Data Paper
Data Paper
Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico III
expand article infoJ. Donald Lafontaine, B. Christian Schmidt
‡ Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Open Access


A total of 124 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Twenty-eight species are added to the list, 16 through new species descriptions, eight as a result of taxonomic splits, and four based on newly recorded species. Forty-eight species are deleted from the list, 41 through synonymy, and seven that were based on misidentifications. Twelve changes are corrections in the spelling of names, or changes in parentheses on dates of publication. Twenty-seven are changes in taxonomy of names where no species are added or deleted; eight changes involve the renumbering of existing species for better taxonomic arrangement. Within the text 2 stat. n., 10 stat. rev., 27 syn. n., 5 syn. rev., and 1 comb. n. are proposed for the first time.


Canada, United States, Noctuoidea , Erebidae , Eulepidotinae , Noctuidae , Dyopsinae , Litoprosopus


Continuing work on the taxonomy and systematics of New World Noctuoidea has resulted in 124 additional changes to the check list of North American Noctuoidea (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010). These are in addition to the 115 changes made to the list in in 2011 (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2011) and 64 changes made in 2013 (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2013). The new total of Noctuoidea species in North America north of Mexico is 3672 species.

Materials and methods

Repository abbreviations

Taxonomic changes are based on examination of material, especially type specimens, in the following collections:

AMNH The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA

ANSP The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

BMNH The Natural History Museum [statutorily: British Museum (Natural History)], London, UK

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

CUIC Cornell University Insect Collection, Ithaca, New York, USA

MNHN Muséum National d’ Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

TLSC Texas Lepidoptera Survey Collection, Houston, Texas, USA

JTTC James T. Troubridge Collection, Hagarsville, Ontario, Canada

USNM National Museum of Natural History [formerly, United States National Museum], Washington, District of Columbia, USA


Corrections, additions, and changes (highlighted in bold)

p. 3 & p. 42 Subfamily Dyopsinae Guenée, 1852 [insert after Family Noctuidae before Subfamily Plusiinae]

930098 Schizura ipomaeae Doubleday, 1841

930139 Delete Scotura annulata (Guérin-Méneville, 1844)

930142 Gynaephora rossii (Curtis, 1835)

930196 Delete Propyria schausi (Dyar, 1898)

930217 Manulea bicolor (Grote, 1864)

930227.1 Crambidia xanthocorpa Lewis, 2014

930314 Spilosoma pteridis H. Edwards, 1875

syn. Spilosoma danbyi (Neumögen & Dyar, 1893)

930350 Hypocrita celina (Boisduval, 1870)

syn. Hypocrita escuintla (Schaus, 1920)

930358 Dysschema howardi (H. Edwards, 1887)

930392 Delete Neritos prophaea (Schaus, 1905)

930402 Cycnia collaris (Fitch, 1856)

syn. Cycnia inopinatus (H. Edwards, 1882)

syn. Cycnia tenerosa (Dyar, 1913)

930440 Cisseps fulvicollis (Hübner, [1818])

syn. Cisseps packardii (Grote, 1865)

syn. Cisseps wrightii (Stretch, 1885)

930445 Eucereon erythrolepsis Dyar, 1910

930457 Delete Cosmosoma teuthras (Walker, 1854)

930462.1 Syntomeida syntomoides (Boisduval, 1836)

930581 Hypena tenebrosa (Walker, 1865)

syn. H. annulalis (Grote, 1876)

930604 Rusicada privata (Walker, 1865)

930605 Anomis impasta of authors, not Guenée, 1852

930616 Gonodonta fulvangula Geyer, 1832

930631 Psammathodoxa cochlidioides Dyar, 1921

syn. P. calligrapha (Hampson, 1926)

930703 Hemeroplanis reversalis (Smith, 1907)

syn. H. cuernavacalis (Dyar, 1912)

930710 Hemeroplanis immaculalis (Harvey, 1875)

syn. H. obliqualis (H. Edwards, 1886)

930727 Hyperstrotia nana (Hübner, 1818)

syn. H. villificans (Barnes & McDunnough, 1918)

930769.1 Catocala myristica Kons & Borth, 2015

930846.1 Catocala aestivalia Kons & Borth, 2015

930907 Drasteria maculosa (Behr, 1870)

syn. Drasteria nubicola (Behr, 1870)

930925.1 Doryodes desoto Lafontaine & Sullivan, 2015

930925.2 Doryodes okaloosa Sullivan & Lafontaine, 2015

930927 Doryodes spadaria Guenée, [1858]

syn. D. spadaria race grandipennis Barnes & McDunnough, 1918

930927.1 Doryodes fusselli Sullivan & Lafontaine, 2015

930927.2 Doryodes latistriga Sullivan & Lafontaine, 2015

930927.3 Doryodes broui Lafontaine & Sullivan, 2015

930927.4 Doryodes reineckei Sullivan & Lafontaine, 2015

930970.1 Lesmone aenaria (Druce, 1890)

syn. L. lampea (Druce, 1890)

syn. L. detrahens of authors, not (Walker, 1858)

930982 Heteranassa mima (Harvey, 1876)

syn. H. fraterna (Smith, 1899)

syn. H. minor (Smith, 1899)

931000 Toxonprucha excavata (Walker, 1865)

syn. T. minuscula (Walker, 1865)

syn. T. amoena Möschler, 1890

syn. T. diffundens of authors, not (Walker, 1858)

931018 Zale viridans of authors, not (Guenée, 1852)

931019 Delete Zale strigimacula (Guenée, 1852)

931062 Delete Amolita sentalis (Kaye, 1901)

931096 –931100 Move Litoprosopus spp. to Subfamily Dyopsinae as 931160.1 –931160.5

931111 Paectes abrostoloides (Guenée, 1852)

syn. Paectes delineata (Guenée, 1852)

931156 Collomena inflexa (Morrison, 1875)

syn. Collomena filifera of authors, not (Walker, 1857)

931160.1 Litoprosopus futilis (Grote & Robinson, 1868)

931160.2 Litoprosopus hatuey (Poey, 1832)

syn. L. haitiensis of authors, not Hampson, 1926

931160.3 Litoprosopus bahamensis Hampson, 1926

931160.4 Litoprosopus coachella Hill, 1921

931160.5 Litoprosopus confligens (Walker, [1858])

931253 Amyna stricta (Walker, 1858)

syn. Amyna axis of authors, not Guenée, 1852

syn. Amyna octo of authors, not Guenée, 1852

syn. Amyna flaviguttata (Walker, 1858)

syn. Amyna orbica (Morrison, 1874)

syn. Amyna tecta (Grote, 1876)

931253.2 Concana mundissima Walker, [1858]

931254.1 Cydosia majuscula (H. Edwards, 1881)

931257.1 Tripudia inquaesita (Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

931412 Raphia frater Grote, 1864

ssp. frater Grote, 1864

syn. R. personata (Walker, 1865)

ssp. abrupta Grote, 1864

syn. R. flexuosa (Walker, 1865)

ssp. coloradensis Putnam-Cramer, 1886

syn. R. pallula H. Edwards, 1886

ssp. piazzi Hill, 1927

ssp. cinderella Smith, 1903

ssp. elbea Smith, 1908

931442.1 Acronicta fallax (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

syn. A. geminata (Smith, 1903)

931477.1 Acronicta menyanthidis (Vieweg, 1790)

931496 Chloronycta tybo (Barnes, 1904)

931550 Psaphida rolandi (Grote, 1874)

931564 Feralia comstocki Grote, 1874

931606 Emarginea percara (Morrison, 1875)

syn. E. pallida (Smith, 1902)

931642 Cropia connecta (Smith, 1894)

syn. Cropia templada (Schaus, 1906)

931643.1 Cropia indica (Walker, [1858])

931767 Catabenoides vitrina (Walker, 1857)

syn. C. divisa (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868)

931773 Pseudacontia crustaria (Morrison, 1875)

syn. P. cansa Smith, 1908

syn. P. louisa Smith, 1908

931784 Stylopoda groteana (Dyar, 1903)

syn. S. anxia Smith, 1908

931906.1 Sympistis forbesi Zacharczenko & Wagner, 2014

932022.1 Ogdoconta margareta Crabo, 2015

932036 Heliothodes diminutivus (Grote, 1873)

syn. H. fasciata (H. Edwards, 1875)

932044 Psectrotarsia hebardi (Skinner, 1917)

932054 Chloridea virescens (Fabricius, 1777)

932055 Chloridea subflexa (Guenée, 1852)

932223 Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782)

932236.1 Elaphria trolia (Dyar, 1914)

932278 Acroria pulchra (Möschler, 1886)

syn. A. terrens of authors, not Walker, 1857

932284 Nedra stewarti (Grote, 1875)

syn. N. dora Clarke, 1940

932361.1 Cherokeea attakullakulla Sullivan & Quinter, 2014

932480 Papaipema insulidens (Bird, 1902)

syn. P. birdi (Dyar, 1908)

syn. P. pertincta Dyar, 1920

932483 Papaipema harrisii (Grote, 1881)

syn. P. verona (Smith, 1899)

932552 Lithophane viridipallens Grote, 1877

syn. L. pruena (Dyar, 1910)

932634 Aseptis binotata (Walker, 1865)

syn. A. paviae (Strecker, 1874)

syn. A. genitrix (Grote, 1878)

syn. A. genetrix, misspelling of authors, not Grote, 1878

syn. A. dilara (Strecker, 1899)

syn. A. bultata (Smith, 1906)

syn. A. cara (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912)

932648.1 Paraseptis adnixa (Grote, 1880)

syn. P. pausis (Smith, 1899)

932749.1 Viridiseptis marina (Grote, 1874)

932756 Stretchia plusiiformis H. Edwards, 1874

syn. S. plusiaeformis H. Edwards, 1874, invalid emmendation

932810 Nephelodes minians Guenée, 1852

syn. N. mendica Barnes & Lindsey, 1921

syn. N. adusta Buckett, 1973

932823.1 Anarta melanopa (Thunberg, 1791)

932928 Dargida diffusa (Walker, 1856)

syn. D. terrapictalis (Buckett, 1969)

932934 Mythimna yuconensis (Hampson, 1911)

932938.1 Leucania amygdalina (Harvey, 1878)

933038 Lacinipolia leucogramma (Grote, 1873)

syn. L. canities (Hampson, 1905)

syn. L. francisca (Smith, 1910)

933042.1 Lacinipolia acutipennis (Grote, 1880)

syn. Lacinipolia subalba Mustelin, 2000

933042.2 Lacinipolia sareta (Smith, 1906)

933042.3 Lacinipolia dimocki Schmidt, 2015

933049 Delete Lacinipolia perta (Druce, 1889)

933115.1 Protorthodes texicana Lafontaine, 2014

933115.2 Protorthodes perforata (Grote, 1883)

syn. P. constans (Dyar, 1918)

933115.3 Protorthodes rufula (Grote, 1874)

933115.4 Protorthodes ustulata Lafontaine, Walsh & Ferris, 2014

933115.5 Protorthodes alfkenii (Grote, 1895)

933115.6 Protorthodes antennata (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912)

933116 Nudorthodes texana (Smith, 1900)

933117 Nudorthodes variabilis (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912)

933117.1 Nudorthodes molino Walsh, Lafontaine & Ferris, 2014

933331.1 Euxoa bivittata Lafontaine, 1987


p. 3 & p. 42 Subfamily DyopsinaeZahiri et al. (2013) showed through DNA sequence results that a number of subfamilies and genera formerly associated with the Erebidae were basal lineages of the Noctuidae, including the subfamily Dyopsinae. Recent molecular results by Zahiri and associates show a close relationship between Dyops Guenée and Litoprosopus Grote. [Contributed by Reza Zahiri].

930098 Schizura ipomaeae – The original spelling of the species name is ipomaeae, the author stating that the species name is from the plant genus Ipomaea, an incorrect spelling of the plant genus Ipomoea L. However, according to the ICZN rules the original spelling should be maintained, unless there is internal evidence for a typographical error.

930139 Scotura annulata – This species was added to the North American list in Franclemont 1983 as Zunacetha annulata and listed that way by Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010). It was transferred to the genus Scotura following Miller (2009) in Lafontaine and Schmidt (2011). We did not notice at the time that Miller, in the 2009 publication, had reviewed the report of Scotura annulata in Texas and concluded there was no evidence to support the record. Following this, we remove the species from the check list.

930142 Gynaephora rossii – This species was originally described in the genus Laria Schrank, 1802, a junior homonym of Laria Scolipi, 1763 in the Coleoptera, so the author’s name and year of publication should be enclosed by parentheses. [Contributed by Lars Crabo].

930196 Propyria schausi – The origin of the supposed occurrence of this species in the United States traces a convoluted path through the historic literature. The syntype specimens of schausi came from the Henry Edwards collection, originating from Jalapa, Mexico. Two females, which are in the AMNH, were initially identified by Edwards as Ptychoglene aequalis Walker. Neumoegen and Dyar (1893) in their revision of North American Arctiinae reidentified the specimens as Lycomorpha fulgens (H. Edwards). Dyar (1898) later realized that these specimens were neither L. fulgens nor P. aequalis, and so described them as a new species, Lycomorpha schausi. Neumoegen and Dyar (1893) stated that L. fulgens was distributed in Mexico and Arizona, but their concept of L. fulgens must have included both true L. fulgens of Arizona (very similar in facies to Propyria schausi) and the Mexican P. schausi. Dyar (1903) did not include P. schausi in his North American list. Hampson subsequently documented P. schausi from both Mexico and Arizona, but must have based this solely on Neumoegen and Dyar’s (1893) literature accounts as he states the species “ unknown to me.” (Hampson 1898). The Arizona record of P. schausi can therefore be traced to Hampson’s oversight of Neumoegen and Dyar’s confusion of L. fulgens and P. schausi. Propyria schausi disappeared from the North American checklists until Franclemont (1983) listed it again, possibly based on Hampson’s account. No U.S. specimens of P. schausi were located by us in the major museums, and Ferguson et al. (2000) did not document it. We therefore conclude that Franclemont (1983) either repeated Hampson’s error, or the record (re-)originated from a misidentification of another Lycomorpha. An additional complicating factor is its similarity to the zygaenid Neoalbertia constans (Edwards), which is identical in size, wing shape and coloration – but differs structurally, for example in the antennae, wing venation, and presence of chaetosoma on the head. For the above reasons, Propyria schausi is removed from the North American list.

930217 Manulea bicolor – This species was transferred from Eilema Hübner to Manulea Wallengren (subgenus Setema de Freina and Witt) by Dubatolov (2015).

930227.1 Crambidia xanthocorpa – This species, recently described from eastern United States, was previously included in the concept of Crambidia cephalica (Grote & Robertson, 1870) (Lewis 2014).

930315 Spilosoma pteridis – The name Spilosoma danbyi was informally raised from synonymy under S. pteridis to the status of a valid species by Ferguson et al. (2000). However, as already noted by Barnes and McDunnough (1917a), both pteridis and danbyi were described from Vancouver Island, BC and refer to the same taxon. The taxonomy of this group is complicated by extreme geographic (and local) variation in phenotypes and pronounced sexual dimorphism, but there is no morphological or molecular evidence that two different species (pteridis and “danbyi”) exist as depicted in Ferguson et al. (2000). Spilosoma danbyi is therefore revised back to the synonymy of S. pteridis (stat. rev.). Further work is needed to examine the relationship between S. vagans and S. pteridis, as it is possible that the latter is only a small, dark form of S. vagans that occurs in cooler, wetter climates.

930350 Hypocrita celina – Synonymy proposed by Becker (2013) and Vincent and Laguerre (2013).

930358 Dysschema howardiBecker (2013) synonymized howardi (type locality: New Mexico) under D. thetis (Klug, 1836), described from “Mexico,” but as pointed out by Laguerre et al. (2014), the large DNA barcode divergences in this group indicate that these taxonomic changes are not supported, and that there are multiple species under the name thetis (sensu Becker). Arizona specimens of howardi differ from two other taxa under the name thetis (one from Michoacan and one from Sinaloa and Jalisco) by at least 2.5% (DNA barcode sequence), and we therefore re-instate howardi stat. rev. as a bona species until the group can be revised thoroughly.

930392 Neritos prophaea – This species was listed as Neritos prophaea by recent North American authors, unaware that Toulgoët (1992) had transferred prophaea to Haemanota Hampson. It was first listed for North America by Franclemont (1983) (as Trichromia prophaea), who indicated that it was possibly a stray. There are no known vouchers or other details. Ferguson et al. (2000) did not map this species, nor are there any specimens in the Franclemont collection at CUIC. Given the lack of supporting data and the fact that Neritos prophaea belongs to a complex of closely related Neotropical species, we delete Haemanota prophaea from the North American list until voucher specimens are secured.

930402 Cycnia collarisCycnia tenerosa, syn. n., and C. inopinatus, syn. n., have previously been recognized as separate species based largely on phenotypic differences and geographic distribution. In particular, the color of the wings and thorax can vary from white to gray, and the patagia from yellow to gray. Comparison of genitalic structure and DNA barcode variation shows that gray and white phenotypes represent the same species, with gray versus white phenotypes prevalent in spring and summer, respectively. The holotype of inopinatus represents the gray phenotype (described from Indian River, Florida) and is here synonymized with C. collaris (described from Mississippi). The name Cycnia tenerosa (described from Misantla, [Veracruz], Mexico) was applied to Texas and Florida specimens by Ferguson and Opler (2006), but as indicated above, western, southern and northern populations represent the same variable species. The tenerosa holotype (USNM; illustrated in Watson 1971) is structurally and phenotypically indistinguishable from the white form of tenerosa, and we therefore synonymize the two.

930440 Cisseps fulvicollisCisseps packardii (Grote, 1865) and Cisseps wrightii (Stretch, 1885) were thought to be disjunct West Coast species related to the widespread C. fulvicollis, differing from that species by a paler yellow scape (packardii) and slightly smaller size (wrightii). It is now evident that scape color and size varies in many western populations, and the geographic distribution is more continuous than historical workers realized. Maximum DNA barcode variation among all three taxa is less than 0.5%. We therefore treat packardii, syn. n. and wrightii, syn. n. as synonyms of C. fulvicollis.

930445 Eucereon erythrolepsis – The spelling erythrolepis is an unjustified emendation of erythrolepsis introduced by Hampson (1914) and repeated in Ferguson and Opler (2006), Schmidt and Opler (2008) and Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010).

930457 Cosmosoma teuthras – Described from Venezuela, this taxon was first listed for the North American fauna by Barnes and McDunnough (1917b); however, there are no details of any records or vouchers. Because Cosmosoma teuthras is often confused with other Cosmosoma, we remove it from the North American list.

930462.1 Syntomeida syntomoides – Recorded in 2013 from Bahia Honda, Florida by Jim Troubridge. Vouchers in JTTC and CNC.

930581 Hypena tenebrosa – The barcodes were the first clue that Hypena tenebrosa (Walker, 1865), described from Venezuela, is conspecific with H. annulalis (Grote, 1876), syn. n., described from Texas. They share similar forms throughout the species range.

930604 Rusicada privata – In our check list (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010) we retained a broad concept of the genus Anomis Hübner on the basis that Holloway’s (2005) generic rearrangement for the Old World Anomis s.l. fauna excluded the New World taxa, accepting that a separate revision of New World generic limits in Anomis s.l. was needed first. However, the species Anomis commoda (Walker, 1865) is an introduced species that belongs to the Old World genus Rusicada Walker, so it seems reasonable to accept this generic transfer for consistency between Old World and New World names for shared species.

930605 Anomis impasta – This species has remained on the North American list since it was added by Kimball (1965). Even then, the identity of a Floridian taxon was suspected to not be correctly associated with Anomis impasta, which was described from French Guiana. Comparison of specimens from Florida with the lectotype of the species in MNHN, Paris, confirms that the taxon in Florida is not Anomis impasta, so it is hereby referenced as Anomis impasta of authors, not Guenée, 1852.

930616 Gonodonta fulvangula – The species name was misspelled as fulvangala in Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010.

930631 Psammathodoxa cochlidioides – Examination of the type specimen of Sudariophora calligrapha Hampson, 1926 from Brownsville, Texas, shows it to be the same species as Psammathodoxa cochlidioides. The species was transferred to the genus Phyprosopus Grote when Sudariophora Zeller was placed into its synonymy, the two generic names sharing the same type species. Therefore, Sudariophora calligrapha Hampson, 1926 is now transferred to Psammathodoxa Dyar as Psammathodoxa calligrapha (Hampson, 1926), comb. n., syn. n.

930703 Hemeroplanis reversalis – Examination of the type specimens of H. reversalis (type locality: Brownsville, Texas) and H. cuernavacalis (Dyar, 1912), syn. n. (type locality: Cuernavaca, Mexico) shows them to be the same species.

930710 Hemeroplanis immaculalis – The types of Hemeroplanis immaculalis and H. obliqualis, syn. n., represent the same species. Previously, the name H. immaculalis was applied to pale specimens of H. parallela (Smith, 1907) from Texas. Poole (1989) incorrectly credits Morrison rather than Edwards as the author of the name and gives the type repository as MSU, whereas the holotype is in AMNH.

930727 Hyperstrotia nana – Two nominal species are confused in collections, H. nana, described from Florida by Hübner in 1818, and H. aetheria, described by Grote from Florida in 1879. The type specimen of H. aetheria is in the BMNH, however there is no type specimen for H. nana, so the identity of the name is based on the painting in Hübner 1818, which is a new senior synonym of H. villificans (Barnes & McDunnough, 1918), syn. n. Another species of Hyperstrotia in Florida related to H. aetheria remains undescribed.

930769.1 Catocala myristica – New species from Kons and Borth (2015a).

930846.1 Catocala aestivalia – New species from Kons and Borth (2015b).

930907 Drasteria maculosa – This name represents populations of Drasteria in the Sierra Nevada that may be disjunct populations of Drasteria hudsonica (Grote & Robinson) or a closely related species. However, the name Drasteria nubicola (Behr, 1870), syn. n., represents a pale almost unmarked form of the Sierran taxon. The name D. nubicola has page priority over D. maculosa (by one page), but as first revisers we use the name maculosa for the taxon because it represents the more typical form for the D. hudsonica group.

930925.1 Doryodes desoto – New species from Lafontaine and Sullivan (2015).

930925.2 Doryodes okaloosa – New species from Lafontaine and Sullivan (2015).

930927 Doryodes spadaria – Revised synonymy of Doryodes grandipennis with D. spadaria from Lafontaine and Sullivan (2015).

930927.1 Doryodes fusselli – New species from Lafontaine and Sullivan (2015).

930927.2 Doryodes latistriga – New species from Lafontaine and Sullivan (2015).

930927.3 Doryodes broui – New species from Lafontaine and Sullivan (2015).

930927.4 Doryodes reineckei – New species from Lafontaine and Sullivan (2015).

930970.1 Lesmone aenaria – This species was described from Mexico and Guatemala as Bendis aenaria and until now has been treated as a synonym of Lesmone detrahens. However, both the barcodes and numerous differences in the male genitalia show that Lesmone aenaria, stat. rev., should be treated as a valid species distinct from Lesmone detrahens, the latter being widespread through eastern United States. Lesmone aenaria is known to occur from Costa Rica northward to southern Texas. The name Metalectra lamprea Druce, 1890, syn. rev., described from Costa Rica, is a synonym of Lesmone aenaria, not a synonym of L. detrahens.

930982 Heteranassa mima – New synonymy with H. fraterna and H. minor from Homziak et al. 2015.

931000 Toxonprucha excavata – There are at least four species in southern United States that have been collectively associated with the name Toxonprucha diffundens (Walker, 1858). However the holotype of Celaena diffundens Walker, and its synonym Pyralis? noctualis Walker, [1866], both described from Venezuela, differ significantly in ways that suggest this species may not be correctly placed in the genus Toxonprucha Möschler (1890) [Type species: Toxonprucha amoena Möschler, 1890; type locality: Puerto Rico], and certainly not conspecific with any of the synonyms or specimens from other areas that have been associated with the name. In T.diffundens the hindwing is mainly pale and unpatterned, with some fuscous along the margin in both sexes, and the forewing pattern is reduced with the postmedial line forming an almost complete loop around the reniform spot, and the antemedial line forming a double-sided loop projecting from the costa, suggesting that Celaena diffundens does not belong in the genus Toxonprucha. We apply the name Toxonprucha excavata (Walker, 1865), stat. rev., with its synonyms T. minuscula (Walker, 1865), syn. n., and T. amoena Möschler, 1890, syn. n., to populations that occur in southern Texas as suggested by similarity in barcodes from the Caribbean, Mexican, and Texan populations.

931018 Zale viridans (Guenée, 1852) – Specimens from Florida identified as Zale viridans (Guenée, 1852) are an undescribed species in the Zale strigimacula species complex and are not closely related to Zale viridans.

931019 Zale strigimacula (Guenée, 1852) – Specimens from Florida identified as Zale strigimacula (Guenée, 1852) represent the same species in the Zale strigimacula species complex as those misidentified as Zale viridans.

931062 Amolita sentalisAmolita sentalis was doubtfully added to the North American list by Kimball (1965) on the basis of material in the AMNH identified as this species by Grossbeck (1917). However, Grossbeck, in his list of the Lepidoptera of Florida, did not list Amolita obliqua Smith, 1903, which was described from Florida. Therefore, it seems more likely that Grossbeck was following the synonymy of the two names by Hampson (1901) rather than recognizing the occurrence of A. sentalis as a species distinct from A. obliqua. Kimball (1965) states that A. sentalis is much smaller than A. obliqua; however, it appears that there is too much variation in size for this to be used as an identification character. Amolita obliqua and A. sentalis [TL: Trinidad] cannot be identified by external characters, only by genital characters, which are diagnostically different.

931096 –931100 Litoprosopus – The genus Litoprosopus Grote has for many years been classified among the “quadrifid noctuids”, now the family Erebidae. Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010) placed them near the end of the Erebidae in the subfamily Eulepidotinae as “insertae sedis Group 2”. Recent nuclear gene research by Reza Zahiri has determined that, like several other lineages formerly classified in the Erebidae (Zahiri et al. 2013), Litoprosopus should correctly be included in the basal Noctuidae in the subfamily Dyopsinae. Accordingly, the subfamily Dyopsinae is inserted into the check list on page 42 after the heading “Family Noctuidae” and the check list numbers for the five species are changed to 931160.1 to 931160.5. [Contributed by Reza Zahiri].

931111 Paectes abrostoloidesPaectes delineata (Guenée, 1852), syn. n., has been treated as a valid species, mainly because there is no type material to deduce the synonymy. Like several other species described by Guenée, the description likely was based on a painting by John Abbot in the late 1700’s in the Savannah, Georgia area. Given that the description matches one of the known forms of Paectes abrostoloides, and no other similar species occur in the area, we treat P. delineata as a new synonym of P. abrostoloides.

931156 Collomena inflexa – The species that occurs in Florida is Collomena inflexa (Morrison, 1875), stat. rev. (Type-locality: Jacksonville, Florida). It was treated as a synomym of Collomena filifera (Walker, 1857) (Type-locality: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic). The two species differ in the configuration of the eversible antler-like coremata on the valves, and by 2.5% in their barcode sequences.

931253 Amyna stricta – Barcoding was the original clue that New World populations of Amyna stricta (Walker, 1858), stat. rev., are not conspecific with Old World populations, known as Amyna axis Guenée, 1852 [= Amyna octo Guenée, 1852]. Consistent differences in the pouches and spine clusters in the vesica support the separation of Old and New World populations as separate species. Amyna flaviguttata (Walker, 1858), syn. rev. [Type locality: Venezuela], Amyna orbica (Morrison, 1874), syn. rev. [Type locality: Texas], and Amyna tecta (Grote, 1876), syn. rev. [Type locality: Texas], are synonyms of Amyna stricta [Type locality: Honduras].

931253.2 Concana mundissima – Nuclear gene research on the basal lineages of the Noctuidae (Zahiri et al. 2013) resulted in the genus Concana Walker being moved from the Nolidae, Collomeninae to the Noctuidae, Bagisarinae.

931254.1 Cydosia majuscula – Barcode differences confirm that Cydosia majuscula (H. Edwards, 1881), stat. rev., the all black “form” of Cydosia aurivitta Grote & Robinson, 1868, is a valid species confined to southeastern United States east of Texas. It was described from Georgia [type in AMNH]. Cydosia aurivitta, the “maculate form” is a separate species that occurs in Texas and Mexico. It occurs in two basic forms, one with black forewings and broad reddish-orange transverse bands and a similarly-colored square in between the two lines, and a second form covered with large white spots in addition to the orange bands and spot. Cydosia aurivitta and its synonym C. imitella Stretch were described from Texas; the types are in ANSP and USNM respectively. [Contributed by Hugo Kons, Jr., Gainesville, Florida].

931257.1 Tripudia inquaesita – Barcode differences and details in maculation show that the species of Tripudia Grote in the T. damozela complex (T. inquaesita (Barnes & Benjamin, 1924), stat. rev.) is a distinct species and occurs in southern Arizona and probably in the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, and is different from T. damozela, which occurs from the State of Puebla in southeastern Mexico northward in the Sierra Madre Oriental to western Texas.

931412 Raphia frater – Revisions in synonymy and subspecies ranking from Schmidt and Anweiler (2014).

931442.1 Acronicta fallax – Generic combination, placement, and synonymy (syn. A. geminata (Smith, 1903)) from Schmidt et al. (2014).

931477.1 Acronicta menyanthidis – This species was first recorded for North America in Ferris et al. (2012). So far, it has only been found in Alaska.

931496 Chloronycta tybo – The genus Chloronycta Schmidt & Anweiler, and the generic combination, were proposed in Schmidt et al. (2014).

931550 Psaphida rolandi – This species was described the in the genus Eutolype Grote, so parentheses should enclose the author and date to reflect the generic transfer.

931564 Feralia comstocki – This species was described in the genus Feralia Grote, so the parentheses around the author and date should be removed.

931606 Emarginea percara – The species formerly known as Emarginea pallida (Smith, 1902), syn. n., is redefined as a very pale desert form of E. percara known from the deserts of southeastern California, southernmost Nevada, and western Arizona. The specimens are almost devoid of the black lines that define the forewing maculation in the typical form, but they differ neither in genitalia nor barcodes from specimens of E. percara from other areas.

931642 Cropia connecta – Rearing of Cropia connecta in Costa Rica (Janzen and Hallwachs 2015) and barcode results show that Cropia templada (Schaus, 1906), syn. n., is a form of Cropia connecta.

931643.1 Cropia indica – Specimens of this Caribbean species collected on Key Largo, Florida are in the collections of CUIC, TLSC, and USNM. They were collected the same year so it may have been a temporary incursion.

931767 Catabenoides vitrinaKimball (1965) recognized two species in southern Florida, C. vitrina [Type locality: Dominican Republic] and C. divisa [Type locality: Cuba] based on unpublished data credited to E. Todd. There are two species in southern Florida, one with a black streak in the female from the base of the forewing to just below the apex, and one with an entirely gray female. However, it is clear from the original descriptions that both names refer to the same species, so C. divisa (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868), syn n., is the same species as C. vitrina and the second species in Florida is undescribed.

931773 Pseudacontia crustaria – This is an uncommon species of the Great Plains and few specimens have been available for study. It occurs in three forms, a more northerly form with a mainly white forewing with dark shading in the basal, outer half of the subterminal, and the terminal areas (P. crustaria), a form with dark shading in the basal, medial and terminal areas (P. louisa syn. n.), and a mainly dark form with a pale band between the basal and medial areas, and in the outer part of the medial area (P. cansa syn. n). There are no differences in the genitalia nor barcodes.

931784 Stylopoda groteana – Smith (1908) described Stylopoda anxia, syn. n. from Ft Wingate, New Mexico, apparently unaware that Dyar (1903) described it from Williams, Arizona, as Pseudacontia groteana five years previously. There are no characters to support the recognition of two species in the range of S. groteana, which occurs from western New Mexico eastward through Arizona and southern Utah to the New York Mountains in eastern California. [Contributed by David Wikle].

931906.1 Sympistis forbesi – A new species related to Sympistis chionanthi (J.E. Smith, 1797) described in Zacharczenko et al. 2014.

932022.1 Ogdoconta margareta – New species from Crabo (2015).

932036 Heliothodes diminutivus – The species name was misspelled as diminutiva and synonym fasciata misspelled as fasciatus in Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010.

932044 Psectrotarsia hebardi – The species name described in the genus Erythroecia Hampson, so the author and date should be placed in parentheses. [Contributed by Lars Crabo].

932054 Chloridea virescens – Generic combination from Pogue (2013).

932055 Chloridea subflexa – Generic combination from Pogue (2013).

932223 Spodoptera eridania – The correct authorship and date for this species is Stoll, 1782 (Poole 1989). The confusion between the authorship of Cramer and Stoll was discussed by us previously (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2011: 150).

932236.1 Elaphria troliaElaphria trolia (Dyar, 1914), stat. n., was described and previously treated as a Central American subspecies of Elaphria exesa (Guenée, 1852), but differs from it in barcodes (3.5%) and male genital characters. So, it is revised to the status of valid species. [Contributed by Jim Troubridge].

932278 Acroria pulchra – Barcode results show that Acroria terrens (Walker, 1857) [TL: Venezuela], and its synonyms A. infensa (Walker, 1857) [TL: Venezuela], and A. villipes Walker, 1858 [TL: Brazil], is a different species from Acroria pulchra (Möschler, 1886), stat. rev., [TL: Jamaica], and A. pulcha’s synonym A. niphanda (Druce, 1889) [TL: northern Panama], syn. rev. Acroria terrens was barcoded from Venezuela, Brazil, Saint Lucia, and Puerto Rico. Acroria pulchra was barcoded from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, USA, Texas, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica.

932284 Nedra stewarti – The species Nedra dora was described as being similar to N. stewarti, but with the forewing a darker purplish fuscous with lighter lavender-gray area than N. stewarti. There is a great deal of variation in color from place to place and the genital characteristics given by Clarke (1940) do not hold up when more material is examined. Also, the barcodes are not differentiated from those of N. stewarti, So we place Nedra dora Clarke, 1940, syn. n. in synonymy.

932361.1 Cherokeea attakullakulla – The genus Cherokeea Quinter & Sullivan, 2014, and the species Cherokeea attakullakulla Sullivan & Quinter, 2014, were described in Quinter and Sullivan 2014.

932480 Papaipema insulidensPapaipema insulidens was described from Vancouver Island in southwestern British Columbia; Papaipema pertincta Dyar, 1920, syn n., was described from Forest Grove in northwestern Oregon; Papaipema birdi (Dyar, 1908), syn n., was described from Rye, New York. We treat Papaipema insulidens as a widespread species that ranges across the southern boreal zone of Canada to connect the eastern and western parts of its range. Throughout this vast area specimens can range from a pale grayish yellow to a darker reddish brown with forms covering this variation sometimes from the same localities. There are no structural differences throughout this range and the barcodes are the same with one haplotype shared almost through the whole range from North Carolina to the Pacific Coast. For these reasons we treat P. pertincta and P. birdi as synonyms of P. insulidens.

932483 Papaipema harrisii – The taxon Papaipema verona, described from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, refers to prairie populations of the species otherwise known from eastern North America as Papaipema harrisii. The specimens are indistinguishable from those of P. harrisii from farther east in appearance, genitalia, and barcodes, so we treat Papaipema verona (Smith, 1899), syn. n., as a synonym of P. harrisii.

932552 Lithophane viridipallens – The species Lithophane pruena syn. n., was described by Dyar (1910) from a single female from eastern Texas. The type specimen is lost, but L. pruena is described as being similar to L. viridipallens, but the basal dash in L. pruena is more prominent, there is more black shading between the reniform and orbicular spots, and the dark spots along the subterminal line are larger than in typical specimens of L. viridipallens. A specimen in the TLSC matches the original description of L. pruena perfectly and its barcodes are identical to those of L. viridipallens from Georgia, North Carolina and New Jersey. Because there is considerable variation in the diagnostic features of L. viridipallens, we treat L. pruena as a well-marked form of it. Although the type specimen is lost, the female genitalia slide of the type of L. pruena is in USNM and is indistinguishable from those of other L. viridipallens.

932634 Aseptis binotata – Revision of the genus Aseptis McDunnough, 1937, by Mustelin and Crabo (2015) resulted in Aseptis paviae (Strecker, 1874), A. genitrix (Grote, 1878), A. dilara (Strecker, 1899), A. cara (Barnes & McDunnough, 1912), and A. bultata (Smith, 1906), being placed into synonymy with Aseptis binotata as geographical forms. Mustelin and Crabo (2015) point out that the name Aseptis genitrix was misspelled as Aseptis genetrix by numerous authors including Franclemont and Todd (1983), Poole (1989), and Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010).

932648.1 Paraseptis adnixa – In a revision of the genus Aseptis, Mustelin and Crabo (2015) proposed a new genus, Paraseptis Mustelin & Crabo, 2015, for Hadena adnixa, a species formerly included in Aseptis. In their revision, the species Aseptis pausis (Smith, 1899) is synonymized with Paraseptis adnixa as Paraseptis pausis.

932749.1 Viridiseptis marina – The genus Viridiseptis Mustelin & Crabo, 2015, was proposed in Mustelin and Crabo (2015) for the species previously listed as 932649 Aseptis marina (Grote, 1874) in Lafontaine and Schmidt (2010). The species is highly divergent from other genera in the Xylenini, therefore Mustelin and Crabo (2015) recommended it be moved to Xyleniniincertae sedis; this change in position is reflected in its revised check list number.

932756 Stretchia plusiiformisplusiaeformis is an unjustified emendation of the original spelling plusiiformis. Incorrect latinization of a name is not to be considered an incorrect original spelling (ICZN 1999, Article 32.5.1).

932810 Nephelodes minians – On the basis of variability in genital characters, geographical variation, and shared barcode sequences, we treat N. mendica Barnes & Lindsey, 1921, syn. n., and N. adusta Buckett, 1973, syn. n., as part of the geographical variability of N. minians.

932823.1 Anarta melanopaAnarta nigrolunata Packard, 1867, was segregated from its Old World sister species by Schmidt and Anweiler 2010. The two species can be distinguished by genital characters and barcode sequences. Recently, specimens of Anarta melanopa were barcoded from Alaska and northern Yukon and represent new records of this species in North America. Curiously, the barcodes are identical with those from specimens from montane areas of southern Europe, but differ from those from Fennoscandia, suggesting a southern Siberian-Altai-Balkans-Alps connection to the Alaskan population, not a northern Russia-Fennoscandian connection as is seen in more arctic-occurring species like Sympistis zetterstedtii (Staudinger, 1857).

932928 Dargida diffusa – Lack of consistent genital differences, identical barcodes with those of D. diffusa from various parts of Canada and the United States, and intermediate forms in Idaho and western Montana, result in us treating D. terrapictalis (Buckett, 1969), syn. n., as conspecific with D. diffusa. Dargida terrapictalis is a dark form of the species that occurs from southern British Columbia to central California and could be treated as a subspecies if desired.

932934 Mythimna yuconensis – We return this species to its original spelling. The name was emended by McDunnough (1938) to yukonensis, not accepting Hampson’s use of a c in the name instead of a k. The ICZN rules allow the original spelling of a name to be “corrected” if the person or place the name is derived from is included in the original text, thus demonstrating the error. However, in the case of yuconensis, it was Hampson’s habit to use traditional Latin letters for scientific names, including changing the species name in Xestia wockei to voccei. The spelling of yuconensis cannot be taken as an error, but was the spelling intended by Hampson.

932938.1 Leucania amygdalina – Barcode results, and consistent differences in the genitalia between southern populations of L. linita [type-locality: St. John’s Bluff, Florida] and those from farther north result in us treating the northern populations as Leucania amygdalina (Harvey, 1878), stat. rev., [type locality: Orono, Maine] as a valid species. Leucania linita has a longer, more coiled vesica and a larger cucullus (40% as long as saccular region) in the male genitalia, whereas the vesica is shorter and straighter and the cucullus is 30% as long as the saccular region in L. amygdalina. Leucania linita is known to occur from Maryland to Florida and Texas; L. amygdalina occurs from southern Canada and New England westward to Illinois and Indiana and southward probably to New Jersey.

933038 Lacinipolia leucogramma – Two names formerly treated as valid species, L. canities (Hampson, 1905), syn. n. and L. francisca (Smith, 1910), syn. n., are synonyms of Lacinipolia leucogramma. This result was reported in the unpublished 1975 thesis of Charles Selman, and the barcodes results also support this conclusion.

933042.1 Lacinipolia acutipennis – New synonymy from Schmidt (2015).

933042.2 Lacinipolia sareta – Revised status from Schmidt (2015).

933042.3 Lacinipolia dimocki – New species from Schmidt (2015).

933049 Lacinipolia perta – This Mexican species was added to the North American by Franclemont and Todd (1983), presumably from material collected by Franclemont in southern Arizona. Specimens of L. lepidula (Smith, 1888) from the southwestern United States with a darker medial area are a good match for the type of L. perta, described from Veracruz, Mexico. However, other species from southeastern Mexico, such as Lacinipolia perfragilis (Dyar, 1923), also added to the MONA list by Franclemont and Todd (1983), and Abagrotis totonaca (Schaus, 1894), have been shown to be similar but distinct species from their sister species in southwestern United States and the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010: 165; Lafontaine 1998: 217). For these reasons, we remove Lacinipolia perta from the list of North American Noctuidae north of Mexico. The type material of L. perta, was not located in the BMNH in 2007 or 2010 (JDL), therefore we do not know if L. perta is a valid species, or a synonym of L. lepidula.

933115.1 Protorthodes texicana – Described by Lafontaine (2014) in Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933115.2 Protorthodes perforata – Syn. P. constans; synonymy from Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933115.3 Protorthodes rufula – Species renumbered to reflect change in phylogenetic position in Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933115.4 Protorthodes ustulata – New species from Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933115.5 Protorthodes alfkenii – Species renumbered to reflect change in phylogenetic position from Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933115.6 Protorthodes antennata – Species renumbered to reflect change in phylogenetic position from Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933116 Nudorthodes texana – Generic description and new combination from Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933117 Nudorthodes variabilis – New combination from Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933117.1 Nudorthodes molino – New species from Lafontaine et al. (2014).

933331.1 Euxoa bivittata – Described as a subspecies of Euxoa vallus (Smith, 1900); however, barcode results, and male genital characters lead us to treat Euxoa bivittata Lafontaine, 1987, stat. n., as a valid species. Superficially, the moths differ from those of E. vallus in having broad, fuzzy, almost straight, transverse lines, whereas in E. vallus the antemedial line is zigzagged and the medial line is serrated and bends basally near the middle of the wing to pass between the reniform and orbicular spots. The vesica in E. bivittata has a stronger sub-basal twist, so the apical part of the vesica is farther above the basal part than in E. vallus, and the sub-basal diverticulum follows the direction of the aedeagus more closely. Curiously, the barcodes of E. vallus are more similar to those of E. macleani McDunnough than to those of E. bivittata.


Many friends and colleagues sent us suggestions for additions and corrections to this list and gave us access to material in their care. We appreciate the help of James Adams, Gary Anweiler, Jerome Barbut, Charles Bordelon, Lars Crabo, Cliff Ferris, Larry Gall, Martin Honey, Ed Knudson, Hugo Kons, Leroy Koehn, Eric Metzler, Paul Opler, Mike Pogue, Bob Poole, Bo Sullivan, Jim Troubridge, Jim Vargo, Dave Wagner, Bruce Walsh, Dave Wikle and Alberto Zilli. James Adams served as Academic Editor and he, along with two anonymous reviewers, made many suggestions that improved the manuscript.


  • Barnes W, McDunnough J (1917a) Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera IV(2): 61–208.
  • Barnes W, McDunnough J (1917b) Check list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America. Herald Press, Decatur, 392 pp. doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.10097
  • Becker VO (2013) Taxonomic changes in the Neotropical Pericopina and Ctenuchina moths (Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini), with description of new taxa. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 46: 53–66.
  • Clarke JFG (1940) A study of the North American moths formerly referred to Delta Saalmüller, with two new species (Lepidoptera: Phalaenidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 39: 39–52.
  • Crabo LG (2015) A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from southeastern Arizona, USA. In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths VI.ZooKeys 527: 51–56. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.527.9771
  • Dubatolov VV (2015) Taxonomic review of Manulea subgenus Setema (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Lithosiini). The Canadian Entomologist 147: 1–12. doi: 10.4039/tce.2014.73
  • Dyar HG (1898) New American moths and synonymical notes. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 6: 33–44.
  • Dyar HG (1903) A list of North American Lepidoptera and key to the literature of this order of insects. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 52: 1–723.
  • Dyar HG (1910) Two new species of Graptolitha [Lepidoptera; Noctuidae]. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 12: 190.
  • Ferguson DC, Opler PA (2006) Check list of the Arctiidae (Lepidoptera: Insecta) of the continental United States and Canada. Zootaxa 1299: 1–33.
  • Ferguson DC, Opler PA, Smith MJ (2000) Moths of western North America, 3. Distribution of Arctiidae of western North America, Part 1. Text, maps, and references. C.P. Gillette Arthropod Biodiversity Museum, Ft. Collins, CO, 171 pp.
  • Ferris CD, Kruse JJ, Lafontaine JD, Philip KW, Schmidt BC, Sikes DS (2012) A check list of the moths of Alaska. Zootaxa 3571: 1–25.
  • Franclemont JG (1983) Arctiidae. In: Hodges RW, Dominick T, Davis DR, Ferguson DC, Franclemont JG, Munroe EG, Powell JA (1983) Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E. W. Classey Ltd, London and The Wedge Entomological Research FoundationWashington, 114–119.
  • Franclemont JG, Todd EL (1983) Noctuidae. In: Hodges RW,Dominick T,Davis DR,Ferguson DC,Franclemont JG,Munroe EG,Powell JA (1983) Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E. W. Classey Ltd, London and The Wedge Entomological Research FoundationWashington, 120–159.
  • Grossbeck JA (1917) Insects of Florida, IV. Lepidoptera. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 37: 1–147.
  • Hampson GF (1898) Catalogue of the LepidopteraPhalaenidae in the British Museum 1: 1–559, pl. 1–17.
  • Hampson GF (1901) Catalogue of the LepidopteraPhalaenidae in the British Museum 3: 1–690, pl. 36–54.
  • Hampson GF (1914) Catalogue of the Amatidae and Arctiadae (Nolinae and Lithosianae) in the collection of the British Museum 28: 1–858, 41 pls.
  • Holloway JD (2005) The moths of Borneo: Family Noctuidae, subfamily Catocalinae. Malayan Nature Journal 58: 1–529.
  • Homziak N, Hopkins H, Miller KB (2015) Revision of the Genus Heteranassa Smith, 1899 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Omopterini). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths VI.ZooKeys 527: 31–49. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.527.8771
  • Hübner J (1818) Zuträge zur Sammlung exotischer Schmettlinge, 1–32, figures 1–200, 35 pls. Augsburg.
  • Kimball CP (1965) Lepidoptera – an annotated checklist. In: Arthropds of Florida and neighboring land areas, vol 1. Florida Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, 363 pp.
  • Kons HL Jr, Borth RJ (2015a) A new species of Catocala (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southeastern United States. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 56: 55–65. doi: 10.3374/014.056.0103
  • Kons HL Jr, Borth RJ (2015b) A new species of Catocala (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 56: 67–79. doi: 10.3374/014.056.0104
  • Lafontaine JD (1998) Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (part) – Noctuini. In: Dominick RB et al. (Eds) The Moths of North America. Fascicle 27.3. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington, 348 pp.
  • Lafontaine JD, Schmidt BC (2010) Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 40: 1–239. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.40.414
  • Lafontaine JD, Schmidt BC (2011) Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 149: 145–161. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.149.1805
  • Lafontaine JD, Schmidt BC (2013) Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys 264: 227–236. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.264.4443
  • Lafontaine JD, Sullivan JB (2015) A revision of the genus Doryodes Guenée in North America with descriptions of six new species (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Catocalinae, Euclidiini). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths VI.ZooKeys 527: 3–30. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.527.6087
  • Lafontaine JD, Walsh JB, Ferris CD (2014) A revision of the genus Protorthodes McDunnough with descriptions of a new genus and four new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Eriopygini). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths V.ZooKeys 421: 139–179. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.421.6664
  • Laguerre M, Sierra JM, de Souza Moraes S (2014) Description of two new species Pericopini from Guatemala and critical review of some recent nomenclature changes in the genus Dysschema Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebiidae: Arctiinae: Pericopini). Journal of Insect Biodiversity 2: 1–19. doi: 10.12976/jib/2014.2.4
  • Lewis JA (2015) A New Species of Crambidia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae: Lithosiini) from the Eastern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 116: 394–401.
  • McDunnough J (1938) Check list of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United States of America. Part 1. Macrolepidoptera. Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 1: 1–275.
  • Miller JS (2009) Generic revision of the Dioptinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Notodontidae) Part 1: Dioptini. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 321, 674 pp.
  • Mustelin T, Crabo LG (2015) Revision of the genus Aseptis McDunnough (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini) with a description of two new genera, Paraseptis and Viridiseptis. In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths VI.ZooKeys 527: 57–102. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.527.9575
  • Neumoegen B, Dyar HG (1893) A preliminary revision of the Bombyces of America North of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 1: 97–118.
  • Pogue MG (2013) Revised status of Chloridea Duncan and (Westwood), 1841, for the Heliothis virescens species group (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Heliothinae) based on morphology and three genes. Systematic Entomology 38: 523–542. doi: 10.1111/syen.12010
  • Poole RW (1989) Lepidopterorum Catalogus (New Series). Fascicle 118 Noctuidae, Parts 1–3. E.J. Brill, New York, xii + 1314 pp.
  • Quinter EL, Sullivan JB (2014) A new apameine genus and species from the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae). ZooKeys 421: 181–191. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.421.7727
  • Schmidt BC (2015) Taxonomic revision of the Lacinipolia vicina (Grote) complex (Noctuidae: Noctuinae: Eriopygini). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths VI.ZooKeys 527: 103–126. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.527.9686
  • Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG (2010) Taxonomic changes to Lepidoptera: Macro-moths. In: Pohl GR, Anweiler GG, Schmidt BC, Kondla NG. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada.ZooKeys 38: 497–509.
  • Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG (2014) Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths V.ZooKeys 421: 91–113. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.421.5717
  • Schmidt BC, Opler PA (2008) Revised check list of the tiger moths of the continental United States and Canada. Zootaxa 1677: 1–23.
  • Schmidt BC, Wagner DL, Zacharczenko BV, Zahiri R, Anweiler GG (2014) Polyphyly of Lichen-cryptic Dagger Moths: synonymy of Agriopodes Hampson and description of a new basal acronictine genus, Chloronycta, gen. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths V.ZooKeys 421: 115–137. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.421.7424
  • Selman CL (1975) Revision of the Genus Lacinipolia McDunnough of America North of Mexico (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).The Ohio State University, Ph.D. in Entomology, 1975.
  • Toulgoët H de (1992) Reclassement d’Arctiidae neotropicales actuellement en attente d’un reclassement generique correct, avec description de deux especes nouvelles (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) (40eme note). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie 9: 339–344.
  • Vincent B, Laguerre M (2013) Changements nomenclaturaux chez les Arctiinae néotropicales (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Erebidae); seconde partie. Zoosystema 35: 425–455. doi: 10.5252/z2013n3a5
  • Watson A (1971) An illustrated catalogue of the Neotropic Arctiinae types in the United States National Museum (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Part I. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 50: 1–361. doi: 10.5479/si.00810282.50
  • Zacharczenko B, Wagner DL, Hatfield MJ (2014) A new cryptic Sympistis from eastern North America revealed by novel larval phenotype and host plant association (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Oncocnemidinae). ZooKeys 379: 93–107. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.379.5765
  • Zahiri R, Lafontaine D, Schmidt C, Holloway JD, Kitching IJ, Mutanen M, Wahlberg N (2013) Relationships among the basal lineages of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) based on eight gene regions. Zoologica Scripta 42: 488–507. doi: 10.1111/zsc.12022