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Research Article
Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)
expand article infoMaría José Vela, Juan Ignacio González-Gordillo
‡ Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain
Open Access

Abstract

For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated.

Keywords

Checklist, larval development, Anomura, zoea, megalopa

Introduction

Porcellanidae, commonly known as porcelain crabs, is a family of decapods belonging to the infraorder Anomura (Crustacea, Decapoda). The group comprises 283 species according to the classification proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010). Like most decapods, their life cycle contains a planktonic larval phase presenting various morphological changes during ontogenic development; this produces different larval morphologies that vary even within the same species. This high inter- and intra-specific morphological diversity poses many difficulties both for the identification of specimens from plankton samples and for the taxonomic description of undescribed larval stages. Morphological studies are thus of crucial importance if such problems are to be overcome.

Although decapod larvae were first described almost 250 years ago (Cancer pagurus, described as Cancer germanicus by Linnaeus, 1767), the morphology of a porcellanid larva was not described until 1835, when J. Vaughan Thompson published a brief description of a larva of Porcellana reared from eggs of females collected in British waters. Eight years later, Dujardin (1843) presented for the first time a more comprehensive description of a porcellanid larva, describing the zoeal stage of Pisidia longicornis (as Porcellana longicornis). Numerous descriptions of the larval stages have been published during more than 170 years. The number of published descriptions of the larval morphology of porcellanids, and of other groups of decapods, has grown exponentially since the 1960’s (Martin 1984, Rice 1993). Several researchers, including Gore (19681977) or the team constituted by Hernández, Bolaños and Graterol (see papers from 1996 to 2012), have made special contributions to knowledge of porcellanid larval morphology.

González-Gordillo et al. (2001) showed that, in addition to the limited number of descriptive studies on decapod larval morphology, a large percentage are based on organisms collected from plankton samples or reared under laboratory conditions from females that were not accurately identified. Furthermore, several published larval descriptions are brief or very general, with inadequate illustrations that are far from the well-accepted standard proposed by Clark et al. (1998).

In addition, the literature on larval descriptions is scattered or very old; since literature of this kind is often not available in digital formats for download or online request, or it has been published in local scientific journals (“grey” literature), it is complicated to access it using common bibliographic search engines. As a consequence, in studies requiring the identification of planktonic organisms (with the eventual need to present identification keys), or in morphological studies in which new larval stages are described, where it becomes necessary to compare results with those reported in previous publications of larval descriptions, the researcher has a difficult task in compiling the available information for the target taxon. Although this situation has yielded publication of several bibliographic compilations for brachyurans, like those of Gurney (1939), Soltanpour-Gargari et al. (1989), Martin (1984), Wear (1985), Wehrtman and Baez (1997) and González-Gordillo et al. (2001), there is still no published compilation on porcellanids on a worldwide basis.

Many larval publications first appeared more than 30 years ago; for example according to González-Gordillo et al. (2001), 86.6 % of the descriptions made for species of decapods from the Gibraltar Strait were published more than 25 years ago. The scientific name of a species described then could have changed, or two or more different species could have been reclassified as one species. This complicates even further the bibliographic search because a search using the current name of a target species will almost certainly omit old studies of that species under a name that has changed or been superseded.

Therefore, the objective of this study is three-fold: 1) to compile the available literature on porcellanid larval morphologies; 2) to record the possible changes in the nomenclature of species, or synonymies; and 3) to describe the state-of-the-art on the larval development of species belonging to the family Porcellanidae.

Methods

The data set of this study comprises a total of 133 entries obtained from 83 published papers (from 1835 to 2012). Search engines and scientific databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct and Web of Science have been used for the bibliographic compilation. The current total number of porcellanid species and the taxonomic classification used for the present checklist follow those of Osawa and McLaughlin (2010). The current validity of the species has been also checked by consulting the World Register of Marine Species (http://www.marinespecies.org).

In the checklist, the status of current knowledge of the larval development is specified for each species as follows: i) the author(s) and the date of publication of the larval description; ii) the specific larval stages described, using the following classification: prezoeal stage (PR), first to fifth zoeal stage (Z1-5), and megalopal stage (M); iii) the method used to obtain the larvae, according to the following designations: from plankton samples (Pl), larvae reared under laboratory conditions from an identified ovigerous females (Lab) and larvae obtained from plankton and by instar-to-instar laboratory rearing, from unknown parentage, but often a species recognizable from its postlarval or juvenile stages (P+L). Entries marked with asterisk mean that the larval description available, in our opinion, is accurate enough to establish comparisons with other species and have all stages fully described and illustrated. In the checklist, if the taxonomical name of the species described does not match the current taxonomic name according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), this is indicated by ‘as’ followed by the name of the species cited in the description.

Results

The larval development of porcellanids usually consists of two zoeal stages and one megalopal stage, with the exception of Petrocheles spinosus, which has five zoeal stages.

Description of the larval development of porcellanids first appeared in 1843, when Dujardin published a description of the first zoeal stage of Pisidia longicornis, referred to as Porcellana longicornis. The larval descriptions available were poor in number until the 1960’s and 1970’s, when an increasing trend in the number of publications is observed; this was possibly due to the increased number of scientists specializing in this area, to the increased facilities for cultivating larvae in laboratory conditions, and to the advances in microscope technology (Rice 1993). The historical peak for the number of publications per annum occurred in the late 1990’s and at the beginning of the current century.

Currently, the family Porcellanidae family consists of 283 species (Osawa and McLaughlin 2010). Complete larval development has been described for 52 species (18.4%), while only some larval stages have been described for another 45 species (15.9%). For the remaining 186 species (65.7%), none of the larval stages has been described.

The current knowledge of larval development by genus (percentages) and the number of species in each genus are shown in Figure 3. Although the family Porcellanidae consists of 29 genera, the larval stages have not been described for 12 genera. The genera with the most numerous species are Petrolisthes (106 species) and Pachycheles (44 species); however, the complete larval development has been described for only 21 species of Petrolisthes (19.8%) and only nine species of Pachycheles (20.4%).

Figure 1.

Number of papers describing the larval morphology of porcellanids. Number of publications per year (left-hand scale) and cumulative number of publications represented by the blue line (right-hand scale).

Figure 2.

Number and proportion of porcellanid species (N = 283) for which undescribed species (blue sector), full larval description (orange sector) and partial larval description (yellow sector) exists.

Figure 3.

State of current knowledge of larval development of Porcellanidae, grouped by genus. Shown in orange is the percentage of species for which larval development has been completely described. Shown in grey is the percentage of species for which only some of the larval stages have been described (left-hand scale). The total number of species per genus is also represented with a solid blue line (right-hand scale).

Annotated bibliography of porcellanid larvae

Family Porcellanidae Haworth, 1825

Thompson (1935) as Porcellana sp; Z1: Lab

Webb (1921) as Porcellana sp; M: Pl

Gurney (1924) as Porcellanid larva; Z1, Z2: Pl

Aliaporcellana kikuchii Nakasone & Miyake, 1969: larvae undescribed

Aliaporcellana pygmaea (De Man, 1902): larvae undescribed

Aliaporcellana taiwanensis Dong, Li & Chan, 2011: larvae undescribed

Aliaporcellana suluensis (Dana, 1852): larvae undescribed

Aliaporcellana telestophila (Johnson, 1958): larvae undescribed

Allopetrolisthes angulosus (Guérin, 1835): full larval description

*Wehrtmann et al. (1996); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Allopetrolisthes punctatus (Guérin, 1835): larvae undescribed

Ancylocheles gravelei (Sankolli, 1963): larvae undescribed

Capilliporcellana murakamii (Miyake, 1942): larvae undescribed

Capilliporcellana wolffi Haig, 1981: larvae undescribed

Clastotoechus diffractus (Haig, 1957): larvae undescribed

Clastotoechus gorgonensis Werding & Haig, 1983: larvae undescribed

Clastotoechus hickmani Harvey, 1999: larvae undescribed

Clastotoechus lasios Harvey, 1999: larvae undescribed

Clastotoechus nodosus (Streets, 1872): full larval description

*Hernández et al. (2003); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Enosteoides lobatus Osawa, 2009: larvae undescribed

Enosteoides melissa (Miyake, 1942): larvae undescribed

Enosteoides ornatus (Stimpson, 1858): partial larval description

Sankolli (1967) as Porcellana ornata; PR, Z1: Lab

Ko (2000); Z1: Lab

Enosteoides palauensis (Nakasone & Miyake, 1968): larvae undescribed

Enosteoides philippinesnsis Dolorosa & Werding, 2014: larvae undescribed

Euceramus panatelus Glassell, 1938: larvae undescribed

Euceramus praelongus Stimpson, 1860: full larval description

Roberts (1968); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Maris (1983); Z1, Z2: Pl

Euceramus transversilineatus (Lockington, 1878): larvae undescribed

Eulenaios cometes (Walker, 1887): partial larval description

Ng and Nakasone (1993); Z1: Lab

Heteropolyonyx biforma Osawa, 2001: larvae undescribed

Heteroporcellana corbicola (Haig, 1960): larvae undescribed

Liopetrolisthes mitra (Dana, 1852): larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana demani Dong & Li, 2014: larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana flagellicola Osawa & Fujita, 2005: larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana furcillata (Haig, 1965): larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana miyakei Haig, 1981: larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana monodi Osawa, 2007: larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana nakasonei (Miyake, 1978): larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana nitida (Haswell, 1882): larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana pectinata Haig, 1981: larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana quadrilobata (Miers, 1884): larvae undescribed

Lissoporcellana spinuligera (Dana, 1853): larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium erosum (Glassell, 1936): larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium festae (Nobili, 1901): larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium garthi Haig, 1957: larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium mortenseni Haig, 1962: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1, Z2: Pl

Megalobrachium pacificum Gore & Abele, 1974: larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium peruvianum Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium poeyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1855): full larval description

*Gore (1971b); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Megalobrachium roseum (Rathbun, 1900): full larval description

*Hernández et al. (2002); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Megalobrachium sinuimanus (Lockington, 1878): larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium smithi (Glassell, 1936): larvae undescribed

Megalobrachium soriatum (Say, 1818): full larval description

*Gore (1973b); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Megalobrachium tuberculipes (Lockington, 1878): larvae undescribed

Minyocerus angustus (Dana, 1852): partial larval description

Hernández et al. (1996); Z1: Lab

Minyocerus kirki Glassell, 1938: larvae undescribed

Neopetrolisthes alobatus (Laurie, 1926): larvae undescribed

Neopetrolisthes maculatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837): partial larval description

Fujita and Osawa (2003); Z1, Z2: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Neopetrolisthes spinatus Osawa & Fujita, 2001: partial larval description

Fujita and Osawa (2003); Z1, Z2: Lab

Neopisosoma angustifrons (Benedict, 1901): full larval description

*Gore (1977); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Neopisosoma bicapillatum Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Neopisosoma curacaoense (Schmitt, 1924): larvae undescribed

Neopisosoma dohenyi Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Neopisosoma mexicanum (Streets, 1871): larvae undescribed

Neopisosoma neglectum Werding, 1986: full larval description

*Werding and Müller (1990); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Neopisosoma orientale Werding, 1986: larvae undescribed

Novorostrum decorocrus Osawa, 1998: full larval description

*Fujita and Osawa (2005); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Novorostrum indicum (De Man, 1893): partial larval description

Osawa (2000); Z1, Z2: Lab

Novorostrum phuketense Osawa, 1998: larvae undescribed

Novorostrum securiger (Melin, 1939): larvae undescribed

Orthochela pumila Glassell, 1936: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles sp.

Williamson (1970) as Pachycheles nrs39; Z2: Pl

Pachycheles ackleianus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles attaragos Harvey & de Santo, 1997: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles barbatus A. Milne-Edwards, 1878: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles bellus (Osorio, 1887): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles biocellatus (Lockington, 1878): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles calculosus Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles chacei Haig, 1956: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1, Z2, M: Pl

Pachycheles chubutensis Boschi, 1963: partial larval description

González et al. (2006); Z1: Lab

Pachycheles crassus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles crinimanus Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles cristobalensis Gore, 1970: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles garciaensis (Ward, 1942): partial larval description

Osawa (1997a); Z1: Lab

Pachycheles granti Haig, 1965: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles greeleyi (Rathbun, 1900): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles grossimanus (Guérin, 1835): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles hertwigi Balss, 1913: partial larval description

Ko (1999); Z1: Lab

Pachycheles holosericus Schmitt, 1921: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles johnsoni Haig, 1965: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles laevidactylus Ortmann, 1892: full larval description

*Boschi et al. (1967) as Pachycheles haigae; Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pachycheles marcortezensis Glassell, 1936: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles monilifer (Dana, 1852): full larval description

*Gore (1973a); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pachycheles natalensis (Krauss, 1843): full larval description

Sankolli (1967); Z1: Lab

*Shenoy and Sankolli (1973a); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

*Yaqoob (1979d); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pachycheles panamensis Faxon, 1893: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles pectinicarpus Stimpson, 1858: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles pilosus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837): full larval description

*Piñate et al. (2005); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Pachycheles pisoides (Heller, 1865): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles pubescens Holmes, 1900: full larval description

*McMillan (1972); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

*Gonor and Gonor (1973); PR, Z1, Z2, M: P+L

Pachycheles riisei (Stimpson, 1859): partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Pachycheles rudis Stimpson, 1859: full larval description

Knight (1966); Z1, Z2: Lab

*Gonor and Gonor (1973); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pachycheles rugimanus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles sahariensis Monod, 1933: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles sculptus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837): partial larval description

Osawa (1997a); Z1: Lab

Pachycheles serratus (Benedict, 1901): full larval description

*Rodríguez et al. (2004); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Pachycheles setiferous Yang, 1996: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles setimanus (Lockington, 1878): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles spinidactylus Haig, 1957: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles spinipes (A. Milne-Edwards, 1873): larvae undescribed

Pachycheles stevensii Stimpson, 1858: full larval description

Kurata (1964); Z1, Z2: Pl

*Konishi (1987); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pachycheles subsetosus Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles susanae Gore & Abele, 1974: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1, Z2: Pl

Pachycheles tomentosus Hendersson, 1893: full larval description

* Tirmizi and Yaqoob (1979); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pachycheles trichotus Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles velerae Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Pachycheles vicarius Nobili, 1901: larvae undescribed

Parapetrolisthes tortugensis (Glassell, 1945): partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrocheles australiensis (Miers, 1876): larvae undescribed

Petrocheles spinosus (Miers, 1876): full larval description

Gurney (1924); Z1: Pl

*Wear (1965); Z1-Z5: Pl; M: P+L

Wear (1966); PR: Lab

Petrolisthes aegyptiacus Werding & Hiller, 2007: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes agassizii Faxon, 1893: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes amoenus (Guérin Méneville, 1855): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850): full larval description

Lebour (1943); Z1: Lab

Lebour (1950); Z2: Pl

*Gore (1970); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

*Gore (1972a); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Maris (1983); Z1, Z2: Pl

Petrolisthes artifrons Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes asiaticus (Leach, 1820): partial larval description

Osawa (1997b); Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes bifidus Werding & Hiller, 2004: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes bispinosus Borradaile, 1900: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes bolivarensis Werding & Kraus, 2003: full larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1, Z2, M: Pl

Petrolisthes borradailei Kropp, 1984: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes boscii (Audouin, 1826): full larval description

*Yaqoob (1979a); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes brachycarpus Sivertsen, 1933: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes cabrilloi Glassell, 1945: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes caribensis Werding, 1983: partial larval description

Kraus et al. (2004); Z1, Z2: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1, Z2: Pl

Petrolisthes carinipes (Heller, 1861): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes celebesensis Haig, 1981: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes cinctipes (Randall, 1840): full larval description

*Gonor and Gonor (1973); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes coccineus (Owen, 1839): partial larval description

Osawa (1995); Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes cocoensis Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes columbiensis Werding, 1983: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes crenulatus Lockington, 1878: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes decacanthus Ortmann, 1897: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes desmarestii (Guérin, 1835): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes dissimulatus Gore, 1983: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes donadio Hiller & Werding, 2007: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes donanensis Osawa, 1997: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes edwardsii (de Saussure, 1853): partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes eldredgei Haig & Kropp 1987: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes elegans Haig, 1981: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes elegantissimus Werding & Hiller, 2015: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes elongatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837): full larval description

*Wear (1964a); Z1: Lab; Z2, M: P+L

*Greenwood (1965); PR, Z1: Lab; Z2, M: P+L

Petrolisthes eriomerus Stimpson, 1871: full larval description

Forss and Coffin (1960); Z1, M: Lab

*Gonor and Gonor (1973); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes extremus Kropp & Haig, 1994: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes fimbriatus Borradaile, 1898: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes galapagensis Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc, 1802): partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes gertrudae Werding, 1996: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes glasselli Haig, 1957: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes gracilis Stimpson, 1859: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes granulosus (Guérin, 1835): full larval description

*Saelzer et al. (1986); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes haigae Chace, 1962: partial larval description

Hernández et al. (2007); Z1: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes haplodactylus Haig, 1988: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes hastatus Stimpson, 1858: partial larval description

Osawa (1997b); Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes haswelli Miers, 1884: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes heterochrous Kropp, 1986: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes hians Nobili, 1901: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes hirtipes Lockington, 1878: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes hirtispinosus Lockington, 1878: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes hispaniolensis Werding & Hiller, 2005: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes holotrichus Nobili, 1901: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes inermis (Heller, 1862): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes japonicus (De Haan, 1849): partial larval description

Muraoka and Konishi (1987); Z1: Lab

Osawa (1995); Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes jugosus Streets, 1872: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes kranjiensis Johnson, 1970: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes laevigatus (Guérin, 1835): full larval description

*Albornoz and Wehrtmann (1996); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes lamarckii (Leach, 1820): full larval description

Sankolli (1967); Z1: Lab

*Shenoy and Sankolli (1975); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

*Yaqoob (1979c); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes leptocheles (Heller, 1861): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes lewisi (Glassell, 1936): partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes limicola Haig, 1988: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes lindae Gore & Abele, 1974: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes magdalenensis Werding, 1978: full larval description

Müller and Werding (1990); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

*Hernández and Magan (2012); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes manimaculis Glassell, 1945: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes marginatus Stimpson, 1859: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes masakii Miyake, 1943: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes melini Miyake & Nakasone, 1966: partial larval description

Osawa (1995) as Petrolisthes carinipes; Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes mesodactylon Kropp, 1984: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes militaris (Heller, 1862): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes miyakei Kropp, 1984: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes moluccensis (De Man, 1888): partial larval description

Osawa (1997b); Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes monodi Chace, 1956: partial larval description

Lebour (1959); M: Pl

Petrolisthes nanshensis Yang, 1996: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes nigrunguiculatus Glassell, 1936: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes nobilii Haig, 1960: partial larval description

Hernández et al. (2007); Z1: Lab

Petrolisthes novaezelandiae Filhol, 1885: full larval description

*Wear (1964b); Z1, Z2, M: P+L

*Greenwood (1965); PR, Z1: Lab; Z2, M: P+L

Petrolisthes obtusifrons Miyake, 1937: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes ornatus Paulson, 1875: full larval description

*Yaqoob (1977b); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes ortmanni Nobili, 1901: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes perdecorus Haig, 1981: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes platymerus Haig, 1960: full larval description

*Gore (1972b); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes politus (Gray, 1831): full larval description

*Hernández et al. (2000); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes polymitus Glassell, 1937: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes pubescens Stimpson, 1858: partial larval description

Osawa (1995); Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes quadratus Benedict, 1901: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes rathbunae Schmitt, 1921: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes robsonae Glassell, 1945: full larval description

*García-Guerrero et al. (2005); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes rosariensis Werding, 1982: partial larval description

Kraus (2006); Z1, Z2: Pl

Petrolisthes rufescens (Heller, 1861): full larval description

*Yaqoob (1974); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes sanfelipensis Glassell, 1936: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes sanmartini Werding & Hiller, 2002: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes scabriculus (Dana, 1852): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes schmitti Glassell, 1936: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes squamanus Osawa, 1996: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes teres Melin, 1939: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes tiburonensis Glassell, 1936: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes tomentosus (Dana, 1852): partial larval description

Osawa (1997b); Z1, Z2: Lab

Petrolisthes tonsorius Haig, 1960: full larval description

*Pellegrini and Gamba (1985); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes tridentatus Stimpson, 1859: full larval description

*Gore (1971c); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Petrolisthes trilobatus Osawa, 1996: partial larval description

Ko (2004); Z1: Lab

Petrolisthes tuberculatus (Guérin, 1835): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes tuberculosus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837): larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes tuerkayi Naderloo & Apel, 2014: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes unilobatus Henderson, 1888: full larval description

*Fujita et al. (2002); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes uruma Osawa & Uyeno, 2013: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes violaceus (Guérin, 1831): full larval description

Faxon (1879) as Porcellana macrocheles; Z2: Pl

*Wehrtmann et al. (1997); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Petrolisthes virgatus Paulson, 1875: larvae undescribed

Petrolisthes zacae Haig, 1968: full larval description

*Gore (1975); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pisidia sp.

Barnich (1996); Z1, Z2: Pl

Rice and Williamson (1977) as Pisidia sp asm10; Z1, Z2, M: Pl

Pisidia bluteli (Risso, 1816): full larval description

Bourdillon-Casanova (1956) as Porcellana bluteli; Z1, Z2, M: Pl

Bourdillon-Casanova (1960) as Porcellana bluteli; M: Pl

Kaya and Özel (1992); Z1, Z2, M: Pl

Pisidia brasiliensis Haig, in Rodrigues da Costa, 1968: partial larval description

Hernández et al. (1996); Z1: Lab

Kraus (2006); Z1: Pl

Pisidia dehaanii (Krauss, 1843): full larval description

*Yaqoob (1979b); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Pisidia delagoae (Barnard, 1955): larvae undescribed

Pisidia dispar (Stimpson, 1858): full larval description

Sheperd (1969); PR, Z1: Lab; Z2, M: P+L

Pisidia gordoni (Johnson, 1970): larvae undescribed

Pisidia inaequalis (Heller, 1861): partial larval description

Gurney (1938) as Porcellana inaequalis; PR, Z1, Z2: Pl

Pisidia longicornis (Linnaeus, 1767): full larval description

Dujardin (1843) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1: Lab

Gosse (1856) as Galathea; Z2: Pl

Bate (1879) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1: Pl

Hesse (1884) as Porcellana platycheles; Z1: Pl

Sars (1889) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1, Z2: P+L

Williamson (1915) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1, M: Pl

Webb (1921) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1, Z2: Pl

Gurney (1942) as Porcellana sp; Z2: Pl

*Lebour (1943) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1, Z2, M: P+L

Kurian (1956) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1, Z2, M: Pl

Lebour (1959) as Porcellana longicornis; M: Pl

Le Roux (1966) as Porcellana longicornis; Z1, Z2, M: P+L

Pisidia longimana (Risso, 1816): partial larval description

Kaya and Özel (1992); Z1, Z2: Pl

Pisidia magdalenensis (Glassell, 1936): larvae undescribed

Pisidia serratifrons (Stimpson, 1858): partial larval description

Sankolli (1967) as Pisidia spinulifrons; PR, Z1: Lab

Kim and Ko (2011); Z1, Z2: Lab

Pisidia streptocheles (Stimpson, 1858): larvae undescribed

Pisidia streptochiroides (Johnson, 1970): partial larval description

Sheperd (1969); PR, Z1: Lab; Z2: P+L

Pisidia striata Yang and Sun, 1990: larvae undescribed

Pisidia vanderhorsti (Schmitt, 1924): partial larval description

*Schoppe (1994) as Clastotoechus vanderhorsti; PR, Z1, Z2: Lab

Pisidia variabilis (Yang & Sun, 1985): larvae undescribed

Polyonyx biunguiculatus (Dana, 1852): larvae undescribed

Polyonyx boucheti Osawa, 2007: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx bouvieri Saint Joseph, 1900: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx confinis Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx gibbesi Haig, 1956: partial larval description

Gore (1968); PR, Z1, Z2: Lab

Maris (1983); Z1, Z2: Pl

Polyonyx haigae McNeil, 1968: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx hendersoni Southwell, 1909: full larval description

Sankolli (1967); PR, Z1: Lab

*Shenoy and Sankolli (1973b): Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Polyonyx loimicola Sankolli, 1965: full larval description

*Shenoy and Sankolli (1973b): Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Polyonyx maccullochi Haig, 1965: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx nitidus Lockington, 1878: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx obesulus Miers, 1884: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx pedalis Nobili, 1905: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx plumatus Yang & Xu, 1994: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx quadratus Chace, 1956: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx quadriungulatus Glassell, 1935: full larval description

*Knight (1966); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Polyonyx senegalensis Chace, 1956: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx sinensis Stimpson, 1858: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx spina Osawa, 2007: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx splendidus Sankolli, 1963: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx thai Werding, 2001: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx transversus (Haswell, 1882): full larval description

Sheperd (1969); PR, Z1: Lab; Z2, M: P+L

Polyonyx triunguiculatus Zehntner, 1894: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx tulearis Werding, 2001: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx utinomii Miyake, 1943: larvae undescribed

Polyonyx vermicola Ng & Sasekumar, 1993: larvae undescribed

Porcellana africana Chace, 1956: larvae undescribed

Porcellana cancrisocialis Glassell, 1936: full larval description

*García-Guerrero et al. (2006); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Porcellana caparti Chace, 1956: larvae undescribed

Porcellana corbicola Haig, 1960: larvae undescribed

Porcellana curvifrons Yang and Sun, 1990: larvae undescribed

Porcellana elegans Chace, 1956: larvae undescribed

Porcellana foresti Chace, 1956: larvae undescribed

Porcellana habei Miyake, 1961: larvae undescribed

Porcellana hancocki Glassell, 1938: larvae undescribed

Porcellana lillyae Lemaitre & Campos, 2000: larvae undescribed

Porcellana paguriconviva Glassell, 1936: larvae undescribed

Porcellana persica Haig, 1966: larvae undescribed

Porcellana platycheles (Pennant, 1777): full larval description

Couch (1843); Z1: Lab

Faxon (1879) as Porcellana (Polyonyx) macrocheles; Z2: Pl

Williamson (1915); Z1, M: Pl

Webb (1921); Z1: Pl

Lebour (1943); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Le Roux (1961); PR, Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Kaya and Özel (1992); Z1, Z2, M: Pl

Barnich (1996); Z1, Z2: Pl

*González-Gordillo et al. (1996); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Porcellana pulchra Stimpson, 1858: larvae undescribed

Porcellana sayana (Leach, 1820): full larval description

Brooks and Wilson (1881) as Porcellana ocellata; PR, Z1: Lab

Hernández et al. (1998); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Porcellana sigsbeiana A. Milne-Edwards, 1880: full larval description

*Gore (1971a); Z1, Z2, M: Lab

Maris (1983); Z1, Z2: Pl

Porcellanella haigae Sankarankutty, 1963: larvae undescribed

Porcellanella triloba White, 1852: larvae undescribed

Pseudoporcellanella manoliensis Sankarankutty, 1961: larvae undescribed

Raphidopus ciliatus Stimpson, 1858: larvae undescribed

Raphidopus indicus Henderson, 1893: larvae undescribed

Raphidopus johnsoni Ng & Nakasone, 1994: larvae undescribed

Ulloaia perpusillia Glassell, 1938: larvae undescribed

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport through Salvador de Madariaga Mobility Program to JIGG (PRX12/00495) and the Migrants and Active Flux in the Atlantic Ocean project (CTM2012-39587-C04-01). Thanks are due to anonymous referees for their comments and corrections that clearly improved the manuscript. This is Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEIMAR) publication nº 117.

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