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Research Article
Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China
expand article infoXiaoqing Zhang, Zhe Zhao§, Guo Zheng, Shuqiang Li§
‡ Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang, China
§ Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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Abstract

Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: P. burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), P. fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), P. gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), P. huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), P. lini sp. n. (♀), P. liui sp. n. (♂♀), P. wensuensis sp. n. (♂), P. wui sp. n. (♂) and P. yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use.

Keywords

Taxonomy, description, diagnosis, Central Asia, Paracoelotes

Introduction

The spider genus Pireneitega was established by Kishida (1955). Its type species is Amaurobius roscidus C.L. Koch, 1843 from Germany, considered to be a junior synonym of P. segestriformis (Dufour, 1820). Pireneitega was for a long time regarded as a nomen nudum until Wang and Jäger (2007) found reasons to revalidate this name and to make Paracoelotes Brignoli, 1982 its junior synonym. Currently, there are twenty-one valid Pireneitega species, distributed widely from the Iberian Peninsula to Japan and Sakhalin; eleven of them are known from East Asia, six are known from Central Asia, and other four from Europe (Li and Lin 2015, World Spider Catalog 2016). This paper provides descriptions of nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang in northwestern China.

Material and methods

Specimens were examined with a Leica M205C stereomicroscope. Images were captured with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera (7.1 megapixels) mounted on an Olympus SZX12 dissecting microscope. Epigynes and male palps were examined after dissection from the spiders’ bodies. The epigyne was cleared by boiling it in a 10% KOH solution before taking photos of the vulva.

All measurements were obtained using a Leica M205C stereomicroscope and are given in millimeters. Leg measurements are given as: Total length (femur, patella + tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). Only structures (palp and legs) of the left side of the body are described and measured. The terminology used in the text and the figure legends follows Wang (2002). Abbreviations used in this paper and in the figure legends are: A = epigynal atrium; ALE = anterior lateral eye; AME = anterior median eye; AME-ALE = distance between AME and ALE; AME-AME = distance between AME and AME; ALE-PLE = distance between ALE and PLE; CD = copulatory duct; CF = cymbial furrow; CO = conductor; E = embolus; EB = embolic base; ET = epigynal tooth; FD = fertilization duct; H = epigynal hood; MA = median apophysis; PA = patellar apophysis; PLE = posterior lateral eye; PME = posterior median eye; PME-PLE = distance between PME and PLE; PME-PME = distance between PME and PME; R = receptacle; RTA = retroventral tibial apophysis; ST = subtegulum; T = tegulum; TC = tip of conductor.

DNA barcodes were obtained for future use. A partial fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was amplified and sequenced for nine new species and one old species using Primers LCO1490-oono (5’-CWACAAAYCATARRGATATTGG-3’) (Folmer et al. 1994; Miller et al. 2010) and HCO2198-zz (5’-TAAACTTCCAGGTGACCAAAAAATCA-3’) (Folmer et al. 1994; Chen et al. 2015). For additional information on extraction, amplification, and sequencing procedures, see Zhao et al. 2013. All sequences were deposited in GenBank and the accession numbers are provided in Table 1.

Voucher specimen information.

Species GenBank accession number Sequence length Collection localities
Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. KX011867 630bp China: Xinjiang: Burqin
Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. KX011859 630bp China: Xinjiang: Fuyun
Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. KX011862 630bp China: Xinjiang: Gongliu
Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. KX011861 630bp China: Xinjiang: Huocheng
Pireneitega lini sp. n. KX011865 630bp China: Xinjiang: Akto
Pireneitega liui sp. n. KX011860 630bp China: Xinjiang: Xinyuan
Pireneitega tianchiensis (Wang, Yin, Peng & Xie, 1990) KX011858 630bp China: Xinjiang: Changji
Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. KX011864 630bp China: Xinjiang: Wensu
Pireneitega wui sp. n. KX011866 630bp China: Xinjiang: Kizilsu
Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. KX011863 630bp China: Xinjiang: Hoboksar

All of the specimens (including molecular vouchers) are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China.

Taxonomy

Family Agelenidae C.L. Koch, 1837
Subfamily Coelotinae F.O. P.-Cambridge, 1893

Pireneitega Kishida, 1955

Pireneitega Kishida, 1955: 21. Type species Amaurobius roscidus C.L. Koch, 1843 (=P. segestriformis Dufour, 1820) from Germany; Wang and Jäger 2007: 46 (synonymized 2 genera).

Paracoelotes Brignoli, 1982: 348. Type species Coelotes armeniacus Brignoli, 1978 from Turkey; Wang 2002: 112.

Diagnosis

The chelicerae of all Pireneitega have 3 promarginal and 3 retromarginal teeth; other coelotines usually have 2 or 4 retromarginal teeth. The females of this genus can be separated from other coelotines by the widely separated long epigynal teeth, the large epigynal atrium with weakly sclerotized septum, and broad copulatory ducts (Fig. 6A–B); other coelotines usually have a small epigynal atrium, the short epigynal teeth and narrow copulatory ducts. The males of this genus can be distinguished from other coelotines by with an elongated and flattened conductor which is usually twisted into a circle horizontally or vertically and a large median apophysis (Fig. 1A–C); other coelotines usually have a broad or short conductor and a reduced or indistinct median apophysis.

Figure 1.

Left palp of Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n., male holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Description

Described in Wang (2002, sub Paracoelotes).

Composition

Twenty-one Pireneitega species are known from Germany, Italy, Spain, France, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Russia, South Korea, Japan and China (World Spider Catalog 2016). Eleven Pireneitega species were known from China before the current study, including P. involuta (Wang et al., 1990) (♂♀), P. liansui (Bao & Yin, 2004) (♀), P. luctuosa (L. Koch, 1878) (♂♀), P. luniformis (Zhu & Wang, 1994) (♂♀), P. neglecta (Hu, 2001) (♀), P. spinivulva (Simon, 1880) (♂♀), P. taishanensis (Wang et al., 1990) (♂♀), P. taiwanensis Wang & Ono, 1998 (♂♀), P. tianchiensis (♂♀), P. triglochinata (Zhu & Wang, 1991) (♂♀), and P. xinping Zhang, Zhu & Song, 2002 (♂♀).

Pireneitega burqinensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 1, 2, 17

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Xinjiang, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Altay Prefecture: Burqin County, on the way from Jiadenyu to Hemu Village, birch forest, N48°31'08", E87°11'13", 1469 m, 23.VII.2013, Z. Yao and Z. Zhao. Paratype: 1♀, same data as holotype.

Other material studied

Pireneitega tianchiensis: 1♀1♂ (Figs 1213): China: Xinjiang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture: Fukang City, Crater Lake Scenic Spot (in Chinese: Tianchi), N43°54'05", E88°07'29", 1878 m, 16.VII.2013, Z. Yao and Z. Zhao.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. tianchiensis, by having narrow tibia and tarsus. From P. tianchiensis, it can be distinguished by the nearly trapezoidal embolic base (while P. tianchiensis has the nearly fingernail-shaped embolic base) (cf. Figs 1 and 12; Wang et al. 1990: figs 81–83). The female can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. tianchiensis, by having the weakly sclerotized tip of septum and the closely spaced copulatory opening. From P. tianchiensis, it can be distinguished by the sharply narrowed epigynal teeth (while in P. tianchiensis the epigynal teeth are broad and nearly horn-shaped) (cf. Figs 2A–B and 13A–B; Wang et al. 1990: figs 84–85).

Figure 2.

Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Male habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for D, E.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 12.25. Carapace 5.25 long, 4.25 wide. Abdomen 7.00 long, 4.00 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.27, ALE 0.28, PME 0.23, PLE 0.23; AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.17, PME-PLE 0.23. Leg measurements: I: 18.40 (5.50, 6.25, 4.50, 2.15); II: 17.25 (5.00, 6.00, 4.25, 2.00); III: 16.15 (4.75, 5.15, 4.25, 2.00); IV: 20.15 (5.75, 6.50, 5.75, 2.15). Carapace greenish, the radial grooves indistinct, with black lateral margins. Abdomen blackish, with yellow spots. Palp: patellar apophysis absent; tibia short, about 1/2 length of cymbium; RTA short, about 1/3 of tibial length, without pointed tip, extended beyond the tibia; cymbial furrow short, about 1/3 length of cymbium; conductor long, nearly hook-shaped, with one loop; median apophysis broad and nearly triangular; embolus with broad and nearly trapezoidal base, beginning at 6:30 o’clock position (Fig. 1A–C).

Female (paratype): Total length 9.50. Carapace 4.50 long, 3.60 wide. Abdomen 5.00 long, 3.00 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.25, PME 0.18, PLE 0.18; AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.15, PME-PLE 0.23. Leg measurements: I: 17.90 (5.00, 6.00, 4.75, 2.15); II: 17.00 (5.00, 5.50, 4.50, 2.00); III: 16.00 (4.75, 5.00, 4.50, 1.75); IV: 19.75 (5.50, 6.00, 6.00, 2.25). Carapace reddish, with brown lateral margins. Abdomen blackish, with yellow sigilla. Epigyne: epigynal teeth light-colored and hyaline, about 0.5 times as long as epigynal atrium, located in anterior part of epigynal atrium; septum about 0.6 times as long as wide, nearly triangular; atrium about 1.2 times as long as wide, with weakly sclerotized posterior margin and nearly triangular, about two times as long as septum, subequal to the width of septum; receptacles about two times as long as wide, located in the posterior part of epigyne; copulatory opening indistinct; hoods indistinct (Fig. 2A–B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega fuyunensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 3, 4, 17

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Xinjiang, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Altay Prefecture: Fuyun County, Ocoa Sea Breeze, Erqis Grand Canyon, on the way from the Carla Chale Waterfall to the Shenzhong Mountain, N47°19'28", E90°01'51", 1355 m, 19.VII.2013, J. Liu, K. Meng, Z. Yao, and Z. Zhao. Paratypes: 4♀1♂, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. burqinensis sp. n. and P. tianchiensis, by having a hook-shaped conductor, and can be distinguished from these two species by the small and narrow median apophysis (the broad and nearly fins-shaped apophysis in P. burqinensis sp. n. and P. tianchiensis) (cf. Figs 1, 3 and 12; Wang et al.1990: figs 81–83). The female can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. burqinensis sp. n. and P. tianchiensis, by having short receptacles and the large epigynal atrium, and can be distinguished from these two species by the receptacles, about 1.5 times as long as wide (about two times longer than wide in P. burqinensis sp. n. and about 1.2 times in P. tianchiensis) (cf. Figs 2A–B, 4A–B and 13A–B; Wang et al. 1990: figs 84–85).

Figure 3.

Left palp of Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n., male holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Figure 4.

Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Male habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for D, E.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 12.18. Carapace 5.45 long, 4.75 wide. Abdomen 6.73 long, 3.50 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.26, ALE 0.30, PME 0.25, PLE 0.25; AME-AME 0.08, AME-ALE 0.10, PME-PME 0.20, PME-PLE 0.20. Leg measurements: I: 22.63 (6.25, 7.69, 6.09, 2.60); II: 22.15 (6.20, 7.45, 6.00, 2.50); III: 20.75 (5.50, 7.00, 6.00, 2.25); IV: 25.67 (7.05, 8.33, 7.69, 2.60). Carapace beige, the radial grooves indistinct. Abdomen blackish, with gray herringbone pattern. Palp: patellar apophysis absent; tibia long, about 1/2 length of the cymbium; RTA short, about 1/4 of tibial length; cymbial furrow short, about 1/4 length of cymbium; conductor short, with tapering apex, with one loop; embolus with nearly tongue-shaped base, beginning at 7:00 o’clock position (Fig. 3A–C).

Female (one of paratypes): Total length 13.80. Carapace 5.25 long, 4.50 wide. Abdomen 8.55 long, 4.75 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.25, ALE 0.30, PME 0.24, PLE 0.24; AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE0.10, PME-PME 0.20, PME-PLE 0.28. Leg measurements: I: 18.75 (5.50, 6.50, 4.50, 2.25); II: 18.00 (5.25, 6.25, 4.50, 2.00); III: 16.98 (4.99, 5.74, 4.50, 1.75); IV: 21.60 (6.10, 7.25, 6.03, 2.22). Carapace yellowish, with brown lateral margins. Abdomen khaki, with yellow sigilla and herringbone pattern. Epigyne: epigynal teeth long and thin, about 0.8 times as long as epigynal atrium; septum about 0.5 times as long as wide, with the weakly sclerotized tip, nearly triangular; epigynal atrium about 1.5 times as long as wide, with well delimited posterior margin, about two times as long as septum, about 0.7 times as wide as septum; receptacles about 1.5 times as long as wide; copulatory opening distinct; hoods indistinct (Fig. 4A–B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega gongliuensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 5, 6, 17

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Xinjiang, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture: Gongliu County, N43°22'23", E81°51'45", 1515 m, 9.VIII.2013, J. Liu, K. Meng, Z. Yao, and Z. Zhao. Paratypes: 2♀2♂, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. involuta and P. xinping, by having a broad conductor and thick patellar apophysis, and can be distinguished from these two species by the tapering tip of conductor (the rounded tip of conductor in P. involuta and P. xinping) (cf. Fig. 5; Wang et al. 1990: figs 13–15; Zhang et al. 2002: figs 9–10). The female can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except for P. xinping, by having large copulatory ducts, and can be distinguished from this species by the short and thick epigynal teeth, about 0.5 times as long as epigynal atrium (the long and narrow epigynal teeth in P. xinping, subequal to the length of epigynal atrium) (cf. Fig. 6A–B; Zhang et al. 2002: figs 7–8).

Figure 5.

Left palp of Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n., male holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Figure 6.

Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Male habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for D, E.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 13.27. Carapace 6.09 long, 4.49 wide. Abdomen 7.18 long, 3.21 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.20, PME 0.23, PLE 0.22; AME-AME 0.08, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.13, PME-PLE 0.25. Leg measurements: I: 19.87 (5.14, 6.73, 5.00, 3.00); II: 18.50 (5.00, 6.00, 4.75, 2.75); III: 16.70 (4.60, 5.10, 4.50, 2.50); IV: 21.59 (5.45, 6.73, 6.41, 3.00). Carapace yellow. Abdomen gray, with nearly chevrons-shaped stripes. Palp: patellar apophysis long, more than half of the tibia; tibia short, about 1/4 of tarsus; RTA subequal to the tibial length; cymbial furrow long, more than half of cymbium; conductor broad and long, with two loops; embolus with broad base, beginning at 5:30 o’clock position (Fig. 5A–C).

Female (one of paratypes): Total length 12.18. Carapace 5.13 long, 3.80 wide. Abdomen 7.05 long, 3.50 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.25, PME 0.21, PLE 0.22; AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE0.07, PME-PME 0.15, PME-PLE 0.20. Leg measurements: I: 15.28 (4.50, 5.26, 3.40, 2.12); II: 14.91 (4.40, 5.13, 3.33, 2.05); III: 12.99 (3.72, 4.17, 3.30, 1.80); IV: 17.96 (4.75, 5.96, 5.00, 2.25). Carapace yellowish. Abdomen gray, with green spots. Epigyne: epigynal teeth about 0.5 times as long as atrium, light-colored; septum about 0.5 times as long as wide; atrium large, the length subequal to the width, with weakly sclerotized posterior margin, about 1.3 times as long as septum, about 0.6 times as long as septum; receptacles about 1.5 times as long as wide, almost covered by copulatory ducts; copulatory opening distinct; hoods distinct (Fig. 6A–B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega huochengensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 7, 8, 17

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Xinjiang, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture: Huocheng County, Sarbulak town, N44°13'14", E81°10'13", 987 m, 4.VIII.2013, J. Liu, K. Meng, Z. Yao, and Z. Zhao. Paratypes: 3♀3♂, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. gongliuensis sp. n., P. involuta and P. xinping, by having a broad conductor and thick patellar apophysis, and can be distinguished from these species by the blunt tip of patellar apophysis (the tapering tip in P. involuta and P. xinping, the nearly rectangular in P. gongliuensis sp. n.) (cf. Figs 5 and 7; Wang et al. 1990: figs 13–15; Zhang et al. 2002: figs 9–10). The female can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except for P. gongliuensis sp. n., by having long and broad epigynal teeth, and can be distinguished from this species by the blunt tip of epigynal teeth (the tapering tip in P. gongliuensis sp. n.) (cf. Figs 6A–B and 8A–B).

Figure 7.

Left palp of Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n., male holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Figure 8.

Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Male habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for D, E.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 11.54. Carapace 5.13 long, 3.60 wide. Abdomen 6.41 long, 3.00 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.24, PME 0.24, PLE 0.24; AME-AME 0.12, AME-ALE 0.06, PME-PME 0.14, PME-PLE 0.16. Leg measurements: I: 15.15 (4.00, 5.20, 3.75, 2.20); II: 14.15 (3.75, 4.75, 3.65, 2.00); III: 13.30 (3.50, 4.25, 3.75, 1.80); IV: 17.50 (4.75, 5.40, 5.10, 2.25). Carapace yellow. Abdomen black, with 2 types of spots, one group yellow, and another transversal spots. Palp: patellar apophysis long, subequal to the tibial length; tibia short, about 1/4 of the cymbium length; RTA long, subequal to the tibial length; cymbial furrow short, about 1/3 length of cymbium; conductor broad, with broad apex, with two loops; embolus with broad base, beginning at 6:00 o’clock position (Fig. 7A–C).

Female (one of paratypes): Total length 9.94. Carapace 4.49 long, 3.05 wide. Abdomen 5.45 long, 2.90 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.18, ALE 0.23, PME 0.24, PLE 0.30; AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.15, PME-PLE 0.10. Leg measurements: I: 11.25 (3.25, 4.00, 2.50, 1.50); II: 10.30 (3.00, 3.50, 2.50, 1.30); III: 9.70 (2.75, 3.00, 2.65, 1.30); IV: 13.75 (3.75, 4.25, 4.00, 1.75). Carapace yellow, with brown lateral margins. Abdomen yellow, with black and nearly chevrons-shaped stripes. Epigyne: epigynal teeth thick, about 0.7 times as long as epigynal atrium; septum with the well delimited tip, about 0.3 times as long as wide; atrium with well delimited posterior margin, the length subequal to the width, about 2.3 times as long as septum, about 0.8 times as wide as septum; receptacles long, about 2.7 times as long as wide; copulatory opening distinct; hoods indistinct (Fig. 8A–B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega lini Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 9, 17

Type material

Holotype ♀: China: Xinjiang, Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture: Akto County, N38°57'31", E75°30'16", 1833 m, 2.VIII.2014, Y. Lin.

Etymology

The specific name is a patronym in honor of the collector Yucheng Lin; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

The female can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except for P. luniformis, by having spiral receptacles, and can be distinguished from this species by the narrow and straight epigynal teeth (the broad and bent epigynal teeth in P. luniformis) (cf. Fig. 9A–B; Zhu and Wang 1994: figs 5–6).

Figure 9.

Pireneitega lini sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Female habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for C, D, E.

Description

Female (holotype): Total length 13.82. Carapace 5.49 long, 4.50 wide. Abdomen 8.33 long, 4.50 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.25, ALE 0.30, PME 0.25, PLE 0.24; AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.19, PME-PLE 0.25. Leg measurements: I: 18.14 (5.00, 6.41, 4.17 2.56); II: 16.99 (4.81, 5.77, 4.17, 2.24); III: 16.69 (4.49, 5.45, 4.50, 2.25); IV: 21.68 (5.78, 6.73, 6.41, 2.76). Carapace yellow. Abdomen beige, with gray spots. Epigyne: epigynal teeth long and narrow, about 0.7 times as long as epigynal atrium; septum with the well delimited tip, about 0.6 times as long as wide; epigynal atrium with well delimited posterior margin, about two times as long as wide, about 2.5 times as long as septum, about 0.7 times as wide as septum; receptacles long, about three times as long as wide, mightily spiral; copulatory opening distinct; hoods distinct (Fig. 9A–B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega liui Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 10, 11, 17

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Xinjiang, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture: Xinyuan County, N43°21'58", E84°21'34", 2010 m, 12.VIII.2013, J. Liu. Paratype: 1♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is a patronym in honor of the collector Jincheng Liu; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

The male can be easily distinguished from all the other Pireneitega species, except P. luniformis, by having a long and narrow conductor, and can be distinguished from this species by the blunt tip of the patellar apophysis (the tapering tip of conductor and the patellar apophysis in P. luniformis) (cf. Fig. 10; Zhu and Wang 1994: figs 7–8). The female can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. major (Kroneberg, 1875) by having the nearly trapezoidal epigynal atrium, and can be distinguished from this species by the abrupt tip of epigynal teeth (the pointed tip of teeth in P. major) (cf. Fig. 11A–B; Kroneberg 1875: fig. 6).

Figure 10.

Left palp of Pireneitega liui sp. n., male holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Figure 11.

Pireneitega liui sp. n., female paratype and male holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Male habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for D, E.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 8.25. Carapace 3.75 long, 2.85 wide. Abdomen 4.50 long, 2.50 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.18, ALE 0.25, PME 0.18, PLE 0.18; AME-AME 0.08, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.10, PME-PLE 0.18. Leg measurements: I: 12.55 (3.50, 4.25, 2.80, 2.00); II: 11.75 (3.25, 3.75, 3.00, 1.75); III: 11.00 (3.00, 3.50, 3.00, 1.50); IV: 15.00 (4.00, 4.50, 4.50, 2.00). Carapace yellow, the radial grooves indistinct, with black lateral margins. Abdomen brown, with yellow herringbone pattern. Palp: patellar apophysis thick, with the blunt tip; RTA long, subequal to the length of tibia, without pointed tip; cymbial furrow short, about 1/3 length of cymbium; conductor broad and curving, with blunt apex; median apophysis small, with pointed tip; embolus with broad base, beginning at 6:00 o’clock position (Fig. 10A–C).

Female (paratype): Total length 8.75. Carapace 4.00 long, 3.25 wide. Abdomen 4.75 long, 3.00 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.18, ALE 0.25, PME 0.20, PLE 0.20; AME-AME 0.05, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.15, PME-PLE 0.23. Leg measurements: I: 11.40 (3.25, 4.00, 2.65, 1.50); II: 10.90 (3.25, 3.65, 2.50, 1.50); III: 10.25 (3.00, 3.25, 2.50, 1.50); IV: 13.00 (3.75, 4.25, 3.50, 1.50). Carapace yellow, with black lateral margins. Abdomen blackish, with yellow herringbone pattern. Epigyne: epigynal teeth broad and blunt, about 0.5 times as long as atrium; septum with the well delimited tip, about 0.5 times as long as wide; atrium with well delimited posterior margin, about 0.7 times as long as wide, about two times as long as septum, about 0.7 times as wide as septum; receptacles long, about 1.7 times as long as wide; copulatory opening distinct; hoods distinct (Fig. 11A–B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega wensuensis Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 14, 17

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Xinjiang, Aksu Prefecture, Wensu County, Bozidun Kirgiz Village, N41°44'37", E80°43'05", 1991 m, 22.VII.2014, J. Wu.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the type locality; adjective.

Diagnosis

The male can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. burqinensis sp. n., P. fuyunensis sp. n. and P. tianchiensis, by having a hook-shaped conductor and the small bulb, and can be distinguished from these species by the long tibia, subequal to the length of cymbium (the short tibia, about 1/2 length of cymbium, in P. burqinensis sp. n., P. fuyunensis sp. n. and P. tianchiensis) (cf. Figs 1, 3, 12 and 14; Wang et al. 1990: figs 81–83).

Figure 12.

Left palp of Pireneitega tianchiensis, male from Crater Lake. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Figure 13.

Pireneitega tianchiensis, specimens from Crater Lake. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Male habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for D, E.

Figure 14.

Left palp of Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n., male holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 11.75. Carapace 4.50 long, 3.75 wide. Abdomen 7.25 long, 4.25 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.30, PME 0.25, PLE 0.25; AME-AME 0.05, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.13, PME-PLE 0.13. Leg measurements: I: 16.75 (5.00, 5.75, 3.75, 2.25); II: 15.75 (4.50, 5.50, 3.75, 2.00); III: 15.25 (4.50, 5.00, 3.75, 2.00); IV: 19.75 (5.50, 6.25, 5.50, 2.50). Carapace yellow, the radial grooves indistinct, with black lateral margins. Abdomen blackish, with yellow spots. Palp: patellar apophysis absent; palpal tibia long; RTA short, about 1/4 of tibial length; cymbial furrow short, about 1/5 length of cymbium; conductor short, with blunt apex; median apophysis broad and nearly the flipper-shaped; embolus with broad and nearly square base, beginning at 6:30 o’clock position (Fig. 14A–C).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega wui Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 15, 17

Type material

Holotype ♂: China: Xinjiang, Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture, Akqi County, N40°47'32", E78°15'48", 3020 m, 25.VII.2014, J. Wu.

Etymology

The specific name is a patronym in honor of the collector Jianglang Wu; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

The male can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. armeniaca by having bended and narrow conductor, and can be distinguished from this species by the blunt tip of median apophysis (the tapering tip of median apophysis in P. armeniaca) (cf. Fig. 15; Brignoli 1978: figs 117–121).

Figure 15.

Left palp of Pireneitega wui sp. n., male holotype. A Prolateral view B Ventral view C Retrolateral view. Scale bar: equal for A, B, C.

Description

Male (holotype): Total length 8.98. Carapace 3.85 long, 2.75 wide. Abdomen 5.13 long, 3.00 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.18, ALE 0.23, PME 0.20, PLE 0.20; AME-AME 0.05, AME-ALE 0.05, PME-PME 0.10, PME-PLE 0.10. Leg measurements: I: 14.75 (4.25, 5.25, 3.25, 2.00); II: 13.00 (3.50, 4.50, 3.00, 2.00); III: 12.25 (3.50, 4.00, 3.25, 1.50); IV: 17.50 (5.00, 5.25, 5.00, 2.25). Carapace yellow. Abdomen beige, with gray spots. Palp: patellar apophysis thick; palpal tibia short, about 1/3 of cymbial length; RTA short, about 1/3 of tibial length; cymbial furrow short, about 1/3 length of cymbium; conductor narrow, with the tapering tip; median apophysis broad and nearly triangular; embolus with broad and nearly trapezoidal base, beginning at 7:00 o’clock position (Fig. 15A–C).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Pireneitega yaoi Zhao & Li, sp. n.

Figs 16, 17

Type material

Holotype ♀: China: Xinjiang, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture: Tacheng (Tarbagatay) Prefecture, Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County, Songshugou, N46°59'21", E85°57'20", 1858 m, 29.VII.2013, Z. Yao and Z. Zhao. Paratype: 1♀, same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is a patronym in honor of the collector Zhiyuan Yao; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

The female can be distinguished from all other Pireneitega species, except P. burqinensis sp. n., P. fuyunensis sp. n. and P. tianchiensis, by having the weakly sclerotized tip of septum. It can be distinguished from these three species by the nearly rectangular epigynal atrium (while P. burqinensis sp. n. has a nearly triangular atrium; and P. tianchiensis and P. fuyunensis sp. n., large and nearly square-shaped atrium) (cf. Figs 2A–B, 4A–B, 6A–B and 16A–B; Wang et al. 1990: figs 84–85).

Figure 16.

Pireneitega yaoi sp. n., female holotype. A Epigyne, ventral view B Vulva, dorsal view C Female habitus, dorsal view D Female habitus, dorsal view E Female habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: equal for C, D, E.

Description

Female (holotype): Total length 12.25. Carapace 5.00 long, 4.25 wide. Abdomen 7.25 long, 4.50 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.23, ALE 0.27, PME 0.23, PLE 0.25; AME-AME 0.12, AME-ALE 0.08, PME-PME 0.13, PME-PLE 0.25. Leg measurements: I: 16.05 (4.90, 5.35, 3.75, 2.05); II: 15.55 (4.75, 5.05, 3.75, 2.00); III: 14.75 (4.50, 4.75, 3.50, 2.00); IV: 17.20 (5.00, 6.05, 4.05, 2.10). Carapace yellow, with black lateral margins. Abdomen greyish white. Epigyne: teeth long, subequal to the length of epigynal atrium; septum with weakly sclerotized posterior margin, about 0.3 times as long as wide; atrium with well delimited posterior margin, about 0.8 times as long as wide, about 1.7 times as long as septum, about 0.7 times as wide as septum; receptacles long, about 1.3 times as long as wide; copulatory opening indistinct; hoods indistinct (Fig. 16A–B).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality (Fig. 17).

Figure 17.

Localities of new Pireneitega species from Xinjiang, China. 1 P. burqinensis sp. n. 2 P. fuyunensis sp. n. 3 P. gongliuensis sp. n. 4 P. huochengensis sp. n. 5 P. lini sp. n. 6 P. liui sp. n. 7 P. wensuensis sp. n. 8 P. wui sp. n. 9 P. yaoi sp. n.

Acknowledgements

The manuscript benefited greatly by comments of Yuri M. Marusik (Magadan, Russia), Seppo Koponen (Turku, Finland) and Mykola Kovblyuk (Simferopol, Crimea). The English of the final draft was kindly checked by Victor Fet (Huntington, USA). This study was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China to Guo Zheng (NSFC-31172121, 31372224) and Shuqiang Li (NSFC-31530067, 31471960, 31272280). Part of the laboratory work was supported by Eco-Environmental Research Center Foundation of Shenyang Normal University (EERC-T-201502), Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (LJQ2012094).

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