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Research Article
Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.), part III: African fauna
expand article infoRoger A. Burks, Lubomir Masner§, Norman F. Johnson, Andrew D. Austin|
‡ University of California, Riverside, United States of America
§ Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
| The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
Open Access

Abstract

African species of Oxyscelio (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.) are revised. A total of 14 species are recognized, 13 of which are described as new: O. absentiae Burks, sp. n., O. galeri Burks, sp. n., O. gyri Burks, sp. n., O. idoli Burks, sp. n., O. intensionis Burks, sp. n., O. io Burks, sp. n., O. kylix Burks, sp. n., O. lunae Burks, sp. n., O. nemesis Burks, sp. n., O. pulveris Burks, sp. n., O. quassus Burks, sp. n., O. teli Burks, sp. n. and O. xenii Burks, sp. n. The genus Freniger Szabó, syn. n. is recognized as part of an endemic African species group of Oxyscelio with incomplete hind wing venation, and O. bicolor (Szabó), comb. n. is therefore recognized as the only previously described species of Oxyscelio from Africa. The O. crateris and O. cuculli species groups, previously known from southeast Asia, are represented in Africa by seven and one species respectively.

Keywords

Platygastroidea, Scelionidae, Oxyscelio, Scelioninae, key, revision, database, parasitoid

Introduction

Oxyscelio Kieffer was first described to contain a single species of Scelioninae from Java (Kieffer 1907). It remained in obscurity until Dodd (1931) recognized that it was the oldest generic name corresponding to a set of Australian and Indo-Malayan species that previously had been placed in several other genera. Dodd’s concept of Oxyscelio has been upheld in more recent examinations of scelionine genera (Masner 1976, Galloway and Austin 1984, Austin and Field 1997). The Indo-Malayan, Palearctic (Burks et al. 2013a, Johnson et al. 2013), Australian, and Pacific (Burks et al. 2013b) species of Oxyscelio have been recently reviewed, expanding the number of described species of the genus from 36 to 170, while retaining as valid all but one of the species that had been recognized by Dodd.

Despite the diversity of Oxyscelio, very little is known of its life history. The host of Oxyscelio perpensus Kononova, an exposed orthopteran egg laid from an unknown species onto plant tissue, was photographed as part of its original description (Kononova and Fursov 2007) and is the only known host record of the genus.

In this study we recognize 14 species of Oxyscelio from the Afrotropical realm, including 13 newly described species. Eight of these species are placed in species groups previously recognized from the Indo-Malayan realm. Four of the remaining species are placed in a uniquely African species group comprising the only species of Oxyscelio known to have incomplete hind wing venation, a feature that has most notably been found in other genera of Scelioninae, including Scelio Latreille, Sparasion Latreille, and Nixonia Masner. These species are determined to belong to Oxyscelio based on a single spur on both the mid and hind tibia, the presence of a facial submedian carina, and fore wing with a punctiform marginal vein and no pseudostigma (sensu Masner 1976).

Materials and methods

Specimens examined were provided by the following collections: Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia (ANIC)1; The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (BMNH)2; Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Canada (CNCI)3; Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary (HNHM)4; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (MCZC)5; Lund Museum of Zoology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden (MZLU)6; National Museum of Kenya (NMKE)7; C.A. Triplehorn Insect Collection, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (OSUC)8; Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Insect Collection, Indooroopilly, Australia (QDPC)9; Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia (QMBA)10; South African Museum, Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa (SAMC)11; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (USNM)12; Waite Insect and Nematode Collection, Adelaide, Australia (WINC) 13.

This revision is a product of the Platygastroidea Planetary Biodiversity Inventory, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (N.F. Johnson, Ohio State University; Andy Austin, University of Adelaide; Principal Investigators). An objective of this project is to use biodiversity informatics resources to accelerate taxonomic work, making real-time collaboration possible. Data associated with specimens examined in this study can be accessed at hol.osu.edu and entering the unique specimen identifier (e.g. OSUC 359541) in the search form. Scale bars on all figures are in mm format. Morphological terminology follows Mikó et al. (2007) except as specified here. Ovipositor terminology is used as described by Austin and Field (1997). “T1 midlobe” refers to the raised antero-medial area of T1 that is flanked by depressed lateral areas. This is usually flat and only weakly elevated in Oxyscelio, and therefore is not strictly the same as a T1 horn, but a T1 midlobe can be expressed as a T1 horn. All terms except those for surface sculpture are defined in the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (http://portal.hymao.org).

Surface sculpture terminology follows Eady (1968) in most cases and Burks et al. (2013a, 2013b) in interpretations of major sculpture versus microsculpture, which are explained again here. Diminutive variant sculptural terms were avoided because of a lack of criteria for separating them from non-diminutive alternatives. “Major” surface sculpture refers to repeated sculptural patterns that interact with seta placement, not including non-repeated elements or those which are repeated only once due to bilateral symmetry. “Umbilicate-foveate” sculpture refers to rounded crater-like sculptural elements, each surrounding a setiferous pit (and thus interacting with a seta), with each fovea being much larger than its setiferous pit and spatially separated from that pit (see, e.g., Fig. 3). “Umbilicate-punctate” sculpture indicates that no sculptural element accompanies the setiferous pit (and therefore the setal pit is the “major” surface sculpture element here, e.g., T6 in Fig. 67). “Rugose” sculpture refers to a pattern of branching or wrinkling elevations that flank setiferous pits but do not fully surround them (e.g., Figs 6, 7). Rugose sculpture can coexist with umbilicate sculpture in the same area of the sclerite, in which case the rugae occur on spaces between umbilicate sculptural elements. Note that “rugose” refers to a distribution of sculptural elements, and therefore can be “irregular” or “regular” even though rugae (the elements themselves) are by definition wrinkle-like and therefore at least slightly irregular. Where both umbilicate-foveate and umbilicate-punctate sculpture are reported for the same sclerite, this should be interpreted as variable sculpture where some setiferous pits are surrounded by foveae while others are not. Under this scheme, “major” surface sculpture cannot occur in any part of the sclerite that lacks setae.

“Microsculpture” refers to repeated tiny sculptural elements that do not interact with seta placement. Microsculpture can occur on “major” sculptural elements, such as on rugae and on all surfaces of foveae. “Punctate” microsculpture refers to tiny round pits that do not bear setae. “Granulate” microsculpture refers to sculpture that is similar to that of leather or skin, with areas enclosed by tiny grooves (= sunken septa). Microsculpture can occur in areas that lack setae.

Sculptural terms for repeated sculpture that are not included in the above categories are 1) “carinae” which refers to elevations that are sharp and not branched or wrinkled but do not repeat in a way that forms a pattern (excluding repeating due to bilateral symmetry), 2) “striae” which refers to repeated elevations that are not sharp and not branched or wrinkled. These sculptural elements do not interact with setiferous pit placement, but major sculptural elements can occur between them. While alternative logic may suggest that rugose sculpture is better classed within this category, this choice was avoided because rugose sculptural patterns did apparently interact with umbilicate sculptural patterns. For the occipital carina, “crenulate” means that short carinae radiate from the occipital carina. Certain carinae may be described using the phrase “wrinkle-like,” which replaces our previous words “as a ruga,” this change being done to make the terms more clearly descriptive.

Illustrations. Photographs were taken using a Synoptics Ltd. system using a Leica Z16 APO microscope and a JVC KY-F75U 3-CCD camera. Source photos were stacked using Zerene Stacker version 1.04, or Auto-Montage Pro version 5.01.0005, and enhanced using Adobe Photoshop CS5 or CS6.

Phylogenetic analysis. A New Technology Search at initial level 95 was performed using TNT (Tree analysis using New Technology) version 1.1 (Goloboff et al. 2003, 2008). Implied weighting was used, with a default function of K = 15. Bootstrapping was performed with 1,000 replicates using the same settings but without implied weighting. Bracalba cuneata Dodd was used as an outgroup for the analyses (specimens OSUC 238172, OSUC 238164), chosen because of morphological similarity between Oxyscelio and Bracalba. A total of 14 out of 50 characters were used from the overall dataset (see Appendix II for characters and matrix).

Taxonomy

Oxyscelio Kieffer

Oxyscelio Kieffer 1907: 310. Original description. Type: Oxyscelio foveatus Kieffer, by monotypy. See Burks et al. (2013a, b) for complete bibliography, description of the genus, and discussion of its phylogenetic position within the family.

Freniger Szabó 1956: 47. Original description. Type: Freniger bicolor Szabó, by monotypy and original designation. Masner 1976: 6, 19 (description, keyed). Johnson 1992: 373 (catalogued, catalog of world species). New synonymy

Internal phylogenetic relationships

The phylogenetic analysis performed with a select group of characters (Fig. 1) found the bicolor-group and African species of the crateris-group to be monophyletic, with Oxyscelio quassus as the sister group to the bicolor-group and the crateris-group species as sister group to all other African species.

Figure 1.

Single most parsimonious phylogram for African species of Oxyscelio using TNT New Technology Search with set initial level = 95, implied weighting default function K = 15. Best score = 0.74877. Bootstrap support values above 50% indicated above branches.

These results indicate that recognition of the genus Freniger (with F. bicolor as type) would make the genus Oxyscelio paraphyletic. Our understanding of relationships among all Oxyscelio species is insufficient to suggest a robust reclassification of these into monophyletic taxa. Therefore, we opt to treat Freniger as a junior synonym of Oxyscelio.

Species groups of African Oxyscelio

These groups are provided here to indicate intuitively perceived structure within the genus, and to provide an aid for identification. They are succinctly diagnosed here. Some characters are omitted situationally from species group diagnoses because those characters are variable within the group or are otherwise unhelpful for that particular group’s identification. Individual species descriptions can be consulted regarding characters omitted from these diagnoses. The only uniquely African species group is the bicolor-group, which is defined by a character that is unique in Oxyscelio. Two other African species are not placed to group, and may represent important lineages as well (see below). The more lengthy species group diagnoses for the other groups in Burks et al. (2013a, b) can be consulted for the full list of other character states that fully define the crateris-group and cuculli-group.

Oxyscelio bicolor species group

Characteristics. Hyperoccipital carina absent or not connected to occipital carina. Hind wing vein (Sc+R) interrupted.

Comments. The bicolor-group contains species with a broadly interrupted hind wing vein (Sc+R). This feature is unique to this group within Oxyscelio, and previously has been used to help define the Scelionini, Nixoniini, and Sparasionini (Masner 1976)

Contains: O. absentiae, O. bicolor, O. idoli, O. xenii.

Oxyscelio crateris species group

Characteristics. Hyperoccipital carina connected to occipital carina laterally. Hind wing vein (Sc+R) not interrupted.

Comments. The crateris-group also occurs in the Indo-Malayan realm, with species that have a slightly less pronounced “crater” on the occiput between the hyperoccipital and occipital carinae. A potential species complex within this group contains O. io, O. nemesis, and O. teli, which are vaguely similar in the shape of the head, body, hyperoccipital carina, and occipital carina. However, that grouping was not upheld by the phylogenetic analysis and could not be characterized with any consistently definable features.

Contains: O. gyri, O. io, O. lunae, O. nemesis, O. pulveris, O. kylix, O. teli.

Oxyscelio cuculli species group

Characteristics. Hyperoccipital carina present as a sharp carina but not connected to occipital carina laterally. Hind wing vein (Sc+R) not interrupted.

Comments. The cuculli-group also occurs throughout the Indo-Malayan realm, with species very similar to the only known African species.

Contains: O. galeri.

Species not placed to group

Included species: O. intensionis, O. quassus.

Comments. There is some general resemblance between O. intensionis and the Australian aciculae-group, but members of that group do not have a setose metasomal depression. Oxyscelio quassus has a setose metasomal depression, but lacks the important features of other species groups, resembling the bicolor-group but having a complete hind wing vein. The Indo-Malayan and Australian dasymesos-group differs from O. intensionis in occipital sculpture and in having sharp projections from the corners of T7. The dasymesos-group differs from O. quassus in having a complete mesoscutal median carina, and in having a very different (short and stout) body shape.

Key to African species of Oxyscelio

1 Hind wing vein (Sc+R) incomplete, broadly interrupted between base and apex (Fig. 4, 77). (bicolor species group) 2
Hind wing vein (Sc+R) complete (Figs 55, 66–67) 5
2 Metasomal depression setose (Figs 10, 32–33, 56–57, 65, 75–76) 3
Metasomal depression not setose (Figs 21, 49) 4
3 T1 without carinae between midlobe and lateral areas (Figs 75–77) Oxyscelio xenii Burks, sp. n.
T1 with one or more longitudinal carinae between midlobe and lateral areas (Figs 9–10) Oxyscelio bicolor (Szabó)
4 Metascutellum much broader than long (Fig. 3); female T1 with very long anterior horn (Figs 3, 5) Oxyscelio absentiae Burks, sp. n.
Metascutellum about as broad as long (Fig. 23); female T1 without anterior horn (Figs 23, 25) Oxyscelio idoli Burks, sp. n.
5 Metascutellum triangular, acuminate posteriorly (Fig. 13). (cuculli group) Oxyscelio galeri Burks, sp. n.
Metascutellum not triangular, not acuminate apically (Figs 17, 3233, 41, 47, 49, 56–57, 59, 65, 69) 6
6 Metasomal depression setose (Figs 3233, 56–57, 65) 7
Metasomal depression not setose (Fig. 21) (crateris group, in part) 9
7 Occipital carina medially flat (Fig. 53) (crateris group, in part) Oxyscelio nemesis Burks, sp. n.
Occipital carina medially arched (Fig. 29) 8
8 Hyperoccipital carina indicated by a set of complete wrinkle-like carinae (Fig. 29) Oxyscelio intensionis Burks, sp. n.
Hyperoccipital carina absent (Figs 62–63) Oxyscelio quassus Burks, sp. n.
9 Mesoscutellum with some granulate sculpture (Figs 35, 47, 59) 10
Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture (Figs 17, 41, 69) 12
10 Frontal depression with median longitudinal carina-like elevation arising from interantennal process (Fig. 36) Oxyscelio io Burks, sp. n.
Frontal depression without median longitudinal carina-like elevation (Figs 48, 60) 11
11 Head and mesosomal dorsum with sharp carinae and less extensive granulate sculpture (Figs 46–47) Oxyscelio lunae Burks, sp. n.
Head and mesosomal dorsum with weak carinae and more extensive granulate sculpture (Figs 58–59) Oxyscelio pulveris Burks, sp. n.
12 Occipital carina medially flat (Fig. 69) Oxyscelio teli Burks, sp. n.
Occipital carina arched or sinuate medially (Figs 17, 41). 13
13 Occipital carina with sharp lateral corners, connected to hyperoccipital carina laterally (Fig. 41) Oxyscelio kylix Burks, sp. n.
Occipital carina without lateral corners, not connected to hyperoccipital carina laterally (Fig. 17) Oxyscelio gyri Burks, sp. n.
Figures 2–5.

Oxyscelio absentiae sp. n., paratype female (OSUC 369414) 2 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 3 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 4 Hind wing, dorsal view (fw = fore wing, hw = hind wing) 5 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank14

Figures 6–11.

Oxyscelio bicolor (Szabó), female (OSUC 369418) 6 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 7 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 8 Head, anterior view 9 Metasoma, dorsal view. Female (OSUC 369371) 10 Propodeum, dorsolateral view. Male (OSUC 369427) 11 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank15

Figures 12–15.

Oxyscelio galeri sp. n., paratype male (OSUC 369355) 12 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 13 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 14 Head, anterior view 15 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank16

Figures 16–21.

Oxyscelio gyri sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369372) 16 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 17 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view Paratype male (OSUC 369374) 18 Head, anterior view 19 Antenna 20 Mesosoma, lateral view 21 Propodeum, posterior view. Morphbank17

Figures 22–27.

Oxyscelio idoli sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369367) 22 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 23 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 24 Head, anterior view 25 Metasoma, dorsal view. Paratype male (OSUC 369368) 26 Antenna 27 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank18

Figures 28–33.

Oxyscelio intensionis sp. n., holotype male (OSUC 369369) 28 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 29 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 30 Head, anterior view 31 Metasoma, dorsal view 32 Propodeum, dorsal view 33 Propodeum, dorsolateral view. Morphbank19

Figures 34–39.

Oxyscelio io sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369403) 34 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 35 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 36 Head, anterior view 37 Metasoma, dorsal view. Paratype male (OSUC 470506) 38 Antenna 39 Metasomal apex, dorsal view. Morphbank20

Figures 40–45.

Oxyscelio kylix sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369399) 40 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 41 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 42 Head, anterior view 43 Metasoma, dorsal view. Paratype male (OSUC 369389) 44 Antenna 45 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank21

Figures 46–51.

Oxyscelio lunae sp. n., paratype female (OSUC 369409) 46 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 47 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 48 Head, anterior view 49 Metasoma, dorsal view 50 Propodeum, dorsolateral view. Paratype Male (OSUC 369404) 51 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank22

Figures 52–57.

Oxyscelio nemesis sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369379) 52 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 53 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 54 Head, anterior view 55 Metasoma, dorsal view 56 Propodeum, dorsal view 57 Propodeum, dorsolateral view. Morphbank23

Figures 58–61.

Oxyscelio pulveris sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369388) 58 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 59 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 60 Head, anterior view 61 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank24

Figures 62–67.

Oxyscelio quassus sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369398) 62 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 63 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 64 Head, anterior view 65 Propodeum, dorsolateral view 66 Metasoma, dorsal view. Paratype male (OSUC 369402) 67 Metasoma, dorsal view Morphbank25

Figures 68–71.

Oxyscelio teli sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 381658) 68 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 69 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 70 Head, anterior view 71 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank26

Figures 72–77.

Oxyscelio xenii sp. n., holotype female (OSUC 369376) 72 Head and mesosoma, lateral view 73 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 74 Head, anterior view 75 Propodeum, dorsal view 76 Propodeum, dorsolateral view 77 Metasoma, dorsal view. Morphbank27

Species descriptions

Oxyscelio absentiae Burks, sp. n.

Figures 2–5; Morphbank 14

Description

Female. Body length 2.5–2.65 mm (n = 4).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: broader than long. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 3 or more broadly interrupted transverse carinae; with 2–4 complete transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: not indicated medially. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: steep. Mesoscutal median carina: absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: punctate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: punctate. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: flat or convex. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: with longitudinal carinae. Metascutellar apex: deeply emarginate; shallowly emarginate. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: foveate or rugose. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: strongly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: absent. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching middle of T5. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: present. T1 midlobe: obscured by other raised sculpture. T1: with long anterior bulge that reaches metascutellum. T6: longer than broad; as long as broad. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: absent; granulate.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina absent. Gena with granulate sculpture anteroventrally and posteroventrally. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture. Metascutellum much broader than long. Metasomal depression not setose, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae strongly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R interrupted. T1 with carinae between midlobe and lateral carina. Female: A4 broader than long; T1 midlobe with strong anterior horn.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “absence.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: SOMALIA: Mogadishu, Shabelle (Shabelli) Valley, Afgooye (Afgoi), 1.II–15.II.1977, malaise trap, F. Bin, OSUC 369416 (deposited in CNCI). Paratypes: SOMALIA: 3 females, OSUC 369414369415, 369417 (CNCI).

Oxyscelio bicolor (Szabó), comb. n.

Figures 6–11; Morphbank 15

Freniger bicolor Szabó 1956: 48 (original description); Masner 1976: 20 (type information).

Description

Female. Body length 3.15–3.55 mm (n = 5).

Radicle color: same as scape; darker than scape. A4: longer than broad. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 1–2 broadly interrupted transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent; granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate; obliquely rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: absent. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth; rugose. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: foveate or rugose. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: present. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching apex of T6; reaching beyond T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: present. T1 midlobe: with 6 or more longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Male. Body length 3.15–3.4 mm (n = 7). A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. T1 midlobe: with 5 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with acuminate lateral corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like, not connected to occipital carina laterally or medially. Gena with granulate sculpture anteroventrally and posteroventrally. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture; without punctate sculpture between foveae. Metasomal depression setose, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R interrupted. T1 with carinae between midlobe and lateral carina. Female: A4 longer than broad; T1 without anterior horn.

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: TANZANIA: Arusha Reg., Upper Arusha (Arusha-Ju), X–1905, Katona, Hym.Typ.No. 9553, Mus.Budapest (deposited in HNHM). Other material: (4 females, 8 males) KENYA: 3 females, 7 males, OSUC 369418, 369425369433 (CNCI). TANZANIA: 1 female, 1 male, OSUC 369370369371 (CNCI).

Comments

Freniger Szabó represents an unusual species group of African Oxyscelio, with a broadly interrupted hind wing vein (Sc+R). The metasomal depression setae in this and some other African Oxyscelio are rarely found in species outside Africa – only in the two Asian and single Australian species of the dasymesos group.

Oxyscelio galeri Burks, sp. n.

Figures 12–15; Morphbank 16

Description

Male. Body length 3.95–4.1 mm (n = 5).

Radicle color: same as scape. A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. Upper frons: hood-like, protruding over pedicel when antenna at rest. Frontal depression sculpture: without transverse or oblique carinae below submedian carina. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: complete as a sharp carina. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Occipital carina medially: sinuate with a more strongly arched median portion. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: present and complete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate; transversely rugose; obliquely rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate; obliquely rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: granulate. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: with longitudinal carinae. Metascutellar apex: sharply acuminate. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: foveate or rugose. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: strongly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: absent. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with no distinct corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Frontal depression forming hood-like structure (deep and with strongly protruding submedian carina that overhangs pedicels). Hyperoccipital carina present and sharp, not connected to occipital carina laterally; median carina between hyperoccipital carina and occipital carina absent. Gena with granulate sculpture anteroventrally and posteroventrally. Mesoscutellum with granulate sculpture. Metascutellum acuminate apically. Metasomal depression without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae strongly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R complete.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, referring to a kind of helmet.

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: CAMEROON: Centre Prov., Mbalmayo, VII–1993, malaise trap, P. Eggleton, OSUC 369356 (deposited in BMNH). Paratypes: CAMEROON: 5 males, OSUC 369353369355 (CNCI), 369357369358 (BMNH).

Comments

The other members of the cuculli group are widespread in Asia, including China and India. Oxyscelio galeri is distinct within this group due to its acuminate metascutellum.

Oxyscelio gyri Burks, sp. n.

Figures 16–21; Morphbank 17

Description

Female. Body length 3.35 mm (n = 1).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: longer than broad. A5: longer than broad; as long as broad. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 2–4 complete transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: absent. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: absent. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: complete as a sharp carina. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: present and complete; absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate; umbilicate-punctate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate; obliquely rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate; obliquely rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: absent. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: strongly diverging; weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: absent. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching middle of T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: present. T1 midlobe: with 5 longitudinal carinae; with 6 or more longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long; as long as broad. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate; longitudinally striate or rugose. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Male. Body length 3.2 mm (n = 1). A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. T1 midlobe: with 5 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with acuminate lateral corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina present and sharp, not connected to occipital carina laterally; median carina between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae absent. Gena with granulate sculpture posteroventrally but not anteroventrally. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture. Metasomal depression without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae strongly or weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: A4 longer than broad.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “circle.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: TANZANIA: Tanga Reg., hills, Amani, 23.VI–24.VII.2001, D. Quicke, OSUC 369372 (deposited in BMNH). Paratypes: TANZANIA: 1 female, 1 male, OSUC 369373, 369374 (BMNH).

Oxyscelio idoli Burks, sp. n.

Figures 22–27; Morphbank 18

Description

Female. Body length 2.55–2.6 mm (n = 2).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: longer than broad; as long as broad. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 2–4 complete transverse carinae; with 1–2 broadly interrupted transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: present and complete; absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate; umbilicate-punctate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent; granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate; obliquely rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: absent. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight; shallowly emarginate. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching beyond T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: present. T1 midlobe: with 6 or more longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: absent.

Male. Body length 2.4 mm (n = 1). A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with acuminate lateral corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like. Gena with granulate sculpture anteroventrally and posteroventrally. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture. Metascutellum about as broad as long. Metasomal depression not setose; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R interrupted. Female: T1 midlobe without anterior horn.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “ghost.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: TANZANIA: Tanga Reg., Muheza Dist., canopy, Kwangumi Forest Reserve, 04°57'S 38°44'E, 9.XI.1995, fogging, OSUC 369367 (deposited in BMNH). Paratypes: TANZANIA: 1 female, 1 male, OSUC 369366, 369368 (BMNH).

Oxyscelio intensionis Burks, sp. n.

Figures 28–33; Morphbank 19

Description

Male. Body length 3.55 mm (n = 1).

Radicle color: same as scape. A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: without transverse or oblique carinae below submedian carina. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: present. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: absent. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: absent. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate; longitudinally rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: absent. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from tiny pits. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: present. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 5 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with no distinct corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like, not connected to occipital carina laterally or medially. Frontal depression with median carina. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture. Metasomal depression setose; lateral propodeal carinae broadly separated. Hind wing Sc+R not interrupted. Male: T7 without acuminate lateral corners.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “an extension.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, male: TANZANIA: Iringa Reg., Kilolo Dist., Udzungwa (Uzungwa) Mts., Luwala (Luwato) Camp area, semi-evergreen montane tropical virgin forest edge, Ndundulu Forest, 1880m, 18.I–25.I.2007, malaise trap, L. A. Hansen & A. Hedayat, OSUC 369369 (deposited in BMNH).

Comments

Oxyscelio intensionis bears some resemblance to several Australian species of the aciculae group, especially to Oxyscelio divisionis Burks. None of the species within that group has a setose metasomal depression.

Oxyscelio io Burks, sp. n.

Figures 34–39; Morphbank 20

Description

Female. Body length 4.6–5.25 mm (n = 9).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: broader than long; as long as broad. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 2–4 complete transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: present. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: absent. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent; present, anteriorly incomplete. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: with nearly flat angular median portion. Lateral corners of occipital carina: sharp and protruding corners present.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: granulate. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: 3–5; more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from tiny pits. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: absent. Fore wing apex: reaching apex of T5; reaching middle of T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: present. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long; as long as broad. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate; longitudinally striate or rugose. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Male. Body length 4.8 mm (n = 2). A5 tyloid: expanded, teardrop-shaped or sinuate. A11: longer than road. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with acuminate lateral corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like, connected to occipital carina by lateral elevation; median carina between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae present but sometimes indicated only posteriorly; occipital carina nearly flat medially. Mesoscutellum with granulate sculpture. Metasomal depression not setose, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: T6 rounded apically.

Etymology

Noun, referring to a moon of Jupiter.

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: GUINEA: Lola Pref., rainforest, Mount Nimba, 07°41–42'N 08°23'W, 514–740m, XII–1990 – III–1991, flight intercept trap, L. Leblanc, OSUC 369403 (deposited in CNCI). Paratypes: (8 females, 3 males) CAMEROON: 2 females, OSUC 369362 (BMNH), 369363 (CNCI). CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 3 females, 1 male, OSUC 267414, 369392 (OSUC); OSUC 242798, 320839 (SAMC). CONGO: 1 female, 1 male, OSUC 470506470507 (OSUC). GUINEA: 1 female, OSUC 369407 (CNCI). NIGERIA: 1 male, OSUC 369382 (BMNH). UGANDA: 1 female, OSUC 369390 (CNCI).

Oxyscelio kylix Burks, sp. n.

Figures 40–45; Morphbank 21

Description

Female. Body length 3.3–3.85 mm (n = 13).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: longer than broad. A5: longer than broad; as long as broad. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 1–2 broadly interrupted transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: absent. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: complete as a sharp carina. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: present, complete; present, anteriorly incomplete. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: present as a distinct carina. Area between vertex and occipital carina: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: sharp and protruding corners present.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: present and complete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent; granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate; obliquely rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: absent. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight; shallowly emarginate. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: strongly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: absent. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching middle of T5. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: present. T1 midlobe: obscured by other raised sculpture. T1: with weak anterior bulge that does not closely approach metascutellum. T6: longer than broad. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate; longitudinally striate or rugose. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Male. Body length 3.25–3.65 mm (n = 3). A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with acuminate lateral corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina present and sharp, connected to occipital carina by lateral carina; median carina between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae present but sometimes indicated only posteriorly. Gena with granulate sculpture posteroventrally but not anteroventrally. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture. Metasomal depression without setae, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae strongly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: A4 longer than broad.

Etymology

Greek noun, meaning “cup.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: GUINEA: Lola Pref., Gouan River, rainforest, Mount Nimba, 07°42'N 08°23'W, 514m, 7.I–15.I.1991, flight intercept trap, L. Leblanc, OSUC 369399 (deposited in CNCI). Paratypes: (12 females, 3 males) CAMEROON: 1 female, OSUC 369364 (BMNH). CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 2 females, OSUC 223601, 251693 (SAMC). CONGO: 1 male, OSUC 470505 (OSUC). GABON: 1 female, OSUC 369395 (BMNH). GHANA: 1 female, OSUC 321001 (OSUC). GUINEA: 2 females, OSUC 369405, 369411 (CNCI). IVORY COAST: 1 female, OSUC 369377 (BMNH). NIGERIA: 4 females, 1 male, OSUC 369380369381 (CNCI); 369378, 369383369384 (BMNH). UGANDA: 1 male, OSUC 369389 (CNCI).

Oxyscelio lunae Burks, sp. n.

Figures 46–51; Morphbank 22

Description

Female. Body length 3.5–3.7 mm (n = 8).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: longer than broad. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 3 or more broadly interrupted transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: absent; granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: complete as a sharp carina. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: present, complete. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: present as a distinct carina. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: sinuate with a more strongly arched median portion. Lateral corners of occipital carina: sharp and protruding corners present.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: present and complete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent; granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: granulate. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching middle of T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 6 or more longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long; as long as broad. Metasomal apex: rounded; tapering to a sharp point. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: absent.

Male. Body length 3.4–3.65 mm (n = 20). A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with acuminate lateral corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina present and sharp, connected to occipital carina by lateral carina; median carina present between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae. Gena with granulate sculpture posteroventrally but not anteroventrally. Mesoscutellum with granulate sculpture laterally. Metasomal depression not setose, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: A4 longer than broad.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “moon.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: CAMEROON: Nkoemvom, VIII–1980, malaise trap, D. Jackson, OSUC 369365 (deposited in BMNH). Paratypes: (23 females, 57 males) CAMEROON: 15 males, OSUC 369340, 369342369346, 369360 (CNCI), OSUC 369341, 369347369352, 369359 (BMNH). CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 20 females, 27 males, OSUC 369391, 223802, 242799, 282894, 282896, 320854, 369393 (CNCI); OSUC 176083, 218855, 233095233096, 320840320841, 320845, 320847, 320849320853, 320855, 369385, 369394 (OSUC); OSUC 176091, 218850, 223639, 223801, 225982225985, 251694251698, 267415267417, 282879, 282895, 317893, 320838, 320842320844, 320846, 320848 (SAMC). DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO: 6 males, OSUC 369335369339 (CNCI); OSUC 268178 (USNM). GHANA: 4 males, OSUC 369386369387 (CNCI); OSUC 435286 (OSUC). GUINEA: 1 female, 5 males, OSUC 369400369401, 369404, 369406, 369408369409 (CNCI). SIERRA LEONE: 1 female, OSUC 462603 (MZLU). TOGO: 1 female, OSUC 320828 (BMNH).

Comments

Oxyscelio lunae is by far the most commonly collected species of its genus from Africa, although nearly all known specimens are male. It is very similar to O. pulveris, but after extensive comparison of the two series we concluded that they are different species. The chief difference is the considerably more granulate sculpture of O. pulveris, which occurs in conjunction with lower and more rounded (therefore, less sharp and less distinctive) carinae, especially the hyperoccipital and mesoscutellar disc carinae. These features are accompanied by some more vague and less easily described differences in eye shape, mesosomal and metasomal sclerite shape, and metasomal sculpture.

Oxyscelio nemesis Burks, sp. n.

Figures 52–57; Morphbank 23

Description

Female. Body length 4.8 mm (n = 1).

Radicle color: darker than scape. A4: broader than long. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: without transverse or oblique carinae below submedian carina. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: absent. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: with nearly flat angular median portion. Lateral corners of occipital carina: sharp and protruding corners present.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: steep. Mesoscutal median carina: absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: granulate. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: flat or convex. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: rugose. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae; foveate or rugose. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: present. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: absent. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: absent. Fore wing apex: reaching apex of T5. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: longer than broad. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like, not connected to occipital carina laterally; median carina between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae absent; occipital carina nearly flat medially. Mesoscutellum with granulate sculpture. Metasomal depression setose, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: T6 rounded apically.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case.

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: NIGERIA: Oyo St., International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, XI–1987, pan trap, J. S. Noyes, OSUC 369379 (deposited in BMNH).

Comments

Oxyscelio nemesis strongly resembles Oxyscelio io, and they both vaguely resemble Oxyscelio teli. These three species together may form a monophyletic species complex, but such a grouping would currently be difficult to fully distinguish from similar African species. It can be roughly defined by the medially more or less flat occipital carina, but this feature in O. io is variable and sometimes not greatly different from that of some excluded African species.

The shape of the head of this species and the carinate margin of the antennal scribe make it superficially similar to the genus Baryconus Förster. The fore wing venation, however, makes it clear that this is an Oxyscelio: it lacks elongate marginal and postmarginal veins, and the stigma vein arises from the upturned apical portion of the submarginal vein.

Oxyscelio pulveris Burks, sp. n.

Figures 58–61; Morphbank 24

Description

Female. Body length 3.5 mm (n = 1).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: longer than broad. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 3 or more broadly interrupted transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: complete as a sharp carina. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: present, complete. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: present as a distinct carina. Area between vertex and occipital carina: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: sinuate with a more strongly arched median portion. Lateral corners of occipital carina: sharp and protruding corners present.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: present and complete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent; granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: granulate. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: crossed by carinae. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: median carina present. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching beyond T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 5 longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: longer than broad. Metasomal apex: tapering to a sharp point. Major sculpture of T6: longitudinally striate or rugose. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina present and sharp, connected to occipital carina by lateral carina; median carina present between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae. Gena with granulate sculpture posteroventrally but not anteroventrally. Mesoscutellum with granulate sculpture throughout. Metasomal depression without setae, with median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: A4 longer than broad.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “dust.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: RWANDA: primary rainforest, Nyungwe Forest, 02°46’10”S 29°21’09”E, 24.VIII–26.VIII.1993, pan trap/flight intercept trap/malaise trap, L. Leblanc, OSUC 369388 (deposited in CNCI).

Comments

See the discussion under O. lunae for comparison of these two very similar species.

Oxyscelio quassus Burks, sp. n.

Figures 62–67; Morphbank 25

Description

Female. Body length 2.95–3.55 mm (n = 4).

Radicle color: same as scape. A4: longer than broad. A5: longer than broad. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 1–2 broadly interrupted transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: absent; umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate; longitudinally rugose. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: absent. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: shallowly emarginate. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: foveate or rugose. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: present. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching middle of T6; reaching apex of T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 5 longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Male. Body length 2.7–3.15 mm (n = 5). A5 tyloid: carina-like, not expanded. A11: longer than broad. T1 midlobe: with 4 longitudinal carinae. Metasomal apex: with acuminate lateral corners.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like, not connected to occipital carina laterally; median carina between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae absent. Gena with granulate sculpture anteroventrally and posteroventrally. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture. Metasomal depression setose, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: A4 longer than broad.

Etymology

Latin noun (4th declension), genitive case, meaning “the act of shaking.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: GUINEA: Lola Pref., Gouan River, rainforest, Mount Nimba, 07°42'N 08°23'W, 514m, 7.I–15.I.1991, flight intercept trap, L. Leblanc, OSUC 369398 (deposited in CNCI). Paratypes: (3 females, 5 males) CAMEROON: 1 female, OSUC 369361 (BMNH). GHANA: 1 male, OSUC 429536 (OSUC). GUINEA: 4 males, OSUC 369396369397, 369402, 369410 (CNCI). SOMALIA: 2 females, OSUC 369412369413 (CNCI).

Oxyscelio teli Burks, sp. n.

Figures 68–71; Morphbank 26

Description

Female. Body length 3.2–3.35 mm (n = 4).

Radicle color: same as scape; darker than scape. A4: broader than long; as long as broad. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 2–4 complete transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: absent; granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: present, complete. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: present as a rounded elevation. Area between vertex and occipital carina: rugose; umbilicate-punctate. Occipital carina medially: with nearly flat angular median portion. Lateral corners of occipital carina: sharp and protruding corners present.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: steep. Mesoscutal median carina: present and complete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: absent. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: absent. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: shallowly emarginate. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: foveate or rugose. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: absent. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: absent. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching middle of T5; reaching apex of T5. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): not interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 5 longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long. Metasomal apex: tapering to a sharp point. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: absent; granulate.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like, connected to occipital carina by lateral elevation; median carina between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae present. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture. Metasomal depression without setae, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R vein complete. Female: A4 broader than long; T6 sharply acuminate apically.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “dart.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: KENYA: Eastern Prov., nr. Ewaso Ngiro River, next to headquarters, riverine forest, Samburu National Reserve, 00.56797°N 37.53563°E, 874m, 18.IX–2.X.2007, malaise trap, R. Copeland, OSUC 381658 (deposited in NMKE). Paratypes: KENYA: 3 females, OSUC 381659 (NMKE); OSUC 381657 (OSUC); OSUC 381657 (USNM).

Oxyscelio xenii Burks, sp. n.

Figures 72–77; Morphbank 27

Description

Female. Body length 3.15–3.35 mm (n = 2).

Radicle color: darker than scape. A4: longer than broad. A5: broader than long. Upper frons: not hood-like. Frontal depression sculpture: with 2–4 complete transverse carinae. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression: absent. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally: absent; rugose. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally: granulate. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally: granulate. Hyperoccipital carina: wrinkle-like. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina: absent. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae: absent. Area between vertex and occipital carina: umbilicate-foveate; rugose. Occipital carina medially: uniformly rounded. Lateral corners of occipital carina: absent.

Mesoscutum anteriorly: not steep. Mesoscutal median carina: absent or incomplete. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly: granulate. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly: absent; granulate. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum: umbilicate-foveate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially: punctate. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally: punctate. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression: 4 or more. Mesepimeral sulcus pits: more than 5. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression: arising from rows of foveae. Metascutellum dorsally: concave. Metascutellar sculpture centrally: smooth. Metascutellar apex: convex or straight. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area: foveate or rugose. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially: weakly diverging. Metasomal depression setae: present. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression: one or more areoles present. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression: absent. Postmarginal vein: present. Fore wing apex: reaching middle of T6; reaching apex of T6. Hind wing vein (Sc+R): interrupted.

Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina: absent. T1 midlobe: with 6 or more longitudinal carinae. T1: without anterior bulge. T6: broader than long. Metasomal apex: rounded. Major sculpture of T6: umbilicate-punctate. Microsculpture of T6: granulate.

Diagnosis

Both sexes: Hyperoccipital carina wrinkle-like, not connected to occipital carina laterally or medially. Gena with granulate sculpture anteroventrally and posteroventrally. Mesoscutellum without granulate sculpture, with some punctate sculpture between foveae. Metasomal depression setose, without median carina; lateral propodeal carinae weakly diverging. Hind wing Sc+R interrupted. T1 without carinae between midlobe and lateral carina. Female: A4 longer than broad.

Etymology

Latin noun, genitive case, meaning “a present intended for a guest.”

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female: MALAWI: Chitipa Dist., 18km SSE Chisenga, Jembya Forest Reserve, 10°08'S 33°27'E, 1870m, 1.I–10.I.1989, J. Rawlins & S. Thompson, OSUC 369376 (deposited in CNCI). Paratype: MALAWI: 1 female, OSUC 369375 (CNCI).

Acknowledgments

We thank L. Musetti, J. Jennings, J. Cora, A. Valerio, S. Hemly, E. Alvarez, D. Stringer, S. Mantel, and other members of the PBI team, for assistance with specimens, photographs, and databasing. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation under grant No. DEB–0614764 to N.F. Johnson and A.D. Austin, and by the Australian Biological Resources Study grant 208-058 to A.D. Austin.

References

  • Austin AD, Field SA (1997) The ovipositor system of scelionid and platygastrid wasps (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): comparative morphology and phylogenetic implications. Invertebrate Taxonomy 11: 1–87.28 doi: 10.1071/IT95048
  • Burks RA, Masner L, Johnson NF, Austin A (2013) Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.), Part I: Indo-Malayan and Palearctic fauna. ZooKeys 292: 1–263.29 doi: 10.3897/zookeys.292.3867
  • Burks RA, Masner L, Johnson NF, Austin A (2013) Systematics of the parasitic wasp genus Oxyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l.), Part II: the Australian and south-west Pacific fauna. ZooKeys 331: 1–266.30 doi: 10.3897/zookeys.331.5152
  • Dodd AP (1931) The genus Oxyscelio Kieffer, its synonymy and species, with a description of one new genus (Hymenoptera: Proctotrypoidea). Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 42: 71–81. 31
  • Eady RD (1968) Some illustrations of microsculpture in the Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (A) 43: 66–72.32 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.1968.tb01029.x
  • Galloway ID, Austin AD (1984) Revision of the Scelioninae (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology Supplementary Series 99: 1–138. 33
  • Johnson NF, Burks RA, Austin A, Xu Z (2013) Chinese species of egg-parasitoids of the genera Oxyscelio Kieffer, Heptascelio Kieffer and Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae). Biodiversity Data Journal 1: e987.35 doi: 10.3897/bdj.1.e987
  • Kieffer JJ (1907) Beschreibung neuer Prototrypiden aus Java. (Hym.) Zeitschrift für Systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 7: 310–313. 36
  • Kononova SV, Fursov VN (2007) [A review of the genera Calotelea, Calliscelio, and Oxyscelio (Scelioninae, Scelionidae, Proctotrupoidea) from the Palaearctic fauna.] Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 86: 52–65. 37
  • Masner L (1976) Revisionary notes and keys to world genera of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 97: 1–87.38 doi: 10.4039/entm10897fv
  • Mikó I, Vilhelmsen L, Johnson NF, Masner L, Pénzes Z (2007) Skeletomusculature of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma. Zootaxa 1571: 1–78.39
  • Szabó J (1956) Neue Gattungen und Arten der Scelioniden aus Ost-Afrika und Mittel-Amerika. Opuscula Zoologica (Budapest) 1: 47–52. 40

Appendix I

Taxonomic (doi: #.#/zookeys.#.#.app.1a) and locality records (doi: #.#/zookeys.#.#.app.1b) for all records used in the present paper. File format: DarwinCore Archive.

Appendix II

Characters. * = used in phylogenetic analysis.

1. Radicle color

1. same as scape

2. darker than scape

2. A4 (female)

1. broader than long

2. longer than broad

3. as long as broad

3. A5 (female)

1. broader than long

2. longer than broad

3. as long as broad

4. Upper frons

1. not hood-like

2. hood-like, protruding over pedicel when antenna at rest

5. Frontal depression sculpture

1. without transverse or oblique carinae below submedian carina

2. with 3 or more broadly interrupted transverse carinae

3. with 2–4 complete transverse carinae

4. with 1–2 broadly interrupted transverse carinae

6. Median longitudinal elevation in frontal depression

1. absent

2. present

7. Major sculpture of gena anteroventrally

1. umbilicate-foveate

2. rugose

3. umbilicate-punctate

8. Major sculpture of gena posteroventrally

1. absent

2. umbilicate-foveate

3. rugose

4. umbilicate-punctate

9. Microsculpture of gena anteroventrally

1. absent

2. granulate

10. Microsculpture of gena posteroventrally

1. absent

2. granulate

11. Hyperoccipital carina*

1. complete as a sharp carina

2. not indicated medially

3. wrinkle-like

12. Median carina extending posteriorly from hyperoccipital carina*

1. absent

2. present, complete

3. present, anteriorly incomplete

13. Lateral connection between hyperoccipital and occipital carinae*

1. absent

2. present as a distinct carina

3. present as a rounded elevation

14. Area between vertex and occipital carina

1. umbilicate-foveate

2. rugose

3. umbilicate-punctate

15. Occipital carina medially*

1. uniformly rounded

2. sinuate with a more strongly arched median portion

3. with nearly flat angular median portion

16. Lateral corners of occipital carina*

1. absent

2. sharp and protruding corners present

17. Mesoscutum anteriorly

1. steep

2. not steep

18. Mesoscutal median carina

1. present and complete

2. absent or incomplete

19. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly

1. umbilicate-foveate

2. umbilicate-punctate

20. Major sculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly

1. umbilicate-foveate

2. transversely rugose

3. obliquely rugose

4. longitudinally rugose

21. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe anteriorly

1. granulate

22. Microsculpture of mesoscutal midlobe posteriorly

1. absent

2. granulate

23. Major sculpture of mesoscutellum

1. umbilicate-foveate

2. longitudinally rugose

3. obliquely rugose

24. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum medially

1. absent

2. granulate

3. punctate

25. Microsculpture of mesoscutellum laterally

1. absent

2. granulate

3. punctate

26. Number of carinae crossing femoral depression

1. more than 5

27. Mesepimeral sulcus pits

1. 3–5

2. more than 5

28. Setae along anterior limit of femoral depression

1. arising from rows of foveae

2. arising from tiny pits

29. Metascutellum dorsally

1. concave

2. flat or convex

30. Metascutellar sculpture centrally

1. smooth

2. rugose

3. with longitudinal carinae

4. foveate

31. Metascutellar apex

1. convex or straight

2. deeply emarginate

3. sharply acuminate

4. shallowly emarginate

32. Metapleuron above ventral metapleural area

1. crossed by carinae

2. foveate or rugose

33. Lateral propodeal carinae antero-medially (female)

1. strongly diverging

2. weakly diverging

34. Metasomal depression setae*

1. absent

2. present

35. Anterior areoles of metasomal depression

1. absent

2. one or more areoles present

36. Anterior longitudinal carinae in metasomal depression

1. absent

2. median carina present

37. Postmarginal vein*

1. present

2. absent

38. Fore wing apex (female)

1. reaching middle of T5

2. reaching apex of T5

3. reaching middle of T6

4. reaching apex of T6

5. reaching beyond T6

39. Hind wing vein (Sc+R)*

1. not interrupted

2. interrupted

40. Carinae between T1 midlobe and T1 lateral carina*

1. present

2. absent

41. T1 midlobe (female)*

1. with 4 longitudinal carinae

2. with 5 longitudinal carinae

3. with 6 or more longitudinal carinae

4. obscured by other raised sculpture

42. T1 (female)*

1. without anterior bulge

2. with long anterior bulge that reaches metascutellum

3. with weak anterior bulge that does not closely approach metascutellum

43. T6

1. broader than long

2. longer than broad

3. as long as broad

44. Metasomal apex (female)*

1. rounded

2. tapering to a sharp point

45. Major sculpture of T6

1. umbilicate-punctate

2. longitudinally striate or rugose

46. Microsculpture of T6

1. absent

2. granulate

47. A5 tyloid

1. carina-like, not expanded

2. expanded, teardrop-shaped or sinuate

48. A11 (male)*

1. longer than broad

49. T1 midlobe (male)

1. with 4 longitudinal carinae

2. with 5 longitudinal carinae

3. with 6 or more longitudinal carinae

50. Metasomal apex (male)*

1. with acuminate lateral corners

2. with no distinct corners

Matrix

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Bracalba cuneata 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1
Oxyscelio absentiae 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 ? ?
Oxyscelio bicolor 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0
Oxyscelio galeri 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ? ? ? 0 1
Oxyscelio gyri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 [12] 0 0 0 0
Oxyscelio idoli 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0
Oxyscelio intensionis 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 ? ? ? 0 1
Oxyscelio io 2 [02] 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oxyscelio kylix 0 [12] 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 0
Oxyscelio lunae 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 [01] 0 0
Oxyscelio nemesis 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 ? ?
Oxyscelio pulveris 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 ? ?
Oxyscelio quassus 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Oxyscelio teli 2 1 2 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 ? ?
Oxyscelio xenii 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 0 ? ?

Endnotes