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Research Article
Review of the planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) with description of one new species from China
expand article infoZhengguang Zhang, Zhimin Chang§, Xiangsheng Chen§
‡ Jinggangshan University Ji'an, Ji'an, China
§ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
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Abstract

The planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae) is reviewed to include 3 species: N. wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Hunan), N. yangi Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Guangdong) and N. guangxiensis sp. n. (China: Guangxi). A revised generic diagnosis is given. The new species is described and all species illustrated. A key to these three species is also given. The species Neohemisphaerius signifer (Walker) is transferred back to Hemisphaerius as H. signifer Walker, comb. revived.

Keywords

Fulgoromorpha

Introduction

The genus Neohemisphaerius was erected by Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 for two new species (N. wugangensis and N. yangi) and N. signifer Walker, 1851, from China. In this paper, one new species of the genus Neohemisphaerius is described and illustrated from China, the generic characteristics are redefined and a checklist and key to the known species of the genus are provided. In addition, N. signifer is removed from the genus; its placement was based on the identification by Fennah (1956) which has proven erroneous when compared to studied images of the type in the Natural History Museum, London. This type, which differs from Neohemisphaerius in lacking a median carina on the frons and in having the anteclypeus flat and hindwings well developed, is returned to Hemisphaerius as comb. revived, pending further studies. The non-type specimen from China figured by Fennah (1956) as N. signifer belongs to an unknown species.

Material and methods

The morphological terminology of the head and body follows Chan and Yang (1994), and the terminology of male genitalia follows Gnezdilov (2003). The genital segments of the examined specimens were macerated in 10% KOH and drawn from preparations in glycerin jelly using a light microscope. Photographs of the specimens were made using Zeiss stereo Discovery V8. Microscope with Zeiss Axio Cam HRc camera, images were produced using the software Axion Vision V4.8.2.0 and edited and enhanced using Adobe Photoshop CS4.0.

The type specimens of the new species are deposited in School of Life Sciences, Jinggangshan University.

Taxonomy

Neohemisphaerius Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014

Neohemisphaerius Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014: 80

Type species

Neohemisphaerius wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014.

Diagnosis

Body hemispherical, head including eyes wider than pronotum. Vertex about 2.5–3.1 times wider than long, anterior margin more or less straight, posterior margin angulately concave, disc depressed, edges carinated. Frons longer than broad, with median carina, lateral margins slightly elevated. Clypeus convex on disc, distinctly tapering to apex. Pronotum depressed on disc, with two central pits, edges carinated. Mesonotum subtriangular, without median and lateral carinae. Forewings hemispherical, claval suture present. Hind wings rudimentary, veins indistinct. Hind tibiae with 2 lateral teeth. Spinal formula of the hind leg (9,10)-(4,5)-2.

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan)

Discussion

The genus Neohemisphaerius is similar to Hemisphaerius Schaum, 1850 and Gergithus Stål, 1870, but it differs from Hemisphaerius in: frons with median carina; clypeus with a hump-shaped process in middle and forewings with claval suture present. It differs from Gergithus in: frons with median carina; forewings with claval suture present; hind wings rudimentary, shorter than half length of forewings.

Key to species of genus Neohemisphaerius

1 Forewings (Figs 1–2, 4–5) pale brown, with two black patches at costal margin; aedeagus (Figs 9–10) dorsally with a hump-shaped process, each side with birdhead-shaped processes N. guangxiensis sp. n.
Forewings (Figs 13–14) yellowish, with extensive black markings; aedeagus not as above 2
2 Frons (Fig. 16) with distinct median carina; anal tube (Chen et al. 2014: fig. 2–35: H) in dorsal view with apical margin sinuate; aedeagus (Chen et al. 2014: figs 2–35: M, K) ventrally with short hooks, shorter than 1/5 length of aedeagus; spinal formula of hind leg10-4-2 N. wugangensis
Frons (Fig. 20) with obscure median carina; anal tube (Chen et al. 2014: fig. 2-36: H) in dorsal view apical margin round; aedeagus (Chen et al. 2014: figs 2–36: L, K) ventrally with long hooks, longer than half length of aedeagus; spinal formula of hind leg 9-5-2 N. yangi
Figures 1–6.

Neohemisphaerius guangxiensis sp. n. 1 Adult (male), dorsal view 2 Adult (male), in lateral view 3 Frons and clypeus (male), in front view 4 Adult (female), in dorsal view 5 Adult (female), in lateral view 6 Frons and clypeus (female), in front view.

Figures 7–12.

Neohemisphaerius guangxiensis sp. n. 7 Hind wing 8 Male genitalia, in lateral view 9 Aedeagus, in left view 10 Aedeagus, ventral view 11 Genital style, in profile view 12 Anal tube, in dorsal view.

Figures 13–16.

Neohemisphaerius wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014. 13 Adult (male), in dorsal view 14 Adult (male), in lateral view 15 Head (male), in lateral view 16 Frons and clypeus (male), in front view.

Figures 17–20.

Neohemisphaerius yangi Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014. 17 Adult (male), in dorsal view 18 Adult (male), in lateral view 19 Head (male), in lateral view 20 Frons and clypeus (male), in front view.

Neohemisphaerius guangxiensis sp. n.

Figs 1–6, 7–12

Type material

Holotype: ♂, China: Guangxi, Maoershan National Nature Reserve (E110°27'56.9", N25°54'43.5"), 1470 m, 18 July 2015, Z.G. Zhang; paratypes: 2 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀, same data as holotype.

Description

Body length (from apex of vertex to tip of forewing): male 4.63 mm, female 5.21 mm; Forewing: male 4.12 mm, female 4.60 mm.

Coloration

Male: Vertex (Fig. 1) and frons (Fig. 3) brown, edges dark brown. Clypeus (Fig. 3) pale yellowish, rostrum (Fig. 3) dark brown, antenna brown (Figs 2–3). Pronotum (Fig. 1) brown with pale brown on disc, mesonotum (Fig. 1) brown with lateral angles dark brown. Forewings (Figs 1–2) brown with black markings near costal margin, hind wing pale brown. Legs pale brown. Female: Clypeus (Fig. 6) pale green near base, rostrum (Fig. 6) dark brown. Pronotum (Fig. 4) dark brown, mesonotum black brown. Forewings (Figs 4–5) with extensive irregular black markings, costal margin with pale brown spots at base and apex, pale stripe arising from middle of costal margin oblique to suture.

Head and thorax

Vertex (Fig. 1) quadrangular, about 3.14 times wider than long, anterior margin straight, posterior margin angulately concave. Frons (Fig. 3) narrow at base, widest between eyes, about 1.36 times longer than broad, median carina present, distinctly convex above frontoclypeal suture. Clypeus (Fig. 3) with a hump-like process. Pronotum (Fig. 1) with posterior margin straight, depressed on disc, with two central pits. Mesonotum (Fig. 1) subtriangular, about 1.94 times longer in midline than the length of pronotum. Forewings (Figs 1–2) hemispherical, claval suture present, with longitudinal veins. Hind wings rudimentary, veins obscure. Hind tibiae with 2 lateral teeth. Spinal formula of the hind leg (9,10)-(4,5)-2.

Male genitalia

Anal tube (Fig. 12) relatively short, oval in dorsal view. Anal column relatively long, located at 1/3 basad of anal tube. Pygofer (Fig. 8) in lateral view, with anterior margin moderately concave, posterior margin raised near base. Aedeagus dorsally (Fig. 9) with a hump-shaped process near mid-length, each side with a bird-head-shaped process at 1/3 distance from apex, process acute apically, directed cephalad; dorso-lateral lobes obtuse apically, aedeagus ventrally with a pair of convergent hook-like processes, apical margin of ventral lobe (Fig. 10) with a notch in middle. Style (Fig. 11) with a strongly convex hind margin and capitulum narrowing apically.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the locality, Guangxi province, China.

Host plant

Unknown.

Distribution

China (Guangxi).

Figure 21.

Geographic distribution of Neohemisphaerius species in China.

Remarks

This species is similar to N. wugangensis, but differs in: (i) Anal tube (Fig. 12) longer than broad, with apical margin not expanded (in wugangensis anal tube about as long as broad, apical margin expanded (see Chen et al. 2014: figs 2–35: H); (ii) Aedeagus (Fig. 9) with a bird-head-shaped subapical process in each side, ventrally with pairs of long hooks near mid-length (in wugangensis processes of aedeagus different and ventrally with pairs of short hooks 1/3 from base); (iii) Apical margin of ventral lobe (Fig. 10) with a notch in middle (in wugangensis ventral lobe with apical margin convex in middle (see Chen et al. 2014: fig. 2–35: K).

Neohemisphaerius wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014

Figs 13–16

Neohemisphaerius wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014: 80: figs 2–35.

Material examined

1♂4♀♀, Yunshan National Forest Park, Wugang city, Hunan Province, China

Neohemisphaerius yangi Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014

Figs 17–20

Neohemisphaerius yangi Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014: 83: figs 2–36.

Material examined

2♂♂7♀♀, Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Ms. M.L. Chan (National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung Taiwan) and Dr. V.M. Gnezdilov (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Russia) for providing valuable references. This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31460157), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (20114BAB214013), Science Research Fund of Jiangxi Provincial Education Department (GJJ14562), the Scientific Research Foundation for Doctors of Jinggangshan University (JZ10039) and High Level Discipline of Biology, Jiangxi Province.

References

  • Chan ML, Yang CT (1994) Issidae of Taiwan (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Chen Chung Book, Taichung, 188 pp.
  • Fennah RG (1956) Fulgoroidea from southern China. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco 28(4): 441–527.
  • Gnezdilov VM (2003) Review of the family Issidae (Homoptera, Cicadina) of the European fauna, with notes on the structure of ovipositor in planthoppers. Chteniya pamyati N.A. Kholodkovskogo [Meetings in memory of N.A. Cholodkovsky], St. Petersburg 56(1): 1–145. [In Russian with English summary]
  • Walker F (1851) List of the specimens of Homopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. 2: 261–636. [380]
  • Chen XS, Zhang ZG, Chang ZM (2014) Issidae and Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) from China. Guizhou Science and Technology Publishing House, Guiyang, 242 pp.