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Research Article
Three new species of Osmylus Latreille from China (Neuroptera, Osmylidae)
expand article infoHan Xu, Yongjie Wang§, Zhiqi Liu
‡ China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
§ Capital Normal University, Beijing, China
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Abstract

Three new species of Osmylus Latreille are described from China: Osmylus maoershanicola sp. n., Osmylus shaanxiensis sp. n. and Osmylus angustimarginatus sp. n. These new species are distinguishable from other related species by the shape of the 9th tergite of both sexes, as well as the shape of gonarcus, mediuncus and spermatheca. A key is given to differentiate Palaearctic and Oriental species of Osmylus.

Keywords

New species, Oriental region, Osmylidae, Osmylus, Palaearctic region

Introduction

The genus Osmylus Latreille (Osmylidae: Osmylinae) contains 21 species distributed in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions, 20 species of which are distributed in Asia and only one, O. fulvicephalus, which is widespread in Europe (Banks 1947, Canbulat 2013, Iwata 1928, Kozhanchikov 1951, Krüger 1912, 1913, Makarkin 1985, McLachlan 1870, 1875, Nakahara 1914, New 1991, Yang 1987, 1988, 1997, 1999). The first Osmylus species of the Chinese fauna, Osmylus (Lysmus) oberthurinus, was described by Navás (1910) and then 12 species described successively by Banks (1947), Yang (1987, 1988, 1997, 1999) and Wang and Liu (2010), with higher diversity in Tibet (four species) and Shaanxi Province (four species) (Fig. 1).

Figure 1.

Distribution of Osmylus in China. ◆ = O. angustimarginatus sp. n.; △ = O. biangulus; ▼ = O. bipapillatus; ☆ = O. conanus; ★ = O. fuberosus; ⬣ = O. lucalatus; ▲ = O. maoershanicola sp. n.; ◇ = O. megistus; □ = O. minisculus; ○ = O. shaanxiensis sp. n.; ⬡ = O. taiwanensis; ■ = O. wuyishanus; > = O. xizangensis.

The biology of osmylids is still poorly known. Osmylus is known to be univoltine and adults feed as generalists on fungal spores, pollen, algae, mites and insects; they sit temporarily on foliage of plants along streams or river banks in daytime (Devetak 2007, Gepp 1976, Withycombe 1923). The biology of larvae remains controversial. Latreille (1805) and Stein (1838) deduced that the larvae of Osmylus are aquatic. However, Stitz (1936) and Eisner (1989) reported correctly that the larvae simply live in the water margin (the riparian interface) but cannot survive submersion. Accordingly, the larvae should definitely be regarded as terrestrial.

Materials and methods

The specimens in this study were examined under an Optec SZ760 stereomicroscope with direct light. The terminal of abdomens were removed and soaked in the 10% NaOH for boiling water bath and stored in a glycerin-filled micro-vial mounted on the pin beneath specimen. The terminology for wing venation and genitalia follows New (1983), Adams (1969) and New (1983). All type specimens are deposited in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University (CAU), Beijing.

Taxonomy

Osmylus Latreille

Osmylus Latreille, 1802: 289. Type species: Hemerobius fulvicephalus Scopoli, 1763: 270.

Dictyosmylus Navás, 1910: 189. Type species: Dictyosmylus lunatus Navás, 1910: 189, by monotypy.

Diagnosis

Moderate to large body size (body length 15–20 mm); forewing generally large and broad (length 20–30 mm), with numerous fragmentary marks; two nygmata present at the center and the proximal base of wing between MP and Rs; veins dark brown; costal cross-veins generally bifurcate distally, without interlinking veinlets; cross-veins among branches of Rs forming at least two series of gradates; MP forked close to the base, MP2 with many branches. The hindwing resembles the forewing in shape, but with fewer spots. The 9th tergite has variably-shaped dorsal process. Genitalia are composed of a gonarcus and a mediuncus; the gonarcus is variable in shape, consisting of a sclerotized and pilose external section posteriorly with a lightly sclerotized anterior-lateral section, the latter laterally with an anterior rod shaped process (i.e., baculum of some authors) which is sometimes articulated. The mediuncus (i.e., parameres of some authors) is curved with a fused base (although the shape is variable in O. pachycaudatus). The mediuncus is subtended laterally by the rod-shaped, paired parameres (i.e., subarcus of other authors) that are not fused anteriorly. The female 9th tergite occasionally has a ventral process, the gonapophysis lateralis is generally finger-like and articulated with stylus distally, and the spermatheca is either oval or cylindrical in shape.

Included species

Osmylus angustimarginatus sp. n., O. biangulus Wang & Liu, O. bipapillatus Wang & Liu, O. cilicicus Krüger, O. conanus Yang, O. decoratus Nakahara, O. fuberosus Yang, O. fulvicephalus (Scopoli), O. gussakovskii Kozhanchikov, O. hyalinatus McLachlan, O. kisoensis Iwata, O. lucalatus Wang, O. maoershanicola sp. n., O. megistus Yang, O. minisculus Yang, O. multiguttatus McLachlan, O. pachycaudatus Wang, O. posticatus Banks, O. pryeri McLachlan, O. shaanxiensis sp. n., O. taiwanensis New, O. tessellatus McLachlan, O. wuyishanus Yang, O. xizangensis Yang.

Comments

Osmylus has been often confused with three other genera, Grandosmylus Makarkin, 1985, Parosmylus Needham, 1909 and Plethosmylus Krüger, 1913. Banks (1913) advanced that Parosmylus should be a junior synonym of Osmylus because the spur on the coxa in Parosmylus is also present in some species of Osmylus. Krüger (1913) erected the genus Plethosmylus based on venation characters (presence of interlink veinlets between costal cross-veins). Nakahara (1914) considered the opinion of Krüger subjective and synonymized the latter genus. Kuwayama (1953, 1962) again separated Plethosmylus, differentiating it from Osmylus by the presence of interlinking veinlets among the costal and two basal Rs-Mp cross-veins before the proximal nygma. However, Makarkin (1985) revised the status of Plethosmylus, synonymizing it with Osmylus and establishing a new subgenus Plesiosmylus within Osmylus. He also established a new genus Grandosmylus, separated from Osmylus by the irregular gradate cross-veins and the shape of 9th sternite in males and 8th sternite in females; this opinion was accepted by Sekimoto (2011) in his revision of Japanese Osmylus. The relationship among Grandosmylus, Parosmylus and Plethosmylus remains unclear. Wang and Liu (2009) clarified the generic status of Parosmylus, after reviewing specimens from mainland China, and they concluded that both genera could be valid due to differences in the number of gradate series, the configuration of gonarcus and the shape of spermatheca (Wang and Liu 2009). Furthermore, after re-examining the specimens of Plethosmylus from mainland China, we observed that Osmylus and Plethosmylus possessed significant differences in male genitalia (the configuration of gonarcus) and in female genitalia. Moreover, the interlink veinlets among costal cross-veins could conveniently divide them. Considering the vague relationships among these genera, we consider is suitable to maintain them as separate genera until a robust phylogenetic work can be conducted in the future. In this paper, three new species of Osmylus are described from China: O. maoershanicola sp. n. O. shaanxiensis sp. n. and O. angustimarginatus sp. n., primarily based on genital characters.

Key to Osmylus species in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions

(Note: Osmylus kisoensis is not included as it is only known from the larval stage, while O. cilicicius and O. posticatus are poorly known and could not be included in the key.)

1 The structure of spermatheca complicated (Fig. 2a) O. megistus
The structure of spermatheca simple (Fig. 2b–h) 2
2 The 7th sternite in female with a median preapical protuberance 3
The 7th sternite in female without any protuberance 4
3 Spermatheca cylindrical and bent; anterior third of pronotum with median stripe O. taiwanensis
Spermatheca oval; frons with dark brown X-shaped marking; pronotum with yellow and median stripe O. decoratus
4 The gonapophyses lateralis cone-shaped, spermatheca pyriform O. minisculus
The gonapophyses lateralis finger-like or fusiform 5
5 9th tergite in male with a distinct dorsal process (Figs 3a–d, 5a, 9a) 6
9th tergite in male without distinct dorsal processes (Figs 3e, 7a) 14
6 Gonarcus with a sharpened process along dorsal margin in lateral view O. pryeri
Gonarcus without processes along dorsal margin in lateral view 7
7 Forewing relatively narrow, membrane hyaline with slight metallic luster O. lucalatus
Forewing broad, membrane dull hyaline 8
8 The length of process of 9th tergite in male slightly longer than width (Figs 3b, 5a, 9a) 9
The length of process of 9th tergite in male significantly longer than width (Fig. 3c–d) 13
9 The process of 9th tergite in male cone-shaped O. hyalinatus
The process of 9th tergite in male bar-shaped 10
10 Gonarcus with one or two lateral posteroventral protuberances 11
Gonarcus without any lateral posteroventral protuberance 12
11 Gonarcus with only one lateral posteroventral protuberance in lateral view (Fig. 5b) O. maoershanicola sp. n.
Gonarcus with two lateral posteroventral protuberances in lateral view (Fig. 3b) O. biangulus
12 Mediuncus apically hook-shaped O. fulvicephalus
Mediuncus apically slender and straight (Fig. 5d) O. angustimarginatus sp. n.
13 The process of 9th tergite in male cylindrical (Fig. 3c), mediuncus arch-like in lateral view, anterior arm of gonarcus with a distal right-angle bend O. pachycaudatus
The process of 9th tergite in male subulate (Fig. 3d), mediuncus C-shaped in lateral view O. bipapillatus
14 Distal part of gonarcus flat and quadrate, with a posteroventral protuberance (Fig. 3e) O. fuberosus
Distal part of gonarcus approximately triangular 15
15 Distal part of gonarcus with one or more conspicuous protuberances 16
Distal part of gonarcus with an inconspicuous protuberance 20
16 8th sternite in female with two ventral protuberances; distal part of gonarcus with a ventral and rod-like protuberance O. gussakovskii
8th sternite in female without any protuberance 17
17 Distal part of gonarcus with two protuberances in later view; pronotum with slender yellow marking on anterior half and yellow spot over posterior margin O. tessellatus
Distal part of gonarcus with only one protuberance 18
18 Cross-veins among branches of Rs forming 3 series of gradates; forewing and hindwing with approximately rounded spots O. multiguttatus
Cross-veins among branches of Rs forming 2 series of gradates 19
19 9th tergite in female with a median narrowing in lateral view (Fig. 7e); meso- and metanotum dark brown, some sclerites brown O. shaanxiensis sp. n.
9th tergite in female slightly tapered medially in lateral view; meso- and metanotum yellowish brown with black streaks O. xizangensis
20 Distal part of gonarcus forming a large triangular sclerite; outer gradates of forewing with brown marks O. wuyishanus
Distal part of gonarcus forming a narrow and small sclerite; inner gradates of forewing with brown marks O. conacus
Figure 2.

Spermathecae. a O. megistus b O. lucalatus c O. angustimarginatus sp. n. d O. maoershanicola sp. n. e O. biangulus f O. fuberosus g O. shaanxiensis sp. n. h O. wuyishanus.

Figure 3.

Male terminalia, lateral view. a O. lucalatus b O. biangulus c O. pachycaudatus d O. bipapillatus e O. fuberosus. Abbreviation: dp, dorsal process.

Figure 4.

Wings of Osmylus maoershanicola sp. n., forewing (upper) and hindwing (lower). Abbreviations: ng, nygmata; pt, pterostigma; og, outer gradates.

Figure 5.

Osmylus maoershanicola sp. n. a–e Male: a apex of the abdomen and genitalia, lateral view b genitalia, lateral view c genitalia, ventral view d mediuncus, lateral view e mediuncus, dorsal view f–g Female: f apex of the abdomen and genitalia g spermatheca, lateral view (spiracula omitted). Abbreviation: dp, dorsal process; aag, anterior arm of gonarcus.

Figure 6.

Wings of Osmylus shaanxiensis sp. n., forewing (upper) and hindwing (lower).

Figures 7.

Osmylus shaanxiensis sp. n. a–d Male: a apex of the abdomen and genitalia b genitalia, lateral view c genitalia, ventral view d mediuncus, lateral view e–f Female: e apex of the abdomen and genitalia f spermatheca, lateral view. Abbreviation: dp, dorsal process.

Figure 8.

Wings of Osmylus angustimarginatus sp. n., forewing (upper) and hindwing (lower).

Figure 9.

Osmylus angustimarginatus sp. n. a–e Male: a apex of the abdomen and genitalia b genitalia, lateral view c genitalia, dorsal view d mediuncus, lateral view e mediuncus, dorsal view f–h Female: f apex of the abdomen and genitalia g subgenital plate, ventral view h spermatheca, lateral view. Abbreviations: dp, dorsal process; vm, ventral margin.

Osmylus maoershanicola sp. n.

Figs 4, 5

Material examined

Holotype Male, CHINA: Guangxi (Province): Maoershan (Nature Reserve), [25°48'N, 110°24'E], 9.viii.2005, leg. Ping Zhao. Verbatim label data (translated from Chinese): CHINA: Guangxi Prov., Maoershan/ 9.viii.2005/ Ping Zhao/ CAU. Condition: Antennal flagellum missing. Abdomen terminalia cleared in KOH, and stored in the micro-vial pinned below the specimen. Paratype. 1 female (left antenna damaged), same data as holotype (CAU).

Diagnosis

Male: 9th tergite with a short finger-like dorsal process; ectoproct cone-shaped. Gonarcus distally triangular with a ventral, triangular, membranous protuberance in lateral view. Female: gonapophysis lateralis approximately fusiform; spermatheca oval.

Description

Head. Vertex yellowish-brown with brown setae; eye dark gray, ocelli yellow, area within ocelli black. Antennal flagellum missing, scape and pedicel dark brown; frons yellow. Thorax. Pronotum dark brown, posterior margin slightly wider, with black brown setae; meso- and metanotum black with brown setae. Legs yellow with brown setae; pretarsal claws dark brown.

Wing (Fig. 4). Forewing length 27–28 mm, width 9–10 mm. Membrane hyaline, with many sparse, fuscous spots; pterostigma brown; nygmata light brown; veins dark brown; Rs with 13–14 branches, outer gradate cross-veins edged with fuscous stains; R1-Rs cross-veins edged with brown marks; short cross-veins are present among the branches of CuP. Hindwing length 23–24 mm, width 7–8 mm. Membrane hyaline; pterostigma light yellow.

Male terminalia (Fig. 5a–e). Scent glands slender. 9th tergite long and narrow with a short, dorsal finger-like process (Fig. 5a), ventral margin slightly tapered. 9th sternite trapezoidal in lateral view. Ectoproct triangular in lateral view, callus cerci round. Distal part of gonarcus well sclerotized and approximately triangular, ventral part membranous with a triangular protuberance in lateral view (Fig. 5b); anterior arm of gonarcus slender; mediuncus dilated basally with a sharp backward end, slender apically and coated by a membrane in lateral view; rod-shaped paramere beneath the mediuncus slightly bent in lateral view, posterior end sharp.

Female terminalia (Fig. 5f–g). 8th sternite approximately trapezoidal; 9th tergite long and narrow with a ventral hemispherical tubercle in lateral view; ectoproct triangular in lateral view, callus cerci round, presenting in middle; gonapophysis lateralis approximately fusiform, stylus cylindrical; spermatheca simple, approximately spherical.

Distribution

Presently known only from Guangxi Province, China.

Etymology

The specific name ‘maoershanicola’ refers to ‘Maoershan Mountain’, the type locality.

Remarks

The dorsal finger-like process of 9th tergite of Osmylus maoershanicola sp. n. is similar to O. pryeri and O. biangulus, but this new species can be identified by the distinctive shape of the gonarcus. There are two prominent ventral protuberances in the distal part of gonarcus of O. pryeri and O. biangulus (Fig. 3b) but only one in O. maoershanicola sp. n. (Fig. 5b). Furthermore, the distal gonarcus is cone-shaped in O. biangulus but triangular in O. maoershanicola and the spermatheca is short and bent rod-like in O. biangulus (Fig. 2e) but approximately spherical in O. maoershanicola (Fig. 5g).

Osmylus shaanxiensis sp. n.

Figs 6, 7

Material examined

Holotype Male. CHINA: Shaanxi (Province): Houzhenzi (town), [33°51'N, 107°50'E] 12.viii.2007, leg. Yang Shi. Verbatim label data (translated from Chinese): CHINA: Shaanxi, Houzhenzi/ 12.viii.2007/ Yang Shi/ CAU. Condition: Antennal flagellum missing. Terminalia cleared in KOH, and stored in the micro-vial pinned below the specimen. Paratype. 1 female, same data as holotype (CAU). 1 female, CHINA: Gansu (Province): Diebu (county), Lazikou. 1700m, [34°03'N, 103°54'E] 12.viii.1980, Chikun Yang (CAU).

Diagnosis

Wing broad, with numerous dark brown spots on the margin. Male: 9th tergite with a median narrowing, with a small tuberous dorsal process in lateral view; protuberance of posteroventral gonarcus papillary. Base of mediuncus knife-shaped in lateral view. Female: gonapophysis lateralis basally fused with a triangular sclerite, spermatheca bent, cylindrical.

Description

Head. Vertex dark brown. Ocelli yellow, area comprised among ocelli dark brown, eye dark brown; frons brown. Thorax. Pronotum dark brown with yellow long setae; meso- and metanotum dark brown. Legs yellow with dark yellow setae, pretarsal claws dark brown.

Wings (Fig. 6). Forewing length 22–25 mm, width 8–9 mm. Membrane hyaline, with numerous dark brown spots on the margin; pterostigma and nygmata brown; veins dark brown, some edged with dark brown spots; Rs with 12–13 branches, gradates cross-veins with brown marks. Hindwing length 20–22 mm, width 7–8 mm. Membrane hyaline; pterostigma light brown.

Male Terminalia (Fig. 7a–d). Scent glands stout; 9th tergite with a median narrowing in lateral view, with a small hemispheric dorsal process; ectoproct triangular in lateral view, callus cerci oval; gonarcus sclerotized distally and posteroventrally ending into a papilla in lateral view; anterior arm of gonarcus slender, basally dilated; mediuncus basally dilated, knife-shaped, more slender apically in lateral view; rod-shaped paramere slender and bent in lateral view, dilating from base to end.

Female Terminalia (Fig. 7e–f). 8th sternite reduced; 9th tergite narrow; ectoproct approximately conical, callus cerci round; gonapophysis lateralis fusiform, apex with a long finger-like stylus; spermatheca cylindrical, bent and slightly dilated basally.

Distribution

China (Shaanxi, Gansu).

Etymology

The specific name ‘shaanxiensis’ refers to ‘Shaanxi Province’, the type locality.

Remarks

The new species can be distinguished from other species by the small hemispheric dorsal process of the 9th tergite in male (Fig. 7a). Although O. shaanxiensis sp. n. is similar to O. conanus, they can be easily separated by the differences of gonarcus and gonapophysis lateralis. The distal part of gonarcus in O. conanus protrudes slightly but the same part in O. shaanxiensis sp. n. protrudes significantly in lateral view (Fig. 7b). Also compared with O. conanus, the spermatheca in O. shaanxiensis sp. n. is longer and more bent (Fig. 7f).

Osmylus angustimarginatus sp. n.

Figs 8, 9

Material examined

Holotype Male. CHINA: Chongqing: Jiangjin (District): Simianshan (mountain), [28°38'N, 106°24'E] 17.vi.2006, leg. Weiwei Zhang. Verbatim label data (translated from Chinese): CHINA: Chongqing, Jiangjin, Simianshan/ 17.vi.2006/ Weiwei Zhang/ PC. Terminalia cleared in KOH, and stored in a micro-vial pinned below the specimen. Paratype. 1 female, same data as holotype; 1 male, 1 female, same locality as holotype. 21-23.ix.2007, leg. Weiwei Zhang.

Diagnosis

Male: 9th with a finger-like dorsal process. Gonarcus distally triangular in lateral view, ventral margin well sclerotized; base of mediuncus slightly protuberant distally in lateral view. Female: gonapophysis lateralis finger-like; spermatheca approximately spherical.

Description

Head. Vertex yellow brown, with dark brown setae; ocelli light yellow, area comprised among ocelli dark brown; eyes gray with metallic reflection; frons black. Thorax. Pronotum dark brown, with yellow setae; meso- and metanotum fuscous, with black stripes. Legs yellow, with short setae, pretarsal claws dark brown.

Wings (Fig. 8). Forewing length 27–29 mm, width 8–9 mm. Wings elongated; membrane hyaline, with numerous brown spots; pterostigma brown, nygmata light brown; veins dark brown, some edged with dark brown spots; Rs with 13–14 branches; cross-veins are present among branches of CuP. Hindwing length 25–26 mm, width 7–8 mm; membrane hyaline; pterostigma light brown.

Male Terminalia (Fig. 9a–e). Scent glands stout. 9th tergite wide, with a finger-like process; 9th sternite approximately rectangular in lateral view; ectoproct small, callus cerci round; gonarcus distally well sclerotized and triangular in lateral view, ventral margin well sclerotized; anterior arm of gonarcus slender and basally dilated; mediuncus slightly finger-like at base, more slender apically in lateral view; rod-shaped paramere beneath the mediuncus slightly bent in lateral view.

Female Terminalia (Fig. 9f–h). 8th sternite approximately square in lateral view. 9th tergite narrow; ectoproct conical, callus cerci round; gonapophysis lateralis long and finger-like, with a long conical stylus; spermatheca approximately spherical.

Distribution

Known only from Chongqing, China.

Etymology

The specific name ‘angustimarginatus’ the compound of Latin deribation, from angusti- (narrow) and marginatus- (margin), refers to the well sclerotized ventral margin of the gonarcus in lateral view.

Remarks

The dorsal process of 9th tergite in the male of O. angustimarginatus sp. n. is finger-like (Fig. 9a), closely resembling the condition observed in O. maoershanicola sp. n. However, the ventral margin of the gonarcus of O. angustimarginatus sp. n. is well sclerotized (Fig. 9b), clearly differentiating it from O. maoershanicola sp. n. Moreover, female gonapophysis lateralis of O. angustimarginatus sp. n. is more slender in comparison with the fusiform gonapophysis lateralis of O. maoershanicola sp. n. (Fig. 5f).

Acknowledgements

We sincerely thank Zhang Weiwei (Beijing) for collecting the specimens. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 31272352, 31301905 and 41372013), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant 2012T50113), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (grant 5132008), and Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (grant 20131108120005).

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