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Research Article
A new species of Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897 (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from Hungary and Romania, with redescription of the related species Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971
expand article infoDaniel Winkler, Márton Tamás Németh, Cristina Fiera§
‡ University of Sopron, Sopron, Hungary
§ Institute of Biology Bucharest of Romanian Academy, Bucharest, Romania
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Abstract

A new species of the genus Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897 from Hungary and Romania is described and illustrated. Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. belongs to the group with 5+5 eyes, and can be identified by its unique labial chaetotaxy (M1m2rel1L2) within this group. Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971, the closest related species sharing the same dorsal macrochaetae formula (R0R1R2001/00/0101+2), is also redescribed here based on the holotype. Comparative analysis between the two species and among other related species is provided.

Keywords

Chaetotaxy, Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov., springtails, taxonomy

Introduction

Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897 is the largest collembolan genus, represented by 382 described species worldwide (Bellinger et al. 2021), inhabiting a wide range of habitats from xerophilic areas (e.g., Traser et al. 2006) through caves (e.g., Gisin and Gama 1969; Cipola et al. 2020) to wetlands like alluvial forests (e.g., Buşmachiu et al. 2017; Winkler and Mateos 2018).

As a part of soil biodiversity surveys in Hungary, the Bátorliget Pasture Nature Conservation Area was revisited in 2017. Among the collected Collembola material, a new species of Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897 was discovered and is described in the present paper. Around the same time, Collembola samplings were carried out in Romania Mohoş Nature Reserve, from where the same Pseudosinella species was also found. The genus was previously represented by 17 species in Hungary (Dányi and Traser 2008; Winkler and Mateos 2018) and 24 species in Romania (Fiera 2013). However, its richness is probably underestimated and doubtless destined to increase with further taxonomic efforts in both countries.

The new species belongs to the group of species with 5+5 eyes. With the help of the computer assisted Delta identification key using the combination of chaetotaxic and other characters, originally designed by Christiansen et al. (1990) and regularly updated by Jordana et al. (2021), Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971 was found to be its closest related species. Therefore, on this occasion, Pseudosinella huetheri was also examined and redescribed from the holotype preserved in the Natural History Museum of Geneva (Switzerland).

Material and methods

In October 2017, soil samplings were carried out in the Bátorliget Pasture Nature Conservation Area (East Hungary). A month later, soil mesofauna samplings were carried out also in Romania, around St. Ana Lake (Mohoş Nature Reserve). Springtails were extracted from the hand collected litter and soil samples within 14 days using a modified Berlese–Tullgren apparatus (without light or heating devices). The specimens were cleared using Nesbitt fluid and then mounted on permanent slides in Hoyer’s medium. The slides were examined under a Leica DM2500 LED microscope with conventional bright light and phase contrast.

Abbreviations used in text and figures are:

Abd abdominal tergite;

accp accessorial p–sensilla;

Ant antennal segment;

a.s.l. above sea level;

HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest;

IBB Institute of Biology Bucharest, Romanian Academy;

NHMG Natural History Museum of Geneva;

Mac macrochaeta;

mic microchaeta;

psp pseudopore;

Th thoracic tergite.

Symbols used in figures:

open circle Mac;

black dots mic;

x trichobotria.

Terminology

Dorsal head chaetotaxy follows Gisin (1967), Jordana and Baquero (2007) and also the “AMS” nomenclature of Soto-Adames (2010). Clypeal chaetotaxy follows Yoshii and Suhardjono (1992). For the labial palp, the notation of Fjellberg (1999) was used. For labial chaetotaxy, Gisin’s nomenclature (1964) was applied, while for postlabial chaetotaxy, the notations of Chen and Christiansen (1993) and Cipola et al. (2018) were used. Dorsal chaetotaxy schemes of thoracic and abdominal segments follow Gisin (1967) and Szeptycki (1972, 1979), except for chaeta m7a on Abd III (following Wang et al. 2003) and chaeta p8p on Abd III (following Mateos 2008). The tergal specialized chaetae (S–chaetae) pattern follows Zhang and Deharveng (2015).

Taxonomy

Class Collembola Lubbock, 1873

Order Entomobryomorpha Börner, 1913

Family Entomobryidae Schäffer, 1896

Subfamily Lepidocyrtinae Wahlgren, 1906

Genus Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897

Pseudosinella hartnerae Winkler & Fiera, sp. nov.

Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Type material

Holotype: Hungary. ♀ on slide (Nr. HNHM collpr-896), Bátorliget, Szabolcs–Szatmár–Bereg county, 161 m a.s.l., 47°46'11"N, 22°16'19"E, from litter, hand collecting, 8 Oct. 2017, leg. D. Winkler. Paratypes: Two ♀ and one ♂ on slide (Nr. HNHM collpr-896); two ♀ and one specimen with sex not visible (Nr.: HNHM collpr-897); two ♀ (Nr. WD–coll–113 and WD–coll–114); same data as holotype. The holotype and four paratypes are deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum (HNHM), Budapest. Two paratypes are preserved in the first author’s collection at the University of Sopron, Faculty of Forestry, Sopron, Hungary; one paratype is kept in C. Fiera’s collection (IBB).

Other material

Romania. Seven specimens (one ♂ on slide, Nr.: IBB Coll-12544; and six specimens of sex not determined in ethyl alcohol, vial Nr. IBB–26), Lake Saint Ana, Harghita County, Romania, 984 m a.s.l., 46°7'33"N, 25°53'28"E, 2 Nov. 2017, mixed forest with beech and fir, from litter, hand collecting, leg. C. Fiera.; 4 specimens (one ♀ on slide, Nr. IBB Coll–12545; and three specimens of sex not determined in ethyl alcohol, vial Nr. IBB–26), Mohoş peat bog, 1050 m a.s.l., 46°8'6"N, 25°53'59"E, 2 Nov. 2017, Scots pine forest, from peat moss Sphagnum, hand collecting, leg. C. Fiera. Preserved in the last author’s collection (IBB).

Diagnosis

5+5 ocelli. Colour bluish-grey. Labial chaetotaxy M1m2rel1L2, r vestigial. Dorsal macrochaetae formula R0R1R2001/00/0101+2. Abd II chaetotaxy: paBq1q2. Abd IV accessory chaeta s, anteriorly to trichobothrial complex, absent. Antennae and legs without scales. Unguis inner side with two paired basal teeth and one unpaired tooth. Unguiculus outer lamella smooth.

Description

Habitus (Fig. 1). Body length (without head and furca) 1.01–1.27 mm (holotype: 1.08 mm). Colour: Head, antennae, trunk and legs bluish-grey, blue shades also on manubrium and ventral tube. Eye patches dark blue.

Figure 1. 

Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. Habitus. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Head. With 5+5 eyes (ABCDH, with H only slightly smaller). Dorsal cephalic main macrochaetae formula R0R1R2P (according to AMS notation A0, A2, A3 and Pa5) (Fig. 2A). Maximum number of macrochaetae “An” on head 9+9. Antennal length to head diagonal length (measured from cervical edge to apex of labrum) ratio 1.2–1.4 (holotype: 1.3). Relation of antennal segments I–IV as 1 : 1.7 : 1.5 : 2.9 (holotype). Ant III sensillary organ composed of two rod-like sensilla partially behind a cuticular fold, guarded by three sensilla, one of them short, with spiny morphology (Fig. 2B). Ant IV without apical bulb. Clypeus with eleven subequal ciliated chaetae (three in row pf, four in row ft, two in row l1 and two in row l2) (Fig. 2C). Arrangement of chaetae on labrum 4/554, prelabral chaetae smooth; first (p), second (m) and apical (a) rows of labral chaetae also smooth, chaetae of p and m series about the same in size, not enlarged, a1–a2 thicker but not enlarged; labral edge with no differentiated papillae (Fig. 2D). Outer maxillary palp with two smooth chaetae and three smooth main sublobal hairs. Lateral process (sensu Fjellberg 1999) on papilla E finger-shaped, barely reaching the top of papilla (Fig. 2E). Labial anterior row with five smooth chaetae (a1–a5); formula of basal row M1m2rel1L2 with M1 and L2 ciliated and all other chaetae smooth (Fig. 2F). Chaeta r short (ratio of r/m2 0.2–0.3). Ventral chaetotaxy with about 15 ciliate chaetae, postlabial formula 4 (G1–4), 2 (X, X4), 4 (H1–4), and 2 (J1–2) chaetae; b.c. present (Fig. 2F).

Figure 2. 

Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. A head, dorsal chaetotaxy (left side) B antennae, Ant III with sensillar organ C clypeus, clypeal chaetae D labrum E labial papilla E with lateral process F labial triangle (right side) and ventral cephalic groove with labial and postlabial chaetotaxy. Scale bars: 0.05 mm (A); 0.03 mm (B–D, F); 0.01 mm (E).

Body. Body dorsal macrochaetae from Th II to Abd IV 00/0101+2. Mesothorax without macrochaetae. Two anterolateral S-chaetae (al and ms) present. Th III without Mac, anterolateral sensillum al present. Abd I with lateral S-microchaeta (ms). Chaetotaxy of Abd II–III as in Fig. 3A, B. Abd II chaetotaxy between two dorso-medial trichobothria paBq1q2 using Gisin’s symbols (Gisin 1967); following Szeptycki’s (1979) notation p=a2p, a=a2, B=m3, q1=m3e and q2=p4. Chaeta a as ciliated mic. Abd III chaeta d3 present. Chaetotaxy and trichobothrial complex on Abd IV as in Fig. 4A, B. Mac B5, B6, C1, E2, E3, F1 and F2 broader with broad sockets, D2, D3, De3, E4, E4p, E4p2, F3, F3p, Fe4, Fe5, T6 and T7 thinner with smaller sockets. Abd IV with five fan-shaped chaetae (D1, a, m, pe and pi) associated with two trichobothria. Accessory chaeta s, associated with trichobotrium T2, absent. Nine S-chaetae (as, ps, and seven long dorsal S-chaetae) present. Dorsal chaetotaxy of Abd V as in Fig. 4C. Three S-chaetae (as, acc.p4 and acc.p5) typical for Pseudosinella present. Legs without scales. Trochanteral organ with up to 12 smooth spiny chaetae forming a V-shaped pattern (Fig. 5A). Unguis and unguiculus as in Fig. 5B. Unguis with subequal paired basal teeth at 35% from inner edge, and with a median unpaired inner tooth at 60% from inner edge, apical tooth absent. Outer side with paired lateral teeth and a short external tooth. Unguiculus lanceolate, external lamella smooth. Tibiotarsal tenent hair clavate, supraempodial chaeta on tibiotarsus III smooth and acuminate. Ratio of supraempodial chaeta / unguiculus around 0.9. Ventral tube without scales; with 6+6 subequal ciliated chaetae on anterior side and 4+4 subequal ciliated chaetae on posterior side; lateral flap with 1 ciliated and a maximum of 6 smooth chaetae (Fig. 5C). Manubrium ventrally with scales and 2+2 terminal ciliated chaetae. Manubrial plate with 2 larger inner chaetae and 2 chaetae external to the 2 pseudopores (Fig. 5D). Length of not ringed terminal dens about 4 times the length of mucro. Mucro with distal tooth equal to anteapical one; basal spine reaching tip of anteapical tooth (Fig. 5E). Ratio manubrium/dens/mucro as 16:15:1.

Figure 3. 

Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. Abdomen dorsal chaetotaxy: A Abd II (left side) B Abd III (left side). Scale bar: 0.03 mm (A, B).

Ecology and distribution

The type locality (Bátorliget Pasture Nature Conservation Area, Szabolcs–Szatmár–Bereg county, Hungary) of Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. is a special relict mire and forest area with high biodiversity. The new species was collected from the upper layer and litter of a forest clearing with pioneer vegetation including silver birch (Betula pendula) trees. Specimens in Romania were collected from litter in the surrounding forest of the volcanic lake Saint Ana, and from peat mosses in the nearby Mohoș bog. Both Romanian sites are located in the Mohoş Nature Reserve, Harghita County. This new Pseudosinella is a phytodetriticolous, bryophilous and hygrophilous species.

Figure 4. 

Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. Abdomen dorsal chaetotaxy: A Abd IV (left side) B Abd IV trichobothrial complex (left side) C Abd V. Scale bars: 0.05 mm (A); 0.02 mm (B); 0.03 mm (C).

Etymology

The name of the new species is dedicated to former zoologist colleague and friend Dr. Anna Fenyősiné Hartner (1965–2006), an excellent specialist in myrmecology.

Figure 5. 

Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. A trochanteral organ B leg III unguis and unguiculus C ventral tube anterior view (right side) and posterior view (left side) D manubrial plate E mucro and apical part of dens. Scale bars: 0.02 mm (A, B, D, E); 0.03 mm (C).

Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971

Figures 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Material examined

Holotype: Luxembourg. sex not visible, on slide, preserved in NHMG (Fig. 6A), Berdorf, “Zigzagschloeff” rocks, 357 m a.s.l., 49°49'33"N, 6°20'21"E, beech forest (Fagetum), from litter, 11.Aug.1965, leg. N. Stomp.

Diagnosis

5+5 ocelli. Colour yellowish white. Labial chaetotaxy M1m2Rel1L2, R ~ 0.5 of M. Dorsal macrochaetae formula R0R1R2001/00/0101+2. Abdominal tergite II chaetotaxy: –aBq1q2. Abd IV accessory chaeta s, anteriorly to trichobothrial complex, absent. Antennae and legs without scales. Unguis inner side with two paired basal teeth and one unpaired tooth, unguiculus outer lamella smooth.

Redescription

Habitus (Fig. 6B). Body length (without head and furca) 1.2–1.5 mm (Stomp 1971), holotype length 1.46 mm. Colour (after Stomp 1971): yellowish white, without any trace of pigment, neither on tergites and coxae nor on antennae. A few spots of blue pigment distributed in small dots around eyes. Eye patches blue.

Figure 6. 

Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971. A Photograph of the slide of the holotype from the NHMG Switzerland) B Habitus, holotype. Scale bar: 0.05 mm (B).

Head. With 5+5 eyes (ABCDH, with H only slightly smaller) (Fig. 7A; see also fig. 2 in Stomp 1971). Dorsal cephalic main macrochaetae formula R0R1R2P (according to AMS notation A0, A2, A3 and Pa5). Number of macrochaetae “An” on head 10+10 (Fig. 7A). Antennal length to head diagonal length ratio 1.4 (head diagonal measured from cervical edge to apex of labrum). Relation of antennal segments I–IV as 1 : 1.7 : 1.5 : 3.0. Ant III sensillary organ composed of two rod-like sensilla partially behind a cuticular fold, guarded by three sensilla, one of them shorter, spine-like (Fig. B). Ant IV without apical bulb. Arrangement of chaetae on labrum 4/554; prelabral chaetae smooth, first (p), second (m) and apical (a) rows of labral chaetae also smooth, chaetae of p and m series about the same in size, not enlarged, a1–a2 thicker but not enlarged; labral edge with no differentiated papillae (as in Fig. 2D). Outer maxillary palp with two smooth chaetae and three smooth main sublobal hairs. Lateral process (sensu Fjellberg 1999) on papilla E finger-shaped, barely reaching the top of papilla (see Fig. 2E). Labial anterior row formed by 5 smooth chaetae (a1–a5); formula of basal row M1m2Rel1L2 with M1, R and L2 ciliated and all other chaetae smooth (Fig. 7C). Chaeta R reduced (ratio of R/m2 0.5). Ventral postlabial chaetotaxy with about 18 ciliate chaetae, postlabial formula 4 (G1–4), 2 (X, X4), 4 (H1–4), and 2 (J1–2) chaetae; b.c. present (Fig. 7C).

Figure 7. 

Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971 A head, dorsal chaetotaxy (left side) B antennae, apex of Ant III with sensillar organ C labial triangle (right side) and ventral cephalic groove with labial and postlabial chaetotaxy. Scale bars: 0.05 mm (A); 0.03 mm (B, C).

Body. Body dorsal macrochaetae from Th II to Abd IV 00/0101+2. Mesothorax without Mac. Two anterolateral S-chaetae (al and ms) present. Th III without Mac, anterolateral sensillum al present. Abd I with lateral S-microchaeta (ms). Chaetotaxy of Abd II–III as in Fig. 8A, B. Abd II chaetotaxy between two dorso-medial trichobothria –aBq1q2 using Gisin’s symbols (Gisin 1967); following Szeptycki’s (1979) notation a=a2, B=m3, q1=m3e and q2=p4. Chaeta a as ciliated mic. Abd IV chaetotaxy as in Fig. 9A. Mac B5, B6, C1, D3, E2, E3, F1, F2 and F3 broader with broad sockets, D2, De3, E4, E4p, E4p2, F3p, Fe4, Fe5, T6 and T7 thinner with smaller sockets. Chaeta E1 not visible, its morphology unknown. Abd IV chaetae associated with the two trichobotria (m, pe and pi) fan-shaped (chaeta a not visible, but with great certainty also fan-shaped) (see also Hüther 1969). Accessory chaeta s, associated with trichobotrium T2, absent. Five S-chaetae (as, ps, and three long dorsal S-chaetae) present. Dorsal chaetotaxy of Abd V as in Fig. 9B. Three S-chaetae (as, acc.p4 and acc.p5) typical for the genus present. Legs without scales. Trochanteral organ with 14 smooth spiny chaetae forming a V-shaped pattern (Fig. 10A). Unguis and unguiculus as in fig. 3 in Stomp (1971). Unguis with subequal paired basal teeth at 45% from inner edge, and with a median unpaired inner tooth at 65% from inner edge, apical tooth absent. A short external tooth also present. Unguiculus lanceolate, external lamella smooth. Tibiotarsal tenent hair spatulate, supraempodial chaeta on tibiotarsus III smooth and acuminate. Ratio of supraempodial chaeta / unguiculus ~0.9. Ventral tube without scales; with 8+8 subequal ciliated chaetae on anterior side and 5+5 subequal ciliated chaetae on posterior side (Fig. 10B); lateral flap with 4 ciliated and 7 smooth chaetae. Manubrium ventrally with scales and 2+2 terminal ciliated chaetae. Manubrial plate with 2 inner chaetae and 2 chaetae external to the 2 pseudopores (as in Fig. 5D). Length of not ringed terminal dens about 4 times the length of mucro. Mucro with distal tooth equal to anteapical one; basal spine reaching tip of anteapical tooth (as in Fig. 5E). Ratio manubrium/dens/mucro as 12:13:1.

Figure 8. 

Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971. Abdomen dorsal chaetotaxy: A Abd II (left side) B Abd III (left side). ? indicates the estimated position of chaetae that were not observed in the holotype due to the condition of the slide, but their presence is assumed. Scale bar: 0.05 mm (A, B).

Ecology and distribution

Pseudosinella huetheri was described from Luxembourg, from a beech forest near Berdorf (Stomp 1971). The original description reported the species also from Germany and Switzerland. Later, the species was found in Austria (Bretschko and Christian 1989), France (Ponge 2004) and Slovakia (Raschmanová et al. 2008). Dányi et al. (2006) collected a species close to P. huetheri in Romania, listed as “Pseudosinella cf. huetheri”, but without any differential character being mentioned.

Figure 9. 

Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971. Abdomen dorsal chaetotaxy: A Abd IV (left side) B Abd V. ? indicates the estimated position of chaetae that were not observed in the holotype due to the condition of the slide, but their presence is assumed. Scale bars: 0.05 mm (A, B).

Figure 10. 

Pseudosinella huetheri Stomp, 1971. A trochanteral organ B ventral tube anterior view (right side) and posterior view (left side). Scale bars: 0.03 mm (A, B).

Discussion

Considering the number of eyes (5+5) and the similar dorsal main macrochaetae distribution (R000/00/0101+2 or R001/00/0101+2), Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. is close to P. altamirensis Baquero, Jordana, Labrada & Luque, 2020; P. horaki Rusek, 1985; P. huetheri; P. mauli Stomp, 1972; P. mucronata Gouze & Deharveng, 1987; and P. sandelsorum Gruia, 1977 (Table 1). The new species is, however, characterized by a unique basal labial chaetotaxy. While P. horaki, P. mauli and P. sandelsorum have M1, M2, E, L1 and L2 as ciliated chaetae, in P. hartnerae sp. nov. only M1 and L2 are ciliated, and m2, r, e, and l1 are smooth. Pseudosinella altamirensis bears two ciliated labial chaetae (M1 and R), and P. mucronata has R and occasionally also M1 as ciliated chaetae, while all other chaetae are smooth. Only P. huetheri shows a similar morphology of labial chaetae, with the exception of chaeta R present as a fairly developed ciliated chaeta (r smooth and reduced in P. hartnerae sp. nov). The new species differs from P. huetheri also by the colour pattern and by the presence of Abd II chaeta p (a2p). The new species differs from P. altamirensis and P. mucronata also by the presence of subocular cephalic marcrochaeta Pa5. The new species differs from P. altamirensis and P. mauli by the absence of accessory chaeta s on Abd IV. Besides, the new species differs from P. sandelsorum by the number of teeth of the inner unguis. Pseudosinella hartnerae sp. nov. and P. huetheri share the number of chaetae (2) external to the pseudopores on the manubrial plate, which is greater for P. altamirensis (7–12), P. mauli (3) and P. sandelsorum (4–10).

Table 1.

Comparison of P. hartnerae sp. nov. with related species with 5+5 eyes and similar dorsal macrochaetae distribution.

Species Ch1 Ch2 Ch3 Ch4 Ch5 Ch6 Ch7 Ch8 Ch9 Ch10 Ch11 Ch12
P. altamirensis pale with blue pigmentation M1m2Rel1l2 R000/00/0101+2 1.6–2.2 + 3 35% 40% 1 2+7–12 2
P. horaki pale greyish blue M1M2REL1L2 R001/00/0101+2 1.6 + 3 50% 75% 2 U 1
P. huetheri yellowish white M1m2Rel1L2 R001/00/0101+2 1.4 3 45% 65% 2 2+2 1
P. mauli bluish black M1M2rEL1L2 R001/00/0101+2 1.3 + + 3 ~45% 65% 2 2+3 1
P. mucronata diffuse pigmentation m1(M1)m2Rel1l2 R000/00/0101+2 1.8–2.0 3 ~45% 60% 1 U 2
P. sandelsorum dark blue pigment on Ant and legs M1M2REL1L2 R001/00/0101+2 1.3 + 4 ~50% 70% 2 2+4–10 1
P. hartnerae sp. nov bluish-grey M1m2rel1L2 R001/00/0101+2 1.2–1.4 + 3 35% 60% 2 2+2 1

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Edit Horváth (HNHM) for his assistance with the deposition of the type material of the new species; Peter Schwendinger and Lionel Monod for providing the holotype of Pseudosinella huetheri from the NHMG. We are greatly indebted to editor Louis Deharveng and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions improving the manuscript. C. Fiera acknowledges the support by a grant of the Ministry of Research, Innovation and Digitization, CNCS/CCCDI – UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P1-1.1-TE-2019-0358, within PNCDI III”.

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