubital cell (dcc) without reddish-brown spots A. xiangana (Wang & Yang, 1992)
Distal cubital cell (dcc) with reddish-brown spots (Figs 2A, 3A) A. adamsi sp. nov.
7 Male tergite 9 + ectoproct without dorsally projected peak in lateral view; entoprocessus strongly curved A. luna Ma & Liu, 2021
Male tergite 9 + ectoproct with dorsally projected peak in lateral view; entoprocessus straight 8
8 Gonapsis with large and broad lateral wings 9
Gonapsis with small and narrow lateral wings A. elegans (Hölzel, 1973)
9 Entoprocessus with subapical unarticulated process; lateral wings on gonapsis tapered outwards A. lifashengi Ma & Liu, 2021
Entoprocessus without subapical unarticulated process; lateral wings on gonapsis rounded A. erato (Hölzel, 1973)

Notes. A. elegans and A. erato do not have a reddish-brown stripe on their scapes, contrary to the statement previously provided in the key by Ma and Liu (2021).

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by a pilot grant (QD2021A30) provided by Mianyang Normal College.

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