Research Article
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Research Article
Eight new species of the spider genera Raveniola and Sinopesa from China and Vietnam (Araneae, Nemesiidae)
expand article infoShuqiang Li, Sergei Zonstein§
‡ Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of sciences, Beijing, China
§ Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel
Open Access

Abstract

Eight new species, seven Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 and one Sinopesa Raven & Schwendinger, 1995 from China and Vietnam are described: Raveniola alpina sp. n., R. bellula sp. n., R. chayi sp. n., R. gracilis sp. n., R. rugosa sp. n., R. spirula sp. n. and R. yajiangensis sp. n. and Sinopesa ninhbinhensis sp. n. Keys to all East-Asian congeners, diagnoses of the new species, and new distribution data of R. montana Zonstein & Marusik, 2012, with a first record for Sichuan, China, are provided.

Keywords

Taxonomy, mygalomorph spiders, new records, South-East Asia

Introduction

The Nemesiidae are known to include 45 genera and 382 species (World Spider Catalog 2015). The members of five nemesiid genera are distributed within Eastern and South-Eastern Asia: Atmetochilus Simon, 1887, Damarchilus Silival, Molur & Raven, 2015, Damarchus Thorell, 1891, Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 and Sinopesa Raven & Schwendinger, 1995. Before our study, eleven species in three genera were known from China (Li and Wang 2014; Zonstein and Marusik 2012) and none from Vietnam.

While sorting and identifying nemesiid material in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, eight new species belonging to Raveniola and Sinopesa were found; they are described here. The systematic position of both genera was recently considered by Zonstein and Marusik (2012). The latter genus was shown to be more closely related to the former rather than to the African Entypesa Simon, 1902 as suggested by Raven and Schwendinger (1995).

To permit reliable identification and stimulate further studies in this area, all new descriptions are illustrated and keys to the studied genera and species are added.

Material and methods

Specimens were examined and measured with a LEICA M205 C stereomicroscope and details were studied with an Olympus BX51 compound microscope. Illustrations were made using a camera lucida attached to the Olympus BX51 microscope and inked with an ink jet plotter. Male palps and female genitalia were examined and illustrated after they were dissected from the spiders. Vulvae were treated in a warm solution of 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH). The left palp and left legs I and II of male spiders were illustrated, unless otherwise indicated. Specimens were preserved in a 75% ethanol solution. Photos were taken with an Olympus C7070 wide zoom digital camera (7.1 megapixels) mounted on an Olympus SZX12 stereomicroscope. The images were assembled using Helicon image stacking software. All measurements are given in millimetres unless otherwise noted. Leg measurements are given as: total length (femur + patella + tibia + metatarsus + tarsus). Leg segments were measured on the dorsal side.

The following abbreviations are used: AL – abdomen length; ALE – anterior lateral eye(s); AME – anterior median eye(s); AW – abdomen width; CL – carapace length; CW – carapace width; PLE – posterior lateral eye(s); PLS – posterior lateral spinneret(s); PME – posterior median eye(s); PMS – posterior median spinneret(s); TL – total length (including chelicerae, but not spinnerets).

All specimens used in this study are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China. The only exception is the female paratype of R. chayi sp. n., kept at the Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (SMF).

Taxonomy

Nemesiidae Simon, 1889

Notes

Only two genera of the family occur with some degree of certainty in eastern Asia. Judging from the original description, Nemesia sinensis Pocock, 1901 probably belongs to the Cyrtaucheniidae (see Zonstein and Marusik 2012).

Key to the East and South-East Asian genera of Nemesiidae

The distribution of Atmetochilus is given considering data provided by Schwendinger (1996) and Zonstein and Marusik (in press).

1 Thoracic fovea short, U-shaped; posterior sternal sigilla distinctly larger and farther from sternal margin than other sigilla, in many cases subcentral or confluent; paired tarsal claws either with two more or less distinctly juxtaposed teeth rows (females) or with one S-shaped row (males); PMS well developed; male tibia I with coupling spur and megaspines located proventrally 2
Thoracic fovea short, straight or pit-like; posterior sternal sigilla submarginal; paired tarsal claws with two similar teeth rows on promargin and retromargin in males and females; PMS small to absent; male tibia I with two enlarged retroventral distal spines and without coupling spur 4
2 Posterior sternal sigilla submarginal to subcentral but not confluent (Raven 1985: fig. 53; Siliwal et al. 2015: figs 1D, 2D) 3
Posterior sternal sigilla confluent; (Raven 1985: fig. 59) Atmetochilus (India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand)
3 Metatarsal preening combs absent on legs III and IV; female tarsus IV with scopula Damarchilus (Eastern India)
Metatarsal preening combs present on legs III and IV; female tarsus IV without scopula Damarchus (Eastern India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore and Thailand)
3 Carapace hirsute and with finely granular texture; hairs on legs I–IV long and non-uniform; tarsal scopula more or less dense and long; male intercheliceral tumescence reduced if present Raveniola (south Palearctic, from Turkey to China)
Carapace with only a few bristles; hairs on legs I–IV more or less uniformly short; tarsal scopula thin and short; male intercheliceral tumescence well developed Sinopesa (South-eastern China, Ryukyu Isles, Thailand and Vietnam)

Raveniola Zonstein, 1987

Type species

Brachythele virgata Simon, 1891, from Central Asia, by the original designation.

Diagnosis

Raveniola, similar to Sinopesa Raven & Schwendinger, 1995, has two enlarged retroventral distal spines on tibia I in males and divided receptacles in females, as well as the absence of a serrula and metatarsal preening combs. The leg scopula in Raveniola is more developed than it is in Sinopesa. By contrast, the male intercheliceral tumescence in Raveniola is lost or vestigial, whereas in Sinopesa, it is well-developed. Like Sinopesa, members of Raveniola have more or less reduced PMS, which are completely lost in some species. The apical segment of the PLS in Raveniola is usually shorter than that in Sinopesa.

Composition

Raveniola currently comprises 29 species, including the new species described here; 14 of them occur in China: R. alpina sp. n., R. bellula sp. n., R. chayi sp. n., R. gracilis sp. n., R. guangxi (Raven & Schwendinger, 1995), R. hebeinica Zhu, Zhang & Zhang, 1999, R. montana Zonstein & Marusik, 2012, R. rugosa sp. n., R. shangrila Zonstein & Marusik, 2012, R. songi Zonstein & Marusik, 2012, R. spirula sp. n., R. xizangensis (Hu & Li, 1987), R. yajiangensis sp. n. and R. yunnanensis Zonstein & Marusik, 2012.

Key to East Asian Raveniola species

Females of R. alpina sp. n., R. gracilis sp. n., R. guangxi, R. rugosa sp. n., R. shangrila, R. songi, R. spirula sp. n. and R. yunnanensis are unknown.

1 Males 2
Females 15
2 PMS present 3
PMS absent 9
3 Carapace length > 10 mm. Embolus with distinct subapical keel xizangensis
Carapace length 3.0–7.3 mm. Embolic keel absent or vestigial 4
4 Palpal tibia relatively short, with a length/width ratio of 3.0–3.2 (Fig. 11A–C). Embolus short and with deep subbasal ridges (Fig. 12A–C) montana
Palpal tibia and embolus relatively long, with a length/width ratio of 3.6–4.5 (Figs 1A–C, 2A–C, 3A–C, 5A–C, 6A–C, 7A–C, 9A–C, 10A–C, 13A–C, 14A–C, 15A–C, 16A–C, 17A–C, 19A–C) 5
5 Embolus with distally hooked tip (Figs 9A–C, 10A–C) gracilis sp. n.
Embolic tip not hooked 6
6 Embolus more or less twisted 7
Distal part of embolus curved gradually (Zonstein and Marusik 2012: fig. 39) hebeinica
7 Tibia I equal in length to or shorter than metatarsus (as in Fig. 17E). Few spines on cymbium (as in Fig. 19A–C) 8
Tibia I considerably longer than metatarsus (see Zonstein and Marusik 2012: fig. 29). Cymbium with numerous dorsal spines (Op. cit.: fig. 35) yunnanensis
8 Embolus only slightly twisted (Op. cit.: fig. 42) songi
Embolus distinctly twisted (Figs 19A–C) yajiangensis sp. n.
9 Embolus with hooked tip (see Zonstein and Marusik 2012: figs 37, 38) guangxi
Embolic tip not hooked 10
10 Embolus strongly spiralled as in Figs 15A–C, 16A–C spirula sp. n.
Embolus more or less curved, slightly spiralled or bent as in Figs 1A–C, 2A–C, 3A–C, 5A–C, 6A–C, 7A–C, 13A–C, 14A–C 11
11 Embolus slightly spiralled as in Figs 1A–C, 2A–C alpina sp. n.
Embolus curved or gradually twisted 12
12 Entire embolus arched as in Figs 13A–C, 14A–C rugosa sp. n.
Embolus more or less distinctly twisted as in Figs 3A–C, 5A–C, 6A–C, 7A–C 13
13 Abdomen with dorsal and ventral spotted pattern (Figs 3D, G, 6D, G). Embolus only slightly twisted (Figs 3A–C, 5A–C, 6A–C, 7A–C) 14
Abdomen uniformly dark brown. Embolus noticeably twisted (see Zonstein and Marusik 2012: fig. 41) shangrila
14 Dorsal abdominal pattern consists of numerous darker spots on a lighter background (Fig. 3D). Metatarsus I very gently curved (Fig. 3E). Embolus moderately long without ridges (Figs 3A–C, 5A–C) bellula sp. n.
Dorsal abdominal pattern consists of numerous lighter spots on a darker background (Fig. 6D). Metatarsus I noticeably curved (Fig. 6E). Embolus long and tapering with ridges (Figs 6A–C, 7A–C) chayi sp. n.
15 PMS present 16
PMS absent 19
16 Carapace length > 10 mm. Median (ental) branch of receptacle bifurcate (Op. cit., fig. 50) xizangensis
Carapace length < 8 mm. Median (ental) branch of receptacle entire 17
17 Median (ental) branch of receptacle curved inward as shown in Figs 18, 19D yajiangensis sp. n.
Shape of receptacles different 18
18 PLS: apical segment triangular. Receptacular bases narrow (Zonstein and Marusik 2012, fig. 47) hebeinica
PLS: apical segment digitiform. Receptacular bases widened (Op. cit., fig. 48) montana
19 Receptacles as shown in Figs 4A, 5D bellula sp. n.
Receptacles as shown in Figs 8B–C chayi sp. n.

Raveniola alpina sp. n.

Figs 1, 2

Type material

Holotype ♂ – CHINA, Yunnan Province, Zhongdian County, northern Zhongdian [27°50.119'N, 99°42.426'E, elevation 3285 m], July 23–30, 2000, X. Yu & H. Zhou (IZCAS). Paratypes: same data but Xiaoxueshanyakou [27°49.119'N, 99°41.426'E, elevation 3265 m] – 1♂ (IZCAS); same data but Bitahaixi [27°48.105'N, 99°40.429'E, elevation 3285 m] – 2♂ (IZCAS).

Etymology

The specific name is taken from the Latin adjective “alpinus”, which means “alpine” and refers to the high altitude of the type locality.

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to R. chayi sp. n., R. shangrila and R. songi, all also occurring in Yunnan, but differs by the slightly twisted and bent distal portion of the embolus (Figs 1A–C, 2A–C, cf. Figs 6A–C, 7A–C). R. alpina sp. n. can be distinguished from the latter species also by the absence of PMS (present in R. songi).

Figure 1.

Raveniola alpina sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 1.0 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D–G).

Figure 2.

Raveniola alpina sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Description

Male (holotype): TL 14.50, CL 5.75, CW 5.25, AL 6.55, AW 4.00. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.31, PME 0.13, PLE 0.15, AMEAME 0.19, AMEALE 0.10, PMEPME 0.55, PMEPLE 0.08. Leg lengths: I: 17.05 (4.90+2.10+4.40+3.50+2.15), II: 16.15 (4.85+1.50+4.30+3.40+2.10), III: 14.50 (4.25+1.70+3.10+3.25+2.20), IV: 18.45 (5.10+2.15+4.55+4.10+2.55). Labium, sternum and maxillae as shown in Fig. 1G. Maxillae with 15–20 cuspules. Prosoma, palps and legs brown. Spinnerets deep grey (Fig. 1D, G). Metatarsus I noticeably curved (Fig. 1E). PMS entirely reduced, apical segment of PLS digitiform (Fig. 1D, G). Palpal tibia long, cylindrical; bulb long, pyriform; embolus gradually tapering to a slender bent point; distal cymbium with three short, stout spines (Figs 1A–C, 2A–C).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

China: northern Yunnan.

Raveniola bellula sp. n.

Figs 3, 4, 5

Type material

Holotype ♂ – CHINA, Yunnan Province, Mengla County, Xishuangbanna, Menglun Town, primary tropical seasonal rainforest in Menglun Nature Reserve [21°57.445'N, 101°12.997'E, 744 m], January 16–31, 2007, G. Zheng (IZCAS). Paratypes: 26♂, 2♀ (IZCAS), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is taken from the Latin adjective “bellulus” (the diminutive form of “bellus”), which means “beautiful” and refers to the perfect shape of the palpal bulb.

Diagnosis

This new species is similar to R. chayi sp. n. and R. yunnanensis but can be distinguished by having a considerably shorter embolus than that in R. chayi sp. n. (Figs 3A–C, 5A–C; cf. Figs 6A–C, 7A–C), by possessing a longer cymbium and a less twisted embolus than R. yunnanensis, as well as by having a ventral abdominal pattern and completely reduced PLS (Fig. 3A–C; cf. Zonstein and Marusik 2012: figs 35, 43). Females are characterised by the unique shape of the receptacles, divided into a long, digitiform inner branch and a short, knob-shaped outer branch (Figs 4A, 5D). The habitus and the abdominal pattern of R. bellula sp. n. resemble that of Sinopesa maculata, but it is distinguished by generic characters, such as well-developed body and leg setation and by much longer and denser tarsal scopula.

Figure 3.

Raveniola bellula sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D, G); 1.0 mm (E, F).

Figure 4.

Raveniola bellula sp. n., female paratype. A vulva, dorsal view B genital area, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.25 mm.

Figure 5.

Raveniola bellula sp. n., male holotype (A–C) and female paratype (D). A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.25 mm.

Figure 6.

Raveniola chayi sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D–G).

Figure 7.

Raveniola chayi sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Description

Male (holotype): TL 7.90, CL 3.50, CW 2.55, AL 3.60, AW 2.25. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.24, PLE 0.16, PME 0.12, AMEAME 0.09, AMEALE 0.04, PMEPME 0.35, PMEPLE 0.03. Leg lengths: I: 10.04 (2.75+1.65+2.65+1.80+1.55), II: 9.70 (2.75+1.30+2.30+1.85+1.50), III: 9.05 (2.50+1.15+1.65+2.25+1.50), IV: 12.40 (3.25+1.25+3.10+3.15+1.65). Labium, sternum and maxillae as shown in Fig. 3G. Maxillae with ca. 20 cuspules. Prosoma, palps and legs light brown. Spinnerets light grey. Light yellowish grey abdomen with darker (brown) dorsal and ventral pattern (Fig. 3D, G). Metatarsus I very slightly curved (Fig. 3E). PMS absent; apical segment of PLS digitiform (Fig. 3D, G). Palpal tibia moderately long, subcylindrical; bulb long, oval; embolus gradually tapering to a slender point; cymbium with four short, stout spines (Figs 3A–C, 5A–C).

Female. TL 6.75, CL 3.25, CW 2.50, AL 2.75, AW 2.40; body and legs colouration as in male. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.22, ALE 0.24, PME 0.10, PLE 0.15, AMEAME 0.08, AMEALE 0.05, PMEPME 0.36, PMEPLE 0.04, Leg lengths: I: 10.15 (2.65+1.60+2.55+1.90+1.45), II: 9.55 (2.65+1.45+2.25+1.75+1.45), III: 8.75 (2.45+1.10+1.50+2.25+1.45), IV: 12.00 (3.20+1.15+3.00+3.10+1.55). Genital area as in Fig. 4B. Receptacles divided into a long, digitiform inner branch and a short, knob-shaped outer branch that is bent forward (Figs 4A, 5D).

Variation

Total length of males and females: 6.75–7.93 (n=8).

Distribution

The species is known only from the type locality.

Raveniola chayi sp. n.

Figs 6, 7, 8

Type material

Holotype ♂ – CHINA: Yunnan Province, Lijiang County, Mt. Yulongxueshan, Maoniuping [27°05.503'N, 100°15.403'E, elevation 3061 m], August 1–3, 2000, X. Yu (IZCAS). Paratypes: 16♂ (IZCAS), same data as holotype; 1♀ – Sichuan Province, Yanyuan County, around Lugu Lake [27°48'N, 100°49'E, elevation 3300 m], May 28, 2011, J. Martens (SMF).

Etymology

The specific name is from the Chinese word for difference (chā yì), in reference to the difference between the new species with R. songi and R. yunnanensis; noun.

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to R. alpina sp. n., R. songi and R. yunnanensis but can be distinguished by the smooth distal portion of the embolus (Figs 6A–C, 7A–C), the presence of 4 spines on the cymbium (Figs 6A–C, 7A–C) and the presence of ridges on the proximal portion of the embolus (Figs 6A–C, 7A–C); it can be distinguished from latter two congeners by lacking the PMS (present in those species).

Description

Male (holotype): TL 10.30, CL 4.30, CW 3.65, AL 4.90, AW 3.10. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.23, PME 0.13, PLE 0.21; AMEAME 0.11, AMEALE 0.06, PMEPME 0.31, PMEPLE 0.05. Leg lengths: I: 12.50 (3.60+1.25+2.95+2.45+2.25), II: 11.65 (3.55+1.25+2.85+2.50+1.50), III: 10.55 (2.55+1.10+2.50+2.65+1.75), IV: 14.40 (4.00+1.30+3.10+4.05+1.95). Maxillae, labium and sternum as shown in Fig. 6G. Maxillae with 12–15 cuspules. Prosoma, palps and legs light brown. Spinnerets light grey, abdomen brown with light dorsal and ventral spots (Fig. 6D, G). Metatarsus I noticeably curved (Fig. 6E). PMS absent; apical segment of PLS digitiform (Fig. 6D, G). Palpal tibia long, subcylindrical; cymbium with four short, stout spines; bulb long, pyriform; embolus gradually tapering to a slender point (Figs 6A–C, 7A–C).

Female (paratype): TL 14.75, CL 5.75, CW 4.90, AL 9.00, AW 5.25. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.17, ALE 0.30, PME 0.17, PLE 0.23, AMEAME 0.21, AMEALE 0.12, PMEPME 0.47, PMEPLE 0.04. Leg lengths: I: 13.15 (4.20+2.25+3.00+2.30+1.40), II: 11.95 (3.70+2.20+2.35+2.30+1.40), III: 11.90 (3.15+2.00+2.05+3.05+1.65), IV: 15.90 (4.25+2.30+3.10+4.30+1.95). Most characters, including the colouration peculiarities (Fig. 8A) and the absence of PMS, are as in the male. Receptacles divided into a stocking-shaped inner branch and a clubbed outer branch; both branches long and crimped (Fig. 8B–C).

Figure 8.

Raveniola chayi sp. n., female paratype. A habitus, dorsal view B, C vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: 5.0 mm (A); 0.2 mm (B–C).

Variation

Total length of males: 9.49–11.10 (n=8).

Distribution

China: north-western Yunnan, south-western Sichuan.

Raveniola gracilis sp. n.

Figs 9, 10

Type material

Holotype ♂ – CHINA: Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou County, Hangzhou [30°16.276'N, 120°09.178'E, 260 m], July 1980, Z. Chen (IZCAS).

Etymology

The specific name is taken from the Latin adjective “gracilis”, which means “slender” and refers to the shape of embolus.

Diagnosis

This new species can be easily distinguished from all known congeners by its slender and subapically curved embolus (Figs 9A–C, 10A–C).

Figure 9.

Raveniola gracilis sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I (right side), ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D–G).

Figure 10.

Raveniola gracilis sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Description

Male (holotype): TL 8.30, CL 4.05, CW 3.25, AL 3.90, AW 2.40. Eye sizes and interdistances: AME 0.15, ALE 0.22, PME 0.11, PLE 0.15, AMEAME 0.11, AMEALE 0.07, PMEPME 0.34, PMEPLE 0.04. Leg lengths: I: 11.90 (3.50+1.55+2.95+2.15+1.75), II: 11.00 (3.05+1.60+2.70+1.80+1.85), III: 10.75 (2.75+1.60+2.25+2.25+1.60), IV: 12.85 (3.25+1.60+3.15+3.10+1.75). Carapace yellowish brown dorsally, with a few brownish setae. Eye tubercle blackish brown. Chelicerae reddish dark brown. Sternum, labium, maxillae and legs light brown ventrally. Abdomen dorsally light brown, with blackish cloudy maculae and brownish setae. Ventral surface of abdomen and spinnerets yellowish brown, with dense brownish setae (Fig. 9D, G). Fovea broad, slightly recurved (Fig. 9D). Chelicerae without rastellum but with strong setae (Fig. 9D, G). Maxillae with 7–9 cuspules. Three pairs of cloudy sternal sigilla (Fig. 9G). Leg tarsi without spines. Tarsal claws with two rows of uniform teeth. Metatarsus I curved and bent (Fig. 9E). Two pairs of spinnerets, apical segment of PLS digitiform. Tip of cymbium with 5 strong spines. Bulb smooth, pyriform, with long, slender embolus (Figs 9A–C, 10A–C).

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

The species is known only from the type locality.

Raveniola montana Zonstein & Marusik, 2012

Figs 11, 12

Material

CHINA: Sichuan Province, Baoxing County, Baoxing [30°22.052'N, 102°48.534'E, elevation 1115 m], June 2001, X. Yu & H. Zhou – 3♂ (IZCAS); same county, Qiaoqi Town [30°41.129'N, 102°42.370'E, 2447 m], June 6–7, 1997, leg. Z. Zhang.

Diagnosis

This species can be easily distinguished from all known East Asian congeners by its short and stout palpal tibia and by a short and flattened embolus (Fig. 11A–C), combined with the presence of ridges on the wide proximal portion of the embolus (Fig. 12A–C) and the unique shape of the receptacles in females (Zonstein and Marusik 2012: fig. 48).

Figure 11.

Raveniola montana Zonstein & Marusik, 2012, male (Sichuan Prov.). A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D–G).

Figure 12.

Raveniola montana Zonstein & Marusik, 2012, male (Sichuan Prov.). A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Description

See Zonstein and Marusik (2012): 77, figs 5, 9, 10, 17, 18, 26, 32, 40, 48.

Variation

Total length: 10.46–11.56 in males from Sichuan (n=8) vs. 15.50 in the male holotype from Yunnan.

Distribution

China: northern Yunnan and southern Sichuan.

Raveniola rugosa sp. n.

Figs 13, 14

Type material

Holotype ♂ – CHINA: Yunnan Province, Lijiang County, Shigu Town, Shigu east [26°52.014'N, 100°13.588'E, elevation 2393 m], July 31 to August 4, 2007, X. Yu (IZCAS).

Etymology

The specific name is taken from the Latin adjective “rugosus”, meaning “wrinkled” and refers to the wrinkled transition between embolus and bulb.

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to R. chayi sp. n. but can be distinguished by its embolus gradually curved to the tip (twisted in the latter species) and by the considerably better developed embolic ridges (Figs 7A–C; cf. 14A–C). It can be distinguished from R. montana, which also possesses embolic ridges on the bulb, by a much longer palpal tibia and a longer embolus (Figs 12A–C; cf. 14A–C).

Description

Male (holotype): TL 14.50, CL 6.15, CW 4.65, AL 6.25, AW 4.00. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.20, ALE 0.24, PME 0.17, PLE 0.19, AMEAME 0.09, AMEALE 0.04, PMEPME 0.36, PMEPLE 0.06. Leg lengths: I: 16.50 (4.60+2.25+4.25+3.10+2.30), II: 13.95 (4.10+1.60+3.55+2.55+2.15), III: 12.70 (3.75+1.25+2.75+2.70+2.25), IV: 16.95 (4.55+1.60+4.25+4.05+2.50). Venter as shown in Fig. 13G. Maxillae with numerous (ca. 35–40) cuspules. Prosoma, palps and legs reddish brown. Abdomen, including spinnerets, light brownish grey (Figs 13D, G). Metatarsus I very gently curved (nearly straight) as in Fig. 13E. PMS absent, apical segment of PLS digitiform (Fig. 13D, G). Palpal tibia slightly swollen at base and slightly arcuate; cymbium with six short, stout spines; bulb long, pyriform; embolus slightly and evenly bent, gradually tapering to a slender point (Figs 13A–C, 14A–C).

Figure 13.

Raveniola rugosa sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D–G).

Figure 14.

Raveniola rugosa sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Distribution

The species is known only from the type locality.

Raveniola spirula sp. n.

Figs 15, 16

Type material

Holotype ♂ – CHINA: Hubei Province, Shennongjia Forest Region, Mt. Guanmenshan [31°25.483'N, 110°21.565'E, elevation 1601 m], July 23–30, 1998, H. Zhou (IZCAS). Paratypes: 22♂ (IZCAS), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific name is taken from the Latin noun “spirula” (the diminutive form of “spira = spiral”), which means “small spiral” and refers to the spiral embolus.

Diagnosis

The new species is similar to R. yunnanensis but can be distinguished by a noticeably longer and less spinose cymbium, by its more twisted, corkscrew-shaped distal portion of the embolus (see Fig. 16A–C and Zonstein and Marusik 2012: figs 35, 43) and by the absence of PMS (present in the latter species).

Description

Male (holotype): TL 11.25, CL 3.95, CW 3.50, AL 5.65, AW 2.25. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.11, ALE 0.26, PME 0.09, PLE 0.10, AMEAME 0.08, AMEALE 0.05, PMEPME 0.28, PMEPLE 0.04. Leg lengths: I: 11.65 (3.25+1.45+3.10+2.30+1.55), II: 10.55 (3.10+1.25+2.55+2.15+1.50), III: 9.65 (2.55+1.05+2.05+2.55+1.75), IV: 13.55 (3.35+1.30+2.75+4.10+2.05). Venter as shown in Fig. 15G. Maxillae with 5 cuspules. Prosoma, palps and legs light brown. Abdomen including spinnerets light grey. Metatarsus I curved outwards (retrolaterally) as in Fig. 15E. PMS absent, apical segment of PLS digitiform (Fig. 15D, G). Palpal tibia long, subcylindrical; cymbium with five short, stout spines; bulb pyriform; embolus strongly twisted, corkscrew-shaped. (Figs 15A–C, 16A–C).

Figure 15.

Raveniola spirula sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 4.0 mm (D, G); 2.0 mm (E, F).

Figure 16.

Raveniola spirula sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Variation

Total length: 10.46–11.56 (n=8).

Distribution

Known only from the type locality.

Raveniola yajiangensis sp. n.

Figs 17, 18, 19

Type material

Holotype ♂ – CHINA: Sichuan Province, Yajiang County, Yajiang [27°50.119'N, 99°42.426'E, elevation 3285 m], 7 June 2001, X. Yu & H. Zhang (IZCAS). Paratypes: same area but Longjiangbian [27°49.119'N, 99°41.426'E, elevation 3265 m], 27 May 2009, X. Yu & H. Zhang – 1♀ (IZCAS).

Etymology

The specific epithet, a Latinised adjective, refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis

Judging from the shape of the bulb and the distal portion of the embolus, this new species is similar to R. shangrila (Zonstein and Marusik 2012, figs 33, 41) but can be distinguished by the slightly curved distal portion of the embolus (Figs 17A–C, 19A–C); conspecific females possess uniquely shaped receptacles, with the inner branches curved inward (Figs 18, 19D).

Figure 17.

Raveniola yajiangensis sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D–G).

Figure 18.

Raveniola yajiangensis sp. n., female paratype. A vulva, dorsal view B genital area, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.25 mm.

Figure 19.

Raveniola yajiangensis sp. n., male holotype (A–C) and female paratype (D). A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D vulva, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0. 5 mm (A–C); 0.25mm (D).

Description

Male (holotype): TL 14.10, CL 5.60, CW 5.45, AL 6.20, AW 3.55. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.19, ALE 0.25, PME 0.16, PLE 0.14, AMEAME 0.15, AMEALE 0.07, PMEPME 0.45, PMEPLE 0.07. Leg lengths: I: 20.96 (6.09+2.24+5.45+4.49+2.69), II: 24.23 (6.47+3.27+5.83+5.45+3.21), III: 17.76 (4.49+2.18+4.10+4.55+2.44), IV: 22.56 (5.83+2.56+4.81+6.67+2.69). Venter as shown in Fig. 17G. Prosoma, palps and legs brown. Abdomen, including spinnerets, deep grey (Fig. 17D, G). Palpal tibia long, subcylindrical; cymbium apically with five short, stout spines; bulb long and pyriform; embolus gradually tapering to a slender bent tip (Figs 17A–C, 19A–C). Small PMS present, apical segment of PLS digitiform (Fig. 17D, G).

Female (paratype): TL 16.50, CL 6.75, CW 5.80, AL 7.25, AW 5.90. Colouration and most somatic characters as in the male. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.21, ALE 0.35, PME 0.17, PLE 0.23, AMEAME 0.18, AMEALE 0.12, PMEPME 0.53, PMEPLE 0.07. Leg lengths: I: 16.05 (5.05+2.30+3.90+3.05+1.75), II: 15.15 (4.25+2.75+3.30+2.80+2.05), III: 14.45 (4.30+1.95+2.85+3.25+2.10), IV: 19.90 (5.25+2.25+4.40+5.25+2.75). Receptacles divided into a long digitiform inner branch that is bent inward and a short club-shaped outer lobe that is bent anteriad (Figs 18, 19D).

Distribution

China: southern Sichuan.

Sinopesa Raven & Schwendinger, 1995

Type species

Sinopesa maculata Raven & Schwendinger, 1995, by the original designation.

Diagnosis

Sinopesa, like Raveniola, differs from Hermacha and Entypesa by lacking serrula and metatarsal preening combs and by possessing two enlarged retroventral spines in males and divided receptacles in females. As in members of Raveniola, the PMS in Sinopesa are reduced in size and even lost in some species – a condition which has never been observed in Hermacha and Entypesa. Sinopesa differs from its close relative Raveniola by a thin and less developed scopula and by the presence of a well-developed male intercheliceral tumescence (which is less developed in Raveniola and completely lost in all Chinese members of this genus).

Composition

Six species – S. chengbuensis (Xu & Yin, 2002) (China), S. chinensis (Kulczyński, 1901) (China), S. ninhbinhensis sp. n. (Vietnam), S. kumensis Shimojana & Haupt, 2000 (Ryukyu Isles), S. maculata Raven & Schwendinger, 1995 (Thailand) and S. sinensis (Xu & Yin, 2002) (China). The new species is described below.

Key to species of Sinopesa

Males of S. chengbuensis and females of S. ninhbinhensis sp. n. are unknown

1 Males 2
Females 6
2 PMS present 3
PMS absent 5
3 Dorsal abdominal pattern present. Palpal tibia cylindrical, embolus hooked 4
Abdomen uniformly coloured. Palpal tibia arched, embolus corkscrew-shaped (see Shimojana and Haupt 2000: fig. 3A–B) kumensis
4 Large species: TL 17 mm. Embolus long: approximately half as long as palpal tibia (see Song et al. 2001: fig. 17H) sinensis
Small species: TL 10–12 mm. Embolus short: approximately 0.3 times as long as palpal tibia (see Zonstein and Marusik 2012: fig. 46) chinensis
5 Abdomen spotted; embolus corkscrew-shaped (Zonstein and Marusik 2012: figs 2 and 36) maculata
Abdomen uniformly pale; embolus with hooked tip (Figs 20A–C, D, G, 21A–C) ninhbinhensis sp. n.
6 PMS present; abdomen uniformly coloured; receptacles U- or Y-shaped 7
PMS absent; abdomen spotted; receptacles Y-shaped, with short inner and longer outer branch (Raven and Schwendinger 1995: fig. 7G) maculata
7 Receptacles U-shaped, with inner and outer branches equal in length (Xu and Yun 2002: fig. 7) chengbuensis
Receptacles Y-shaped, with outer branch twisted and much longer than the very short inner branch (Shimojana and Haupt 2000: fig. 3F) kumensis

Sinopesa ninhbinhensis sp. n.

Figs 20, 21

Type material

Holotype ♂ – VIETNAM: Ninh Binh Province, disturbed forest of Cuc Phuong National Park [20°17.066'N, 105°40.253'E, elevation 273 m], pitfall traps, March 1–30, 2008. Paratypes: 26♂ (IZCAS), same data as holotype.

Etymology

The specific epithet, a Latinised adjective, refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis

The new species shares with S. kumensis the complete absence of an abdominal pattern and the presence of a short male palpal tibia, but it can be distinguished from the latter species by the complete absence of PMS and by the presence of a globular bulb and of a gradually tapering and apically hooked embolus (oval and corkscrew-shaped, respectively) in S. kumensis (see Figs 20A–C, 21A–C, and Shimojana and Haupt 2000: figs. 3A–B).

Figure 20.

Sinopesa ninhbinhensis sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view D habitus, dorsal view E leg I, ventral view F leg II, ventral view G habitus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (A–C); 2.0 mm (D–G).

Figure 21.

Sinopesa ninhbinhensis sp. n., male holotype. A palp, prolateral view B palp, ventral view C palp, retrolateral view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.

Description

Male (holotype): TL 7.55, CL 2.95, CW 2.45, AL 3.20, AW 1.85. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.11, ALE 0.14, PME 0.12, PLE 0.10, AMEAME 0.07, AMEALE 0.04, PMEPME 0.26, PMEPLE 0.03. Leg lengths: I: 9.90 (2.75+1.50+2.55+2.15+1.25), II: 8.10 (2.25+1.15+2.10+1.50+1.10), III: 8.15 (1.75+0.95+2.00+2.15+1.30), IV: 10.60 (2.80+1.15+2.40+2.80+1.45). Venter as shown in Fig. 20G. Maxillae with a few (ca. 10) cuspules. Prosoma, palps and legs light brown. Abdomen, including spinnerets, light grey (Fig. 20D, G). Metatarsus I considerably curved and bent (Fig. 20E). PMS absent, apical segment of PLS digitiform (Fig. 20D, G). Palpal tibia moderately short and slightly swollen; bulb globular, thin and narrow-based embolus hooked distally (Figs 20A–C, 21A–C).

Female. Unknown.

Variation

Total length: 6.95–7.70 (n=10).

Distribution

Vietnam: Ninh Binh Province.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Mr Zuwei Zha for preparing photos of the paper. The manuscript benefitted greatly from comments by the subject editor and the referees Peter Schwendinger and Mykola M. Kovblyuk. Peter Jäger and Julia Altmann kindly helped us to study part of the spider collection of the Senckenberg Museum where one of the paratypes was found. Yuri Marusik helped to prepare a photo of the receptacles of this specimen. English was kindly checked by Sarah Crews. This study was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (NSFC-31272280, 31471960) for Shuqiang Li and by the Ministry of Absorption, Israel, for Sergei Zonstein.

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