Checklist
Print
Checklist
The Dermacentor (Acari, Ixodida, Ixodidae) of Mexico: hosts, geographical distribution and new records
expand article infoCarmen Guzmán-Cornejo, Richard G. Robbins§, Alberto A. Guglielmone|, Griselda Montiel-Parra, Gerardo Rivas, Tila María Pérez
‡ Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F., Mexico
§ Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Silver Spring, United States of America
| Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Rafaela, Argentina
Open Access

Abstract

Distribution and host data from published literature and previously unpublished collection records are provided for all nine species of the Holarctic tick genus Dermacentor that are known to occur in Mexico, as well as two species that may occur there. Parasite-host and host-parasite lists are presented, together with a gazetteer of collection localities and their geographical coordinates.

Keywords

Dermacentor, ticks, hosts, distribution, Mexico

Introduction

The genus Dermacentor Koch, 1844 is a largely Holarctic group of ticks that may be characterized as follows: eyes and festoons present, basis capituli sub-rectangular, palps short and thick, and scutum usually ornate. Most species are three-host parasites of mammals, although two Mexican species, Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) and Dermacentor nitens Neumann, are one-host ticks. Adults of three-host species usually feed on medium-sized to large mammals, whereas immatures feed on small mammals. This group includes species that are important vectors of microorganisms causing disease in humans and domestic and wild animals (Cooley 1938, Yunker et al. 1986, Durden and Beati 2014).

In the Western Hemisphere, the genus Dermacentor currently comprises 14 species, if Dermacentor kamshadalus Neumann and Dermacentor panamensis Apanaskevich and Bermúdez are included (Guglielmone et al. 2010, Apanaskevich 2013, Apanaskevich and Bermúdez 2013). Collection records for Mexican Dermacentor species date to the first half of the 20th century. Hoffmann (1962) and Hoffmann and López-Campos (2000) recognized nine species in this country: Dermacentor albipictus, Dermacentor dissimilis Cooley, Dermacentor halli McIntosh, Dermacentor hunteri Bishopp, Dermacentor imitans Warburton, Dermacentor nitens (formerly classified as both Anocentor nitens (Neumann) and Otocentor nitens (Neumann)), Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann, and Dermacentor variabilis (Say). Chavarría (1941) stated that Dermacentor andersoni occurs in Mexico, but Hoffmann (1962) believed that D. andersoni is not an established Mexican species. Recently, nymphs of D. andersoni were recorded by Gordillo-Pérez et al. (2009) from vegetation in Tamaulipas, but this determination also requires confirmation. A second problematic Mexican species is Dermacentor latus Cooley, which was recorded by Cruz-Aldán et al. (2006) and is among the most poorly studied members of this genus (Apanaskevich and Bermúdez 2013). The presence or absence of both D. andersoni and D. latus in Mexico will have to be determined before our inventory of Mexican Dermacentor can be considered complete.

Material and methods

Bibliographic searches were conducted, using an array of public and proprietary databases (Biological Abstracts, BioOne, Biosis, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Knowledge), to locate published references to the species of Dermacentor that have been reported from Mexico. We then searched the Colección Nacional de Ácaros database (CNAC) (Biota version 1.6.1) to locate any unpublished collection records of Mexican Dermacentor. This work is divided into four sections. The first section is a parasite-host list organized alphabetically by tick species and Mexican state. Published tick collection records are presented in the following order: state (capitalized and in boldface), collection locality, host species, and reference(s). Where information is unavailable, we denote this as “ND” (Not Determined). For new records, we cite the number and sex or stage(s) (♀ = female, ♂ = male, N = nymph(s), L = larva(e)), locality, date, host name, and CNAC accession number. The second section is a host-parasite list, where hosts and their respective parasites are presented in alphabetical order. Mammalian names have been updated to accord with those of Wilson and Reeder (2005) and Ceballos (2014). The third section is a gazetteer of collection localities and their geographical coordinates. Where coordinates are not available for a specific locality, we reference the coordinates for the nearest municipality. The last section is a map, constructed using the program ArcGIS 9.3 (ESRI 2008), showing the distribution of Dermacentor species in Mexico (Fig. 3).

Results

This work summarizes collection data for 11 Dermacentor species known or thought to occur in 31 of Mexico’s 32 federal entities. Mammals belonging to five orders are known to be parasitized by Mexican Dermacentor. Although records are provided here for D. andersoni and D. latus, it remains unclear whether these two species occur in the country.

Parasite-Host List

Dermacentor albipictus (Packard, 1869)

Figs 1A, 2A

Records. ND: east coast of Mexico, horses, asses, mules (Bishopp and Trembley 1945) (referenced as D. nigrolineatus); ND, ND (Vargas 1955); ND, cattle (Becklund 1968) (referenced as D. nigrolineatus). AGUASCALIENTES: Asientos, cattle (Hoffmann 1962); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). BAJA CALIFORNIA: Unidad de Manejo y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (UMA) “El Tepi,” Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus (Contreras et al. 2007). CAMPECHE: ND, ND (Hoffmann 1962); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000).CHIAPAS: Loma Bonita, Selva Lacandona, Odocoileus virginianus (Romero-Castañón et al. 2008); Flor de Marqués, Selva Lacandona, Odocoileus virginianus (Romero-Castañón et al. 2008); Flor de Marqués, Selva Lacandona, Mazama americana (Romero-Castañón et al. 2008); ND, horse (Guglielmone et al. 1990).CHIHUAHUA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). COAHUILA: Ocampo, cattle, horses (Chavarría 1941); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). DISTRITO FEDERAL: Mexico City, horse (Keirans 1985). DURANGO: ND, cattle (Hoffmann 1962); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). ESTADO DE MÉXICO: Huehuetoca, cattle, horses (Chavarría 1941); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). GUERRERO: Arroyo, Taxco, ND (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002100). ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). GUANAJUATO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). HIDALGO: Hacienda del Astillero, Huichapan, cattle (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002102); Sayula, cattle (Hoffmann 1962); Calcali (probably Calnali), ND (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002101); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). JALISCO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). MICHOACÁN: ND, cattle, horses (Chavarría 1941); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). NAYARIT: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). NUEVO LEÓN: Sierra de San Antonio Peña Nevada, Liomys irroratus, Peromyscus boylii, Peromyscus maniculatus (Tijerina-Medina et al. 2006). QUERÉTARO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). PUEBLA: ND, cattle, horses (Chavarría 1941); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). QUINTANA ROO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983) (referenced as D. nigrolineatus). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). SONORA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). TABASCO: ND, ND (Hoffmann 1962); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). TAMAULIPAS: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). VERACRUZ: ND, cattle, horses (Chavarría 1941); Jilotepec, cattle (Hoffmann 1962); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). YUCATÁN: ND, cattle, horses (Chavarría 1941); Temax, ND (Hoffmann 1962); ND, horses, deer, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). ZACATECAS: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983).

Figure 1.

Females. A D. albipictus B D. dissimilis, C D. halli D D. hunteri E D. imitans F D. nitens G D. parumapertus H D. variabilis.

Figure 2.

Males. A D. albipictus B D. dissimilis C D. hunteri D D. imitans E D. nitens F D. parumapertus G D. variabilis.

Figure 3.

Distribution map of Dermacentor species in Mexico. Due to the lack of specific locality data for the states of Guanajuato, Michoacán, Querétaro, Tlaxcala and Zacatecas, all species symbols in those states are solely indicators of occurrence there.

Notes. Romero-Castañón et al. (2008) claim that Mexico is a new locality record for D. albipictus, but this species had earlier been recorded from this country by Hoffmann (1962).

New records. COAHUILA: 6♀, 3♂, Baca de Huachi, 2-II-1975, cattle (CNAC002105). VERACRUZ: 1♀, Jilotepec (CNAC002106).

Notes. Baca de Huachi probably refers to Bacadéhuachi; however, this locality is located in Sonora State.

Dermacentor andersoni Stiles, 1908

Records. ND: ND, ND (Vargas, 1955). CHIAPAS: Selva Lacandona, Bos taurus (Romero-Castañón et al. 2008) (Doubtful record). CHIHUAHUA: Ciudad Juárez, sheep (Chavarría 1941). TAMAULIPAS: ND, vegetation (Gordillo-Pérez et al. 2009).

Dermacentor dissimilis Cooley, 1947

Figs 1B, 2B

Records. ND: ND, ND (Vargas 1955). CHIAPAS: Las Margaritas, about 45 km southeast of Comitán, horses (Cooley 1947); Unión Fronteriza (probably Unión Juárez), horses (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002127); ND, horses (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). GUERRERO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). HIDALGO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). MICHOACÁN: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). NUEVO LEÓN: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). OAXACA: Teotila, Cuicatlán (probably a locality between Teotitlán and Cuicatlán), horses (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002128); ND, horses (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). PUEBLA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). QUERÉTARO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). VERACRUZ: Zongolica, horses (Kohls and Dalmat 1952); ND, horses (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000).

New records. CHIAPAS: 9♀, 2N, Ciudad Las Casas (probably San Cristóbal de las Casas), VII-1940, horses (CNAC002147). HIDALGO: 2♀, Tlahuiltepa, 21-XII-1980 (CNAC002104); 6♀, 1N, San Bartolo Tutotepec, 5-IV-1969 (CNAC002272). PUEBLA: 1♀, Puebla, 2-IV-1995 (CNAC002126). SINALOA: 1♀, Ocolomé, IX-1944, Canis familiaris (CNAC002077). VERACRUZ: 4♀, Atescatitla (probably Atexcatitla, Zongolica), 31-I-1946 (CNAC002134).

Dermacentor halli McIntosh, 1931

Fig. 1C

Records. ND: ND, ND, (Vargas 1955); ND, ND (Meleney 1975); CHIAPAS: Ciudad Las Casas (probably San Cristóbal de las Casas), dogs (Hoffmann 1962), dogs (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000); La Sepultura, Reserva de la Biósfera, Tapirus bairdii (Cruz-Aldán et al. 2006). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: Taninul, human or vegetation (Fairchild et al. 1966); human, vegetation (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). SINALOA: Los Pozos, peccary (Fairchild et al. 1966); peccary (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000).VERACRUZ: Atescatitla (probably Atexcatitla, Zongolica), mules (Hoffmann 1962); Zongolica, cattle (Hoffmann 1962); mules, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). YUCATÁN: Chichén Itzá (Cooley 1938); mules, cattle (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000).

New records. JALISCO: 1♀, San Buenaventura, El Limón, 17-II- 1997, ND (CNAC005202)

Dermacentor hunteri Bishopp, 1912

Figs 1D, 2C

Records. ND: ND, ND (Vargas 1955). BAJA CALIFORNIA: La Rumorosa, human, vegetation, on ground (Williams 1976); ND, Ovis canadensis (Hoffmann 1962, Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000); Mexicali, Ovis canadensis (Crosbie et al. 1997); Cantil Canyon (probably Cañón Tajo-Cantil), Ovis canadensis (Crosbie et al. 1997). SONORA: Libertad (probably Puerto Libertad), ND (Cooley 1938); Libertad (probably Puerto Libertad), Ovis canadensis (Crosbie et al. 1997); Santa María, Ovis canadensis (Crosbie et al. 1997); ND, Ovis canadensis (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000).

Notes. The record from Libertad cited by Crosbie et al. (1997) is probably the same record in Cooley (1938).

New records. BAJA CALIFORNIA: 1♀, 78♂, Sierra de Camulaje (probably Sierra de Calamajué), 4-III-1974, Ovis canadensis (CNAC002136); 3♀, 17♂, ND, “wild sheep” (probably Ovis canadensis) (CNAC002136).

Dermacentor imitans Warburton, 1933

Figs 1E, 2D

Records. CHIAPAS: Selvas de El Ocote, Ocozocoautla, Pecari tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Mazama americana sartorii (Hoffmann 1962, Fairchild et al. 1966).

Notes. Mazama satorii is considered a junior synonym of Mazama temama by Wilson and Reeder (2005), but Ramírez-Pulido et al. (2005) classify M. satorii as a subspecies of Mazama americana.

The records of Hoffmann (1962) and Fairchild et al. (1966) are identical – both reference the same RML collection numbers.

New records. CHIAPAS: 1♂, Ocosingo, Frontera Corozal, Área Natural Protegida Lacandona, 12-X-2004, vegetation (CNAC005194). OAXACA: 1♀, Istmo de Tehuantepec, ND, okapi (sic) (CNAC005018).

Dermacentor latus Cooley, 1937

Record. CHIAPAS: La Sepultura, Reserva de la Biósfera, Tapirus bairdii (Cruz-Aldán et al., 2006).

Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897

Figs 1F, 2E

Records. ND: ND, ND (Hooker et al. 1912); east coast of Mexico, horses, asses, mules (Bishopp and Trembley 1945); ND, horses (Becklund 1968). CAMPECHE: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961); Rancho el Paraíso, cattle (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC005176). CHIAPAS: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961); Huixtla, cattle (Hoffmann 1962); El Vergel (there are two localities with this name, located in two different municipalities: Chiapa de Corzo and Pijijiapan), horses (Hoffmann 1962); Ciudad las Casas (probably San Cristóbal de las Casas), horses (Hoffmann 1962); Zoológico regional “Miguel Álvarez del Toro,” Tapirus bairdii (Cruz-Aldán et al. 2006); Flor de Marqués, Selva Lacandona (Romero-Castañón et al. 2008). CHIHUAHUA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). COLIMA: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961); Colima, cattle (Hoffmann 1962). DISTRITO FEDERAL: near Mexico City, cattle, horse, sheep (Keirans 1985). DURANGO: ND, horses, sheep (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). ESTADO DE MÉXICO: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). GUERRERO: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). HIDALGO: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). MICHOACÁN: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). OAXACA: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961); Jesús Carranza (on the border of Veracruz and Oaxaca but situated in Veracruz State), ND (Keirans 1985). PUEBLA: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). QUINTANA ROO: southeast of Peto, horses (Bequaert 1933). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). TAMAULIPAS: Ciudad Victoria, horse, donkey, mule (Hooker et al. 1912, Macías-Valadez 1923); Tampico, horse, donkey, mule (Hooker et al. 1912, Macías-Valadez 1923); Laguna Madre, horse (Drummond and Graham 1964). VERACRUZ: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961). YUCATÁN: ND, horses, cattle (Chavarría 1941); ND, cattle, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs (Hoffmann 1961).

New records. CAMPECHE: 26♀, Candelaria, XI-1944, horse (CNAC005127); 17♀, Escárcega, XII-1944, horse (CNAC005093); 21♀, 1♂, 1N, Escárcega, XII-1944, horse (CNAC005126). CHIAPAS: 54♀, 44♂, Villa Flores (probably Villaflores), 6-XII-1983, horse (CNAC002087); 3♂, Rancho Agua Escondida, Villa Flores (probably Villaflores), 5-XII-1983, horse (CNAC002079). NAYARIT: 1♀, Acapareta (probably Acaponeta), 24-V-1981, horse (CNAC002295). OAXACA: 16♀, 14♂, 8N, Tlacamana (probably Tlacamama), 21-IV-1975, horse (CNAC002085); 7♀, 5♂, Cosolapa, VI-1950 (CNAC002081). PUEBLA: 6♀, 5♂, 2L, Huauchinango, VI-1927 (CNAC002083). QUINTANA ROO: 4♀, 11♂, Bacalar, VIII-1939, “tepezcuintle” (probably Cuniculus paca) (CNAC002088). SINALOA: 1♀, Ocolomé, IX-1944, Canis familiaris (CNAC002080). TABASCO: 26♀, 2 ♂, Macuspana, II- 1971, horses (CNAC002076); 3♂, Amaicote, 26-III-1971, horses (CNAC002266); 4♀, Amaicote, 26-III-1971, horses (CNAC002298). TAMAULIPAS: 1♀, 1♂, Rancho la Bolsa, Tampico (CNAC005158). VERACRUZ: 4♀, 3♂, Tuxtilla, IX-1939 (CNAC002086); 26♀, 16♂, 8N, Cosamaloapan, IX-1939, Canis familiaris (CNAC002082); 6♀, 2♂, Veracruz, VII-1927 (CNAC002078); 3♀, Miahuapa (probably San Pedro Miahuapan), 14-IV-1949, deer (CNAC005083); 3♀, 11♂, Miahuapa (probably San Pedro Miahuapan), 14-XI-1949, horse (CNAC005054).

Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, 1892

Records. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Tijuana, cattle (Secretaria de Agricultura y Fomento de México, 1926, 1930 in Hoffmann 1962); ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983); Unidad de Manejo y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (UMA) “El Tepi,” Sierra San Pedro Mátir, Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus (Contreras et al. 2007); ND, Bos taurus (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). COAHUILA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). SINALOA: Choix (Hoffmann 1925); ND, Bos taurus (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000).

Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann, 1901

Figs 1G, 2F

Records. ND: ND, ND (Vargas 1955); ND, ND (Becklund 1968). BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de los Ángeles, Lepus californicus (Ryckman and Ryckman 1963); ND, rabbits, hares (Hoffmann 1961). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: La Paz, Lepus californicus (Hoffmann 1962); Todos Santos, rabbits (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002144); Puerto Chileno, hare (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002146). CHIAPAS: Ciudad Las Casas (probably San Cristóbal de las Casas), horses (Hoffmann 1962); ND, rabbits, hares (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). CHIHUAHUA: ND, cattle (Strickland and Gerrish 1965). COAHUILA: Región Lagunera, hares (Silva-Goytia and Elizondo 1952); ND, rabbits, hares (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). DISTRITO FEDERAL: ND, rabbits, hares (Hoffmann 1961, Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000); Camino al Desierto de los Leones, rabbits (Hoffmann 1962). DURANGO: Región Lagunera, hares (Silva-Goytia and Elizondo 1952); ND, rabbits, hares (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). HIDALGO: Ixmiquilpan, hares (Tovar 1944); ND, rabbits, hares (Hoffmann 1961; Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000); Actopan, rabbits (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002145); Taxquillo, rabbits (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002148). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: San Luis Potosí, jack rabbits (Roberts 1934). SONORA: Cumuripa, hares (Hoffmann 1962) (CNAC002143); Guaymas, hares (Hoffmann 1962); ND, rabbits, hares (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000).

New records. DURANGO: 2♀, 2♂, Ejido 18 de Marzo, Durango, 16-VIII- 1976, hare (CNAC002149). DISTRITO FEDERAL: 1♀, 1♂, México D.F., rabbit (CNAC002141). SONORA: 1♀, 1♂, Guaymas, 15-VII-1924, hare (CNAC002140).

Note. In Hoffmann (1962), the record for Sonora: Guaymas is identical to our new record, except that the year is stated to be 1944, whereas the year on our collection label is 1924, and for that reason we consider our record to be different.

Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821)

Figs 1H, 2G

Records. ND: ND, ND (Neumann 1901); ND, ND (Hooker 1909); ND, ND (Hooker et al. 1912); ND, ND (Pinto 1930); ND, ND (Bishop and Trembley 1945); ND, ND (Vargas 1955). BAJA CALIFORNIA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983); Unidad de Manejo y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (UMA) “El Tepi,” Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus (Contreras et al. 2007). CHIAPAS: ND, ND (Tovar 1945); cattle (Hoffmann 1961); Valle Central (Ortega-Gutiérrez 1979); ND, rabbits (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). CHIHUAHUA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). COAHUILA: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). DURANGO: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983). ESTADO DE MÉXICO: ND, ND (Tovar 1945); cattle (Hoffmann 1961; Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000); ND, ear canal of goats (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). GUANAJUATO: ND, Lepus callotis (Neumann 1901). HIDALGO: ND, ND (Tovar 1945); cattle (Hoffmann 1961, Hoffmann 1962, Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). NUEVO LEÓN: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983); ND, environment (Oliveira et al. 2010); Guadalupe, dog (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013); Pesquería, dogs (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013); Benito Juárez, dogs (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013); Apodaca, dogs (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013); Estanzuela, dogs (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013); Guadalupe, dogs (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013); Escobedo, dogs (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013); San Nicolás de los Garza, dogs (Galaviz-Silva et al. 2013). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: ND, ND (Tovar 1945). OAXACA: ND, ND (Tovar 1945); cattle (Hoffmann 1961, Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). PUEBLA: ND, ND (Hoffmann 1962). SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: cattle (Hoffmann 1961); Venado, cattle (Hoffmann 1962); ND, deer (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). SONORA: cattle (Hoffmann 1961); El Maquipo, hares (Hoffmann 1962); ND, hares (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). TAMAULIPAS: Soto La Marina, Rancho La Pesca (Chavarría 1941); Soto La Marina, Hacienda Espíritu Santo (Chavarría 1941); ND, ND (Tovar 1945); cattle (Hoffmann 1961, Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). TLAXCALA: ND, ND (Hoffmann 1962); ND, hares (Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). YUCATÁN: Chichén Itzá, vegetation (Bequaert 1933); cattle (Hoffmann 1961, Hoffmann and López-Campos 2000). ZACATECAS: ND, ND (Woodham et al. 1983).

New records. COAHUILA: 1♀, 1♂, San Patricio, Villa Unión, 19-V-1975, bovine (CNAC002152). NUEVO LEÓN: 2♀, 3♂, Anahuac, 26-VI-1976, wildcat (CNAC002151). TAMAULIPAS: 2♀, 1♂, Los tres Garcia, Reynosa, 26-VIII-1976, Canis familiaris (CNAC002159); 1♀, 1♂ Matamoros, 19-IV-1999, Lynx rufus (CNAC002240).

Host-parasite List

Vegetation

Dermacentor halli

Dermacentor hunteri

Dermacentor imitans

Dermacentor variabilis

Artiodactyla

Deer

Dermacentor albipictus

Goats

Dermacentor variabilis

Sheep

Dermacentor nitens

Wild sheep

Dermacentor hunteri

Peccary

Dermacentor halli

Bos taurus Linnaeus (Aurochs, Cattle, Bovine)

Dermacentor albipictus

Dermacentor halli

Dermacentor nitens

Dermacentor occidentalis

Dermacentor parumapertus

Dermacentor variabilis

Mazama americana (Erxleben) (South American Red Brocket)

Dermacentor albipictus

Dermacentor nitens

Mazama americana temama (Kerr)

Dermacentor imitans

Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus Cowan (Southern Mule Deer)

Dermacentor albipictus

Dermacentor nitens

Dermacentor variabilis

Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann) (White-tailed Deer)

Dermacentor albipictus

Ovis canadensis Shaw (Bighorn Sheep)

Dermacentor hunteri

Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus) (Collared Peccary)

Dermacentor imitans

Tayassu pecari (Link) (White-lipped Peccary)

Dermacentor imitans

Carnivora

Canis familiaris Linnaeus (domestic dog)

Dermacentor dissimilis

Dermacentor halli

Dermacentor nitens

Dermacentor variabilis

Lynx rufus (Schreber) (Bobcat)

Dermacentor variabilis

Lagomorpha

Hares

Dermacentor parumapertus

Dermacentor variabilis

Rabbits

Dermacentor parumapertus

Dermacentor variabilis

Lepus californicus Gray (Black-tailed Jackrabbit)

Dermacentor parumapertus

Lepus callotis Wagler (White-sided Jackrabbit)

Dermacentor variabilis

Perissodactyla

Mules

Dermacentor albipictus

Dermacentor halli

Dermacentor nitens

Equus asinus Linnaeus (ass, donkey)

Dermacentor albipictus

Dermacentor nitens

Equus caballus Linnaeus (horse)

Dermacentor albipictus

Dermacentor dissimilis

Dermacentor nitens

Dermacentor parumapertus

Tapirus bairdii (Gill) (Baird’s Tapir)

Dermacentor halli

Dermacentor nitens

Primates

Homo sapiens Linnaeus (human)

Dermacentor halli

Dermacentor hunteri

Rodentia

Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus) (Tepexcuintle, Lowland Paca)

Dermacentor nitens

Liomys irroratus (Gray) (Mexican Spiny Pocket Mouse)

Dermacentor albipictus

Peromyscus boylii (Baird) (Brush Deermouse)

Dermacentor albipictus

Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner) (North American Deermouse)

Dermacentor albipictus

List of localities

List of localities

Latitude N Longitude W
East coast of Mexico ND ND
AGUASCALIENTES
Asientos 22°14'18.69" 102°5'21.92"
BAJA CALIFORNIA
Cantil Canyon (probably Canón Tajo-Cantil) 32°15'50" 115°52'54"
Bahía de los Ángeles 28°57'5.07" 113°33'36.11"
La Rumorosa 32°31'37.93" 116°4'15.86"
Sierra de Camulaje (probably Sierra de Calamajué) 29°38'13" 114°6'39"
Tijuana 32°30'53.73" 117°2'18.37"
Unidad de Manejo y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (UMA) “El Tepi” Sierra San Pedro Mártir 31°04'36" 115°16 ’ 31’’
Mexicali 32°37'26" 115°27'5"
BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR
La Paz 24°8'33.28" 110°18'46.86"
Puerto Chileno 22°56'51" 109°48'27"
Todos Santos 23°27'23.07" 110°13'49.04"
CAMPECHE
Candelaria 18°11'30.08" 91°2'28.68"
Campeche 19°49'49.98" 90°32'4.42"
Escárcega 18°36'32.14" 90°44'46.2"
Rancho el Paraíso 18°39'38.23" 91°46'19.84"
CHIAPAS
Ciudad Las Casas (probably San Cristóbal de las Casas) 16°44'12" 92°38'18"
El Vergel (there are two localities with this name, located in two different municipalities: Chiapa de Corzo and Pijijiapan)
El Vergel, Chiapa de Corzo 16°39'6" 93°00'47"
El Vergel, Pijijiapan 15°38'33" 92°58'21"
Flor de Marqués, Selva Lacandona 16°09' 90°52'
Huixtla 15°8'15.9" 92°27'57"
La Sepultura, Reserva de la Biosfera 16°00" and 16°29" 93°24" and 94°07"
Las Margaritas, abouth 45 km south Comitán 16°19'0" 91°58'57"
Loma Bonita, Selva Lacandona 16°05' 90°58'
Ocosingo Frontera Corozal, Área natural protegida Lacandona 16°49'16" 90°53'25"
Rancho Agua Escondida, Villa Flores (probably Villaflores) 16°14'4.01" 93°27'31.03"
Selva Lacandona ND ND
Selvas de El Ocote Ocozocoautla 16°31'56" 93°28'31"
Unión Fronteriza (probably Unión Juárez) 15°4'0" 92°5'0"
Valle Central ND ND
Villa Flores (probably Villaflores) 16°14'4.01" 93°27'31.03"
Zoológico regional “Miguel Álvarez del Toro” 16°43'30" 93°5'38.1"
CHIHUAHUA
Ciudad Juárez 31°41'28.48" 106°25'28.2"
COAHUILA
Baca de Huachi (probably Bacadéhuachi in Sonora State) 29°48'35" 109°8'28"
Ocampo 27.316261 102.405747
Región Lagunera ND ND
San Patricio, Villa Unión 28°13'25" 100°43'47"
COLIMA
Colima 19°14'42.7" 103°43'28"
DISTRITO FEDERAL
Camino al Desierto de los Leones 19°19'1.6" 99°18'20.74"
Near Mexico City ND ND
Mexico City 19°21'11" 99°8'14"
DURANGO
Ejido 18 de Marzo 25°43'54.4" 103°21'28.3"
Región Lagunera ND ND
ESTADO DE MÉXICO
Huehuetoca 19°50'5.75" 99°12'11.09"
GUERRERO
Arroyo, Taxco 18°32'33.03" 99°36'47.86"
GUANAJUATO
ND ND
HIDALGO
Actopan 20°16'27.58" 98°56'17.44"
Calcali (probably Calnali) 20°53'57.12" 98°35'19.1"
Hacienda del Astillero, Huichapan 20°22'16.78" 99°39'39.45"
Ixmiquilpan 20°29'03" 99°13'08"
San Bartolo Tutotepec 20°29'1.64" 98°11'41.82"
Sayula 20°12'3" 99°24'1"
Taxquillo 20°34'32.98" 99°20'31.34"
Tlahuiltepa 20°55'26.65" 98°57'2.26"
JALISCO
San Buenaventura, El Limón 21°59'48.98" 103°34'12.97"
MICHOACÁN
ND ND
NAYARIT
Acapareta (Acaponeta) 22°27'52.2" 105 14 55.89"
NUEVO LEÓN
Anáhuac 27°22'29.56" 100°4'47.74"
Apodaca 25°47'00" 100°11'00"
Benito Juárez 25°39'00" 100°05'00"
Escobedo 25°48'30" 100°19'36"
Estanzuela 25°32'60" 100°16'15"
Guadalupe 25°40'39" 100°15'35"
Nicolás de los Garza 25°46'00" 100°17'00"
Pesquería 25°47'00" 100°3'00"
San Antonio Peña Nevada 23°44'38.99" 101°0'36"
OAXACA
Cosolapa 18°35'2.65" 96°39'11.3"
Teotila, Cuicatlán (probably a road between Teotitlán and Cuicatlán) 17°55'33" 97°0'21"
Istmo de Tehuantepec ND ND
Oaxaca 17°5'00" 96°45'00"
Tlacamana (probably Tlacamama) 16°26'48.51" 98°6'42.73"
PUEBLA
Huauchinango 20°10'30.14" 98°3'42.76"
Puebla 19°3'5" 98°13'4"
QUERÉTARO
ND ND
QUINTANA ROO
Bacalar 18°40'18.84" 88°23'53.62"
Southeast of Peto 19°59'11" 88°43'14"
SAN LUIS POTOSÍ
San Luis Potosí 22°08'59" 100°58'30"
Taninul 21°56'09" 98°53'19"
Venado 22°56'00" 101°5'34"
SINALOA
Choix 26°42'36" 108°19'34"
Los Pozos 23°00'40" 106°9'12"
Ocolomé 26°26'50.81" 108°36'30.67"
SONORA
Baca de Huachi (probably Bacadéhuachi in Sonora State) 29°48'35" 109°8'28"
Cumuripa 28°9'11.41" 109°54'35.06"
El Maquipo 26°43'35" 108°43'10"
Guaymas 28°6'10.8" 111°1'47.81"
Libertad (probably Puerto Libertad) 29°54'15" 112°40'59"
Santa María 28°8'30" 110°41'35"
TABASCO
Amaicote 17°29'5.2" 93°30'41.32"
Macuspana 17°53'13.27" 92°25'11.42"
TAMAULIPAS
Ciudad Victoria 23°44'00" 99°8'00"
Hacienda Espíritu Santo, Soto La Marina 23°46'8" 98°12'19"
Laguna Madre ND ND
Los Tres García, Reynosa 25°49'36.15" 98°17'6.03"
Matamoros 25°37'7.93" 97°29'18.56"
Rancho la Bolsa, Tampico 22°15'57.34" 97°52'24.99"
Rancho La Pesca, Soto La Marina 23°47'16" 97°46'30"
Tampico 22°15'19" 97°52'7"
TLAXCALA
ND ND
VERACRUZ
Atescatitla (probably Atexcatitla, Zongolica) 18°33'25" 96°52'46"
Cosamaloapan 18°22'0.8" 95°47'40.77"
Jesús Carranza 17°26'06" 95°1'44"
Jilotepec 19°36'41" 96°56'58"
Miahuapa (probably San Pedro Miahuapan) 20°35'40.12" 97°40'18.58"
Tuxtilla 18°11'43.43" 95°51'54.75"
Veracruz 19°11'57" 96°8'16"
Zongolica 18°40'17.54" 97°0'5.22"
YUCATÁN
Chichen Itzá 20°40'59" 88°34'07"
Temax 21°2'55" 89°2'20"
ZACATECAS
ND ND

Discussion

The first species records of the genus Dermacentor in Mexico were made by Hooker (1909) and Hooker et al. (1912), who referenced Mexican specimens of D. variabilis and D. nitens, two species of veterinary importance. The next species recorded from this country was D. occidentalis, cited by Hoffmann (1925) from Choix, Sinaloa. During the 1930s and 1940s, D. albipictus, D. dissimilis, D. halli, D. hunteri, and D. parumapertus were recorded from Mexico for the first time. Most recently, records have been published for D. andersoni (Vargas 1955), D. imitans (Hoffmann, 1962), and D. latus (Cruz-Aldán et al. 2006).

According to Apanaskevich and Bermúdez (2013), D. panamensis, which was described from specimens collected in Central America, has long been confused with D. halli. In Mexico, what we consider bona fide specimens of D. halli have been recorded in the southern part of the country, in the states of Chiapas, Yucatán and Veracruz, but there remains the possibility that D. panamensis may also be found in this region. Until fresh specimens of both species become available for molecular and morphological analysis, we accept the Mexican distribution of D. halli as described herein.

Based on literature records, 11 species of Dermacentor are known from Mexico, which represents 31.4% of the total number of species (35) generally recognized worldwide. However, there are two species – D. andersoni and D. latus – whose occurrence in the country needs to be confirmed. Dermacentor andersoni is a species of the northern Nearctic, missing from most of the North American Southwest, so the record from Chiapas seems doubtful. Moreover, the record from Tamaulipas is based on nymphs, which can be difficult to accurately determine to species, and the record from Chihuahua is suspect because Chavarría (1941) states that his tick specimens may have been collected on sheep transiting customs in Ciudad Juárez. On the other hand, D. latus is known only from Tapirus bairdii in Chiapas (Cruz-Aldán et al. 2006). This is a little-studied tick that is also thought to be endangered (Mihalca et al. 2011), and for that reason its occurrence in Mexico requires confirmation. Among the other nine Dermacentor species, the most widespread is D. albipictus (26 Mexican states), followed by D. nitens (20), and D. variabilis (18). In contrast, D. hunteri and D. imitans are both known from only two Mexican states. Dermacentor albipictus, D. dissimilis, D. halli, D. nitens and D. variabilis all occur in both the Neotropical and Nearctic Zoogeographic Regions. Dermacentor hunteri and D. occidentalis are chiefly regarded as Nearctic species, while D. imitans is considered a Neotropical species. Guglielmone et al. (2014) classify D. parumapertus as a Nearctic tick, but we have found records from the southern Mexican state of Chiapas; these may represent a misidentification, so we cannot conclude that this species’ range extends into the Neotropics.

We have located records of Dermacentor species from all federal entities in Mexico except Morelos (Figure 3). The Mexican states with the largest number of localities in which Dermacentor ticks have been collected are Chiapas (17 localities), followed by Nuevo León (9 localities), and Hidalgo, Tamaulipas and Veracruz (8 localities each). In some cases there is a record for a state, but the collection locality is unknown (Guanajuato, Michoacán, Querétaro, Tlaxcala and Zacatecas).

Artiodactyl and perissodactyl mammals are common hosts of Dermacentor species. Dermacentor albipictus is usually associated with these large mammal hosts, although we found that this species can also be associated with rodents (L. irroratus, P. boylii and P. maniculatus). Unfortunately, however, no information is available concerning the stages of D. albipictus found on rodent hosts. Dermacentor variabilis is more of a generalist species, found on hosts as diverse as Carnivora and Lagomorpha. Somewhat surprisingly, in Mexico only D. halli and D. hunteri have been reported to parasitize humans. Mexican records of D. imitans are scarce and confined to Chiapas and Oaxaca, where this tick is associated with Artiodactyla.

Except for D. andersoni, D. occidentalis and D. latus, all Mexican Dermacentor species are represented in the CNAC. Even so, our understanding of the distribution and host relationships of this genus in Mexico is far from complete, and for that reason additional collections are urgently needed, so that we may better comprehend the biology, systematics, ecology, and zoogeography of this biomedically important genus.

Acknowledgments

We thank Ana Isabel Bieler Antolín for editing our color photomicrographs of Mexican Dermacentor species. Thanks also to Susana Guzmán, Instituto de Biología, UNAM, for technical support in photography.

References

  • Apanaskevich DA (2013) Reinstatement of Dermacentor kamshadalus Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) as a valid species parasitizing mountain goats and sheep in the United States, Canada, and Russia. Journal of Medical Entomology 50: 691–700. doi: 10.1603/ME12278
  • Apanaskevich DA, Bermúdez S (2013) Description of a new Dermacentor (Acari: Ixodidae) species, a parasite of wild mammals in Central America. Journal of Medical Entomology 50: 1190–1201. doi: 10.1603/ME13121
  • Becklund WW (1968) Ticks of veterinary significance found on imports in the United States. Journal of Parasitology 54: 622–628. doi: 10.2307/3277097
  • Bequaert JC (1933) Contribution to the entomology of Yucatan. In: The peninsula of Yucatan. Medical, biological and sociological studies. Proceedings of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 431: 547–576.
  • Bishopp F, Trembley HL (1945) Distribution and hosts of certain North American ticks. Journal of Parasitology 31: 1–54. doi: 10.2307/3273061
  • Ceballos G (2014) Mammals of Mexico. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 957 pp.
  • Chavarría M (1941) Garrapatas determinadas en México. Caracteres genéricos de las más comunes. Revista del Instituto Pecuario 1: 18–24.
  • Contreras J, Mellinck E, Martínez R, Medina G (2007) Parásitos y enfermedades del venado bura (Odocoileus hemionus fuliginatus) en la parte de la Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California México. Revista Mexicana de Mastozoología 11: 8–20.
  • Cooley RA (1938) The genera Dermacentor and Otocentor (Ixodidae) in the Unites States, with studies in variation. National Institute of Health Bulletin 171, Washington D.C., 89 pp.
  • Cooley RA (1947) Dermacentor dissimilis, a new species of tick from southern Mexico. American Museum Novitates 1332: 1–3.
  • Crosbie PR, Goff WL, Stiller D, Jessup DA, Boyce WM (1997) The distribution of Dermacentor hunteri and Anaplasma sp. in desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Journal of Parasitology 83: 31–37. doi: 10.2307/3284313
  • Cruz-Aldán E, Torres IV, Guiris-Andrade DM, Osorio-Sarabia D, Quintero MT (2006) Parásitos del tapir centroamericano Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) en Chiapas, México. Revista de Biología Tropical 54: 445–450. doi: 10.15517/rbt.v54i2.14109
  • Drummond RO, Graham OH (1964) Insecticide test against the tropical horse tick, Dermacentor nitens, on horses. Journal of Economic Entomology 57: 549–553. doi: 10.1093/jee/57.4.549
  • Durden LA, Beati L (2014) Modern tick systematics. In: Sonenshine DE, Roe RM (Eds) Biology of Ticks, volume 1. Oxford University Press, New York, 17–58.
  • ESRI (2008) ArcGIS ver. 9.3. Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc., Redlands, California.
  • Fairchild GB, Kohls GM, Tipton VJ (1966) The ticks of Panama (Acarina: Ixodoidea). In: Wenzel WR, Tipton VJ (Eds) Ectoparasites of Panama. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 167–219.
  • Galaviz-Silva L, Pérez-Treviño KC, Molina-Garza ZJ (2013) Distribution of ixodid ticks on dogs in Nuevo León, Mexico, and their association with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Experimental and Applied Acarology 61: 491–501. doi: 10.1007/s10493-013-9707-5
  • Gordillo-Pérez G, Vargas M, Solórzano-Santos F, Rivera A, Polaco OJ, Alvarado L, Muñoz O, Torres J (2009) Demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in ticks from the northeast of Mexico. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15: 496–498. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02776.x
  • Guglielmone AA, Mangold AJ, Keirans JE (1990) Redescription of the male and female of Amblyomma parvum Aragão, 1908, and description of the nymph and larva, and description of all stages of Amblyomma pseudoparvum sp.n. (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae). Acarologia 31: 144–159.
  • Guglielmone AA, Robbins RG, Apanaskevich DA, Petney TN, Estrada-Peña A, Horak IG, Shao R, Barker SC (2010) The Argasidae, Ixodidae and Nuttalliellidae (Acari: Ixodida) of the world: a list of valid species names. Zootaxa 2528: 1–28.
  • Guglielmone AA, Robbins RG, Apanaskevich DA, Petney TN, Estrada-Peña A, Horak IG (2014) The Hard Ticks of the World (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae). Springer, Dordrecht, xiii + 738 pp.
  • Hoffmann CC (1925) La fiebre manchada de Choix. Boletin del Departamento de Salud Pública 1: 33–37.
  • Hoffmann A (1961) Artrópodos mexicanos de interés médico y veterinario. Productos DDT, S. A. México D. F., 63 pp.
  • Hoffmann A (1962) Monografía de los Ixodoidea de México. I parte. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 23: 191–307.
  • Hoffmann A, López-Campos G (2000) Biodiversidad de los ácaros en México. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F., 230 pp.
  • Hooker WA (1909) The geographical distribution of American ticks. Journal of Economic Entomology 2: 403–428. doi: 10.1093/jee/2.6.403
  • Hooker WA, Bishop FC, Wood HP (1912) The life history and bionomics of some North American ticks. Bulletin of the Bureau Entomology, U.S. Department of Agriculture 106, Washington D.C., 239 pp. doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.65064
  • Keirans JE (1985) George Henry Falkiner Nuttall and the Nuttall tick catalogue. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Miscellaneous Publication, 1438, Washington D.C., 1785 pp.
  • Kohls GM, Dalmat HT (1952) The male of Dermacentor dissimilis Cooley (Acarina: Ixodidae). Journal of Parasitology 38: 140–142. doi: 10.2307/3273832
  • Macías-Valadez S (1923) Ensayo de una monografía sobre Ixódidos mexicanos vulgo garrapatas. Memorias de la Sociedad “Antonio Alzate” 41: 197–216.
  • Meleney WP (1975) Arthropod parasites of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae), from New Mexico. Journal of Parasitology 61: 530–534. doi: 10.2307/3279337
  • Mihalca AD, Gherman CM, Cozma V (2011) Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening? Parasites & Vectors 4: 7 pp.
  • Neumann LG (1901) Revision de la famille des Ixodidés (4e mémoire). Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France 14: 249–372.
  • Oliveira K, Pinter A, Medina-Sánchez A, Boppana VD, Wikel SK, Saito TB, Shelite LB, Popov V, Teel PD, Walker DH, Galvao MAM, Mafra C, Bouyer D (2010) Amblyomma imitator ticks as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16: 1282–1284. doi: 10.3201/eid1608.100231
  • Ortega-Gutiérrez M (1979) Entomofauna de interés médico en el estado de Chiapas. Salud Pública de México 21: 49–58.
  • Pinto C (1930) Tratado de Parasitologia vol. IV. Arthrópodes parasitos e transmissores de doenças. Pimenta de Mello & Cia, Rio de Janeiro, 395 pp.
  • Ramírez-Pulido J, Arroyo-Cabrales J, Castro-Campillo A (2005) Estado actual y relación nomenclatural de los mamíferos terrestres de México. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (nueva serie) 21: 21–82.
  • Roberts RA (1934) Some insects collected in Mexico, mostly in association with man and animals or animal products. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 42: 249–262.
  • Romero-Castañón S, Ferguson BG, Guiris D, González D, López S, Paredes A, Weber M (2008) Comparative parasitology of wild and domestic ungulates in the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico. Comparative Parasitology 75: 115–126. doi: 10.1654/4267.1
  • Ryckman RE, Ryckman AE (1963) Loma Linda University´s 1962 expedition to Baja California. Medical Arts and Sciences 17: 65–76.
  • Silva-Goytia R, Elizondo A (1952) Estudio sobre fiebre manchada en México. II. Parásitos hematófagos encontrados naturalmente infectados. Medicina, Revista Mexicana 32: 278–282.
  • Strickland RK, Gerrish RR (1965) Collections of Dermacentor parumapertus from cattle. Journal of Parasitology 51: 1000. doi: 10.2307/3275892
  • Tijerina-Medina G, Torres JM, Rodríguez-Castro VA, Quiroz-Martínez H, González-Rojas JI (2006) Fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Arachnida: Acari: Ixodida) parasitizing small mammals in the Sierra San Antonio Peña Nevada, State of Nuevo León, México. Entomological News 117: 95–100. doi: 10.3157/0013-872X(2006)117[95:FSATAA]2.0.CO;2
  • Tovar RM (1944) Existencia del Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann, Amblyomma inornatum Banks y Amblyomma maculatum Koch en México. Revista del Instituto de Salubridad y Enfermedades Tropicales 5: 293–295.
  • Tovar RM (1945) Rickettsiasis exantemáticas transmitidas por garrapatas en América. Medicina, Revista Mexicana 25: 65–92.
  • Vargas L (1955) Relación del papel patógeno de las garrapatas y lista de las especies mexicanas. Gaceta Médica de México 85: 489–502.
  • Williams CF (1976) New distribution record for Dermacentor hunteri Bishopp (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 13: 98. doi: 10.1093/jmedent/13.1.98
  • Wilson DE, Reeder DM (2005) Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, American Society of Mammalogists. Washington, D.C., 2142 pp.
  • Woodham CB, González-Origel A, López-León A, Guereña-Morales R (1983) Progress in the eradication of Boophilus ticks in Mexico 1960–80. World Animal Review 48: 18–24.
  • Yunker CE, Keirans JE, Clifford CM, Easton ER (1986) Dermacentor ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) of the New World: A scanning electron microscope atlas. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88: 609–627.