Research Article
Print
Research Article
A new genus and ten new species of spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) from Iran
expand article infoAlireza Zamani, Yuri M. Marusik§|
‡ University of Turku, Turku, Finland
§ Institute for Biological Problems of the North RAS, Magadan, Russia
| University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Open Access

Abstract

One new genus (Sestakovaia gen. nov.; Liocranidae) and 10 new species of five families of spiders are described from different provinces of Iran: Brigittea avicenna sp. nov. (♂♀, Alborz and Kurdistan provinces) (Dictynidae), Micaria atropatene sp. nov. (♂, East Azerbaijan Province), Zagrotes borna sp. nov. (♂, Hormozgan Province), Z. parla sp. nov. (♂, Kerman Province) (Gnaphosidae), Sestakovaia hyrcania sp. nov. (♂, Golestan Province), Mesiotelus patricki sp. nov. (♂, Golestan Province) (Liocranidae), Palpimanus carmania sp. nov. (♂, Kerman Province), P. persicus sp. nov. (♂♀, Hormozgan Province) (Palpimanidae), Rhysodromus genoensis sp. nov. (♂, Hormozgan Province), and R. medes sp. nov. (♂, Hormozgan Province) (Philodromidae). Furthermore, Sestakovaia annulipes (Kulczyński, 1897), comb. nov. (ex. Mesiotelus) and Zagrotes bifurcatus (Zamani, Chatzaki, Esyunin & Marusik, 2021), comb. nov. (ex. Berinda) are proposed as new combinations.

Keywords

Middle East, new combination, Sestakovaia, taxonomy

Introduction

Currently, 890 species in 321 genera and 54 families of spiders are known from Iran (Zamani et al. 2021b; unpublished data). Although there have been many recent taxonomic revisions and large-scale faunistic surveys focusing on Iranian spiders (e.g., Montemor et al. 2020; Zamani and Bosselaers 2020; Zamani et al. 2020; Zamani and Marusik 2021a, b; Zamani et al. 2021a), the araneofauna of Iran nevertheless remains inadequately known, with much of the country poorly sampled and new species and distribution records found regularly. In this paper we contribute to the knowledge about spiders in Iran by describing a new genus and 10 new species, raising the number of spider species known from this country to 900 species in 322 genera.

Material and methods

Specimens were photographed using a Canon EOS 7D camera attached to an Olympus SZX16 stereomicroscope and a JEOL JSM-5200 scanning electron microscope at the Zoological Museum of the University of Turku. Specimens were photographed in dishes with paraffin on the bottom holding the specimens in desired position. Digital images were montaged using CombineZP and Helicon focus 3.10 image stacking software programs and edited using CorelDraw graphic design software. Lengths of palp and leg segments were measured on the dorsal side and are listed as: total length (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus [missing on the palp], tarsus).

Abbreviations

ALE anterior lateral eye;

AME anterior median eye;

PLE posterior lateral eye;

PME posterior median eye;

RTA retrolateral tibial apophysis.

Depositories (with curators’ names in parentheses)

MHNG Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Genève, Switzerland (Peter J. Schwendinger);

NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria (Christoph Hörweg).

Taxonomy

Family Dictynidae O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1871

Brigittea Lehtinen, 1967

Comments

Brigittea is a small genus with six nominal species distributed in the Western Palaearctic, all of which were previously classified in Dictyna Sundevall, 1833. Males have a highly elevated cephalic region and chelicerae with lateral condyles and deeply concaved mesal margins. Females differ from those of the related genera by their spaced receptacles (vs touching each other).

Brigittea avicenna sp. nov.

Figures 1A–E, 2A–D, 3A–D

Type material

Holotype ♂ (MHNG), Iran: Kurdistan Province: S of Divandareh, 35°45'N, 47°05'E, 23.6.1975 (A. Senglet). Paratypes: 3♀ (MHNG), same collection data as the holotype; 2♀ (MHNG), Alborz Province: Asara, 36°02'N, 51°14'E, 1900 m, 4.7.1975 (A. Senglet).

Etymology

The new species is named after Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna (ca 980–June 1037), a Persian polymath who is regarded as the father of early modern medicine; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

The male of the new species differs from all congeners by its thick embolus (vs filamentous) and the posterior tip of conductor (Ct) directed mesally (vs retrolaterally). The female can be distinguished by the almost round copulatory openings and ridges (Er) spaced by more than 8 diameters of copulatory openings (vs copulatory openings not round and ridges spaced by less than 3 diameters).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figure 1A, D, E. Total length 2.60. Carapace 1.25 long, 0.55 wide at pars cephalica, 0.85 at pars thoracica, pars cephalica very high, higher than ½ (ca 0.65) of carapace length. Eye sizes: AME: 0.05, ALE: 0.06, PME: 0.06, PLE: 0.06. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum dark reddish brown, without any pattern. Pars cephalica and sternum with sparse coating of long white setae. Legs light brown, without annulations. Abdomen dark grey, with coating of dense short white setae. Spinnerets brownish, unicolourous. Cribellum undivided (Fig. 1C). Measurements of legs: I: 3.50 (1.04, 0.34, 0.85, 0.81, 0.46), II: 3.07 (0.94, 0.33, 0.70, 0.68, 0.42), III: 2.23 (0.71, 0.27, 0.42, 0.50, 0.33), IV: 2.55 (0.80, 0.29, 0.54, 0.59, 0.33).

Figure 1. 

Male (A, C–E) and female (B) of Brigittea avicenna sp. nov. A, B habitus, dorsal D, E same, frontal and lateral, respectively C cribellum and spinnerets, ventral.

Palp as in Figures 2A, B, 3A–D; tibia with dorso-retrolateral socket (Ts); cymbium almost 2 times longer than wide; anterior part of conductor (Ca) terminates at about 11:30 o’clock position; posterior part (Ct) covered with fine granulation, tip directed mesally; embolic base large, about ½ of cymbium’s length; embolus thick, originates at 10 o’clock position, tip modified with fine hook terminally.

Figure 2. 

Male palp (A, B) and epigyne (C, D) of Brigittea avicenna sp. nov. A, C ventral B retrolateral D dorsal. Abbreviations: Er – epigynal ridge, Re – receptacle. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

Figure 3. 

SEM images of the male palp of Brigittea avicenna sp. nov. A, B ventral C, D retrolateral. Abbreviations: Ca – anterior part of conductor, Ct – posterior part of conductor, Ts – tibial socket. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

Female (paratype from Kurdistan). Habitus as in Figure 1B. Total length 3.60. Carapace 1.15 long, 0.58 wide at pars cephalica, 0.94 at pars thoracica. Coloration, general somatic features and eye sizes as in male. Measurements of legs: I: 3.57 (1.06, 0.40, 0.77, 0.79, 0.55), II: 3.09 (0.96, 0.36, 0.63, 0.71, 0.43), III: 2.36 (0.75, 0.33, 0.46, 0.52, 0.30), IV: 3.02 (0.95, 0.39, 0.66, 0.68, 0.34).

Epigyne as in Figure 2C, D; epigynal field about 3 times wider than long; copulatory opening almost round, spaced by 1.6 diameters, lateral ridges (Er) located 2 diameters of copulatory openings apart from copulatory openings, their length about diameter of copulatory openings; copulatory ducts gradually tapering, making a course of about 90°, about 2 times longer than copulatory opening’s diameter; receptacles (Re) smaller than copulatory openings, spaced slightly by more than one width.

Comments

At first look, the male palp is similar to those of the species of Emblyna Chamberlin, 1948 due to the modified embolus (thick and with complex tip). Current generic placement is due to the strongly raised cephalic region, which is also documented in the generotype, Brigittea latens (Fabricius, 1775), and modification of chelicera (cf. Fig. 1D and Miller and Svatoň 1978: pl. IV, figs 1, 2). All species assigned to Brigittea similarly have the posterior tip of conductor covered with fine teeth (cf. Marusik et al. 2015: figs 31, 35). Another similarity with the generotype is spaced receptacles (vs touching each other in Emblyna and Dictyna). Although B. latens has a filamentous embolus, its tip is modified in a similar way as in B. avicenna sp. nov. (cf. Marusik et al. 2015: fig. 36). There is another character that is different in the new species and the generotype – the structure of the cribellum. In the new species the cribellum is integral, while in B. latens it is bipartite (cf. Lehtinen 1967).

Distribution

Known only from the listed localities in Alborz and Kurdistan provinces, northern and western Iran.

Family Gnaphosidae Pocock, 1898

Zagrotes Zamani, Chatzaki, Esyunin & Marusik, 2021

Comments

This genus was recently described as monotypic from southwestern and southern Iran, with Zagrotes apophysalis Zamani, Chatzaki, Esyunin & Marusik, 2021 as the type species. In the same paper, Zamani et al. (2021a) described another similar species in another genus, namely Berinda bifurcata Zamani, Chatzaki, Esyunin & Marusik, 2021. The two new species described here are closely related to B. bifurcata, and to a lesser degree to Z. apophysalis. All species possess a bifurcated RTA and similar conformation of the bulb. For this reason, we propose a new combination, Zagrotes bifurcatus (Zamani, Chatzaki, Esyunin & Marusik, 2021), comb. nov., despite the fact that this species and the two new ones described here lack modifications on palpal patella and swollen tibia that are present in the type species.

Composition

Four species: Z. apophysalis, Z. borna sp. nov., Z. bifurcatus comb. nov., and Z. parla sp. nov.

Distribution

Endemic to Iran, distributed along the southwestern and southern slopes of Zagros Mountains, from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad to Hormozgan.

Zagrotes borna sp. nov.

Figures 4A, 5A, B, 6A, B, 7A, B

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: Hormozgan Province: 40 km NW of Bandar Abbas, 7.4.1972 (G. Pretzmann).

Etymology

The specific epithet is a Persian masculine given name meaning “young”.

Diagnosis

The new species is most similar to Z. parla sp. nov. and can be distinguished by the RTA longer than ½ of the cymbium’s length (vs shorter) and less deeply bifurcated (cf. Fig. 6B and D), and the relatively shorter palpal tibia (4 times shorter than cymbium vs 2 times shorter), and by the shape of the bulb. The two species differ also by the shape of the sperm duct and tegular apophysis (cf. Fig. 5A and C).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figure 4A. Total length 4.85. Carapace 2.20 long, 1.43 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.11, ALE: 0.09, PME: 0.10, PLE: 0.09. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum light brown, without any pattern. Legs yellowish-brown, without annulations. Abdomen cream-colored, with a tuft of dark brown long setae anteriorly and sparse lighter setae; ventrally with distinct tracheal marks. Spinnerets unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: missing, II: 5.35 (1.45, 0.90, 1.12, 1.10, 0.78), III: 4.36 (1.20, 0.63, 0.87, 1.01, 0.65), IV: 7.06 (1.80, 1.00, 1.52, 1.81, 0.93).

Figure 4. 

Males of Zagrotes borna sp. nov. (A), Z. parla sp. nov. (B), Micaria atropatene sp. nov. (C), Sestakovaia hyrcania sp. nov. (D) and Mesiotelus patricki sp. nov. (E, F) A–D, F habitus, dorsal E chelicerae, ventral. Scale bars: 0.2 mm, unless stated otherwise.

Palp as in Figures 5A, B, 6A, B, 7A, B; tibia as long as wide, RTA almost twice longer than tibia, bifurcated in anterior 1/3, ventral arm rounded and dorsal one sharply pointed; cymbium 2 times longer than wide, and 4 times longer than tibia; tegular apophysis claw-like, directed laterally, with abrupt tip in lateral view; sperm duct with characteristic coil prolaterally.

Figure 5. 

Male palps of Zagrotes borna sp. nov. (A, B) and Z. parla sp. nov. (C, D) A, C ventral B, D prolateral. Abbreviation: Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Figure 6. 

Male palps of Zagrotes borna sp. nov. (A, B) and Z. parla sp. nov. (C, D) A, C dorsal B, D retrolateral. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in Hormozgan Province, southern Iran.

Figure 7. 

SEM images of the male palps of Zagrotes borna sp. nov. (A, B) and Z. parla sp. nov. (C, D) A ventral B, D retrolateral C retroventral. Abbreviation: Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

Zagrotes parla sp. nov.

Figures 4B, 5C, D, 6C, D, 7C, D

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: Kerman Province: SE of Sirjan, 6.1972 (G. Pretzmann).

Etymology

The specific epithet is a Persian feminine given name meaning “glowing”.

Diagnosis

The new species is most similar to Z. borna sp. nov. and can be distinguished by the RTA shorter than ½ of the cymbium’s length (vs longer), the more deeply bifurcated RTA (cf. Fig. 6D and B), relatively longer palpal tibia (2 times shorter than cymbium vs 4 times shorter), and the shape of the bulb. The two species differ also by the shape of the sperm duct and tegular apophysis (cf. Fig. 6C and A).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figure 4B. Total length 4.93. Carapace 2.20 long, 1.63 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.10, ALE: 0.09, PME: 0.10, PLE: 0.08. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum light brown, without any pattern. Legs yellowish-brown, without annulations. Abdomen cream-colored, with a tuft of dark brown long setae anteriorly and sparse lighter setae; ventrally with distinct tracheal marks. Spinnerets unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: 6.83 (1.83, 1.17, 1.51, 1.32, 1.00), II: 5.29 (1.41, 0.93, 1.10, 1.05, 0.80), III: 4.47 (1.20, 0.70, 0.88, 1.04, 0.65), IV: 7.26 (1.84, 1.07, 1.57, 1.90, 0.88).

Palp as in Figures 5C, D, 6C, D, 7C, D; tibia 3 times shorter than cymbium; RTA as long as tibia, deeply bifurcated in middle part, ventral arm rounded on the tip and dorsal arm sharply pointed; cymbium 1.7 times longer than wide; tegular apophysis (Ta) with large base, about ½ of tegulum’s length, directed ventrally, sharply pointed in lateral view; sperm duct with characteristic loop originated in mesal part of tegulum.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in Kerman Province, southern Iran.

Genus Micaria Westring, 1851

Micaria atropatene sp. nov.

Figures 4C, 8A, B

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: East Azerbaijan Province: 20 km SE of Miyaneh, 1970 (K. Bilek).

Etymology

The specific epithet (a noun in apposition) refers to an ancient kingdom established in ca 323 BC by the Persian satrap Atropates, centered in present-day northern and northwestern Iran.

Diagnosis

The new species is most similar to M. rossica (Thorell, 1875) by having a small tibial apophysis, vestigial tegular apophysis (Ta), a similar course of the sperm duct, and the distal tegular process (Dp) extending to the anterior edge of the tegulum. Micaria atropatene sp. nov. can be easily distinguished by the shape of the tegular process, which has an almost transverse anterior edge and a small spine-like tip (vs gradually tapering).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figure 4C. Total length 4.50. Carapace 2.07 long, 1.38 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.08, ALE: 0.08, PME: 0.05, PLE: 0.07. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum reddish-brown, without any pattern. Legs yellowish-brown, without annulations. Abdomen glossy dark gray, with a coat of short setae. Spinnerets light grey, unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: 6.01 (1.48, 0.72, 1.37, 1.21, 1.23), II: 5.28 (1.42, 0.65, 1.16, 1.00, 1.05), III: 5.01 (1.28, 0.61, 1.04, 1.11, 0.97), IV: 5.29 (1.84, 0.74, 1.44, 1.78, 1.27).

Palp as in Figure 8A, B; tibia long, more than 3 times longer than wide, 0.83 times of cymbium’s length, with fine retrolateral apophysis; cymbium more than 2 times longer than wide; tegulum oval in ventral and lateral views, 1.8 times longer than wide; tegular apophysis (Ta) vestigial; distal tegular process (Dp) large, with abrupt anterior edge and spine-like projection mesally.

Figure 8. 

Male palp of Micaria atropatene sp. nov. A ventral B retrolateral. Abbreviations: Dp – distal tegular process, Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bar: 0.2 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in East Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran.

Family Liocranidae Simon, 1897

Sestakovaia gen. nov.

Type species

Sestakovaia hyrcania sp. nov.

Etymology

The new genus is named after our colleague and friend, Anna Šestáková (Western Slovakian Museum, Trnava, Slovakia); the gender is feminine.

Diagnosis

The new genus differs from other Liocraninae genera by the bent RTA (vs straight) with tip directed antero-dorsally. It differs from Mesiotelus Simon, 1897 by unmodified (not elongated) male chelicera, short palp (not longer than carapace), large and complex embolus (cf. Figs 9A, D, 10A with Fig. 11A) and epigyne lacking fine anterior hood (cf. Chyzer and Kulczyński 1897: pl. 9, fig. 75 with Bosmans and El-Hennawy 2018: fig. 1).

Figure 9. 

Male palps of Sestakovaia hyrcania sp. nov. (A–C) and Sestakovaia annulipes comb. nov. (D) A, D ventral B retrolateral C dorsal D after Dimitrov and Naumova (2021). Abbreviations: Aa – anterior apophysis, Co – conductor, Em – embolus, Pe – embolic process, Ra – radix, Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

Description

Medium-sized, carapace ca 2.0 long, 1.5 wide, length of chelicera ca 1/3 of carapace length. Carapace and abdomen with distinct pattern. For details, see Chyzer and Kulczyński (1897) and the description below.

Figure 10. 

SEM images of the male palps of Sestakovaia hyrcania sp. nov. A, D ventral B retroventral C apical. Abbreviations: Aa – anterior apophysis, Co – conductor, Em – embolus, Pe – embolic process, Ra – radix, Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

Comments

Homology of anterior tegular apophysis (Aa) is not clear, as such structure is not known in other genera of the family.

Figure 11. 

Male palp of Mesiotelus patricki sp. nov. A–D ventral, retrolateral, prolateral and dorsal, respectively E whole palp, prolateral. Scale bars: 0.2 mm, unless stated otherwise.

Composition

Sestakovaia hyrcania sp. nov. and S. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1897), comb. nov.

Distribution

Central Europe, Near East and northern Iran.

Sestakovaia hyrcania sp. nov.

Figures 4D, 9A–C, 10A–D

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: Golestan Province: 10 km SW of Shahpasand, 26.4.1972 (G. Pretzmann).

Etymology

The species name (a noun in apposition) refers to the historical region in south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran and Turkmenistan which lies between the coastal line to the north-west, the Alborz Mountains to the south, and the Kopet Dag Mountains to the east, in which the type locality of the new species is situated.

Diagnosis

The new species differs from S. annulipes comb. nov. by having the RTA bent almost at a right angle and with a pointed tip (vs RTA bent at a lesser angle and its tip rounded), a wider embolus (Em) and process of the embolus (Pe), and the embolus located prolaterally in relation to the process (vs embolus mesal and process prolateral).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figure 4D. Total length 4.37. Carapace 2.06 long, 1.58 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.13, ALE: 0.11, PME: 0.09, PLE: 0.12. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum light brown. Carapace with darker submarginal longitudinal bands. Legs yellowish-brown, with numerous darker patches. Abdomen dorsally greyish with lighter chevron markings, ventrally lighter without any markings. Spinnerets light grey, unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: 6.54 (1.72, 0.85, 1.69, 1.32, 0.96), II: 5.73 (1.31, 0.66, 1.66, 1.30, 0.80), III: 5.82 (1.46, 0.71, 1.38, 1.63, 0.64), IV: 8.25 (2.10, 0.88, 1.96, 2.25, 1.06).

Palp as in Figures 9A–C, 10A–D; RTA about 2 times shorter than tibia, bent almost at a right angle, tip pointed; cymbium 1.6 times longer than wide; bulb ca 1.3 times longer than wide; tegulum with 2 apophyses: long tegular apophysis (Ta) with hooked tip, and broad anterior apophysis (Aa); conductor (Co) lamellar/membranous, large, almost as wide as radix; embolus complex: with broad radical part (Ra), broad embolus proper (Em) and mesal embolic process (Pe).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in Golestan Province, northern Iran.

Sestakovaia annulipes (Kulczyński, 1897), comb. nov.

Figure 9D

Liocranum annulipes Kulczyński in Chyzer and Kulczyński 1897: 240, pl. 9, figs 54, 56 (♂♀).

Mesiotelus annulipes: Dimitrov and Naumova 2021: 695, figs 5A, B, 6A, B (♂).

Comments

This species transferred to this new genus due to the similarity of the male palp to the generotype. Although this species has a relatively large range (reported from Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine and Turkey; WSC 2021), the female characters have not been redescribed and the structure of the endogyne remains unillustrated.

Genus Mesiotelus Simon, 1897

Mesiotelus patricki sp. nov.

Figures 4E, F, 11A–E, 12A–C

Type material

Holotype ♂ and paratypes 2♂ (MHNG), Iran: Golestan Province: Gol-e Loweh, 37°20'N, 55°44'E, 21.8.1975 (A. Senglet).

Etymology

This new species is named after our colleague and friend L. Brian Patrick (Dakota Wesleyan University, USA), in recognition of his efforts in popularizing taxonomy via his podcast “New Species”.

Diagnosis

The new species differs from the generotype, Mesiotelus tenuissimus (L. Koch, 1866), by having a relatively longer, thinner and gradually tapering RTA which is about 3 times longer than its basal width (vs RTA with subparallel margins and less than 2 times longer than wide), a much longer median apophysis, about ½ of tegulum’s length (vs about 4 times shorter than tegulum), and a longer embolus terminating anteriorly from the tegulum (vs embolus short, spine-like and terminating beyond the anterior edge of the tegulum). The two species also differ by the course of sperm duct and the shape of the anterior tegular apophysis (Aa).

Description

Male (holotype). Habitus as in Figure 4F. Total length 5.22. Carapace 2.00 long, 1.85 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.12, ALE: 0.13, PME: 0.10, PLE: 0.10. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum light brown. Chelicera with 2 pro- and 3 retromarginal teeth (Fig. 4E). Legs yellowish-brown, without annulations. Abdomen dark grey, dorsally with indistinct chevron markings, ventrally lighter with distinct tracheal marks. Spinnerets light grey, unicolourous. Measurements of palp and legs: palp: 4.77 (1.74, 1.08, 1.08, 0.87), legs: I: 10.86 (2.77, 1.39, 2.95, 2.45, 1.30), II: 7.67 + missing tarsus (2.31, 1.08, 2.30, 1.98, missing), III: 7.38 (1.94, 0.91, 1.67, 1.95, 0.91), IV: 10.38 (2.63, 1.10, 2.48, 3.06, 1.11).

Palp as in Figures 11A–E, 12A–C; palp very long, almost as long as body, patella as long as tibia; tibia with 3 times longer than wide and gradually tapering RTA; cymbium twice shorter than femur, and 2 times longer than wide, tip as long as RTA, prolateral side with few very long and curled setae (Cs, Fig. 12A, B); bulb oval, 1.67 times longer than wide; sperm duct almost reaching posterior margin of tegulum; median apophysis long, almost as long as ½ of tegulum’s length; anterior tegular apophysis (Aa) bifid; embolus (Em) originates at about ca 6:30 o’clock position, free part long, bent in terminal part and directed anteriorly.

Figure 12. 

SEM images of the male palp of Mesiotelus patricki sp. nov. A, B ventral C retroventral. Abbreviations: Aa – anterior apophysis, Co – conductor, Cs – curved setae, Em – embolus, Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in Golestan Province, northern Iran.

Family Palpimanidae Thorell, 1870

Palpimanus Dufour, 1820

Comments

Palpimanus is the most species-rich genus in Palpimaninae, with 35 currently recognized species (WSC 2021). Although the Mediterranean species have been the subject of two revisions by Kulczyński (1909) and Platnick (1981), the genus remains poorly studied: male palps were illustrated very schematically and endogynes were not illustrated at all. Additionally, there is no proper terminology for the sclerites in the male palp; Platnick (1981) used the neuter terms ‘prong’ and ‘flange’. Within Palpimaninae, the endogynes are very weakly sclerotized and difficult to observe, hence the lack of proper illustrations. The set of illustrations in Platnick (1981: figs 10–18) is very schematic and in some cases appears to be misinterpreted. Both new species found in Iran have male palps rather different from that of the type species (P. gibbulus Dufour, 1820) and most likely belong to a different, currently undescribed genus.

Palpimanus carmania sp. nov.

Figures 13A, 14A, B, 15A‒C, 16E‒G

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: Kerman Province: 41 km SE of Sirjan, 18.4.1972 (G. Pretzmann).

Etymology

The specific epithet is a noun in apposition, referring to a historical region that approximately corresponds to the modern Iranian province of Kerman, where the type locality of the new species is situated.

Diagnosis

The new species differs from the related P. persicus sp. nov. by the more distal position of the base of the “embolic stalk” (Es) and wider stalk with sharply pointed tip (vs more proximal, thinner and without sharply pointed tip; cf. Fig. 16E and A) and also by having wider than long palpal tibia (vs as wide as long). It is most similar to P. cf. sogdianus from Azerbaijan illustrated by Marusik and Guseinov (2003). Both have a sharply pointed embolic stalk (Es), but in the new species this originates from the distal half of the bulb (vs proximal half).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figures 13A, 14A. Total length 5.50. Carapace 2.65 long, 1.92 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.17, ALE: 0.08, PME: 0.07, PLE: 0.10. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum dark reddish, coated with white setae. Leg I dark orange, legs II‒IV yellowish-brown, without annulations. Metatarsus I and metatarsi and tarsi II‒IV with a distinct ventral hair tuft. Abdomen cream-colored, with scattered long dark setae and a ventral scutum, two long diagonal and two dot-like scutula (Fig. 14B). Spinnerets unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: 6.05 (1.90, 1.58, 1.34, 0.58, 0.65), II: 4.59 (1.26, 0.90, 1.12, 0.74, 0.57), III: 4.05 (1.16, 0.80, 0.87, 0.76, 0.46), IV: 5.18 (1.35, 0.86, 1.28, 1.08, 0.61).

Figure 13. 

Lateral habitus of Palpimanus carmania sp. nov. (A) and P. persicus sp. nov. (B, C) A, C males B female.

Figure 14. 

Dorsal habitus (A, C, E) and ventral anterior portion of abdomen (B, D, F) of Palpimanus carmania sp. nov. (A, B) and P. persicus sp. nov. (C–F) A–D males E, F female. Scale bars: 0.2 mm, unless stated otherwise.

Palp as in Figures 15A‒C, 16E‒G; tibia swollen, ca 1.1 times wider than long, wider than bulb; cymbium 1.5 times longer than tibia; embolic stalk (Es) originates in anterior half, stalk tapering, tip sharply pointed.

Figure 15. 

Male palps of Palpimanus carmania sp. nov. (A–C) and P. persicus sp. nov. (D–F) A, D ventral B, E retrolateral C, F proventral and prolateral. Abbreviation: Es – embolic stalk. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Figure 16. 

SEM images of the male palps of Palpimanus persicus sp. nov. (A–D) and P. carmania sp. nov. (E–G) A, E ventral B, G proventral C, F apical D proapical. Abbreviation: Es – embolic stalk. Scale bars: 0.1 mm, unless stated otherwise.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in Kerman Province, southern Iran.

Palpimanus persicus sp. nov.

Figures 13B, C, 14C‒F, 15D‒F, 16A‒D, 17A‒F

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: Hormozgan Province: 40 km NW of Bandar Abbas, 7.4.1972 (G. Pretzmann). Paratype: 1♂ (NHMW), Hormozgan Province: 26 km S of Minab, 7.1974 (G. Pretzmann).

Other material examined

Iran: Hormozgan Province: 1♀ (NHMW), 28 km N of Bandar Abbas, 28.3.1972 (G. Pretzmann).

Etymology

The specific epithet is an adjective of “Persian” or “of Persia”, referring to the historical region of the Middle East, located in the east of Mesopotamia (nowadays Iran).

Diagnosis

The male of this species differs from the closely related Palpimanus carmania sp. nov. by having the embolic stalk originating in the proximal half of the bulb (vs distal) and the stalk wider, not tapering, and its tip not pointed (cf. Fig. 16A and E). Endogyne of the new species is similar to that of P. sogdianus Charitonov, 1946 and specimens identified as P. cf. sogdianus from Azerbaijan (see Marusik and Guseinov 2003: figs 35–36), but it differs by having the anterior and posterior halves of the receptacles subequal in length (vs anterior halves longer). In addition, females of the new species differ from specimen from Azerbaijan by having the copulatory opening (Co) more arched.

Description

Male (holotype). Habitus as in Figures 13C, 14C. Total length 5.20. Carapace 2.60 long, 1.95 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.21, ALE: 0.11, PME: 0.07, PLE: 0.13. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum dark reddish, coated with white setae. Leg I dark orange, legs II‒IV yellowish-brown, without annulations. Metatarsus I and metatarsi and tarsi II‒IV with a distinct ventral hair tuft. Abdomen cream-colored, with scattered long dark setae and a ventral scutum, two long diagonal and two dot-like scutula (Fig. 14D). Spinnerets unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: 5.57 (1.77, 1.46, 1.27, 0.57, 0.50), II: 4.74 (1.44, 0.92, 1.10, 0.72, 0.56), III: 4.23 (1.29, 0.76, 1.03, 0.70, 0.45), IV: 5.01 (1.53, 0.93, 1.20, 0.91, 0.44).

Palp as in Figures 15D‒F, 16A‒D; tibia swollen, as wide as long; cymbium 1.6 times longer than wide; embolic stalk (Es) originates in proximal half of bulb, wide, not tapering, tip not pointed.

Female. Habitus as in Figures 13B, 14E. Total length 6.55. Carapace 3.00 long, 2.27 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.17, ALE: 0.11, PME: 0.07, PLE: 0.11. Coloration and somatic features as in male. Postgaster with 3 pairs of scutula (Fig. 14F). Measurements of legs: I: 6.78 (2.17, 1.80, 1.62, 0.61, 0.58), II: 5.71 (1.76, 1.16, 1.32, 0.83, 0.64), III: 5.06 (1.50, 0.93, 1.17, 0.86, 0.60), IV: 6.77 (2.04, 1.19, 1.66, 1.32, 0.56).

Endogyne as in Figure 17A‒F; copulatory opening (Co) arched in ventral view and squared in posterior view; endogyne weakly sclerotized, receptacles about 3.5 times longer than wide, each with cylindrical posterior part and subglobular anterior part, posterior parts converging, receptacles lacking distinct accessorial or pore glands; fine threads (Ft) originate near copulatory opening; grape-shaped glands (Gg) poorly distinct, about 5 on each side.

Figure 17. 

Endogyne of Palpimanus persicus sp. nov. A–D, F dorsal E posterior. Boxes in C and D refer to detailed views presented in D and F, respectively. Abbreviations: Co – copulatory opening, Ft – fine threads, Gg – grape-shaped glands, Re – receptacle. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

Comment

As the single female specimen treated here was collected separately from the males and in a different locality (although all from the same province and from sites relatively close to one another), it was not considered within the type material; the conspecificity of these specimens shall be confirmed when both sexes are collected together.

Distribution

Known only from the listed localities in Hormozgan Province, southern Iran.

Family Philodromidae Thorell, 1870

Rhysodromus Schick, 1965

Comments

Considered a relatively large genus, Rhysodromus includes 26 valid species, the majority of which are distributed in the Palaearctic. The genus is relatively well studied due to several revisions, especially that by Szita and Logunov (2008).

Rhysodromus genoensis sp. nov.

Figures 18A, 19A, B, 20A‒F

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: Hormozgan Province: Geno, 38 km NW of Bandar Abbas, 3.4.1972 (G. Pretzmann).

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to the type locality of the new species in Geno Biosphere Reserve.

Diagnosis

This species differs from all congeners by the lack of the RTA (vs present in all species) and bifurcated tip of tegular apophysis (vs not bifurcated).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figure 18A. Total length 3.80. Carapace 1.65 long, 1.60 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.11, ALE: 0.10, PME: 0.06, PLE: 0.10. Carapace, labium, chelicera and maxilla brown, without any pattern; pars cephalica and median part of pars thoracica lighter in color; sternum pale, with a grayish marginal band. Legs yellowish-brown, with numerous dark spots and small patches. Abdomen grayish, dorsally with distinct cardiac mark and darker margins and light spots and patches; ventrally with slightly darker median band. Spinnerets brown, unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: 7.86 (2.27, 0.89, 1.95, 1.74, 1.01), II: 9.15 (2.66, 0.88, 2.31, 2.05, 1.25), III: 5.55 (1.72, 0.65, 1.29, 1.16, 0.73), IV: 7.06 (2.26, 0.74, 1.69, 1.61, 0.76).

Figure 18. 

Male dorsal habitus of Rhysodromus genoensis sp. nov. (A) and Rhysodromus medes sp. nov. (B).

Palp as in Figures 19A, B, 20A‒F; tibia as long as bulb’s width, lacking distinct apophysis; cymbium with long tip (partially extending tegulum), about 0.9 of tegulum’s length; tegulum oval, about 1.5 times longer than wide; sperm duct with small transverse loop in mesal part of tegulum; tegular apophysis long, located anteriorly along longitudinal axis, tip bifid; embolus long, >0.5 of tegulum’s length, straight, with tip gently bent retrolaterally.

Figure 19. 

Male palps of Rhysodromus genoensis sp. nov. (A, B) and Rhysodromus medes sp. nov. (C, D) A, C ventral B, D retrolateral. Abbreviation: Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.2 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Comments

The new species has a pattern typical for the genus and is particularly similar to R. alascensis (Keyserling, 1884) and R. histrio (Latreille, 1819).

Figure 20. 

SEM images of the male palp of Rhysodromus genoensis sp. nov. A, E retroventral B, F ventral C proventral D retrolateral. Abbreviation: Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.1 mm, unless stated otherwise.

There are two Rhysodromus species in the region (both from Caucasus) known from females only, R. rikhteri (Logunov & Huseynov, 2008) and R. naxcivanicus (Logunov & Huseynov, 2008), but it is very unlikely that either of them would be conspecific with R. genoensis sp. nov., as their type localities are located more than 1000 km distant from that of the new species.

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in Hormozgan Province, southern Iran.

Rhysodromus medes sp. nov.

Figures 18B, 19C, D, 21A, B

Type material

Holotype ♂ (NHMW), Iran: Hormozgan Province: 26 km S of Minab, 7.1974 (G. Pretzmann).

Etymology

The specific epithet is a noun in apposition, referring to an ancient Iranian people who spoke the Median language and inhabited an area known as Media between western and northern Iran.

Diagnosis

The new species differs from all congeners (as well as all other members of Philodromus sensu lato) by having 2 parallel, unspaced tibial apophyses of the same length (vs apophyses either absent, or 1 or 2 spaced and not of equal length) and sperm duct thick at proximal-prolateral part, as thick as retrolaterally (vs prolateral part gradually tapering and thinner than retrolateral part).

Description

Male. Habitus as in Figure 18B. Total length 4.07. Carapace 1.87 long, 1.60 wide. Eye sizes: AME: 0.11, ALE: 0.07, PME: 0.10, PLE: 0.11. Carapace, labium, chelicera, maxilla and sternum yellowish-brown. Legs pale, without annulations. Abdomen pale, with scattered thick dark setae. Spinnerets pale, unicolourous. Measurements of legs: I: 8.97 (2.52, 0.96, 2.41, 2.06, 1.02), II: 11.58 (3.20, 1.19, 3.10, 2.78, 1.31), III: 4.97 (1.52, 0.52, 1.07, 1.18, 0.68), IV: 8.54 (2.65, 0.75, 1.95, 2.23, 0.96).

Palp as in Figures 19C, D, 21A, B; tibia ca 1.3 times longer than wide, with two apophyses, not spaced and equal in length, about ½ of tibia’s length, ventral one membranous and transparent, retrolateral one well sclerotized; cymbium 1.7 times longer than wide, with tip equal in length to tibial apophyses; tegulum oval, ca 1.8 times longer than wide; sperm duct thick, only 2.5 times thinner than tibia’s diameter, proximal-prolateral part as thick as retrolateral part, sharply tapering in distal half of tegulum; tegular apophysis (Ta) small, claw-like, located antero-retrolaterally; embolus large, about 0.63 of tegulum’s length, base as wide as ½ of tegulum, gradually tapering.

Figure 21. 

SEM images of the male palp of Rhysodromus medes sp. nov. A ventral B retroventral. Abbreviation: Ta – tegular apophysis. Scale bars: 0.1 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Comments

This species is tentatively placed in Rhysodromus, as it has a different pattern and a very thick sperm duct which is unknown in other members of the genus. The generic placement is due to the presence of tegular apophysis and two closely placed tibial apophyses, similar to R. mysticus (Dondale & Redner, 1975).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality in Hormozgan Province, southern Iran.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful toward Peter J. Schwendinger (MHNG) and Christoph Hörweg (NHMW) for providing us with the spider material deposited in their respective collections, and Sergei L. Zonstein and Anna A. Nekhaeva for providing constructive suggestions on an earlier draft of the manuscript.

References

  • Bosmans R, El-Hennawy HK (2018) Mesiotelus alexandrinus (Simon, 1880) is a junior synonym of Mesiotelus tenuissimus (L. Koch, 1866) (Araneae: Liocranidae). Serket 16(2): 100–104.
  • Chyzer C, Kulczyński W (1897) Araneae Hungariae. Tomus II. Academia Scientarum Hungaricae, Budapest, 147–366.
  • Dondale CD, Redner JH (1975) The fuscomarginatus and histrio groups of the spider genus Philodromus in North America (Araneida: Thomisidae). The Canadian Entomologist 107(4): 369–384. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent107369-4
  • Kulczyński W (1909) Fragmenta Arachnologica. XIV, XV. Bulletin International de l’Academie des Sciences de Cracovie 1909: 667–687.
  • Lehtinen PT (1967) Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families, with notes on the evolution of the suborder Araneomorpha. Annales Zoologici Fennici 4: 199–468.
  • Marusik YM, Esyunin SL, Tuneva TK (2015) A survey of Palaearctic Dictynidae (Araneae). 1. Taxonomic notes on Dictynomorpha Spassky, 1939, Brigittea Lehtinen, 1967 and Lathys Simon, 1884. Zootaxa 3925(1): 129–144. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3925.1.9
  • Marusik YM, Guseinov E (2003) Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12(1): 29–46.
  • Miller F, Svatoň J (1978) Einige seltene und bisher unbekannte Spinnenarten aus der Slowakei. Annotationes Zoologicae et Botanicae Bratislava 126: 1–19.
  • Montemor VM, West RC, Zamani A, Moradmand M, Wirth V von, Wendt I, Huber S, Guadanucci JPL (2020) Taxonomy of the genus Ischnocolus in the Middle East, with description of a new species from Oman and Iran (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Zoology in the Middle East 66(1): 76–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2020.1675994
  • Platnick NI (1981) A review of the spider subfamily Palpimaninae (Araneae, Palpimanidae), I. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 5(4): 169–173.
  • Szita É, Logunov D (2008) A review of the histrio group of the spider genus Philodromus Walckenaer, 1826 (Araneae, Philodromidae) of the eastern Palaearctic region. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 54: 23–73.
  • WSC (2021) World Spider Catalog. Version 21.5. Natural History Museum Bern. http://wsc.nmbe.ch [accessed on 20.06.2021]
  • Zamani A, Bosselaers J (2020) The spider family Oecobiidae (Arachnida: Araneae) in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. European Journal of Taxonomy 726: 38–58. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.726.1173
  • Zamani A, Chatzaki M, Esyunin SL, Marusik YM (2021a) One new genus and nineteen new species of ground spiders (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) from Iran, with other taxonomic considerations. European Journal of Taxonomy 751: 68–114. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.751.1381
  • Zamani A, Dimitrov D, Weiss I, Alimohammadi S, Rafiei-Jahed R, Esyunin SL, Moradmand M, Chatzaki M, Marusik YM (2020) New data on the spider fauna of Iran (Arachnida: Araneae), Part VII. Arachnology 18(6): 569–591. https://doi.org/10.13156/arac.2020.18.6.569
  • Zamani A, Marusik YM (2021b) Revision of the spider family Zodariidae (Arachnida, Araneae) in Iran and Turkmenistan, with seventeen new species. ZooKeys 1035: 145–193. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1035.65767
  • Zamani A, Mirshamsi O, Marusik YM, Moradmand M (2021b) The Checklist of the Spiders of Iran. Version 2021. http://www.spiders.ir [accessed 12.07.2021]