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A new species of Dactylolabis subgenus Dactylolabis Osten Sacken, 1860 from China (Diptera, Limoniidae)
expand article infoShang Gao, Bing Zhang, Ding Yang
‡ China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
Open Access

Abstract

Only two species of Dactylolabis subgenus Dactylolabis Osten Sacken, 1860 were previously known from China. Here, a new species, Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) wudangensis sp. nov., is reported from China. Dactylolabis (D.) gracilistylus Alexander, 1926 is re-described and illustrated. A key to males of species of the subgenus Dactylolabis from China is presented.

Keywords

Biodiversity, crane flies, Dactylolabinae, key, taxonomy

Introduction

Dactylolabis subgenus Dactylolabis Osten Sacken, 1860 (Diptera, Limoniidae) is a large subgenus in the subfamily Dactylolabinae. It is distributed worldwide with 50 known species, of which 32 taxa are from the Palaearctic Region, including 16 from Europe, and 18 from the Nearctic Region (Oosterbroek 2021). The subgenus is characterized by the following features: antennae 16-segmented; vein MA missing; crossvein m-cu near base of cell dm; outer gonostylus fleshy with many setae; cerci of ovipositor with wide apex (Osten Sacken 1860; Savchenko 1978; Alexander and Byers 1981; Starý 1992; Podenas et al. 2006; Ribeiro 2008).

Materials and methods

The specimens were studied and illustrated with a ZEISS Stemi 2000-c stereomicroscope. Details of the coloration were checked in specimens immersed in 75% ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH). Genitalic preparations of males were made by macerating the apical portion of the abdomen in cold 10% NaOH for 12–15 hours. After examination, the genitalia were transferred to fresh glycerine (C3H8O3) and stored in a microvial pinned below the specimen. Type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University, Beijing, Chin (CAU). The holotype of D. (D.) mokanica Alexander, 1940 was borrowed from the Institute of Zoology, China Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (IZCAS).

The morphological terminology mainly follows McAlpine (1981), Alexander and Byers (1981), and Savchenko (1978). The terminology applied to the wing veins follows the interpretations of Savchenko (1978) and de Jong (2017). Terminology of the male hypopygium follows Savchenko (1978) and Alexander and Byers (1981). The following abbreviations are used: og = outer gonostylus, ig = inner gonostylus, aed = aedeagus, gx = gonocoxite, 9t = ninth tergite, 9s = ninth sternite.

Taxonomy

A key to adult males of the subgenus Dactylolabis from China

1 Wing yellowish hyaline throughout, except pterostigma (Figs 1, 3); vein R4 relatively straight at tip (Figs 1, 3; Alexander 1926: pl. 1, fig. 8) Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) gracilistylus Alexander, 1926
Wing yellowish hyaline with brownish markings, except pterostigma (Figs 10, 11, 17); vein R4 relatively curved at tip (Figs 10, 11, 17; Alexander 1940: p. 22, fig. 12) 2
2 Cell r1 not broad at pterostigma; crossvein sc-r shorter than vein R1; crossvein m-cu near 1/3 of cell dm (Fig. 10; Alexander 1940: p. 22, fig. 12) ; tips of veins A1 and Cu P with brownish markings (Fig. 10) Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) mokanica Alexander, 1940
Cell r1 rather broad at pterostigma; crossvein sc-r longer than vein R1; crossvein m-cu near 1/5 of cell dm; tips of veins A1 and Cu P without brownish markings (Figs 11, 17) Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) wudangensis sp. nov.

Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) gracilistylus Alexander, 1926

Figs 1–3, 4–7

Dactylolabis gracilistylus Alexander, 1926: 372. Type locality: China: Zhejiang.

Diagnosis

Wing yellowish hyaline, pterostigma brownish. Vein R3 as long as vein R2+3. Veins R4 and R5 relatively straight. Vein M1 as long as vein M1+2. Crossvein m-cu located before or near base of cell dm. Posterior margin of 9t with an M-shaped process and a shallow V-shaped notch at middle. Inner gonostylus slender, curved; gonocoxite very elongate and slender, more than twice as long as outer gonostylus. Aedeagus very big, with a shallow V-shaped notch at posterior margin.

Redescription

Male (n = 3). Body length 8.2–8.5 mm, wing length 8.4–8.8 mm, antenna length 1.6–1.7 mm.

Head (Figs 1, 2) dark brown with pale gray pollen. Vertex with long setae. Rostrum and palpus brown. Antenna brown.

Thorax (Figs 1, 2) mostly dark brown with gray pollen. Pronotum rather long; mesonotum brownish, prescutum dark brown with pale gray pollen. Thoracic pleuron mostly dark brown with dense gray pollen. Legs: coxae brown with gray pollen; trochanters brownish-yellow; femora more yellow at base, brownish-yellow at tip; tibiae brownish-yellow; tarsi brown. Wing (Figs 1, 3) yellowish hyaline, pterostigma more brownish; veins brownish. Venation: Rs long; R2 relatively oblique; R3 as long as R2+3; R4 and R5 relatively straight; M1 as long as M1+2; m-cu located before or near base of cell dm. Halter (Fig. 1) length approximately 1.3 mm, halter stem yellowish; halter brownish.

Figures 1–3. 

Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) gracilistylus Alexander, 1926, male 1 habitus, lateral view 2 head and thorax, dorsal view 3 right wing. Scale bars: 1 mm.

Abdomen (Fig. 1) elongated, tergites brownish-yellow, sternites dark brown.

Hypopygium (Figs 1, 4–7) dark brown with brownish setae. Surface of 9t with plenty of long setae, posterior margin with an M-shaped process, medially with a shallow V-shaped notch; posterior margin of 9s with plenty of long setae; outer gonostylus cylindrical; inner gonostylus slender, curved; gonocoxite very elongate and slender, more than twice as long as outer gonostylus; aedeagus hyaline, very big, posterior margin with a shallow V-shaped notch.

Figures 4–7 

. Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) gracilistylus Alexander, 1926, male 4 hypopygium, dorsal view 5 hypopygium, ventral view 6 aedeagal complex, dorsal view 7 aedeagal complex, ventral view. Scale bars: 1 mm (4, 5); 0.5 mm (6, 7).

Female. Similar to male (Alexander 1926: 372).

Material examined

1 male (CAU), China: Zhejiang, Yuyao, Siming Mountain, 1980.IV.27, Jikun Yang. 1 male (CAU), China: Zhejiang, Qingyuan, Baishanzu, 1984.IV.19, Hong Wu. 1 male (CAU), China: Zhejiang, Deqing, Mogan Mountain, 1991.IV.20.

Distribution

China (Zhejiang).

Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) mokanica Alexander, 1940

Figs 8–10

Dactylolabis mokanica Alexander, 1940: 22. Type locality: China: Zhejiang: Mogan Mountain.

Diagnosis

Tips of veins A1 and Cup with brownish markings. Vein R3 as long as vein R2+3. Vein R4 relatively curved at tip. Vein M1 about twice as long as vein M1+2. Crossvein m-cu located at basal 1/3 of cell dm.

Distribution

China (Zhejiang).

Material examined

Holotype , male, China: “Chekiang: Mokan Shan” (= Zhejiang: Mogan Mountain), April 30, 1936, Institute of Zoology, China Academy of Sciences, accession no. IOZ(E) 201063 (IZCAS).

Figures 8–10. 

Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) mokanica Alexander, 1940, male 8 habitus, lateral view 9 head and thorax, dorsal view 10 left wing.

Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) wudangensissp. nov.

Figs 11–17, 18–21

Diagnosis

Cell r1 relatively broad at pterostigma. Vein R3 shorter than vein R2+3. Vein R4 relatively curved at tip. Vein M1 about twice as long as vein M1+2. Crossvein m-cu located at 1/5 of cell dm. Posterior margin of 9t with an M-shaped process and a deep V-shaped notch at middle. Inner gonostylus stubbier than outer gonostylus, curved. Gonocoxite rather short, as long as outer gonostylus. Aedeagus very big, with an elongated tip at posterior margin.

Description

Male (n = 3). Body length 7.2–10.1 mm, wing length 14.2–18.8 mm, antenna length 2.2–2.4 mm.

Head (Figs 11, 12) dark brown with gray pollen. Rostrum and palpus brown. Antenna brown.

Thorax (Figs 11, 12) mostly dark brown with gray pollen. Pronotum rather long; mesonotum brownish, prescutum brown with four dark brown stripes. Thoracic pleuron mostly dark brown with pale gray pollen. Legs: base of coxae brown, tip of coxae and trochanters brownish-yellow; femora more yellow at base, brown at tip; tibiae and tarsi brown. Wing (Figs 11, 17) yellowish hyaline, pterostigma more brownish, and with brownish markings near base of wing, origin of Rs, around crossvein sc-r and vein R2, base of vein R4, crossveins r-m and m-m, crossvein m-cu, and vein CuA; veins brown. Venation: cell r1 relatively broad at pterostigma; Rs long; R2 relatively straight; R3 shorter than R2+3; R4 relatively curved at tip; R5 relatively straight; M1 about twice as long as M1+2; m-cu located at 1/5 of cell dm. Halter (Figs 11, 12) approximately 2.2 mm long, stem yellowish, rest gray.

Abdomen (Fig. 11) mostly dark brown with brownish-yellow setae.

Hypopygium (Figs 11, 18–21) brown with brownish setae. Surface of 9t with numerous long setae, posterior margin with an M-shaped process, with a deep V-shaped notch at middle; outer gonostylus cylindrical; inner gonostylus stubby, curved; gonocoxite rather short, as long as outer gonostylus; aedeagus hyaline, very big, with an elongated tip at posterior margin.

Female (n = 1). Similar to male. Body length 8.6 mm, wing length 13.5 mm, antenna length 2.3 mm.

Ovipositor (Figs 13–16) brown with yellow setae. Cercus reddish-brown, broadened at base. Hypogynial valve yellow, narrowed toward tip, longer than cercus.

Type material

Holotype : male (CAU), China: Hubei, Danjiangkou, Wudang Mountain, 1600 m, 1984.VI.31, Jikun Yang. Paratypes: 2 males, 1 female (CAU), China: Hubei, Danjiangkou, Wudang Mountain, 1600 m, 1984.VI.31, Jikun Yang.

Distribution

China (Hubei).

Etymology

The species is named after the type locality, Wudang Mountain.

Remarks

The new species is somewhat similar to D. (D.) mokanica Alexander, 1940 from China (Zhejiang), but can be separated from the latter by crossvein sc-r slightly longer than crossvein R1, m-cu located at 1/5 of cell dm, and tips of veins A1 and CuA without brownish markings (Figs 11, 17). In D. (D.) mokanica, crossvein sc-r is shorter than vein R1, crossvein m-cu is located at 1/3 of cell dm, and the tips of veins A1 and CuA have brownish markings (Fig. 10; Alexander 1940: p. 22, fig. 12). The new species is somewhat similar to D. (D.) dilatata (Loew, 1856) from the West Palearctic and D. (D.) subdilatata Starý, 1969 from Czechia in having similar wing markings and venation, but can be separated from the latter two species by posterior margin of 9t with an M-shaped process and cercus shorter than hypogynial valve (Figs 13–16, 18, 19). In D. (D.) dilatata and D. (D.) subdilatata, the posterior margin of 9t lacks an M-shaped process and the cercus is longer than the hypogynial valve (Stary 1969: p. 125, figs 1, 4, 5, 8). The new species is somewhat similar to D. (D.) dilatatoides Savchenko, 1978 from Kazakhstan in having similar wing markings, but can be separated from the latter by vein R2+3+4 as long as vein R2, and posterior margin of 9t with an M-shaped process (Figs 11, 1719). In D. (D.) dilatatoides, vein R2+3+4 is almost absent and the posterior margin of 9t has a deep V-shaped notch (Savchenko 1978: p. 1176, fig. 1; p. 1177, fig. 3). The new species is somewhat similar to D. (D.) laticellula Savchenko, 1978 from Russia in having similar wing venation, but can be separated from the latter by wing with brownish markings and posterior margin of 9t with an M-shaped process (Figs 11, 1719). In D. (D.) laticellula, the wing has no markings and the posterior margin of 9t lacks an M-shaped process (Savchenko 1978: p. 1176, fig. 2; p. 1177, fig. 4).

Figures 11–17. 

Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) wudangensis sp. nov. 11 male habitus, lateral view 12 male head and thorax, dorsal view 13 female habitus, lateral view 14 ovipositor, dorsal view 15 ovipositor, lateral view 16 ovipositor, ventral view 17 male right wing. Scale bars: 1 mm.

Figures 18–21. 

Dactylolabis (Dactylolabis) wudangensis sp. nov., male 18 hypopygium, dorsal view 19 hypopygium, ventral view 20 aedeagal complex, dorsal view 21 aedeagal complex, ventral view. Scale bars: 1 mm (18, 19); 0.5 mm (20, 21).

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Prof. Jikun Yang and Prof. Hong Wu for collecting the specimens from Hubei and Zhejiang. We are also particularly grateful to Prof. Pjotr Oosterbroek and Dr. Xiao Zhang for their valuable suggestions on this paper. The research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31970444).

References

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