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Research Article
First description of the male of Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011 (Araneae, Gnaphosidae)
expand article infoBing Zhou, Haiqiang Yin, Xiang Xu
‡ College of Life Sciences of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China
Open Access

Abstract

The male of Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011 is described for the first time from Hengshan Mountain, Hunan Province, China. This species was originally described from Amami-ôshim Island, Japan and has been recorded from Gaoligong Mountain, Yunnan Province, China. Morphological descriptions and illustrations of both sexes of this species are given.

Keywords

East Asia, ground spider, taxonomy

Introduction

The spider genus Hitobia is distributed in East Asia with 16 species described to date, half of which are described by only the male or only the female (World Spider Catalog Version 2016, Wang and Peng 2014, Kamura 2011).

The species Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011 was first described based on female specimens only from Amami-ôshim Island, Japan. Wang and Peng (2014) identified a female specimen from Gaoligong Mountain, Yunnan Province, China as this species, although the spermathecae of this specimen are slightly different from those of the holotype in the original description of Kamura (2011). Recently, during examination of the spider specimens collected from Hunan Province, one female and four males were found, which can be identified as Hitobia makotoi based on comparison with the type specimens. The female is redescribed and the male is described for the first time in the present paper.

Material and methods

Specimens were examined with an Olympus SZX16 stereomicroscope. Details were further studied with an Olympus BX53 compound microscope. The illustrations were made using an Olympus drawing tube and inked on ink jet plotter paper. Photos were taken with a Canon PowerShot G12 digital camera mounted on an Olympus BX53 compound microscope and compound focus images were generated using Helicon Focus software (3.10 Free). Both the male palp and the female epigynum were detached from the spiders’ bodies for examination and illustration.

All specimens are deposited in the College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University (HNU).

All measurements are given in millimeters. Leg measurements are given as: total length (femur, patella + tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). The following abbreviations are used in the text:

ALE anterior lateral eye

AME anterior median eye

MOA median ocular area

PLE posterior lateral eye

PME posterior median eye

Taxonomy

Family Gnaphosidae Pocock, 1898
Hitobia Kamura, 1992

Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011

Figs 1, 2, 3, 4

Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011: 104, figs 3–7 (description and illustration of female).

Hitobia makotoi: Wang and Peng 2014: 31, figs 17–23 (description and illustration of female).

Material examined

2 ♂ (HNU), Cangjingdian (27°16.14'N, 112°41.72'E, 950 m), Hengshan Mountain, Hengyang City, Hunan Province, China, 8 July 2014; 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (HNU), Lingzhiquan (27°16.28'N, 112°42.13'E, 650 m), Hengshan Mountain, Hengyang City, Hunan Province, China, 8 July 2014; 1 ♂ (HNU), Shumuyuan (27°15.93'N, 112°43.34'E, 360 m), Hengshan Mountain Hengyang City, Hunan Province, China, 10 July 2014. All specimens were collected by Bing Zhou, Cheng Wang, Jiahui Gan and Yuhui Gong.

Diagnosis

Male of H. makotoi can be distinguished from all other Hitobia by the extraordinarily elongated retrolateral tibial apophysis which is nearly as long as the cymbium, and its distal end serrated and with a small hook apically (Figs 1B, C; 3A, B). The female of H. makotoi is similar to that of H. unifascigera (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) in having a transverse white band on the posterior part of opisthosoma, but can be distinguished from the latter by the following characters: epigynal hood situated on the anterior part of epigynum, but situated at the middle part in H. unifascigera; atrium vertically elongated, and almost as long as the epigynum, but short, and half as long as the epigynum in H. unifascigera (Figs 2B, 3D, cf. fig. 633e in Yin et al. 2012 and fig. 89H in Song, Zhu and Zhang 2004); and finally, a long and thin spermathecae in H. makotoi, but thick and massive in H. unifascigera (Figs 2C, 3E, cf. fig. 633f in Yin et al. 2012 and fig. 89I in Song, Zhu and Zhang 2004).

Figure 1.

Male of Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011, based on the specimen from Hengshan. A Habitus, dorsal view B Left palp, ventral view C Same, retrolateral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A); 0.1 mm (B, C).

Figure 2.

Female of Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011, based on the specimen from Hengshan. A Habitus, dorsal view B Epigynum, ventral view C Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1 mm (A); 0.1 mm (B, C).

Figure 3.

Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011. A–C Male: A Left palp, ventral view B Same, retrolateral view C Enlarged embolus and conductor, retrolateral view B, C Female: B Epigynum, ventral view C Vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars = 0.1 mm. Abbreviations: C - conductor, E - embolus, FD - fertilization duct, H - hood, RTA - retrolateral tibial apophysis, S - spermatheca.

Description

Male: Body length 3.92. Prosoma length 1.78, width 1.18; opisthosoma length 2.18, width 1.01. Clypeus height 0.04. Carapace black brown, oval, widest at coxae II and III. Fovea and cervical grooves indistinct (Fig. 1A). Eye measurements and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.10, PME 0.08, PLE 0.10, AMEAME 0.03, AMEALE 0.01, PMEPME 0.08, PMEPLE 0.05, ALEPLE 0.07. MOA anterior width 0.15, posterior width 0.20, length 0.07. Both eye rows recurved. Chelicerae with three promarginal (the middle one largest) and one retromarginal teeth. Endites yellowish, with some soft short hairs on the inner side. Labium yellowish brown, longer than wide. Sternum decorated with many black spots, anterior straight and posterior subacute. Legs femora I–IV blackish brown, but yellowish brown dorsally. Trochanters I and II without ventral notch, III and IV each with a shallow ventral notch. Leg spination: femora: I, II, IV d1-1-1, p1-0-0, III d1-1-1, p1-1-0, v1-1-0; patellae: III, IV r0-1-0; tibiae: I p1-0-0, v2-2-2, II p1-0-1, v2-2-1, III d2-2-0, p0-0-1, v2-2-1, r0-1-1, IV d1-0-0, p1-1-1, v1-0-1, r1-0-1; metatarsi: I v2-0-0, II p0-1-0, v2-0-0, III d0-1-1, p1-1-1, v0-0-1, r1-1-2. Leg measurements: I 3.20 (0.88, 1.28, 0.60, 0.44), II 3.48 (1.00, 1.32, 0.68, 0.48), III 3.00 (0.84, 0.96, 0.76, 0.44), IV 4.12 (1.16, 1.36, 1.04, 0.56). Leg formula: IV-II-I-III. Opisthosoma long and oval, covered all over with villi, and with a transverse white stripe postero-dorsally; venter light brown. Spinnerets cylindrical and blackish brown.

Male palp (Figs 1B, C, 3A–C): Tibia short, with several long prolateral macrosetae, retrolateral tibial apophysis extraordinarily elongated, nearly as long as cymbium, and its distal end serrated and with a small hook apically. Bulb long and oval, simple. Conductor membranous, relatively large, originating from the middle part of bulb, covering the base of embolus. Embolus short, twisted, originating from the prolateral top of bulb, mostly hidden under conductor and only its tip visible in ventral view. A small membranous process originating from the retrolateral top of bulb, protecting the embolus together with the conductor (Fig. 3C). Two strong macrosetae situated at the top of cymbium.

Female: Body length 5.45. Prosoma length 2.30, width 1.46; opisthosoma length 3.05, width 1.61. Clypeus height 0.06. Eye measurements and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.10, PME 0.08, PLE 0.10, AMEAME 0.03, AMEALE 0.01, PMEPME 0.08, PMEPLE 0.06, ALEPLE 0.10. MOA anterior width 0.18, posterior width 0.23, length 0.12. Leg spination: femora: I, II, IV d1-1-1, p1-0-0, III d1-1-1, p1-1-0, v1-1-0; patellae: III, IV r0-1-0; tibiae: I p1-0-0, v2-2-2, II p1-0-1, v2-2-1, III d2-2-0, p0-0-1, v2-2-1, r0-1-1, IV d1-0-0, p1-1-1, v1-0-1, r1-0-1; metatarsi: I v2-0-0, II p0-1-0, v2-0-0, III d0-1-1, p1-1-1, v0-0-1, r1-1-2. Leg measurements: I 3.80(1.28, 1.40, 0.68, 0.44), II 3.88 (1.24, 1.44, 0.68, 0.52), III 3.52(1.12, 1.16, 0.76, 0.48), IV 5.28(1.52, 1.80, 1.20, 0.76). Leg formula: IV-II-I-III.

Epigynum longer than wide, with a distinct anterior hood; atrium vertically elongated, and almost as long as epigynum, with the basal part very wide, and abruptly becoming narrow and extending to the anterior part (Figs 2B, 3D); spermathecae reniform, vertically elongated, separated from each other (Figs 2C, 3E).

Remark

There are very small differences between the holotype female and the newly collected female specimen in the present study: the distal part of atrium is narrower and the basal part wider in the newly collected female specimen (Figs 2B, 3D) than in the holotype (Fig. 6 in Kamura 2011).

Distribution

China (Hunan, Yunnan), Japan (Amami-ôshima Is.).

Figure 4.

Distribution records of Hitobia makotoi Kamura, 2011 in China.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Cheng Wang, Jiahui Gan and Yuhui Gong for collecting the specimens and to Professor Baoshi Zhang (Baoding University, China) for her comments on the manuscript. We thank Professor Takahide Kamura (Otemon Gakuin University, Japan) for both his kind help in comparing our specimens with the type specimens of Hitobia makotoi and his comments on the manuscript. This study was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (NSFC-31471963/31372160/31272272/31272271), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-12-0717), Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (11JJ1004, 12JJ3028) and by the Hunan Provincial Construct Program of the Key Discipline in Ecology (0713).

References

  • Kamura T (2011) Two new species of the genera Drassyllus and Hitobia (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) from Amami-ôshima Island, southwest Japan. Acta Arachnologica 60(2): 103–106. doi: 10.2476/asjaa.60.103
  • Song DX, Zhu MS, Zhang F (2004) Fauna Sinica: Arachnida: Araneae: Gnaphosidae. Science Press, Beijing, 362 pp.
  • Wang C, Peng XJ (2014) Three species of Hitobia Kamura, 1992 (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) from south-west China. ZooKeys 464: 25–34. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.464.8403
  • World Spider Catalog (2016) World Spider Catalog, version 17. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://www.wsc.nmbe.ch/genus/940 [accessed on March 14, 2016]
  • Yin CM, Peng XJ, Yan HM, Bao YH, Xu X, Tang G, Zhou QS, Liu P (2012) Fauna Hunan: Araneae in Hunan, China. Hunan Science and Technology Press, Changsha, 1590 pp.