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Five new species of Macrothele Ausserer, 1871 from China (Araneae, Macrothelidae)
expand article infoYejie Lin, Xunyou Yan, Shuqiang Li§, Francesco Ballarin|, Haifeng Chen
‡ Langfang Normal University, Langfang, China
§ Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
| Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
Open Access

Abstract

Five new species of the genus Macrothele Ausserer, 1871 are described from China: Macrothele emei Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Sichuan), M. hanfeii Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Hainan), M. hungae Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Taiwan), M. limenghuai Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Sichuan), and M. nanning Lin & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀, Guangxi). Types of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, China.

Keywords

Asia, cryptic species, mygalomorphae, taxonomy

Introduction

The spider family Macrothelidae Simon, 1892 includes 40 species in one genus, Macrothele Ausserer, 1871 (Li 2020; WSC 2021). The majority of Macrothele species are distributed in Asia (33 species), but seven species are known from Europe and Africa. Macrothele commonly make webs in crevices or cavities in roadside soil slopes and occasionally build webs within and on leaf litter (Fig. 1). Here we describe five new Macrothele species from China.

Figure 1. 

Live Macrothele spp. in situ A, B M. limenghuai sp. nov., female C M. hanfeii sp. nov., male and female, courtship. Photo by Xu Zhang (A, B) and Jiaxiang Wu (C).

Materials and methods

All specimens were preserved in 75% ethanol at Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China. Spermathecae were cleared in trypsin enzyme solution to dissolve non-chitinous tissues. Specimens were examined under a LEICA M205C stereomicroscope. Photomicroscope images were taken with an Olympus C7070 zoom digital camera (7.1 megapixels). Laboratory habitus photographs were taken with a Canon EOS 60D digital camera equipped with a Canon EF 100 mm f/2.8L IS USM macro lens. Photos were stacked with Helicon Focus v. 6.7.1 and processed in Adobe Photoshop CC 2018. The terminology used in the text and figures follows Zhu and Song (2000). Distribution maps were generated using ArcMap v. 10.2.

All measurements are in millimeters. Total size does not include chelicerae. Eye sizes were measured as the maximum diameter from either the dorsal or frontal view. Leg measurements are given as follows: total length (femur, patella+tibia, metatarsus, tarsus). Abbreviations: AER, anterior eye row; ALE, anterior lateral eyes; AME, anterior median eyes; CD, copulatory ducts; PER, posterior eye row; PLE, posterior lateral eyes; PLS, posterior lateral spinnerets; PME, posterior median eyes; PMS, posterior median spinnerets; T, terminus of receptacula.

Taxonomy

Family Macrothelidae Simon, 1892

Macrothele Ausserer, 1871

Type species

Mygale calpeiana Walckenaer, 1805

Macrothele emei Lin & Li, sp. nov.

Figures 2, 3, 13A, 14A, 16

Type material

Holotype : 1♂ (IZCAS-Ar41850) China, Sichuan Province, Mount Emei, Shengshuige to Huayan Temple, 29.5697°N, 103.4100°E, elevation ca 830 m, 29.IX.2016, Zhe Zhao & Xiaoqing Zhang leg. Paratypes: 1♂3♀ (IZCAS-Ar41851–Ar41854), same data as holotype; 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar41855), China, Sichuan Province, Mount Emei, east of Dapingshanzhuang, Yuanhong Cave, 29.5688°N, 103.4089°E, elevation ca 850 m, 29.IX.2016, Zhe Zhao & Xiaoqing Zhang leg.; 1♂1♀ (IZCAS-Ar41856–Ar41857), China, Sichuan Province, Mount Emei, Zhongfeng Old Temple to Shengshuige, 29.5701°N, 103.4029°E, elevation ca 790 m, 28.IX.2016, Zhe Zhao & Xiaoqing Zhang leg.

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to the type locality; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

Males of Macrothele emei sp. nov. resemble those of M. digitata Chen, Jiang & Yang, 2020 and M. palpator Pocock, 1901 in having the conical spines dorsally on palpal tibia and the embolus of the same shape. Females of the new species resemble M. palpator by the G-shaped receptacula with long copulatory ducts. Males of M. emei sp. nov. can be distinguished from M. digitata and M. palpator by the presence of seven short spines visible in dorsal view on the distal third of the palpal tibia in dorsal view (vs 13–15 long spines in M. digitata and in M. palpator). Females of M. emei sp. nov. can be differentiated from M. palpator by the ratio of the length of the copulatory ducts after the second turn almost 1:2 and the second turn expanded (vs length ratio of the copulatory duct folds 1:3, second fold unexpanded in M. palpator).

Description

Male (holotype) (Figs 2, 3B, C): Total length 21.53, carapace 8.52 long, 6.93 wide; opisthosoma 12.51 long, 5.52 wide. Carapace dark brown, covered with short setae. Fovea deep, round. AER slightly procurved, PER recurved. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.25, ALE 0.36, PME 0.28, PLE 0.27; AMEAME 0.13, ALEAME 0.09, ALEPLE 0.11, PLEPME 0.08, PMEPME 0.27. Cheliceral promargin with 15 stout teeth, basomesally with 20 denticles. Labium brown, with ca 124 cuspules; sternum chestnut, with three pairs of sigillae. Legs dark brown. Leg measurements: I 19.75 (6.52 + 7.01 + 5.13 + 3.10), II 22.88 (6.02 + 7.11 + 5.24 + 4.51), III 23.55 (6.51 + 7.92 + 5.01 + 4.11), IV 30.21 (8.11 + 9.10 + 8.00 + 5.00). Leg formula: 4321. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 2.22 long, 0.51 wide, PMSPMS 1.60; PLS three segments. PLS 12.28 long (3.66, 3.38, 3.54). Tip of PLS white.

Figure 2. 

Macrothele emei sp. nov., left palp, holotype A prolateral view B retrolateral view C bulb apophysis. Black arrows pointing to the conical spines; black arrow to inset pointing to the close up of rough-textured apophysis.

Figure 3. 

Macrothele emei sp. nov., female genitalia, male holotype and female paratype A female genitalia, ventral view B male habitus, dorsal view C male habitus, ventral view D female habitus, dorsal view E female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CD copulatory ducts, T terminus of receptacula.

Male palp (Figs 2, 13A, 14A). Maxillae with ca 153 cuspules. Palpal trochanter without lyral spines. Bulb nearly globose, with a ventral apophysis with a rough texture; embolus flat, slightly curved, needle-shaped, and expanded basally.

Female (Fig. 3A, D, E): total length 22.40, carapace 9.54 long, 8.82 wide; opisthosoma 11.31 long, 6.07 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.39, PME 0.29, PLE 0.36; AMEAME 0.08, ALEAME 0.12, ALEPLE 0.08, PMEPME 0.62, PLEPME 0.07. Cheliceral promargin with 14 stout teeth, basomesally with 21 denticles. Endites brown, labium with ca 118 cuspules. Palpal trochanter without lyral spines. Leg measurements: I 19.76 (5.42 + 6.71 + 4.63 + 3.12), II 20.04 (6.20 + 7.10 + 3.74 + 3.00), III 21.26 (6.10 + 6.92 + 5.03 + 3.21), IV 25.37 (7.11 + 8.21 + 6.13 + 3.92). Leg formula: 4321. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 2.53 long, 0.71 wide, PMSPMS 2.25; PLS three segments. PLS 12.28 long (3.83, 3.72, 4.73).

Female genitalia (Fig. 3A) simple, with two turns. Receptacula directed anteriorly, turning laterally, then dorsally, finally medially; somewhat G-shaped. The length ratio of the duct after the lateral turn to the dorsal turn is 2:1.

Variations

Male total length 14.21–21.53 (n = 3), female total length 13.52–22.40 (n = 5).

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Macrothele hanfeii Lin & Li, sp. nov.

Figures 4, 5, 6, 13F, 14F, 16

Type material

Holotype : 1♂ (IZCAS-Ar41857) China, Hainan Province, Ledong Li Autonomous County, Jianfengling National Park, Mingfeng Valley, 18.7417°N, 108.8416°E, elevation ca 980 m, 21.IV.2018, Yejie Lin & Jiaxiang Wu leg. Paratypes: 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar41858), same data as holotype; 3♀ (IZCAS-Ar41859–Ar41861), same data as holotype but 23.XI.2020, Yunhu Mo leg.

Etymology

The species epithet refers to Mr Hanfei Gao who helped with this research; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

Male of Macrothele hanfeii sp. nov. resemble those of M. holsti Pocock, 1901 and M. multispine Wang, Li & Yang, 2019 by having similar bulb shape. Females of M. hanfeii sp. nov. resemble the aforementioned species by the apically globose receptacula that bend inwards. Male of M. hanfeii sp. nov. can be distinguished from M. holsti and M. multispine in that the palpal tibia bear seven blunt spines in prolateral view and nine in dorsal view that extend onto the patella and a large spine present in the center of the area with blunt spines (vs 14 blunt spines in prolateral view and 13 in dorsal view in M. holsti, and three blunt spines in prolateral view and one in dorsal view in M. multispine; large spine absent in M. holsti and M. multispine, and in M. multispine, the blunt spines are absent on the patella). Females differ from those of M. holsti and M. multispine by the short, robust copulatory ducts and the receptacula apically teardrop shaped (vs copulatory ducts long and thin and receptacula apically oval in M. holsti and M. multispine).

Description

Male (holotype) (Figs 4A, 5, 6B, C, 13F, 14F): total length 20.03, carapace 8.02 long, 7.13 wide; opisthosoma 14.01 long, 5.12 wide. Carapace dark brown, glabrous, covered with short setae, middle of cephalic region with row of setae. Fovea deep, round. AER slightly procurved, PER recurved. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.35, ALE 0.46, PME 0.31, PLE 0.32; AMEAME 0.15, ALEAME 0.11, ALEPLE 0.12, PLEPME 0.05, PMEPME 0.31. Cheliceral promargin with 13 stout teeth, basomesally with 19 denticles. Labium brown, with ca 33 cuspules; sternum chestnut, with three pairs of sigillae. Legs dark brown. Leg measurements: I 21.75 (6.52 + 7.01 + 5.13 + 3.10), II 22.88 (6.02 + 7.11 + 5.24 + 4.51), III 23.55 (6.51 + 7.92 + 5.01 + 4.11), IV 30.21 (8.11 + 9.10 + 8.00 + 5.00). Leg formula: 4321. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 1.76 long, 0.48 wide, PMSPMS 1.36; PLS three segments. PLS 3.94 long (3.19, 3.56, 4.50).

Figure 4. 

Live Macrothele hanfeii sp. nov., paratypes A male B female.

Male palp (Figs 5, 13F, 14F). Maxillae with ca 70 cuspules. Palpal trochanter without lyral spines. Patella with eight blunt spines, tibia with blunt spines, seven in prolateral view and nine in dorsal view. Bulb nearly globose; embolus slightly curved and needle-shaped.

Figure 5. 

Macrothele hanfeii sp. nov., left palp, holotype A prolateral view B retrolateral view.

Female (Figs 4B, 6A, D, E): total length 17.20, carapace 7.62 long, 8.52 wide; opisthosoma 12.21 long, 8.11 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.22, ALE 0.43, PME 0.38, PLE 0.40; AMEAME 0.15, ALEAME 0.09, ALEPLE 0.05, PMEPME 0.58, PLEPME 0.05. Cheliceral promargin with 15 stout teeth, basomesally with 31 denticles. Palpal trochanter without lyral spines. Endites brown, labium with ca 32 cuspules. Leg measurements: I 17.76 (5.02 + 6.51 + 4.13 + 3.10), II 20.04 (6.20 + 7.10 + 3.74 + 3.00), III 21.26 (6.10 + 6.92 + 5.03 + 3.21), IV 25.37 (7.11 + 8.21 + 6.13 + 3.92). Leg formula: 4321. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 2.18 long, 0.53 wide, PMSPMS 2.38; PLS three segments. PLS 11.60 long (3.52, 3.76, 4.32).

Figure 6. 

Macrothele hanfeii sp. nov., female genitalia, male holotype, and female paratype A female genitalia, ventral view B male habitus, dorsal view C male habitus, ventral view D female habitus, dorsal view E female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CD copulatory ducts, T terminus of receptacula.

Female genitalia (Fig. 6A) simple. Receptacula apically teardrop shaped, copulatory ducts short and robust, the ratio of the length of the receptacula apically to the length of the copulatory ducts is almost 1:2.

Variation

Female total length 17.20–22.52 (n = 4).

Distribution

China (Hainan).

Macrothele hungae Lin & Li, sp. nov.

Figures 7, 8, 13E, 14E, 15B, F, 16

Macrothele gigas Haupt, 2008: 20, fig. 4B (♀, misidentified).

Type material

Holotype : 1♂ (IZCAS-Ar41862) China, Taiwan, Kenting National Forest Recreation Area, Pingtung County, Kenting, 27.VI. 2013, Yanzhou Tong leg. Paratypes: 3♀ (IZCAS-Ar41863–Ar41865), same data as holotype.

Species studied for comparison

Macrothele gigas Shimojana & Haupt, 1998: 3♂, Japan, Ishigaki Island, Yarabudake, 24.4405°N, 124.0874°E, 10.IV.2019, Sibagarasu Kurosaki leg.; 3♀, same data as male but 8.IX.2019.

Etymology

The specific epithet is dedicated to Ms Hung Hsiu-chu, the first elected chairwoman of the Kuomintang in Taiwan, China; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

Macrothele hungae sp. nov. resembles M. gigas (Figs 13D, 14D, 15C, D) by the large size, the needle-shaped embolus of the male, and the apically globose receptacula and the S-shaped copulatory ducts of the female. Male of M. hungae sp. nov. can be distinguished from those of M. gigas by three rows of 22–25 lyral spines on the maxillae, palpal tibia with six spines in prolateral view, and embolic base expansion begins at one of the apical thirds of the bulb (vs 11 lyral spines in two rows, tibia with 1 or 2 spines in prolateral view, expansion of embolic base begins at the halfway point of the bulb). Females can be differentiated from those of M. gigas by having the base of copulatory ducts as wide as the receptacula and the receptacula apically oval (vs the ratio of the width of the base of copulatory ducts to the width of the terminus almost 2:3, and the receptacula apically teardrop shaped in M. gigas).

Description

Male (holotype) (Figs 7, 8B, C, 13E, 14E, 15B, F): total length 25.63, carapace 13.22 long, 12.23 wide; opisthosoma 15.89 long, 9.89 wide. Carapace dark brown, covered with short setae, middle of cephalic region with a row of setae. Fovea deep, round. AER slightly procurved, PER recurved. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.50, ALE 0.76, PME 0.41, PLE 0.48; AMEAME 0.25, ALEAME 0.12, ALEPLE 0.16, PLEPME 0.07, PMEPME 0.88. Chelicerae red, promargin with 14 stout teeth, basomesally with 22 denticles. Labium brown, with ca 104 cuspules; sternum chestnut, with three pairs of sigillae. Legs dark brown. Leg measurements: I 43.07 (10.11 + 15.83 + 10.20 + 6.93), II 48.44 (12.22 + 16.61 + 11.10 + 8.51), III 41.44 (10.31 + 14.00 + 10.91 + 6.22), IV 61.05 (17.52 + 17.11 + 19.20 + 7.22). Leg formula: 4213. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 3.12 long, 0.67 wide, PMSPMS 1.55; PLS three segments. PLS 14.10 long (4.30, 4.70, 5.10).

Figure 7. 

Macrothele hungae sp. nov., left palp, holotype A prolateral view B retrolateral view. Black arrow: expansion of embolic base. Black arrow pointing to the expansion of embolic base.

Male palp (Figs 7, 13E, 14E). Maxillae with ca 115 cuspules. Palpal trochanter with 25 lyral spines. Tibia with six spines. Bulb nearly globose; embolus needle shaped, expanded at the base.

Female (Fig. 8A, D, E): total length 40.81, carapace 18.22 long, 16.52 wide; opisthosoma 22.61 long, 13.13 wide. AER slightly procurved, PER recurved. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.52, ALE 0.93, PME 0.72, PLE 0.58; AMEAME 0.31, ALEAME 0.20, ALEPLE 0.12, PMEPME 1.16, PLEPME 0.13. Cheliceral promargin with 11 stout teeth, basomesally with 28 denticles. Endites brown, labium with ca 118 cuspules. Leg measurements: I 59.54 (16.21 + 22.74 + 12.30 + 8.29), II 61.97 (16.40 + 22.21 + 14.93 + 8.43), III 54.81 (13.50 + 20.12 + 14.32 + 6.87), IV 66.02 (17.14 + 22.13 + 18.83 + 7.92). Leg formula: 4213. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 5.12 long, 0.91 wide, PMSPMS 4.42; PLS three segments. PLS 22.29 long (7.35, 7.51, 7.43).

Figure 8. 

Macrothele hungae sp. nov., female genitalia, male holotype and female paratype A female genitalia, ventral view B male habitus, dorsal view C male habitus, ventral view D female habitus, dorsal view E female habitus, ventral view. Black arrow pointing to the width of the terminus. Abbreviations: CD copulatory ducts, T terminus of receptacula.

Female genitalia (Fig. 8A) simple. Receptacula apically oval; copulatory duct narrow, S-shaped; width of the base of the copulatory ducts and the width of the terminus are nearly equal.

Variation

Female total length 40.81–51.40 (n = 3).

Distribution

China (Taiwan).

Macrothele limenghuai Lin & Li, sp. nov.

Figures 9, 10, 13B, 14B, 15A, E, 16

Type material

Holotype : 1♂ (IZCAS-Ar41866) China, Sichuan Province, Ya’an, Yucheng District, Sichuan Agriculture University, Laoban Mountain region, 29.9757°N, 102.9932°E, 17.VI.2014, Yejie Lin leg. Paratypes: 1♂ (IZCAS-Ar41867), same data as holotype; 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar41868), same data as holotype but 22.X.2020, Menghua Li leg.

Etymology

The species epithet is for Mr Menghua Li who collected the paratype; noun (name) in genitive case.

Diagnosis

Males of Macrothele limenghuai sp. nov. resemble those of M. monocirculata Xu & Yin, 2000 and M. raveni Zhu, Li & Song, 2000 by having similar palpal bulb morphology, but they can be distinguished by having five tibial spines visible in prolateral view, the embolus as long as the tibia, and the base of the embolus with a depression (vs tibia with four spines in M. monocirculata or three spines in M. raveni visible in prolateral view, embolus notably longer than tibia and without basal depression). Females of Macrothele limenghuai sp. nov. resemble those of M. monocirculata and M. raveni by the receptacula coiling almost 360°, but they can be differentiated by the copulatory ducts bending outward medially (120°) (vs copulatory ducts straight in M. monocirculata and bent 90° in M. raveni).

Description

Male (holotype) (Figs 9, 10B, C, 13B, 14B, 15A, E): total length 28.13, carapace 13.86 long, 12.43 wide; opisthosoma 15.19 long, 9.52 wide. Carapace dark brown, covered with short setae, middle of cephalic region with row of setae. Fovea deep, round. AER slightly procurved, PER recurved. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.43, ALE 0.65, PME 0.42, PLE 0.51; AMEAME 0.31, ALEAME 0.13, ALEPLE 0.16, PLEPME 0.11, PMEPME 0.89. Chelicerae black, promargin with 11 stout teeth, basomesally with 27 denticles. Labium brown, with ca 104 cuspules; sternum chestnut, with three pairs of sigillae. Legs dark brown. Leg measurements: I 44.26 (12.31 + 13.63 + 11.10 + 7.22), II 46.30 (11.81 + 16.23 + 11.11 + 7.15), III 41.66 (11.10 + 12.74 + 11.60 + 6.22), IV 53.85 (13.62 + 17.83 + 14.29 + 8.11). Leg formula: 4213. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 1.44 long, 0.56 wide, PMSPMS 2.35; PLS three segments. PLS 12.18 long (4.08, 4.16, 4.10).

Figure 9. 

Macrothele limenghuai sp. nov., left palp, holotype A prolateral view B retrolateral view. Black arrow pointing to the depression on the base of the embolus.

Male palp (Figs 9, 13B, 14B). Maxillae with ca 172 cuspules. Palpal trochanter with 20 lyral spines. Tibia with five spines. Bulb nearly globose; embolus needle shaped; embolus base with depression.

Female (Fig. 10A, D, E): total length 39.30, carapace 15.14 long, 27.31 wide; opisthosoma 24.11 long, 14.26 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.44, ALE 0.77, PME 0.47, PLE 0.59; AMEAME 0.36, ALEAME 0.14, ALEPLE 0.15, PLEPME 0.08. Cheliceral promargin with 11 stout teeth, basomesally with 28 denticles. Endites brown, labium with ca 127 cuspules. Palpal trochanter with lyral spines. Leg measurements: I 46.07 (13.01 + 17.03 + 11.02 + 5.02), II 47.24 (12.08 + 18.10 + 11.01 + 6.05), III 45.32 (11.07 + 15.08 + 12.05 + 6.12), IV 54.32 (14.10 + 19.02 + 14.09 + 7.11). Leg formula: 4213 Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 1.44 long, 0.53 wide, PMSPMS 1.61; PLS three segments. PLS 13.63 long (2.40, 4.63, 4.48).

Figure 10. 

Macrothele limenghuai sp. nov., female genitalia, male holotype, and female paratypes A female genitalia, ventral view B male habitus, dorsal view C male habitus, ventral view D female habitus, dorsal view E female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CD copulatory ducts, T terminus of receptacula.

Female genitalia (Fig. 10A) simple. Receptacula apically expanded; copulatory ducts narrow, C-shaped, coiled anteriorly from 180° to 300°.

Variation

Male total length 28.13–32.62 (n = 2).

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Macrothele nanning Lin & Li, sp. nov.

Figures 11, 12, 13C, 14C, 16

Type material

Holotype : 1♂ (IZCAS-Ar41869) China, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Suxu Town, Mu Village, Shibaluohan Cave, 22.5433°N, 108.0565°E, elevation ca 190 m, 09.V.2015, Zhigang Chen & Yunchun Li leg. Paratypes: 5♀ (IZCAS-Ar41870–Ar41874), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The species epithet refers to the type locality; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

Males of Macrothele nanning sp. nov. resemble M. multispine by having blunt spines in lateral and dorsal views of palpal tibia and similar palpal bulb morphology, and females of the new species are similar to others by the apically globose receptacula bent inwards apically. Male of M. nanning sp. nov. can be distinguished from M. multispine by having the tibia with eight blunt spines in prolateral view and seven in dorsal view, the blunt spines extending onto patella (vs three blunt spines in prolateral view and one in dorsal view and blunt spines absent from patella). Females can be differentiated from M. multispine by the short, robust copulatory ducts and receptacula expanded basally (vs copulatory ducts long and narrow and receptacula base unexpanded).

Description

Male (holotype) (Figs 11, 12B, C, 13C, 14C): total length 12.63, carapace 5.30 long, 5.26 wide; opisthosoma 7.31 long, 4.17 wide. Carapace dark brown, covered with short setae, middle of cephalic region with row of setae. Fovea deep, round. AER slightly procurved, PER recurved. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.25, ALE 0.47, PME 0.26, PLE 0.28; AMEAME 0.14, ALEAME 0.06, ALEPLE 0.56, PLEPME 0.04, PMEPME 0.44. Cheliceral promargin with 11 stout teeth, basomesally with 17 denticles. Labium brown, with ca 17 cuspules; sternum chestnut, with three pairs of sigillae. Legs dark brown. Leg measurements: I 16.61 (4.49 + 5.77 + 3.91 + 2.44), II 17.30 (4.99 + 5.64 + 4.23 + 2.44), III 16.48 (4.17 + 5.13 + 4.74 + 2.44), IV 20.64 (5.06 + 6.73 + 6.09 + 2.76). Leg formula: 4231. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 1.02 long, 0.24 wide, PMSPMS 0.99; PLS three segments. PLS 3.94 long (2.45, 2.20, 2.78).

Figure 11. 

Macrothele nanning sp. nov., left palp, holotype A prolateral view B retrolateral view.

Male palp (Figs 11, 13C, 14C). Maxillae with ca 43 cuspules. Palpal trochanter without lyral spines. Patella with three blunt spines; tibia with blunt spines, eight in prolateral view and seven in dorsal view. Bulb nearly globose; embolus slightly curved, needle shaped, and expanded at base.

Female (Fig. 12A, D, E): total length 17.08, carapace 7.12 long, 6.09 wide; opisthosoma 9.81 long, 6.86 wide. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.23, ALE 0.50, PME 0.22, PLE 0.41; AMEAME 0.20, ALEAME 0.12, ALEPLE 0.08, PMEPME 0.64, PLEPME 0.04. Cheliceral promargin with 13 stout teeth, basomesally with 22 denticles. Endites brown, labium with ca 30 cuspules. Leg measurements: I 18.28 (6.09 + 6.41 + 3.65 + 2.13), II 15.57 (5.00 + 5.45 + 2.88 + 2.24), III 21.26 (4.81 +5.00 + 4.10 + 2.37), IV 20.51 (5.45 + 7.18 + 5.32 + 2.56). Leg formula: 4132. Abdomen dark brown, hairy. Spinnerets: PMS one segment, 1.76 long, 0.49 wide, PMSPMS 1.72; PLS three segments. PLS 7.81 long (2.36, 2.38, 3.06).

Figure 12. 

Macrothele nanning sp. nov., female genitalia, male holotype, and female paratypes A female genitalia, ventral view B male habitus, dorsal view C male habitus, ventral view D female habitus, dorsal view E female habitus, ventral view. Abbreviations: CD copulatory ducts, T terminus of receptacula.

Female genitalia (Fig. 12A) simple. Receptacula apically oval; copulatory ducts short and robust, expanded; the ratio of the length of the receptacula apically to the length of the copulatory duct is almost 1:4.

Variation

Female total length 12.43–17.08 (n = 5).

Figure 13. 

Prolateral view of embolic tips of six species of Macrothele A M. emei sp. nov. B M. limenghuai sp. nov. C M. nanning sp. nov. D M. gigas E M. hungae sp. nov. F M. hanfeii sp. nov.

Figure 14. 

Retrolateral view of embolic tips of six species of Macrothele A M. emei sp. nov. B M. limenghuai sp. nov. C M. nanning sp. nov. D M. gigas E M. hungae sp. nov. F M. hanfeii sp. nov.

Distribution

China (Guangxi).

Figure 15. 

Male left palpal trochanter, retrolateral view, and lyral setae A, E Macrothele limenghuai sp. nov. B, F M. hungae sp. nov. C, D M. gigas.

Figure 16. 

Distribution records of Macrothele species in East Asia 1 M. yani 2 M. arcuata 3 M. jingzhao 4 M. yunlingensis 5 M. undata 6 M. cangshanensis 7 M. yongshengensis 8 M. jinlin 9 M. bannaensis 10 M. yunnanica 11 M. menglunensis 12 M. multispine 13 M. limenghuai sp. nov. 14 M. emei sp. nov. 15 M. sanheensis 16 M. decemnotata 17 M. proserpina 18 M. monocirculata 19 M. raveni 20 M. guizhouensis 21 M. digitata 22 M. nanning sp. nov. 23 M. hanfeii sp. nov. 24 M. hunanica 25 M. hungae sp. nov. 26 M. holsti 27 M. palpator 28 M. taiwanensis 29 M. simplicata 30 M. yaginumai 31 M. gigas.

Acknowledgements

The manuscript benefitted greatly from comments by Chris Hamilton (Moscow, USA), Marshal Hedin (San Diego, USA), Danni Sherwood (UK) and Bastian Drolshagen (Karlsruhe, Germany). Sarah Crews checked the English. Menghua Li, Qianlu Le, Zhigang Chen, Zhe Zhao, Xiaoqing Zhang, Yunchun Li, Kun Yu, Hanfei Gao, Shuyuan Zhang, Yunhu Mo, Jiaxiang Wu, Quanyu Ji, and Han Gao helped in fieldwork. Miyata Rio, Chengbin Wang, and Kun Yu assisted with imaging.

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