Catalogue
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Catalogue
Catalogue of Texas spiders
expand article infoDavid Allen Dean
‡ Texas A&M University, College Station, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

This catalogue lists 1,084 species of spiders (three identified to genus only) in 311 genera from 53 families currently recorded from Texas and is based on the “Bibliography of Texas Spiders” published by Bea Vogel in 1970. The online list of species can be found at http://pecanspiders.tamu.edu/spidersoftexas.htm. Many taxonomic revisions have since been published, particularly in the families Araneidae, Gnaphosidae and Leptonetidae. Many genera in other families have been revised. The Anyphaenidae, Ctenidae, Hahniidae, Nesticidae, Sicariidae and Tetragnathidae were also revised. Several families have been added and others split up. Several genera of Corinnidae were transferred to Phrurolithidae and Trachelidae. Two genera from Miturgidae were transferred to Eutichuridae. Zoridae was synonymized under Miturgidae. A single species formerly in Amaurobiidae is now in the Family Amphinectidae. Some trapdoor spiders in the family Ctenizidae have been transferred to Euctenizidae.

Gertsch and Mulaik started a list of Texas spiders in 1940. In a letter from Willis J. Gertsch dated October 20, 1982, he stated “Years ago a first listing of the Texas fauna was published by me based largely on Stanley Mulaik material, but it had to be abandoned because of other tasks.” This paper is a compendium of the spiders of Texas with distribution, habitat, collecting method and other data available from revisions and collections. This includes many records and unpublished data (including data from three unpublished studies). One of these studies included 16,000 adult spiders belonging to 177 species in 29 families. All specimens in that study were measured and results are in the appendix. Hidalgo County has 340 species recorded with Brazos County at 323 and Travis County at 314 species. These reflect the amount of collecting in the area.

Keywords

Distribution, Locality, Caves, Time of activity, Habitat, Method, Type, Collection, Etymology, History of collecting, Thesis

Introduction

Gertsch and Mulaik (1940) published the first list of spiders in Texas. In a letter from Willis J. Gertsch dated October 20, 1982, he stated “Years ago a first listing of the Texas fauna was published by me based largely on Stanley Mulaik material, but it had to be abandoned because of other tasks.” They described 17 new species in nine families and provided distributions in select families (Ctenizidae, Dipluridae, Euctenizidae, Theraphosidae, Caponiidae, Dictynidae, Diguetidae, Dysderidae, Filistatidae, Mimetidae, Oecobiidae, Oonopidae, Pholcidae, Scytodidae, Segestriidae, Sicariidae, and Uloboridae). Bea Vogel published a “Bibliography of Texas Spiders” in 1970 based on literature records. The current paper is an update of her work and includes data from revisions and labels from specimens and many new records. Her list included 582 species, but she underestimated the diversity of spiders occurring in Texas partly because of more recent collecting in many areas of the state. Fifty-seven names in her list have been synonymized, 17 are not found in Texas, five are nomen dubium, one is undescribed, and three are duplicates resulting in 499 species (Table 4). Many revisions have since been published and much additional collecting has more than doubled the number of species recorded from Texas. Texas is a transition zone which includes extreme range-limits of many species and also has part of its border adjoining Mexico. The climate varies from subtropical in South Texas, to temperate conditions in the panhandle; and from desert in the west, to swamp in the east.

References are listed that mention Texas for each species. Some checklists have been published, which remain the only reference to a species’ occurrence in Texas. Illustrations of the genitalia of a species not included in published reports of a Texas occurrence are included as a reference in brackets. Counties listed are those in which published reports include a species occurring in Texas and includes unpublished records from collections. A species listed as “widespread” is widely distributed across Texas. Several species are listed as “Texas.” The latest name of a species is given with synonymy included where Texas is listed. [T] is a transfer. [S] is synonymy.

Collecting data from locality labels is provided where available. This was taken from collections and revisions. The collections at Texas A&M University, the author’s collection and that at Midwestern State University were searched. Records from West Texas A&M were donated. Cave records from the Texas Memorial Museum are included. The South West Arthropod Network (http://symbiota4.acis.ufl.edu/scan/portal/collections/) was accessed September 13, 2014. It includes records from Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Museum of Comparative Zoology, New Mexico State University, Texas Memorial Museum, and Texas Tech University.

Catalogs of Banks (1910), Bonnet (1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959), Buckle et al. (2001), Crosby (1905), Marx (1890), Petrunkevitch (1911), Roewer (1942, 1955), Roth (1988), Roth and Brown (1986), and Vogel (1962, 1967) were searched. See Brignoli (1983) and Platnick (1989, 1993, 1998, 2000, 2001, and 2003) for updates on new family classifications and current status of species. NMBE – World Spider Catalog (http://www.wsc.nmbe.ch/) was used for recent changes in names. Distribution in Petrunkevitch (1911) listed as all states, North America, East of Rocky Mountains or United States are not included here.

Several spider species have been listed as endangered by the US Fish & Wildlife Service (Federal Register 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003). These are mostly in the families Dictynidae and Leptonetidae.

Number of species recorded from Texas described by time period.

Years Number of species Authors with most species
1755–1799 19 Clerck-9
1800–1824 10 Walckenaer-6
1825–1849 145 Hentz-73
Walckenaer-41
1850–1874 52 Hentz-24
1875–1899 240 Banks-56
O. P.-Cambridge-29
Emerton-40
Keyserling-52
Peckham & Peckham-22
Simon-16
1900–1924 130 Banks-28
F. O. P.-Cambridge-14
Chamberlin-39
Peckham & Peckham-19
1925–1949 257 Chamberlin-26
Chamberlin & others-43
Gertsch-71
Gertsch & Mulaik-45
Gertsch & others-39
1950–1974 72 Gertsch-16
Levi-15
1975–1999 113 Gertsch-56
Gertsch & others-6
Platnick & Shadab-12
2000–2013 43 Ledford et al.-10

Number of species described by Chamberlin and Gertsch and co-authors in Texas.

Ch Ch & I G G & D G & I G & M G & W
<1922 12
1922–1932 37 1
1933 1 9
1934 10
1935 8 20 6
1936 10 17 15 8 28 1
1937–1939 2 1 1
1940 6 5 2 1 17
1941–1947 16 11 3
1950’s 5
1960’s 3
1970’s 8
1980’s 5
1990’s 51
Total 65 32 143 19 8 45 8

Collectors of holotypes in Texas.

Year S. Mulaik S. & D. Mulaik L. I. Davis J. R. Reddell Other Unknown Total
earlier 7 2 9
1933 8 3 11
1934 35 1 6 3 45
1935 27 6 4 37
1936 5 10 2 17
1937 2 2 4
1938 1 2 3
1939 2 8 1 11
1940 2 2
1941 1 1 2
1942–48 4 1 5
1950 2 2
1952 4 4
1956–59 5 5
1960 3 3
1961 2 2
1962 2 1 3
1963 12 4 16
1964 8 2 10
1965 4 4
1966 3 1 4
1967–69 1 6 7
1970’s 2 12 14
1980’s 1 12 13
1990’s 3 7 10
2000- 2 9 11
no date 9 11 42 62
Total 88 11 22 38 110 47 316

Comparison of number of genera and species in this publication versus Vogel (1970b).

This publication Vogel 1970b
Family Number genera Number species Number genera Number species
Atypidae 1 2
Ctenizidae 1 7 1 5
Dipluridae 1 2 1 2
Euctenizidae 3 4 2 2
Theraphosidae 1 18 1 11
Agelenidae 5 15 5 11
Amphinectidae 1 1
Anyphaenidae 5 19 1 2
Araneidae 28 94 17 34
Caponiidae 2 2 2 2
Clubionidae 2 12 2 12
Corinnidae 4 15 1 1
Ctenidae 3 3 1 1
Dictynidae 12 115 11 48
Diguetidae 1 4 1 4
Dysderidae 1 1 1 1
Eutichuridae 2 3 2 2
Filistatidae 3 4 3 4
Gnaphosidae 22 104 15 33
Hahniidae 2 7 1 2
Hersiliidae 1 1 1 1
Leptonetidae 3 21 1 1
Linyphiidae 27 74 12 25
Liocranidae 1 1
Lycosidae 17 86 14 37
Mimetidae 2 7 2 4
Miturgidae 3 3 1 1
Mysmenidae 1 1 1 1
Nephilidae 1 1
Nesticidae 2 8 2 2
Oecobiidae 1 3 1 2
Oonopidae 6 9 5 7
Oxyopidae 3 15 3 12
Philodromidae 6 38 5 13
Pholcidae 10 18 8 12
Phrurolithidae 4 11 3 5
Pisauridae 3 8 2 3
Plectreuridae 1 1
Prodidomidae 1 1 1 1
Salticidae 49 147 32 62
Scytodidae 1 6 1 5
Segestriidae 1 1 1 1
Selenopidae 1 1 1 1
Sicariidae 1 5 1 3
Sparassidae 3 3
Symphytognathidae 1 1
Tetragnathidae 6 17 3 7
Theridiidae 34 96 31 75
Thomisidae 11 45 8 29
Titanoecidae 1 3 1 2
Trachelidae 2 5 1 1
Uloboridae 5 9 4 6
Zoropsidae 2 6 1 3
Total 311 1084 215 499

History of collecting in Texas

General: Some areas of Texas have been heavily collected (Rio Grande Valley, Austin, College Station, Wichita Falls) while many areas remain little collected.

Sampling of counties: Many studies of spiders have been undertaken in Texas. Those based on a particular county include: Brazos (Dean and Sterling 1990, Henderson 2007), Dallas (Jones 1936), Ellis (Hunter 1988), Erath (Agnew et al. 1985), Galveston (Rapp 1984), Nacogdoches (Brown 1974), Potter (Roberts 2001), Smith (Rydzak and Killebrew 1982), Travis (Vincent and Frankie 1985), Walker (Dean and Sterling 1990; Dean et al. 1982), and Wichita (Carpenter 1972). Dean and Sterling (1987) and Gertsch and Mulaik (1940) attempted to study spiders across the state. Broussard and Horner (2006) studied a remote area of western Texas. Salmon and Horner (1977) studied ballooning spiders but did not identify them to species.

Sampling of agroecosystems: Many agroecosystems have been studied: cabbage (Irungu 2007), citrus (Breene et al. 1993a), corn (Knutson and Gilstrap 1989), cotton (Breene et al. 1993c, Dean et al. 1982, Dean and Sterling 1987, Kagan 1943, Pamanes-Guerrero 1975), guar (Rogers and Horner 1977), peanut (Agnew et al. 1985), pecan (Bumroongsook et al. 1992, Calixto et al. 2013, Liao et al. 1984), rice (Woods and Harrel 1976), saltcedar (Knutson et al. 2010), sugarcane (Breene et al. 1993b), wildflowers (Dean and Eger 1986), and woolly croton (Breene et al. 1988).

Cokendolpher et al. (2008) studied playas in the Texas panhandle. Yantis (2005) studied the spiders under trees (pine and post oak) in unmanaged habitats. Quinn (2000) and Wharton et al. (1996) studied the potential prey of the golden-cheeked warbler in juniper, oak and pine.

Jackman et al. (2008) studied the spiders collected from a large web at Lake Tawakoni State Park that received worldwide attention. A website (http://www.texasento.net/Social_Spider.htm) maintains the history of this story and mentions other webs. The major species involved was Tetragnatha guatemalensis O. P.-Cambridge. Two orb-weaver species that contributed to the web included Larinioides cornutus (Clerck) and Metazygia wittfeldae (McCook). A large web was found in 2010 at the Nails Creek Unit of Lake Somerville State Park in Lee County and another one in 2015 at Lakeside Park South in Dallas County. Both of these webs included the same species.

Sampling of families: Studies of specific families of spiders include: Gnaphosidae (Bowen et al. 2004, Zolnerowich and Horner 1985), Salticidae (Carpenter 1972, Hunter 1988), and crab spiders (Cokendolpher et al. 1979, Rydzak and Killebrew 1982).

Miscellaneous sampling: Spiders collected by mud dauber wasps were studied by Dean et al. (1988). A survey of ballooning spiders in east Texas was done by Dean and Sterling (1985, 1990). Reddell (1965, 1970) investigated the cave fauna. More recently, Cokendolpher (2004a), Cokendolpher and Reddell (2001a, b), Reddell and Cokendolpher (2004) have studied the fauna of select caves. Goetze and Flores (2001a, b) sampled spiders in Laredo but only identified them to family. Yantis (2005) sampled two major vegetation types: evergreen forest (pine) versus deciduous woodland (post oak woodland) to examine the influence of vegetation and soil on the occurrence of plant and animal species. In each plot, the percentage of trees was determined and noted here under habitat.

Theses and dissertations on Texas spiders: An online search of colleges and universities in Texas has turned up 46 theses and dissertations on Texas spiders that were identified either as the focus of the study or part of it. That includes 12 different colleges/universities (Lamar University in Beaumont [2], Midwestern State University in Wichita Falls [16], North Texas State University in Denton [1], Southern Methodist University in Dallas [1], Texas A&M University in College Station [13], Texas Tech University in Lubbock [2], Texas A&M International University in Laredo [1], Texas Christian University in Fort Worth [2], University of Houston [1], University of Texas at Arlington [3], University of Texas in Austin [3], and West Texas A&M University at Canyon [1].

Seventeen did not publish their work: Brady 1959, Cate 1992, Hanss 2000, Henderson 2007, Hunter 1988, Irungu 2007, Li 1990, Matelski 1982, Matts 1978, Pamanes-Guerrero 1975, Powell 2014, Quinn 2000, Reddick 1996, Roberts 2001, Trevino 2014, Yantis 2005, and Zaltsberg 1977.

An additional twenty-nine published their work [citation in brackets]: Agnew 1981 [Agnew et al. 1982], Barron 1995 [Barron et al. 1999], Bowen 2002 [Bowen et al. 2004], Breene 1988 [Breene et al. 1988, Breene et al. 1989], Broussard 2002 [Broussard and Horner 2006], Brown 1984 [Cokendolpher and Brown 1985], Bumroongsook 1986 [Bumroongsook et al. 1992], Carpenter 1969 [Carpenter 1972], Cokendolpher 1978 [Cokendolpher et al. 1979], Gann 2014 [Gann et al. 2015], Hamilton 2008 [Hamilton and Craig 2008, Hamilton et al. 2012], Hamilton 2009 [Hamilton et al. 2011], Harwood 1970 [Harwood 1974], Higgins 1988 [Higgins 1989, Higgins 1990, Higgins 1992b, Higgins and McGuinness 1990], Hoffmaster 1983 [Hoffmaster 1985], Horner 1967 [Horner and Stewart 1967], Janowski-Bell 1995 [Janowski-Bell and Horner 1999], Jones 1935 [Jones 1936], Kagan 1942 [Kagan 1943], Knutson 1987 [Knutson and Gilstrap 1989], Liao 1984 [Liao et al. 1984], Pickett 1985 [Pickett and Gilstrap 1986], Pritchett 1904a [Pritchett 1904b], Salmon 1976 [Salmon and Horner 1977], Steffenson 2014 [Steffenson et al. 2014], Tugman 1987 [Tugman et al. 1990], Woods 1974 [Woods and Harrel 1976], Zhang 2002 [Zhang et al. 2004], and Zolnerowich 1983 [Zolnerowich and Horner 1985].

Collectors: Many people have collected spiders in Texas. Among the earliest were Stanley and Dorothea Mulaik who collected many spiders from 1933–1940, mostly from 1934–1935, and holotypes of 99 species. They were counselors at several camps in the summer and Stanley taught at several institutions. They collected spiders, scorpions, turtles, and other small invertebrates mostly from the Rio Grande Valley toward Laredo and were paid a few cents each by the American Museum of Natural History. They moved to Utah in 1939 where Stanley pursued his PhD with Dr. Ralph Chamberlin. He described new taxa of isopods in his dissertation. He taught for many years and he and his wife were involved in several organizations. L. Irby Davis collected mostly in Cameron Co. from 1934–1936 with 22 holotypes collected. He went on to become a noted ornithologist. James Reddell studied cave fauna for many years and collected 38 holotypes from caves from 1962–2001 and an additional 7 species with colleagues, and greatly improved the knowledge of the fauna of Texas caves. The author has collected in more than one-half of Texas counties. A table containing numbers of species by county is in the appendix.

General keys to spiders include Kaston’s (1978) well-illustrated book. Jackman (1997) is a good field guide with color pictures of the more common spiders in Texas. Ubick et al. (2005) is the best illustrated general guide with chapters on all families and genera in the United States. Spiders of Connecticut (Kaston 1981) includes illustrations of species that are hard to find elsewhere.

Lowrie (1987) reported on the distribution and time periods of taxonomists who described spiders from Wisconsin.

Early workers were Europeans who described American species: Baron Charles A. Walckenaer from France (total of 47 species, 19 in 1837 and 22 in 1841), Count Eugen Keyserling from Germany (total of 54 species, 16 in 1880 and 12 in 1884), and others. Octavius P.-Cambridge from England (35 species from 1861–1902) and his nephew F. O. P.-Cambridge from England (15 species from 1899–1904) described many new spiders from Central America.

Twelve countries outside of the United States are represented mostly in the nineteenth century including England-66 species (5 workers), France-83 species (9 workers), and Germany-79 (7 workers). Bonnet (1945, in French) contains biographies of all arachnologists before 1940.

Early workers from America include: Nicholas M. Hentz (total of 98 species from 1821–1850, 11 in 1844, 15 in 1846, 32 in 1847, and 24 in 1850), James H. Emerton (total of 51 species from 1875–1924, 22 in 1882, 5 in 1884, 6 in 1890, and 4 in 1913), George W. and Elizabeth Peckham (total of 41 species from 1883–1909, 10 in 1888, 10 in 1901, and 9 in 1909), and Nathan Banks (total of 85 species from 1892–1926, 10 in 1892, 12 in 1895, 15 in 1896, 13 in 1898, 5 in 1901, and 13 in 1904). Henry C. McCook described 9 species from 1887–1894 and Thomas H. Montgomery described 9 species from 1902–1904.

Later American authors include: Ralph V. Chamberlin (total of 65 species from 1908–1940, 8 in 1919, 11 in 1922, 13 in 1924, 10 in 1936). He collaborated with three authors: Gertsch (11 species), Ivie (32 species from 1933–1945, 8 in 1935, 6 in 1944), and Angus M. Woodbury (3 species in 1929).

Willis J. Gertsch described 143 species from 1932–1992, 9 in 1933, 10 in 1934, 20 in 1935, 17 in 1936, 6 in 1941, 8 in 1974, 5 in 1984, and 51 in 1992. During the 1930’s, he collaborated with L. Irby Davis (19 species, 15 in 1936) and Stanley Mulaik (45 species, 28 in 1936, 17 in 1940). Gertsch also co-authored papers with Allan F. Archer (4 species), Wilton Ivie (8 species), Howard K. Wallace (8 species), Franklin Ennik (2 species), Norman I. Platnick (1 species), and Susan E. Riechert (3 species). Gertsch also collected in many localities in the United States and Mexico.

Herbert W. Levi described 23 species of araneids and theridiids from 1953–2003. Norman I. Platnick described 7 species and 12 with Mohammed Shadab from 1975–1988. James C. Cokendolpher described 9 species and 7 with other authors. Joel Ledford and coauthors described 10 species of leptonetids in 2012.

A total of 316 species were described from Texas and named from the following categories: location (11 city/town, 16 county, 21 state, 10 other); person (16 collector, 7 arachnologist, 40 other); appearance (18 morphology, 6 eyes, 3 color, 2 markings, 10 size); 2 Indian; 9 name of cave; 5 mountains; and 140 miscellaneous. Nine species were named after Stanley and Dorothea Mulaik who collected many spiders from Texas in the 1930’s.

Stanley and Dorothea Mulaik

Counties and number of species collected include: Brewster (1), Brooks (1), Cameron (6), Hays (2), Hidalgo (58), Jeff Davis (1), Jim Wells (1), Kendall (1), Kerr (3), Kleberg (1), Matagorda (1), Randall (1), Starr (7), Terrell (5), Tom Green (1), Val Verde (3), Webb (1), and Zapata (5).

L. Irby Davis

Counties and number of species collected include: Bexar (3), Brewster (1), Cameron (10), Kendall (1), Llano (6), and Travis (1).

J. R. Reddell

Counties and number of species collected include: Bandera (1), Bell (2), Bexar (5), Burnet (1), Childress (1), Coryell (1), Culberson (1), Hays (2), Kendall (1), Medina (2), Menard (1), Real (1), San Saba (2), Sutton (1), Travis (4), Uvalde (4), Val Verde (6), and Williamson (2).

Vogel (1970b) listed 582 species (57 synonyms, 17 are not found in Texas, 5 are nomen dubium, one is undescribed, and three are duplicates) resulting in 499 valid species.

Listing under each species where data is available:

Distribution. general distribution followed by Texas counties in which it occurs

Locality. parks, forests, caves, etc.

Caves.

caves by county

Time of activity. month (s) of year males and females were collected, a range in “” is a period with no month specified

Habitat. habitat (divided by category: crops, grass, landscape features, littoral, nest/prey, objects, orchard, plants, soil/woodland, structures, web)

Method. collecting method with sex (m=male, f=female) of spider(s) collected by each method

Eggs/spiderlings. number of eggs found in an eggsac or number of spiderlings found in an eggsac or on a female spider (i.e., collected from pitfall trap)

Type. data on species type specimen

Male/Female. noted if only one sex is known

Etymology. origin of species name

Collection. museums where collection data was obtained

Note. note on location or species

These books (Jaeger 1959, Webster’s New Universal Unabridged Dictionary 1996, Woods 1944) were used to determine etymology not listed in description or revision.

Localities listed as “the Basin” in Brewster Co. are listed here as Chisos Basin.

Collection abbreviations are: JCC (James C. Cokendolpher, personal collection), MSU (Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls), TAMU (Texas A&M University Insect Collection, College Station, part of author’s personal collection has been donated), TMM (Texas Memorial Museum, Austin- now named Texas Natural History Collections), TTU (Texas Tech University, Lubbock), WTAM (West Texas A&M University, Canyon), AMNH (American Museum of Natural History, New York), DMNS (Denver Museum of Nature & Science), FSCA (Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Gainesville), MCZ (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Boston), NMSU (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces), SIUC (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale), and USNM (United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.).

Spiders are divided by suborder, then alphabetical by family, genus and species.

Taxonomy

Suborder Mygalomorphae

Family Antrodiaetidae Gertsch, 1940

Note. species incorrectly reported from Texas

Antrodiaetus robustus (Simon, 1891); Coyle 1971: 345 [disproved Texas as locality (Starr Co.) because specimen was collected by George Marx who was notorious for inaccurate label data]; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 311; Vogel 1962: 246; Vogel 1970b: 28 [not in Texas]

Brachybothrium robustum Simon, 1891; Petrunkevitch 1911: 52; Roewer 1942: 190

Family Atypidae Thorell, 1870

Genus Sphodros Walckenaer, 1835

Sphodros paisano Gertsch & Platnick, 1980

Sphodros paisano Gertsch and Platnick 1980: 20, f, desc. (figs 30–31); Jackman 1997: 24, 160; Platnick 1986: 140, m, desc. (figs 1–2)

Distribution

Cameron, Travis

Locality

Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (May 31-August 10); female (March)

Type

Mexico, Tamaulipas, Rancho El Milagro, Cruillas

Etymology

Spanish, noun, countryman

Sphodros rufipes (Latreille, 1829)

Sphodros rufipes Bradley 2013: 103; Gertsch and Platnick 1980: 21 [S], mf, desc. (figs 2, 5–6, 11–12, 32–36); Jackman 1997: 24, 160

Atypus bicolor Lucas, 1836; Gertsch, 1979: 124

Distribution

Liberty

Time of activity

Female (January)

Type

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Etymology

Latin, color

Family Ctenizidae Thorell, 1887

Note. species incorrectly reported from Texas

Bothriocyrtum californicum O. P.-Cambridge, 1874; Banks 1910: 2 [misidentified] [not in Texas]

Genus Ummidia Thorell, 1875

Ummidia absoluta (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940)

Ummidia absoluta Brignoli 1983: 117 [T]; Jackman 1997: 160

Pachylomerides absolutus Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 311, f, desc. (fig. 10); Vogel 1962: 246; Vogel 1970b: 28

Distribution

Bandera

Time of activity

Female (“July-August”)

Type

Texas (female, Bandera Co., Bandera, July-August 1937, B. Hale, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, easily separated species

Ummidia audouini (Lucas, 1835)

Ummidia audouini Jackman 1997: 160 [Roddy 1957: 286 [T] (figs 5–6)]

Pachylomerides audouini (Lucas, 1835); Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 311; Vogel 1962: 246; Vogel 1970b: 28

Distribution

East Texas

Type

Unknown

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Ummidia beatula (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940)

Ummidia beatula Brignoli 1983: 117 [T]; Jackman 1997: 160

Pachylomerides beatulus Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 312, f, desc. (fig. 11); Vogel 1962: 246; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Dallas

Time of activity

Female (December)

Type

Texas (female, Dallas Co., 5–6 miles S Dallas, December 1937, J. C. Sanders, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, fine spider

Ummidia celsa (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940)

Ummidia celsa Brignoli 1983: 117 [T]; Jackman 1997: 160

Pachylomerides celsus Gertsch and Mulaik, 1940; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 313, m, desc. (figs 14–15) [see note below]; Vogel 1962: 246; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Zapata

Time of activity

Male (August)

Type

Texas (male, Zapata Co., 32 miles SW Laredo, August 4, 1935, S. Mulaik, holotype)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Latin, chelicerae nearly black, prominent, rugose

Note

32 miles SW Laredo should be 32 miles SE Laredo in Zapata Co. based on other records from this date.

Ummidia funerea (Gertsch, 1936)

Ummidia funerea Platnick 2000 [spelling]

Pachylomerus funereus Gertsch, 1936; Bonnet 1958: 3291; Gertsch 1936: 1, m, desc. (figs 1–2)

Pachylomerides funereus (Gertsch, 1936); Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 312 [T]; Roewer 1942: 149; Vogel 1962: 246; Vogel 1970b: 29.

Ummidia funereus (Gertsch, 1936); Jackman 1997: 160; Roewer 1955: 1712 [T]

Distribution

Hidalgo, Webb, Wichita

Time of activity

Male (April – June, September)

Type

Texas (male, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, June 1, 1935, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Latin, funereal

Collection

MSU

Ummidia pygmaea (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1945)

Ummidia pygmaea Brignoli 1983: 117 [T]

Pachylomerides pygmaeus Chamberlin and Ivie 1945 [Chamberlin and Ivie 1945a: 558, m, desc. (figs 11–12)]

Distribution

Wichita

Type

Oklahoma, Eagletown

Etymology

Latin, pygmy

Collection

MSU

Ummidia tuobita (Chamberlin, 1917)

Ummidia tuobita Platnick 1998: 123 [T]

Pachylomerus tuobitus Chamberlin, 1917 [Chamberlin 1917: 33, m, desc. (pl. 1, figs 6–8)]

Pachylomerides tuobitus (Chamberlin, 1917) [Chamberlin and Ivie 1945a: 556, mf (figs 13–15)]

Distribution

Brewster

Type

Illinois

Etymology

Latin, a tube

Collection

MSU

Family Dipluridae Simon, 1889

Genus Euagrus Ausserer, 1875

Euagrus chisoseus Gertsch, 1939

Euagrus chisoseus Coyle 1988: 267 [S], mf, desc. (figs 24–26, 39–43, 50, 223–251); Gertsch 1939b: 21, desc.; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 308, m (fig. 9); Jackman 1997: 27, 160; Taber and Fleenor 2003: 239; Vogel 1962: 247; Vogel 1970b: 29

Euagrus ravenus Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 308, mf, desc. (figs 8, 13); Reddell 1970: 405; Vogel 1962: 247; Vogel 1970b: 29

Euagrus apacheus Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 309, mf, desc. (figs 7, 12); Vogel 1962: 247; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Central and west Texas; Bandera, Bastrop, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Brewster, Burnet, Comal, Crockett, Culberson, Edwards, Hays, Jeff Davis, Kendall, Kerr, Kimble, Llano, Presidio, Sutton, Terrell, Travis, Uvalde, Wichita

Locality

Bastrop State Park, Big Bend National Park, Big Bend Ranch State Park, Chisos Basin, Chisos Mountains, Davis Mountains, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Inks Lake State Park, Lake Travis, Mo Ranch, Pedernales Falls State Park, Raven Ranch, Travis Park, Zilker Park

Caves

Edwards (Punkin Cave)

Time of activity

Male (March – October, December); female (February – December)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave, crevices in steep road bank, under [rock, stone, stones at edge of limestone creek in disturbed area]); (littoral: by creek at light, creek); (soil/woodland: oak woods, oak-juniper woods, oak-pine litter, under log); (web: tubular-maze webs in crevices in steep road bank, web in duff covered ravine bank)

Method

Berlese funnel [f]; carrion trap [m]

Type

Texas (male, Brewster Co., Chisos Mountains, Chisos Basin, August 2, 1938, no collector, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (mountains)

Collection

MSU, NMSU, TMM, TTU

Euagrus comstocki Gertsch, 1935

Euagrus comstocki Bradley 2013: 122; Coyle 1988: 273, mf, desc. (figs 252–259) [see note below]; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 309 [see note below]; Jackman 1997: 27, 160, desc.; Kaston 1953: 33, desc. (fig. 62); Kaston 1972: 65, desc. (fig. 150); Kaston 1978: 68, desc. (figs 165–167); Roewer 1942: 203; Taber and Fleenor 2003: 240; Vogel 1970b: 29

Evagrus comstocki Gertsch, 1935; Bonnet 1956: 1848; Comstock 1940: 246, desc.; Gertsch 1935a: 3, mf, desc. (figs 2, 7–8) [Terrell & Travis Co. are E. chisoseus]

Distribution

Hidalgo, Starr, Webb, Zapata

Time of activity

Male (March – April, September, November); female (January, March – April, June – July, September – November)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: under shrub)

Type

Texas (male, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, November 11, 1934, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Note

32 miles E Laredo and 32 miles SW Laredo should be 32 miles SE Laredo in Zapata Co. based on other records from this date.

Family Euctenizidae Raven, 1985

Note.genera transferred from Cyrtaucheniidae by Bond & Hedin, in Bond et al. 2012: 8

Genus Entychides Simon, 1888

Entychides arizonicus Gertsch & Wallace, 1936

Entychides arizonicus Bond 2005: 47

Eutychides arizonicus Gertsch & Wallace, 1936 [Gertsch and Wallace 1936: 20, m, desc. (figs 26–31)]

Entychides arizonica Gertsch & Wallace, 1936; Bond and Opell 2002: 516, f, desc. (figs 12A–B)

Distribution

Archer, Bell, Brazos, Brewster, Brown, Erath, San Patricio, Travis, Wichita.

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Chisos Basin, Lick Creek Park

Time of activity

Male (January, April, August – October, December); female (March, December)

Method

Flight intercept trap on ground [m]

Type

Arizona, Santa Catalina Mountains, Sabino Basin

Etymology

locality (state)

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Genus Eucteniza Ausserer, 1875

Eucteniza relata (O. P.-Cambridge, 1895)

Eucteniza relata Bond and Godwin 2013: 45 [S], mf, desc. (figs 23–30)

Astrosoga rex Chamberlin, 1940; Brignoli 1983: 111; Chamberlin 1940b: 5, m, desc.; Chamberlin and Ivie 1945a: 556, m, desc. (figs 8–10); Gertsch 1979: 109; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 310; Reddell 1965: 170; Vogel 1962: 246; Vogel 1970b: 28

Eucteniza rex (Chamberlin, 1940); Bond 2005: 46, 47; Bond and Hedin 2006: 81; Bond and Opell 2002: 495, 509 [T], 511, 534 (figs 8A-E); Jackman 1997: 160

Myrmekiaphila comstocki Bishop & Crosby, 1926; Gertsch 1935a: 3, f (fig. 3) [misidentified, see Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 310]

Astrosoga stolida Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 310, mf, desc. (figs 1–4, 26); Vogel 1962: 246

Astrosoga solida Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940; Vogel 1970b: 28

Eucteniza stolida (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940); Bond 2005: 46, 47; Bond and Opell 2002: 495, 513 [T], 534; Jackman 1997: 160

Distribution

Atascosa, Bastrop, Bell, Bexar, Dimmit, Duval, Hidalgo, Houston, Kendall, Kenedy, Kerr, Kleberg, La Salle, Midland, Nueces, Sabine, San Patricio, Starr, Sutton, Travis, Ward, Webb, Zapata

Locality

Bastrop State Park, Raven Ranch

Caves

Travis (Austin Caverns)

Time of activity

Male (January – February, June – July, September – December); female (February – September, November – December)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Mexico, Amula in Guerrero

Etymology

Latin, returned

Collection

MSU, TAMU, TMM

Eucteniza ronnewtoni Bond & Godwin, 2013

Eucteniza ronnewtoni Bond and Godwin 2013: 57, m, desc. (figs 58–63)

Distribution

Brewster, Val Verde

Time of activity

Male (September – October)

Habitat

(landscape features: on rocks)

Type

Texas (male, Val Verde Co., at bridge on Pecos River, September 2, 1968, J. A. Brubaker, F. J. Moore, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (The specific epithet is a patronym in honor of Dr. Ronald Newton, biologist and Texas native, Bond and Godwin 2013).

Genus Myrmekiaphila Atkinson, 1886

Myrmekiaphila comstocki Bishop & Crosby, 1926

Myrmekiaphila comstocki Bishop and Crosby 1926: 168, m, desc. (figs 7–8); Bond and Opell 2002: 495; Bond and Platnick 2007: 11, mf, desc. (figs 5, 15, 25, 41–47) [see note below]; Bradley 2013: 114; Gertsch 1935a: 3, f (fig. 3); Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 310; Jackman 1997: 160; Roewer 1942: 168; Vogel 1970b: 28

Myrmekiaphila fluviatilis (Hentz, 1850); Bishop and Crosby 1926: 166; Gertsch 1935a: 3; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 310; Henderson 2007: 37, 52–54, 74–76, 79, 82; Jackman 1997: 160; Kaston 1953: 60, desc. (fig. 142); Vogel 1970b: 28; Yantis 2005: 66, 197, 201 [all misidentified]

Myrmeciophila fluviatilis (Hentz, 1850); Comstock 1912: 239; Comstock 1940: 234 [misidentified]

Myrmeciophila comstocki Bishop & Crosby, 1926; Brown 1974: 233

Distribution

Brazos, Cherokee, Clay, Coryell, Grimes, Hardeman, Hidalgo, Houston, Hunt, Kimble, Kleberg, Leon, Madison, Montague, Nacogdoches, Travis, Trinity, Walker, Wichita

Locality

Lick Creek Park, Riley Estate

Time of activity

Male (February – May, October – November); female (April, May, July)

Habitat

(grass: sandy grassland, short grass); (littoral: sandy area, sandy by water); (soil/woodland: disturbed habitat, pine woods [%: 66, 82, 86, 97], post oak savanna with pasture, post oak woodland, post oak woods [%: 41, 49, 56, 74, 77, 82, 84, 92, 96], upland woods); (structures: front porch, under newspaper in garage)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [m]; pitfall trap [m]

Type

Texas (male, Travis Co., Austin, March 12-18, 1903, J. H. Comstock, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (collector)

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Note

Palp keys out to M. foliata Atkinson, 1886 because the distal dilation of metatarsus I is large (see fig. 14 in Bond and Platnick 2007) and the embolus is thick. However, specimens from Texas that were not seen for their revision have the distal dilation large but is M. comstocki. This is based on a Texas population (from several counties) not seen in their revision (Bond and Platnick, pers. comm.).

Family Nemesiidae Simon, 1889

Note. species incorrectly reported from Texas

Brachythele longitarsis Simon, 1891; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 310 [Webb Co., recorded by G. Marx]; Petrunkevitch 1911: 53; Roewer 1942: 197; Simon 1891: 319; Smith 1908: 226; Vogel 1970b: 29 [not in Texas]

Family Theraphosidae Thorell, 1869

Note. species incorrectly reported from Texas

Aphonopelma seemanni (Ausserer, 1875) [not in Texas]

Eurypelma seemanni Ausserer, 1875; Petrunkevitch 1911: 64; Roewer 1942: 241

nomen dubium

Aphonopelma californicum Ausserer, 1871; Prentice 1997: 147 [T]

Eurypelma californicum Ausserer, 1871; Banks 1910: 4; Comstock 1912: 245; Comstock 1940: 243; Roewer 1942: 239

Aphonopelma pseudoroseum (Strand, 1907); Breene et al. 1996: 22, 23; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 314 [T]; Jackman 1997: 160; Prentice 1997: 147 [T]; Smith 1995: 131; Vogel 1962: 248; Vogel 1970b: 29

Eurypelma pseudoroseum Strand, 1907; Banks 1910: 4; Roewer 1942: 241

Delopelma pseudoroseum (Strand, 1907); Bonnet 1956: 1383

Tapinauchenius texensis Simon, 1891; Banks 1910: 4; Bonnet 1959: 4240; Breene et al. 1996: 14; Comstock 1912: 246; Comstock 1940: 244; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 314 [Maverick Co. by Marx]; Petrunkevitch 1911: 91; Roewer 1942: 257; Vogel 1970b: 29

Genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901

Aphonopelma anax (Chamberlin, 1940)

Aphonopelma anax Breene et al. 1996: 16, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 71 [T], mf, desc. (figs 83–100)

Dugesiella anax Chamberlin, 1940; Chamberlin 1940a: 34, mf, desc.; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 315; McCoy and Clapper 1979: 450; Vogel 1962: 249; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Cameron, Kleberg, Zapata

Locality

Falcon International Reservoir

Type

Texas (male, Kleberg Co., Kingsville, no date, J. C. Cross, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Greek, regal

Collection

DMNS

Aphonopelma armada (Chamberlin, 1940)

Aphonopelma armada Breene et al. 1996: 16, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 74 [T], f, desc. (figs 118–123)

Dugesiella armada Chamberlin, 1940; Chamberlin 1940a: 32, f, desc.; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 315; Vogel 1962: 249; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Travis

Time of activity

Female (September)

Type

Texas (female, Travis Co., Austin, September 1909, A. Petrunkevitch, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, character of armature of coxae

Aphonopelma arnoldi Smith, 1995

Aphonopelma arnoldi Breene et al. 1996: 17, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 74, m, desc. (figs 124–134)

Distribution

Crosby

Time of activity

Male (June)

Type

Texas (male, Crosby Co., Crosbyton, June 17, 1963, P. Keathley, holotype, Oklahoma State University)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named after D. C. Arnold of the Oklahoma State University Entomology Department, Smith 1995).

Aphonopelma breenei Smith, 1995

Aphonopelma breenei Breene et al. 1996: 17, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 78, f, desc. (figs 151–158)

Distribution

Cameron

Time of activity

Female (November)

Type

Texas (female, Cameron Co., Harlingen, November 1939, B. Brown, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named after the late Dr. Robert Breene who with Barbara Moore founded the American Tarantula Society in 1991, Smith 1995).

Aphonopelma clarki Smith, 1995

Aphonopelma clarki Breene et al. 1996: 18, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 87, mf, desc. (figs 211–230)

Distribution

Dallas

Time of activity

Female (January)

Type

Texas (female, Dallas Co., Dallas, January 25, 1959, H. J. Berman, holotype, BMNH)

Etymology

Person (Named after the late Douglas John Clark, curator of arachnology, BMNH, [1931–1971] who died at the tragically young age of 41. A theraphosid enthusiast, he had many live tarantulas in his office. Over the years, as I have worked through the specimen jars, one by one, I have often found him there before me, Smith 1995)

Aphonopelma echinum (Chamberlin, 1940)

Aphonopelma echinum [Smith 1995: 96 [T], m, desc. (figs 289–298)]

Dugesiella echina Chamberlin, 1940; Punzo 1991: 277 [Chamberlin 1940a: 36, m, desc.]

Distribution

Brewster, Kerr, Presidio

Locality

Big Bend National [State] Park

Time of activity

Male (March, November)

Type

Colorado, Arkansas Valley

[female unknown]

Etymology

Greek, spiny, hedge-hog like

Collection

MSU

Aphonopelma gurleyi Smith, 1995

Aphonopelma gurleyi Breene et al. 1996: 18, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 104, m, desc. (figs 359–367)

Distribution

Cooke

Type

Texas (male, Cooke Co., Sherman, Moss Lake, no date, R. Gurley, BMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named after the collector, amateur entomologist/arachnologist and naturalist, Russ Gurley, Smith 1995).

Aphonopelma harlingenum (Chamberlin, 1940)

Aphonopelma harlingenum Breene et al. 1996: 19, 23; Smith 1995: 106 [T], f, desc. (figs 378–383)

Dugesiella harlingena Chamberlin, 1940; Chamberlin 1940a: 37, f, desc.; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 315; Vogel 1962: 249

Dugesiella harlingen (Chamberlin, 1940); Vogel 1970b: 29

Aphonopelma harlingena (Chamberlin, 1940); Cokendolpher 1993: 39; Jackman 1997: 160

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo

Type

Texas (female, Cameron Co., Harlingen, no date, B. Brown, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (city)

Aphonopelma hentzi (Girard, 1852)

Aphonopelma hentzi Breene et al. 1996: 22, 23; Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 10, 52, (photos 37–38); Jackman 1997: 160; Janowski-Bell and Horner 1999: 504; Roberts 2001: 48 [Smith 1995: 107 [T], mf, desc. (figs 393–411)]

Mygale hentzii Girard, 1852; Lincecum 1867a: 138; Lincecum 1867b: 409

Eurypelma hentzii (Girard, 1852); Banks 1892: 148; Marx 1890: 502; Rau 1925: 1

Eurypelma hentzi (Girard, 1852); Jones 1936: 69

Dugesiella hentzi (Girard, 1852); Bonnet 1956: 1612; Brown 1974: 237; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 315; Petrunkevitch 1911: 60; Roewer 1942: 238; Vogel 1970b: 29

Rhechostica hentzi (Girard, 1852); Formanowicz and Ducey 1991: 2916

Distribution

Archer, Brown, Carson, Clay, Dallas, Nacogdoches, Potter, Starr, Taylor, Travis, Wichita, Wilbarger

Locality

Pantex Lake, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center, W. J. Wagoneer Estate

Time of activity

Male (June – September); female (April – June, September – October, December)

Habitat

(grass: grassland); (landscape features: under rock); (littoral: near playa); (structures: lawn, service station)

Type

unknown

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Collection

MSU, TTU

Aphonopelma heterops Chamberlin, 1940

Aphonopelma heterops Breene et al. 1996: 19, 23; Chamberlin 1940a: 29, f, desc.; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 314; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 113, f, desc. (figs 416–422); Vogel 1962: 248; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Hidalgo

Time of activity

Female (“September-December”)

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, September-December, 1933, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Greek, different, mixed (heter-) + eyes (-ops)

Aphonopelma hollyi Smith, 1995

Aphonopelma hollyi Breene et al. 1996: 20, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 114, m, desc. (figs 423–434)

Distribution

Lubbock

Time of activity

Male (August)

Type

Texas (male, Lubbock Co., Lubbock, August 1981, C. Moody, holotype, Oklahoma State University)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named after the singer Buddy Holly who was born in Lubbock, Smith 1995).

Aphonopelma marxi (Simon, 1891)

Aphonopelma marxi Prentice 1997: 147 [S, T]

Eurypelma marxi Simon, 1891; Gertsch 1935a: 4; Roewer 1942: 240 [Petrunkevitch 1929: 517, m, desc. (fig. 13)]

Aphonopelma simulatum Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 314; Vogel 1962: 248; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Hidalgo

Type

unknown

[female unknown]

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Note

Smith 1995: 119, 120 does not believe it is this species.

Aphonopelma moderatum (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939)

Aphonopelma moderatum Bradley 2013: 222; Breene et al. 1996: 20, 23; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 314 [T] [see note below]; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 122, m, desc. (figs 500–507); Vogel 1962: 248

Delopelma moderatum Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939; Bonnet 1956: 1382; Chamberlin and Ivie 1939: 9, m, desc. (fig. 5); Vogel 1962: 249

Delopelma modoratum Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

Maverick, Starr, Zapata

Time of activity

Male (March, May); female (September)

Type

Texas (male, Starr Co., 5 miles E Rio Grande City, May 1, 1937, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, moderate

Collection

DMNS

Note

32 miles SW Laredo should be 32 miles SE Laredo in Zapata Co. based on other records from this date.

Aphonopelma mordax (Ausserer, 1871)

Aphonopelma mordax Smith 1995: 124 [T], f, desc. (figs 518–523)

Eurypelma mordax Ausserer, 1871; Ausserer 1871: 211, m, desc. (fig. 14); Marx 1890: 502

Distribution

Texas

Type

unknown

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, biting

Aphonopelma rusticum (Simon, 1891)

Aphonopelma rusticum Platnick 1993: 100 [T]; Vogel 1970b: 29 [Smith 1995: 137, m, desc. (figs 650–659)]

Eurypelma rusticum Simon, 1891; F. O. P.-Cambridge 1897: 24, m (pl. 1, figs 20–20a); Petrunkevitch 1911: 64; Roewer 1942: 241

Distribution

Texas

Type

Mexico

[female unknown]

Etymology

Latin, rusty abdominal color

Aphonopelma steindachneri (Ausserer, 1875)

Aphonopelma steindachneri Breene et al. 1996: 21, 23; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 314 [T]; Jackman 1997: 160; Punzo 2007: 66; Smith 1995: 147, m, desc. (figs 744–753); Vogel 1962: 248; Vogel 1970b: 29

Eurypelma steindachneri Ausserer, 1875; Ausserer 1875: 199, mf, desc. (figs 43–44); Comstock 1912: 245, desc.; Comstock 1940: 243, desc.; Gertsch 1939b: 21; Petrunkevitch 1911: 65

Distribution

Brewster, Dallas, Pecos

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Chisos Basin, Chisos Mountains

Type

unknown

Etymology

Person

Collection

MCZ

Note

Hamilton et al. (2011) stated that this species occurs only in California.

Aphonopelma texense (Simon, 1891)

Aphonopelma texense Breene et al. 1996: 21, 23; Pérez-Miles et al. 1996: 42, m (fig. 7); Platnick 1998: 151 [spelling]; Smith 1995: 152 [T]

Eurypelma texense Simon, 1891; Banks 1910: 4

Rhechostica texense (Simon, 1891); Comstock 1912: 243, desc.; Comstock 1940: 241, desc; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 314 [record by Marx]

Rhechostica texensis (Simon, 1891); Bonnet 1958: 3855; Petrunkevitch 1911: 87; Roewer 1942: 245; Vogel 1970b: 29

Aphonopelma texensis (Simon, 1891); Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 152 [T], m, desc. (figs 791–799)

Distribution

Maverick, Starr, Zapata

Type

Texas (male, no location, 1880’s, G. Marx, holotype, USNM)

[female unknown]

Etymology

locality (state)

Aphonopelma waconum (Chamberlin, 1940)

Aphonopelma waconum Breene et al. 1996: 22, 23; Jackman 1997: 160; Smith 1995: 156 [T], m, desc. (figs 832a–832i)

Dugesiella wacona Chamberlin, 1940; Chamberlin 1940a: 38, m, desc.; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 315; Vogel 1962: 249; Vogel 1970b: 29

Distribution

McLennan

Time of activity

Male (July)

Type

Texas (male, McLennan Co., Waco, July 5, 1931, no collector, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

locality (city)

Suborder Araneomorphae

Family Agelenidae C. L. Koch, 1837

Genus Agelenopsis Giebel, 1869

Agelenopsis aleenae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935

Agelenopsis aleenae Ayoub et al. 2005: 44; Guarisco 2014: 82, f, desc.; Jackman 1997: 160; Reddell 1965: 168; Reddell 1973: 41; Vogel 1970b: 2; Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 12, mf, desc. (figs 1–2)

Distribution

Blanco, Briscoe, Clay, Dallas, Howard, Jeff Davis, Llano, San Saba

Locality

Caprock Canyons State Park, Davis Mountains Resort, Lake Arrowhead State Park

Caves

San Saba (Dove Cave)

Time of activity

Male (May, October); female (September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave); (soil/woodland: saltcedar)

Method

Malaise trap [f]

Type

New Mexico, Suwanee

Etymology

Person (Named for Aleen Ivie, wife of arachnologist Wilton Ivie, who collected the specimen, Whitman-Zai et al. 2015).

Collection

NMSU, TAMU, TMM

Agelenopsis aperta (Gertsch, 1934)

Agelenopsis aperta Ayoub and Riechert 2004: 3465; Ayoub et al. 2005: 44; Bradley 2013: 65; Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 36; Jackman 1997: 160; Kaston 1978: 170; Maupin and Riechert 2001: 570; Reddell 1965: 168; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 76; Reddell and Finch 1963: 50; Riechert 1993: 344; Roewer 1955: 41; Roth and Brown 1986: 4 [S]; Vogel 1970b: 2; Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 13, mf, desc. (figs 23–24, 41, 56–57)

Agelena aperta Gertsch, 1934; Gertsch 1934d: 25, mf, desc. (fig. 10); Jones 1936: 69

Agelenopsis apertus (Gertsch, 1934); Gertsch 1939b: 25 [T]

Agelenopsis aperta guttata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941; Chamberlin and Ivie 1941: 595, mf, desc. (fig. 22); Jackman 1997: 160; Roewer 1955: 41; Vogel 1967: 4; Vogel 1970b: 2

Distribution

Bandera, Bastrop, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Brazos, Brewster, Burleson, Dallas, Edwards, El Paso, Fort Bend, Hidalgo, Kerr, Liberty, Pecos, Randall, Reeves, San Patricio, Tom Green, Travis, Uvalde, Val Verde, Walker, Wichita, Williamson

Locality

Amistad National Recreational Area, Chisos Basin, Chisos Mountains, Fort Hood, Lick Creek Park, Palo Duro Canyon State Park, Raven Ranch

Caves

Bell (Rock Ring Sink [Fort Hood]); Bexar (Cave of the Half-Snake, Logan’s Cave); Travis (Root Cave); Williamson (Three-Mile Cave)

Time of activity

Male (May – September); female (June – December)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave); (littoral: grassy field, near water, palmetto-cypress swamp); (soil/woodland: upland deciduous forest)

Method

Flight intercept trap on ground [m]; pitfall trap [f]

Type

Colorado, east of Boulder, Valmont Buttes

Etymology

Latin, opened

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, TAMU, TMM

Agelenopsis emertoni Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935

Agelenopsis emertoni Ayoub et al. 2005: 44; Chamberlin and Ivie 1935b: 33, m, desc. (fig. 110); Chamberlin and Ivie 1941: 593, mf, desc. (figs 5, 28, 30); Guarisco 2008b: 5; Henderson 2007: 52, 76, 79, 82; Jackman 1997: 160; Roewer 1955: 41; Roth and Brown 1986: 5; Vogel 1967: 4; Vogel 1970b: 2; Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 14, mf, desc. (figs 25–26, 42, 58); Yantis 2005: 66, 196, 199

Agelenopsis aperta (Gertsch, 1934); Yantis 2005: 196, 199 [misidentified]

Agelenopsis sp. nr emertoni Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935; Jackman et al. 2007: 199 [misidentified]

Agelenopsis sp. nr pennsylvanica (C. L. Koch, 1843); Henderson 2007: 55, 76, 79, 82 [misidentified]

Distribution

Anderson, Bastrop, Bell, Brazos, Burleson, Dallas, Grayson, Grimes, Houston, Hunt, Leon, McLennan, Madison, Nueces, San Patricio, Trinity, Walker, Wichita

Locality

Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lick Creek Park, Welder Wildlife Refuge, White Rock Lake

Time of activity

Male (April, July – November); female (April – June, August – October)

Habitat

(grass: grass); (littoral: moist salt beach); (soil/woodland: disturbed habitat, forest, pine woods [%: 60, 66, 69, 77, 80, 84, 86, 95, 97], post oak savanna with pasture, post oak woods [%: 60, 76, 82, 85, 93, 100], sandy area, sandy brushland, upland woods); (web: large spider web)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [mf]; beating [mf]; pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Texas (male, Bell Co., Belton, September 1, 1933, W. Ivie, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (Named for arachnologist James H. Emerton, Whitman-Zai et al. 2015).

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Agelenopsis kastoni Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941

Agelenopsis kastoni Yantis 2005: 66, 196, 199 [Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 15, mf, desc. (figs 19–20, 39, 54)]

Distribution

Cherokee, Grimes, Harris, Leon, Madison, Rusk, Sabine, Trinity, Tyler, Walker

Locality

Kirby State Forest

Time of activity

Male (March 26-April 4, April, April 24-May 3)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, pine woods [%: 66, 86, 97], post oak woods [%: 49, 71, 91, 92, 94, 96])

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [m]; flight intercept trap/malaise trap [m]; flight intercept trap on ground [m]; malaise trap [m]

Type

Connecticut, Haddam

Etymology

Person (Named for arachnologist Benjamin J. Kaston who collected the holotype, Whitman-Zai et al. 2015).

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Agelenopsis longistyla (Banks, 1901)

Agelenopsis longistyla Platnick 1998: 618 [spelling]; Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 16, mf, desc. (figs 15–16, 40, 65)

Agelenopsis longistylus (Banks, 1901); Chamberlin and Ivie 1941: 592, mf, desc. (figs 10, 20, 33); Jackman 1997: 160; Roewer 1955: 42; Vogel 1970b: 2

Distribution

McCulloch, Oldham

Time of activity

Female (September – October)

Type

New Mexico, White Mountains

Etymology

Latin, long stylus on palp

Agelenopsis naevia (Walckenaer, 1841)

Agelenopsis naevia Ayoub et al. 2005: 44; Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Brown 1974: 231; Chamberlin and Ivie 1941: 597, mf, desc. (figs 9, 25, 36); Jackman 1997: 93, desc., 160 (photo 24b); Kaston 1953: 131, desc.; Kaston 1972: 178, desc.; Kaston 1978: 169, desc.; Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Richman et al. 2011a: 47; Roth and Brown 1986: 5 [T]; Vogel 1970b: 2; Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 16, mf, desc. (figs 21–22, 33, 48); Yantis 2005: 66, 196, 199

Agelena naevia Walckenaer, 1841; Jones 1936: 69

Distribution

Anderson, Angelina, Bastrop, Brazos, Brown, Dallas, Fort Bend, Grimes, Henderson, Hidalgo, Houston, Howard, Jeff Davis, Leon, Madison, Montgomery, Nacogdoches, Polk, Presidio, Rusk, Smith, Walker, Waller, Wichita, Wise

Locality

Chihuahuan desert, Dalquest Research Site, Decker’s Prairie, Lick Creek Park, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (March – July, October); female (February – March, June – October)

Habitat

(grass: short grass); (landscape features: under rock); (soil/woodland: pine woods [%: 73, 74, 77, 80, 83, 100], post oak woods [%: 48, 70, 75, 76, 80, 85, 90, 100], saltcedar, tree bark); (web: base of house in web, web across creek bed)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [mf]; pitfall trap [m]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, spotted

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Agelenopsis oklahoma (Gertsch, 1936)

Agelenopsis oklahoma Ayoub et al. 2005: 44 [Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 17, mf, desc. (figs 17–18, 38, 53)]

Agelenopsis sp. nr oklahoma (Gertsch, 1936); Henderson 2007: 53, 76, 79, 82 [misidentified]

Distribution

Brazos, Clay

Locality

Lake Arrowhead State Park, Lick Creek Park

Time of activity

Male (April)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: upland woods)

Method

pitfall trap [m]

Type

Oklahoma, Stillwater

Etymology

locality (Named for the state from which the species was described, Whitman-Zai et al. 2015).

Collection

TAMU

Agelenopsis spatula Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935

Agelenopsis spatula Agnew et al. 1985: 4, 9; Ayoub et al. 2005: 45; Chamberlin and Ivie 1935b: 32, mf, desc. (fig. 109); Chamberlin and Ivie 1941: 596, mf, desc. (figs 6, 26, 32); Jackman 1997: 160; Roewer 1955: 43; Vogel 1970b: 2; Whitman-Zai et al. 2015: 21, mf, desc. (figs 13–14, 35, 50); Yantis 2005: 196; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Agelena spathula (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935); Bonnet 1955: 201

Distribution

Archer, Brazos, Briscoe, Clay, Dallam, Erath, Frio, Houston, Liberty, Roberts, Travis, Wichita, Williamson

Locality

Caprock Canyons State Park, Lake Kickapoo

Time of activity

Male (September – October); female (February, May, September – November)

Habitat

(crops: peanuts); (grass: short grass); (littoral: rocks near water, under rock); (soil/woodland: on ground, pine woods [%: 88])

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [f]; pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Texas (male, Wichita Co., Wichita Falls, September 3, 1933, W. Ivie, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, spoon shaped palp

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Genus Barronopsis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941

Barronopsis texana (Gertsch, 1934)

Barronopsis texana Ayoub et al. 2005: 45; Guarisco 2008b: 5; Jackman 1997: 160; Lehtinen 1967: 218 [T]; Roth and Brown 1986: 5; Stocks 2009: 17, mf, desc. (figs 2, 5, 16, 18–23, 48, 55–59); Yantis 2005: 196

Agelena texana Gertsch, 1934; Bonnet 1955: 202; Gertsch 1934d: 24, m, desc.; Jones 1936: 69

Agelenopsis texana (Gertsch, 1934); Brown 1974: 231; Chamberlin and Ivie 1941: 601 [T], m, desc. (figs 46–47); Roewer 1955: 43; Roth 1954: 5, m (fig. 4); Vogel 1970b: 2

Distribution

Anderson, Aransas, Blanco, Brazoria, Brazos, Cameron, Dallas, Denton, Fannin, Harris, Hidalgo, Hunt, Kerr, Nacogdoches, Sabine, Travis, Trinity

Locality

Lake Dallas, Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lick Creek Park, Thurmond Lake, White Rock Lake, Zilker Park

Time of activity

Male (March, October – December, December 2-January 17); female (March – May, October – December, December 2-January 17)

Habitat

(grass: in grass near woods); (soil/woodland: ground, mix-pine forest, oak forest, oak woods, palm, pine woods [%: 69], under [bark, log])

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [m]; flight intercept trap [m]; malaise trap [mf]

Type

Texas (male, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, no date, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (state)

Collection

MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Genus Coras Simon, 1898

Note. genus transferred here from Amaurobiidae (Miller et al. 2010: 802)

Coras alabama Muma, 1946

Coras alabama Brown 1974: 231; Jackman 1997: 160 [Muma 1946: 9, mf, desc. (figs 11, 39–40)]

Distribution

Nacogdoches

Time of activity

Female (March)

Habitat

(objects: under board in empty lot)

Type

Alabama, Madison Co., Monte Sano

Etymology

locality (state)

Coras lamellosus (Keyserling, 1887)

Coras lamellosus [Muma 1946: 6, mf, desc. (figs 7, 27–30)]

Distribution

Anderson, Denton, Grayson, Hardin, Kleberg

Locality

Padre Island

Time of activity

Male (November); female (March – April)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: wooded area)

Type

Virginia, Fort Monroe; Pennsylvania, Altoona; Lake Superior

Etymology

Latin, refers to a thin plate

Collection

MCZ, MSU

Coras medicinalis (Hentz, 1821)

Coras medicinalis Bonnet 1956: 1201; Jackman 1997: 160; Jones 1936: 69; Kaston 1972: 181, desc. (fig. 399); Kaston 1978: 172 (fig. 430); Vogel 1970b: 2 [Muma 1946: 4, mf, desc. (figs 1–3, 21–24)]

Distribution

Dallas

Type

unknown

Etymology

Latin, web used as narcotic in cases of fever

Genus Tegenaria Latreille, 1804

Tegenaria domestica (Clerck, 1757)

Tegenaria domestica Jackman, 1997: 94, desc., 160; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 76; Roewer 1955: 77 [S]; Vogel 1970b: 3 [Roth 1968: 11, mf, desc. (figs 13–18)]

Tegenaria derhami (Scopoli, 1763); Jones 1936: 69

Distribution

Bexar, Dallas, Lubbock

Caves

Bexar (Cave With A View)

Time of activity

Female (June)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Sweden

Etymology

Greek, “of the house”

Collection

JCC, TMM

Tegenaria pagana C. L. Koch, 1840

Tegenaria pagana Jackman 1997: 160; Roth 1968: 26 [S], mf, desc. (figs 30–35); Vogel 1970b: 3

Tegenaria antrias Crosby, 1926; Roewer 1955: 79; Roth 1952: 284

Tegenaria simplex Bryant, 1936; Bonnet 1959: 4302; Bryant 1936: 90, f, desc. (fig. 9); Jones 1936: 69

Distribution

Central and northeast Texas; Coryell, Dallas, Fannin, Hays, San Saba, Travis, Wichita

Caves

Hays (Ezell’s Cave); San Saba (Bremer Cave)

Time of activity

Male (November); female (February, April, November)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Greece

Etymology

Latin, rustic

Collection

MSU, TMM

Genus Tortolena Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941

Tortolena dela Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941

Tortolena dela Bennett and Ubick 2005: 59; Chamberlin and Ivie 1941: 615, f, desc. (fig. 79); Jackman 1997: 160; Roewer 1955: 83; Roth 1982: 7–5, 7–6; Roth 1985: B-1–4, B-1–5; Roth 1994: 50, 51; Roth and Brame 1972: 50; Roth and Brown 1986: 11; Vogel 1967: 15; Vogel 1970b: 3

Distribution

Hidalgo

Time of activity

Female (October)

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., 7 miles E Edinburg, October 14, 1934, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

undetermined

Family Amphinectidae Forster & Wilton, 1973

Note. genus transferred here from Amaurobiidae (Davies 1998: 242)

Genus Metaltella Mello-Leitão, 1931

Metaltella simoni (Keyserling, 1878)

Metaltella simoni Cutler 2005a: 63; Jackman 1997: 99, desc., 160 (photo 27a); Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 76; Yantis 2005: 197 [Leech 1972: 107, mf, desc. (figs 194–195, 390)]

Distribution

Bexar, Brazos, Colorado, Galveston, Harris, Hidalgo, Leon (imm.), Montgomery, Orange, San Patricio, Wichita

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Lick Creek Park

Caves

Bexar (Robber Baron Cave)

Time of activity

Male (May – June, August, October – December); female (April – June, August, October – November)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave); (littoral: near water); (objects: wood pile); (soil/woodland: debris under banana trees, leaf litter, post oak savanna, post oak woods [%: 70]); (structures: bathroom, indoors, in structure [bit collector causing reaction], on bed in house)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [imm.]; pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Uruguay

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Collection

MSU, TAMU, TMM

Family Anyphaenidae Bertkau, 1878

Genus Anyphaena Sundevall, 1833

Anyphaena celer (Hentz, 1847)

Anyphaena celer Bryant 1931: 111; Dondale and Redner 1982: 175, mf, desc. (figs 320–324, 326); Jackman 1997: 160; Kaston 1972: 232, desc. (fig. 524); Kaston 1978: 223, desc. (fig. 57); Platnick 1974: 214, mf, desc. (figs 1, 9–10, 18); Rapp 1984: 7

Distribution

East Texas; Galveston, Wichita

Habitat

(grass: grass and shrub area)

Type

Alabama and North Carolina

Etymology

Latin, swift

Collection

MSU

Anyphaena dixiana (Chamberlin & Woodbury, 1929)

Anyphaena dixiana Agnew et al. 1985: 8; Jackman 1997: 160; Platnick 1974: 221, mf, desc. (figs 4, 23–25)

Distribution

Brewster, Erath, Hays, Kerr

Time of activity

Male (December 16-January 26); female (January 27-February 24, April, December 16-January 26)

Habitat

(landscape features: under rock); (soil/woodland: Juniperus managed plot, upland deciduous forest)

Method

Flight intercept trap on ground [f]; flight intercept trap elevated [m]

Type

Utah, St. George

Etymology

New Latin, apart

Collection

TAMU

Anyphaena fraterna (Banks, 1896)

Anyphaena fraterna Agnew et al. 1985: 8; Jackman 1997: 160; Kaston 1978: 224, desc.; Platnick 1974: 233, mf, desc. (figs 52, 56, 60, 77–78)

Distribution

Central and north Texas; Brazos, Burleson/Lee, Erath, Kerr, Montgomery, Sabine, Travis, Wichita

Locality

Lick Creek Park

Time of activity

Male (March – May, May 22-June 4); female (March – May, June 23-July 2)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, bottomland forest, upland deciduous forest, Quercus buckleyi, Ulmus crassifolia); (structures: house)

Method

Flight intercept trap [f]; flight intercept trap elevated [m]; malaise trap [mf]; pitfall trap [m]; sweeping [f]

Type

New York, Sea Cliff

Etymology

Latin, brotherly

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Anyphaena lacka Platnick, 1974

Anyphaena lacka Jackman 1997: 160; Platnick 1974: 233, m, desc. (figs 54, 58, 62)

Distribution

San Patricio

Locality

Lake Corpus Christi State Park

Time of activity

Male (June)

Type

Texas (male, San Patricio Co., SW Mathis, Lake Corpus Christi State Park, June 28, 1962, J. A. Beatty, holotype, MCZ)

[female unknown]

Etymology

arbitrary combination of letters

Anyphaena maculata (Banks, 1896)

Anyphaena maculata [Platnick 1974: 216, mf, desc. (figs 2, 11–12, 19)]

Distribution

Brazos

Locality

Lick Creek Park

Time of activity

Female (December 2-January 17)

Method

Malaise trap [f]

Type

Washington D. C.

Etymology

Latin, black spots on body

Collection

TAMU

Anyphaena pectorosa L. Koch, 1866

Anyphaena pectorosa Bradley 2013: 74; Dondale and Redner 1982: 176; Jackman 1997: 160; Kaston 1978: 224, desc.; Platnick 1974: 230, mf, desc. (figs 51, 55, 59, 74–75); Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Distribution

North-central Texas; Brewster, Gonzalez, Jefferson, Polk, Travis

Locality

Palmetto State Park

Time of activity

Male (May – June); female (May)

Habitat

(crops: rice); (soil/woodland: Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [m]; sweeping [m]

Type

Maryland, Baltimore

Etymology

Latin, breast

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Anyphaena rita Platnick, 1974

Anyphaena rita Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Richman et al. 2011a: 47 [Platnick 1974: 225, mf, desc. (figs 7, 28, 37, 44)]

Distribution

Brewster, Presidio

Locality

Chihuahuan desert, Dalquest Research Site

Time of activity

Male (“November/December”)

Method

pitfall trap [m]

Type

Arizona, Santa Catalina Mountains, Bear Canyon

Etymology

locality (The specific name is a noun in apposition derived from the Santa Rita Mountains, where the species is abundant, Platnick 1974).

Collection

MSU

Genus Hibana Brescovit, 1991

Hibana arunda (Platnick, 1974)

Hibana arunda Brescovit 1991: 743 [T]; Jackman 1997: 160; Pfannenstiel 2008a: 204; Taylor and Pfannenstiel 2008: 997

Aysha arunda Platnick, 1974; Platnick 1974: 259, mf, desc. (figs 118–119, 139, 142)

Distribution

Cameron, Falls, Hidalgo

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Frontera Audubon, Resaca de la Palma State Park, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (March, May- October); female (February, April – November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, soybean); (grass: grass); (orchard: grapefruit, orange, tangerine); (soil-woodland: palm forest margin [resaca bank])

Method

D-vac suction [m]

Type

Texas (male, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, May 1934, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

arbitrary combination of letters

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Hibana cambridgei (Bryant, 1931)

Hibana cambridgei Brescovit 1991: 743 [T]; Jackman 1997: 160

Aysha cambridgei Bryant, 1931; Platnick 1974: 254, mf, desc. (figs 120–121, 138, 141)

Distribution

North-central, central and west Texas; Bastrop, Brewster, Edwards, Hays, Henderson, Jeff Davis, Real, Sabine, Travis, Wichita

Locality

Bastrop State Park

Time of activity

Male (April – June); female (May – June)

Habitat

(plants: roadside vegetation); (soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, Juniperus managed plot, roadside vegetation, trees, Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [mf]; flight intercept trap elevated [f]; malaise trap [f]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Mexico, Guanajuato

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Hibana futilis (Banks, 1898)

Hibana futilis Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Brescovit 1991: 742 [S, T]; Brescovit 1993: 138; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Jackman 1997: 161; Patt and Pfannenstiel 2008: 65; Patt and Pfannenstiel 2009: 14; Pfannenstiel 2008a: 204; Taylor and Pfannenstiel 2008: 997

Anyphaena decepta Banks, 1899; Banks 1899: 190, f, desc

Aysha decepta (Banks, 1899); Agnew et al. 1985: 8; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Brown 1974: 231; Dean and Sterling 1990: 402; Jones 1936: 70; Li 1990: 137, 142, 144; Platnick 1974: 256 [T], mf, desc. (figs 112–113, 123–124); Rapp 1984: 7; Roewer 1955: 534; Vincent and Frankie 1985: 380; Vogel 1970b: 5

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Bexar, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Coryell, Dallas, Erath, Falls, Galveston, Hidalgo, Kenedy, Mason, Medina, Nacogdoches, Robertson, Sabine, Travis, Washington, Wichita, Zavala

Locality

Adriance Pecan Orchard, Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Frontera Audubon, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Kenedy Ranch, Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Lick Creek Park, Russell Farm, Storey Pecan Orchard, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (January – December); female (January – December)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, sugarcane); (grass: grass, grasses, grassy and shrub area); (littoral: salt marsh area); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest); (orchard: citrus, grapefruit, orange, pecan, sour orange); (plants: miscellaneous vegetation, Amaranthus palmeri); (soil/woodland: live oak, post oak savanna with pasture, sandy area, thorn thicket, trees/shrubs); (structures: house, indoors)

Method

Beating [mf]; boll weevil pheromone trap [mf]; cardboard band [mf]; D-Vac suction [m]; flight intercept trap [mf]; fogging [mf]; irrigation tubing [mf]; malaise trap [m]; pitfall trap [mf]; suction trap [f]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Mexico, Baja California

Etymology

Latin, vain

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Hibana gracilis (Hentz, 1847)

Hibana gracilis Bradley 2013: 75; Brescovit 1991: 742 [T]; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Jackman 1997: 106, desc., 161 (photo 30a)

Aysha gracilis (Hentz, 1847); Agnew et al. 1985: 4, 10; Bonnet 1955: 837; Breene 1988: 15, 17, 23–26, 35, 41; Breene et al. 1988: 180–181; Breene et al. 1989: 162; Breene et al. 1993c: 9, 47, 74, mf (figs 65A-C); Bumroongsook et al. 1992: 17; Dean and Eger 1986: 142; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1990: 402, 405; Dean et al. 1982: 255; Dean et al. 1987: 268; Dean et al. 1988: 287; Dondale and Redner 1982: 167, mf, desc. (figs 307–312); Glick 1957: 5; Jones 1936: 70; Kagan 1942: 55; Kagan 1943: 258; Kaston 1972: 231, desc. (fig. 522); Kaston 1978: 222, desc. (fig. 568); Liao et al. 1984: 410; McDaniel et al. 1981: 104; Nuessly and Sterling 1984: 96; Pamanes-Guerrero 1975: 37, 41, 81; Platnick 1974: 252, mf, desc. (figs 116–117, 140, 143); Vogel 1970b: 5; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Angelina, Archer, Bexar, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Colorado, Comanche, Coryell, Dallas, Delta, Denton, Dickens, Duval, Erath, Fannin, Frio, Hidalgo, Houston, Karnes, Kenedy, McLennan, Robertson, Sabine, Stephens, Travis, Walker, Webb, Wichita, Young

Locality

Adriance Pecan Orchard, Angelina National Forest, Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Ellis Prison Unit, Hoblitzelle Farms, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Sam Houston State Park

Time of activity

Male (January, March – September); female (March – December)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts, soybean); (grass: grass, grassland); (landscape features: under rock); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest); (orchard: pecan); (plants: bluebonnets, croton, herbs, miscellaneous vegetation); (soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, post oak savanna with pasture, Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia); (structures: indoors)

Method

Beating [mf]; boll weevil pheromone trap [m]; cardboard band [mf]; D-Vac suction [m]; fogging [mf]; malaise trap [mf]; pitfall trap [mf]; suction trap [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

North Carolina and Alabama

Etymology

Latin, slender

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Hibana incursa (Chamberlin, 1919)

Hibana incursa Brescovit 1991: 742 [T]; Jackman 1997: 161

Aysha incursa (Chamberlin, 1919); Platnick 1974: 257, mf, desc. (figs 114–115, 126–127)

Distribution

Brewster, El Paso, Presidio

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Big Bend Ranch State Park

Time of activity

Male (March – April, July); female (May – June)

Habitat

(orchard: pecan); (soil/woodland: cottonwood)

Method

Beating [mf]; malaise trap [mf]

Type

California, Claremont

Etymology

Latin, attack

Collection

NMSU, TAMU

Hibana velox (Becker, 1879)

Hibana velox Brescovit 1991: 743 [T]; Jackman 1997: 161

Aysha velox (Becker, 1879); Kaston 1978: 222; Platnick 1974: 258, mf, desc. (figs 110–111, 122, 125)

Distribution

Southeast Texas; Angelina, Brazos, Colorado, Fort Bend, Harris, Jefferson

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (June, August); female (June, August)

Method

sweeping [m]

Type

Mississippi, Pascagoula

Etymology

Latin, speedy

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Genus Lupettiana Brescovit, 1997

Lupettiana mordax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1896)

Lupettiana mordax Bradley 2013: 75; Brescovit 1997: 68, mf, desc. (figs 157–162 [T]); Calixto et al. 2013: 181

Teudis mordax (O. P.-Cambridge, 1896); Breene et al. 1993c: 9, 47, 75, mf (figs 67A–C); Dean and Eger 1986: 142; Dean and Sterling 1990: 402; Dean et al. 1982: 255; Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 224, desc. (fig. 572); Liao et al. 1984: 410; Platnick 1974: 263, mf, desc. (figs 131–133); Vincent and Frankie 1985: 380; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Anyphaena sp. prob. celer (Hentz, 1847); Dean et al. 1982: 255 [misidentified]

Anyphaena celer (Hentz, 1847); Young and Edwards 1990: 14 [misidentified]

Distribution

East Texas; Bastrop, Brazos, Burleson, Goliad, Robertson, Sabine, Travis, Walker

Locality

Bastrop State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lick Creek Park, Somerville Lake, Stetz Pecan Orchard, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (March – August); female (April – August)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (grass: tall grass prairie); (orchard: pecan); (plants: bluebonnets, Indian paintbrush, miscellaneous vegetation); (soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, live oak, trees, Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [mf]; cardboard band [mf]; malaise trap [f]; pitfall trap [m]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Mexico, Guerrero, Omiltemi

Etymology

Latin, biting

Collection

TAMU

Genus Pippuhana Brescovit, 1997

Pippuhana calcar (Bryant, 1931)

Pippuhana calcar Bradley 2013: 76; Brescovit 1997: 113 [T], mf, desc. (figs 305–308); Richman and Ubick 2005: 67

Teudis calcar Bryant, 1931; Jackman 1997: 161; Platnick 1974: 265 [S], mf, desc. (figs 128–130)

Anyphaena schwarzi Gertsch, 1933; Gertsch 1933c: 10, f, desc. (fig. 12); Roewer 1955: 529

Distribution

South Texas; Brazos, Cameron, Hidalgo, San Patricio

Time of activity

Male (April); female (January, March)

Type

Florida, Dunedin

Etymology

Latin, spur on patella

Collection

TAMU

Genus Wulfila O. P.-Cambridge, 1895

Wulfila albens (Hentz, 1847)

Wulfila albens Platnick 2000 [spelling]

Wulfila alba (Hentz, 1847); Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 223; Platnick 1974: 245, mf, desc. (figs 83–84, 90, 100)

Distribution

North-central Texas; Brazos, Gonzales, Sabine, Walker

Locality

Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park

Time of activity

Male (April – May); female (April 29-May 3, May 22–June 4, June)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, trees)

Method

Beating [m]; beating/sweeping [m]; malaise trap [f]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, lack of dark markings

Collection

TAMU

Wulfila bryantae Platnick, 1974

Wulfila bryantae Jackman 1997: 161; Platnick 1974: 249, mf, desc. (figs 92–93, 96, 102)

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Wells

Locality

Frontera Audubon, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (April – June); female (March 3-April 4, April – December)

Habitat

(orchard: grapefruit, orange, organic citrus grove); (soil/woodland: forest)

Method

Flight intercept trap [f]

Type

Texas (male, Hidalgo Co., 5 miles E Edinburg, April 20, 1937, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (The specific name is a patronym in honor of Miss Elizabeth Bryant, in recognition of her pioneering work on North American anyphaenids, Platnick 1974).

Collection

TAMU

Wulfila saltabundus (Hentz, 1847)

Wulfila saltabundus Bradley 2013: 76; Breene et al. 1993c: 9, 47, 74, mf (figs 66A-C); Dondale and Redner 1982: 170 [spelling], mf, desc. (figs 313–319); Jackman 1997: 161

Wulfila saltabunda (Hentz, 1847); Dean et al. 1982: 255; Dean et al. 1988: 287; Kaston 1978: 223, desc. (fig. 570); Platnick 1974: 243, mf, desc. (figs 81–82, 89, 99); Rapp 1984: 7; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Distribution

East and north-central Texas; Brazos, Galveston, Houston, Walker

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit, Sam Houston National Forest, Stubblefield Lake

Time of activity

Male (April, July – August); female (April, June – July)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (grass: grassland); (structures: indoors)

Method

pitfall trap [m]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, continuous in forest

Collection

TAMU

Wulfila tantillus Chickering, 1940

Wulfila tantillus Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Jackman 1997: 161; Platnick 1993: 597 [spelling]; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 76

Wulfila tantilla Chickering, 1940; Platnick 1974: 246, mf, desc. (figs 85–86, 91, 101)

Distribution

Central and south Texas; Bexar, Cameron, Hidalgo, Montague, Robertson, Travis, Webb, Wichita

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard

Caves

Bexar (Kick Start Cave)

Time of activity

Male (April, July); female (May, August, October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave); (orchard: pecan); (soil/woodland: Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [m]; cardboard band [f]; sweeping [m]

Type

Panama, El Valle

Etymology

Latin, so little

Collection

MSU, TAMU, TMM

Family Araneidae Clerck, 1775

Note. species incorrectly reported from Texas

Eustala rosae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935; Kaston 1972: 149; Kaston 1978: 143 [not in Texas]

Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831); Young and Edwards 1990: 15 [not in Texas]

Mastophora bisaccata (Emerton, 1884); Brown 1974: 232; Jackman 1997: 161 [not in Texas] [probably misidentified]

Neoscona moreli (Vinson, 1863) [not in Texas]

Neoscona neotheis (Petrunkevitch, 1911); Gertsch and Mulaik 1936b: 21 (Nueces Co.); Vogel 1970b: 4 [not in U.S., probably oaxacensis]

Aranea neotheis Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer 1942: 848

nomen dubium

Neoscona benjamina (Walckenaer, 1841); Brown 1974: 232; Reddell 1965: 170; Reddell and Finch 1963: 54; Vogel 1970b: 4

Epeira benjamina Walckenaer, 1837; McCook 1889: 116; McCook 1893: 147

Genus Acacesia Simon, 1895

Acacesia hamata (Hentz, 1847)

Acacesia hamata Agnew et al. 1985: 6; Bradley 2013: 77; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Breene et al. 1993c: 10, 47, 104, mf (figs 157A-C); Brown 1974: 231; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Glueck 1994: 69, mf, desc. (figs 1, 4–8); Jackman 1997: 72, desc., 161 (photo 21a); Kaston 1953: 183, desc. (fig. 453); Kaston 1972: 151, desc. (fig. 339); Kaston 1978: 144, desc. (fig. 362); Levi 1976: 375 [S], mf, desc. (figs 74–87); Rice 1986: 124; Roth 1982: 11–1; Roth 1985: B-6–5, B-6–11; Roth 1994: 70, 74; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Epeira foliata Hentz, 1847; McCook 1893: 154

Acacesia foliata (Hentz, 1847); Petrunkevitch 1911: 274

Distribution

Southern ½ Texas; Brazos, Brewster, Cameron, Erath, Hidalgo, Kenedy, Nacogdoches, Robertson, San Patricio, Shelby, Travis (imm.), Walker

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Kenedy Ranch, Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Lake Corpus Christi State Park, Lick Creek Park, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (January, March – May, July – August, October); female (April, June, August – October)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, sugarcane); (grass: grass, meadow); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f]); (orchard: pecan); (plants: vegetation); (soil/woodland: palm forest margin [resaca bank], trees, woods, Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [m]; cardboard band [imm.]; D-Vac suction [m]; malaise trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, hooked

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Genus Acanthepeira Marx, 1883

Acanthepeira cherokee Levi, 1976

Acanthepeira cherokee Breene et al. 1993c: 10, 47, 103, mf (figs 153A-B); Dean et al. 1982: 254; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1976: 366, mf, desc. (figs 24, 29–35, 42–43); Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Distribution

Southeast Texas; Brazos, Colorado, Jefferson, Wichita

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Lick Creek Park

Time of activity

Male (March, November); female (April – May, September, November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (littoral: sedge meadow); (soil/woodland: post oak savanna)

Method

Beating [f]; sweeping [mf]

Type

North Carolina, Mud Creek

Etymology

Indian tribe (The name is a noun in apposition, after the southeastern Indian tribe, Levi 1976).

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Acanthepeira marion Levi, 1976

Acanthepeira marion [Levi 1976: 368, mf, desc. (figs 25, 36–41, 44)]

Distribution

Fannin

Type

Florida, Marion Co.

Etymology

locality (The name is a noun in apposition, after the type locality, Levi 1976).

Collection

MSU

Acanthepeira stellata (Walckenaer, 1805)

Acanthepeira stellata Agnew et al. 1982: 631; Agnew et al. 1985: 3; Breene et al. 1993c: 10, 47, 103, mf (figs 152A-C); Brown 1974: 231; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 8, 13 (fig. 2); Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dean and Sterling 1985: 116; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1990: 402, 404; Dean and Sterling 1992: 3–4; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1987: 268; Dean et al. 1988: 285–286; Dondale et al. 2003: 309, mf, desc. (figs 726–732); Jackman 1997: 72, desc., 161 (photo 21b); Kagan 1942: 34; Kagan 1943: 258; Levi 1976: 364, mf, desc. (figs 12–23); McDaniel et al. 1981: 104; Nuessly and Sterling 1984: 97; Nyffeler and Sterling 1994: 1295, 1298; Nyffeler et al. 1987a: 356; Nyffeler et al. 1987b: 1119; Nyffeler et al. 1987c: 368; Nyffeler et al. 1988a: 55; Nyffeler et al. 1989: 374, 377; Nyffeler et al. 1992c: 2; Pamanes-Guerrero 1975: 16, 34, 37, 41, 59, 63, 78, 81; Rapp 1984: 4; Roberts 2001: 48; Rogers and Horner 1977: 523; Sterling et al. 1979: 979; Vogel 1970b: 3; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Marxia stellata (Hentz, 1805); Jones 1936: 70

Acanthepeira stellata (Marx); Kaston 1972: 148, desc. (fig. 333)

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Archer, Bastrop, Bee, Brazoria, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Carson, Clay, Collin, Colorado, Dallas, Delta, Erath, Fannin, Fayette, Fort Bend, Galveston, Goliad, Grayson, Grimes, Houston, Hunt, Jefferson, Jim Wells, Kenedy, Limestone, McLennan, Nacogdoches, Nueces, Potter, Robertson, Sabine, Travis, Victoria, Walker, Wharton, Wichita, Willacy, Williamson, Young

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Ellis Prison Unit, Galveston Island State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Pantex Plant, Ramsey Prison Farm, Sam Houston State Park, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Time of activity

Male (March – September, November – December); female (February – December)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, guar, peanuts, rice); (grass: grassland, grassy and shrub area, pasture, shrubs and tall grass); (littoral: playa, near playa, salt marsh area); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [mf]); (orchard: pecan); (plants: bluebonnets, croton, Indian paintbrush, miscellaneous vegetation, Coreopsis sp., Monarda citriodora); (soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, pine); (structures: around house)

Method

cardboard band [m]; malaise trap [m]; pitfall trap [m]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Carolina (of 1805)

Etymology

Latin, starred

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU, TTU

Genus Allocyclosa Levi, 1999

Allocyclosa bifurca (McCook, 1887)

Allocyclosa bifurca Bradley 2013: 78; Levi 1999: 304 [T], mf, desc. (figs 3–22)

Cyclosa bifurca (McCook, 1887); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 86, mf, desc. (figs 78–89)

Distribution

Aransas, Cameron, Hidalgo, Kenedy, San Patricio

Locality

Goose Island State Park, Lake Corpus Christi Dam

Time of activity

Female (May – June, November – December)

Habitat

(nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f] of Chalybion californicum); (orchard: grapefruit)

Type

Florida, Merrit’s Island on Indian River, Fairyland

Etymology

Latin, forked abdomen

Collection

TAMU

Genus Araneus Clerck, 1757

Araneus bicentenarius (McCook, 1888)

Araneus bicentenarius Dondale et al. 2003: 209, mf, desc. (figs 428–435); Jackman 1997: 73, 161 (photo 21c); Levi 1971a: 143 [S], mf, desc. (figs 15–26); Taber and Fleenor 2003: 231; Taber and Fleenor 2005: 276 (figs 12–14)

Aranea kisatchia Archer, 1951; Archer 1951a: 27, f, desc. (fig. 69)

Araneus kisatcheus Archer, 1951; Vogel 1970b: 3

Distribution

Central and southeast Texas; Brazos, Freestone, Gonzalez, Hays, Orange, Walker

Locality

Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park

Time of activity

Male (May); female (May – August)

Habitat

(littoral: wetlands); (soil/woodland: oak)

Method

Beating/sweeping [f]

Type

Ohio, northwestern and Allegheny Mountains

Etymology

bicentennial of Philadelphia

Collection

DMNS, TAMU

Araneus bonsallae (McCook, 1894)

Araneus bonsallae Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1973: 524, mf, desc. (figs 265–294, 453–454)

Distribution

North-central Texas; Dallas, Wichita

Time of activity

Female (May)

Habitat

(plants: vegetation); (soil/woodland: tree)

Method

sweeping

Type

California

Etymology

Person (Miss Elizabeth F. Bonsall, who made the original drawings for nearly all the plates contained in the atlas by McCook)

Collection

MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Araneus cavaticus (Keyserling, 1881)

Araneus cavaticus Bradley 2013: 79; Dondale et al. 2003: 244, mf, desc. (figs 539–545); Jackman 1997: 73, 161; Kaston 1978: 157, desc. (fig. 392); Levi 1971a: 170, mf, desc. (figs 187–194)

Distribution

East Texas; Harris

Type

Kentucky, cave in Carter Co.

Etymology

Latin, cave

Note

Hoffman (1982: 93) states that this species does not occur in Texas because of the habitat it has been associated with and the distance from other collecting sites.

Araneus cingulatus (Walckenaer, 1841)

Araneus cingulatus Dondale et al. 2003: 256, mf, desc. (figs 575–582); Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 160, desc.; Levi 1973: 526, mf, desc. (figs 301–313, 455–462)

Distribution

North-central Texas; Travis, Walker

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit

Time of activity

Male (April – July); female (May – July, September)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, girdled

Collection

TAMU

Araneus cochise Levi, 1973

Araneus cochise Agnew et al. 1985: 6; Dean et al. 1989: 126, m, desc. (figs 1–2); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1991: 278, mf, desc. (figs 445–448)

Distribution

Erath, Kerr, Travis

Time of activity

Male (March – May); female (March – June)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: juniper, Juniperus ashei, Quercus virginiana)

Method

Beating [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Eggs/spiderlings

Erath [7 spiderlings in eggsac] [TAMU]

Type

Arizona, Cochise Co., Chiricahua Mountains, Southwestern Research Station

Etymology

locality (The name is a noun in apposition after the type locality, Levi, 1973).

Collection

MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Araneus detrimentosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)

Araneus detrimentosus Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Bradley 2013: 81; Jackman 1997: 73, desc., 161 (photo 21d); Levi 1973: 538 [T], mf, desc. (figs 398–414); Levi 1991: 269

Cambridgepeira detrimentosa (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889); Archer 1951b: 2 (fig. 9)

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Atascosa, Bastrop, Bell, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Duval, Erath, Gillespie, Goliad, Hidalgo, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Navarro, Starr, Travis, Williamson

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Falcon Lake State Park, Lake Somerville State Park [Nails Creek Unit], Riley Estate

Time of activity

Male (April – June, August – September); female (April – October)

Habitat

(nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f]); (orchard: grapefruit, Valley lemon); (plants: Indian paintbrush); (soil/woodland: juniper, rock elm, shrubs, trees, Juniperus sp., Quercus virginiana, Ulmus sp.); (web: web in live oak, web on mesquite [Prosopis juliflora])

Method

Beating [mf]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [m]

Type

Guatemala

Etymology

Latin, prone to detritus

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, TAMU

Araneus gemma (McCook, 1888)

Araneus gemma Kaston 1972: 163, desc. (fig. 362); Reddell 1965: 170; Vogel 1970b: 3 [Levi 1971a: 172, mf, desc. (figs 203–214)]

Distribution

Bastrop, Brewster

Caves

Brewster (O.T.L. Cave)

Time of activity

Female (May)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

California

Etymology

Latin, bud or gem

Collection

DMNS, TMM

Araneus guttulatus (Walckenaer, 1841)

Araneus guttulatus [Levi 1973: 530, mf, desc. (figs 3, 332–361, 470–474)]

Distribution

Shelby

Time of activity

Male (August)

Habitat

(plants: vegetation)

Method

sweeping [m]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, for speckled

Collection

TAMU

Araneus illaudatus (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936)

Araneus illaudatus Jackman 1997: 73, 161; Levi 1971a: 176, m, desc. (figs 233–240); Levi 1975b: 268 [S], m (figs 3–4)

Aranea illaudata Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936; Gertsch and Mulaik 1936b: 19, m, desc. (figs 36–37); Roewer 1942: 861

Araneus iliaudatus (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936); Vogel 1970b: 3

Araneus pima Levi, 1971; Levi 1971a: 176, mf, desc. (figs 218–232)

Distribution

Brewster, Dallam, Galveston, Hidalgo, Jeff Davis, Kerr

Caves

Brewster (O.T.L. Cave)

Time of activity

Female (September – October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave); (structures: barns, under house eave); (soil/woodland: trees)

Type

Texas (male, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, September-December 1933, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Greek, referring to a rope or band

Collection

DMNS, TAMU, TMM

Note

Hoffman (1982: 93) stated that this species does not occur in Texas because of the habitat it has been associated with and the distance from other collecting sites.

Araneus juniperi (Emerton, 1884)

Araneus juniperi Dondale et al. 2003: 254, mf, desc. (figs 568–574); Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 158, desc. (fig. 397); Levi 1973: 522 [S], mf, desc. (figs 248–264, 447–452)

Conepeira llano Archer, 1951; Archer 1951b: 24, mf, desc. (figs 52, 55); Vogel 1967: 24; Vogel 1970b: 3

Distribution

Brazos, Comanche, Llano, Robertson

Locality

Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Holmes Pecan Orchard

Time of activity

Male (June – September); female (September)

Method

Fogging [mf]

Type

Maine, Portland, Peaks Island

Etymology

collected in junipers

Collection

TAMU

Araneus kerr Levi, 1981

Araneus kerr Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1981b: 254, f, desc. (figs 1–4)

Distribution

Kerr

Locality

Raven Ranch

Time of activity

Female (June)

Type

Texas (female, Kerr Co., Raven Ranch, June 1941, J. Stillwagon, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (The specific name is a noun in apposition taken from the type locality, Levi 1981b).

Araneus marmoreus Clerck, 1757

Araneus marmoreus Brown 1974: 231; Dondale et al. 2003: 221, mf, desc. (figs 466–474); Jackman 1997: 73–74, 161, desc.; Kaston 1972: 165, desc. (fig. 366); Kaston 1978: 158, desc. (fig. 394); Levi 1971a: 156, mf, desc. (figs 1–6, 100–105, 107–113, 183); Taber and Fleenor 2005: 277 (fig. 12–5)

Distribution

Southeast and east Texas; Brazos, Gonzales, Nacogdoches, Rusk, San Jacinto

Locality

Big Creek Scenic Area, Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park

Time of activity

Female (September, November)

Habitat

(littoral: sedge meadow, wetlands); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [imm.])

Type

Sweden

Etymology

Greek, marbled

Collection

TAMU

Araneus miniatus (Walckenaer, 1841)

Araneus miniatus Bradley 2013: 82; Hoffmaster 1985: 627; Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 158, desc. (fig. 396); Levi 1973: 506 [S], mf, desc. (figs 158–171); Petrunkevitch 1911: 303

Epeira miniata Walckenaer, 1837; McCook 1893: 177

Larinia nigrofoliata Keyserling, 1884; Petrunkevitch 1911: 354; Roewer 1942: 772

Distribution

North-central Texas; Brazos, Cameron, Denton, Fannin, Houston, Hunt, Morris, Polk, Sabine, San Patricio, Travis, Walker

Locality

Lick Creek Park, Resaca de la Palma State Park, Welder Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (February – April, June – July); female (March – May, July – August, November)

Habitat

(grass: pasture); (plants: vegetation); (soil/woodland: trees, Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [mf]; beating/sweeping [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, colored with vermillion

Collection

MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Araneus nashoba Levi, 1973

Araneus nashoba Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1973: 534, mf, desc. (figs 380–397)

Distribution

Erath, Fayette, Kimble, Travis

Time of activity

Male (April – June); female (April – July)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana)

Method

Beating [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Massachusetts, Pepperell

Etymology

locality (The specific name is a noun in apposition, after the Nashoba region of Massachusetts, Levi 1973).

Collection

TAMU

Araneus nordmanni (Thorell, 1870)

Araneus nordmanni Dondale et al. 2003: 219 (figs 458–465); Jackman 1997: 73, 161, desc.; Levi 1971a: 150 [S], mf, desc. (figs 61–94, 96–99)

Epeira angulata (Clerck, 1757); McCook 1893: 186

Distribution

South Texas; Bastrop

Time of activity

Female (June)

Type

Sweden, Uppland

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Collection

MSU

Note

Hoffman (1982: 93) stated that this species does not occur in Texas because of the habitat it has been associated with and the distance from other collecting sites.

Araneus pegnia (Walckenaer, 1841)

Araneus pegnia Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Brown 1974: 231; Dondale et al. 2003: 213, mf, desc. (figs 444–450); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1973: 546 [S], mf, desc. (figs 426–438); Vogel 1970b: 3

Neosconella pegnia (Walckenaer, 1841); Knutson et al. 2010: 515

Araneus globosus (Keyserling, 1865); Jones 1936: 70

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Brazos, Cameron, Comanche, Dallas, Erath, Hidalgo, Howard, Menard, Nacogdoches, Sutton, Travis, Wichita, Williamson

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Resaca de la Palma State Park, Riley Estate, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (April – June, August – November); female (May – November)

Habitat

(nest/prey: mud dauber nest [mf]); (orchard: grapefruit, orange, tangerine); (plants: goldenrod); (soil/woodland: saltcedar, trees, trees/shrubs, Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi); (web: orbweb)

Method

Beating [mf]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [m]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

undetermined

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Araneus pratensis (Emerton, 1884)

Araneus pratensis Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dondale et al. 2003: 237, mf, desc. (figs 517–523); Jackman 1997: 73, desc., 161 (photo 21f); Kaston 1978: 160, desc. (fig. 399); Levi 1973: 492 [T], mf, desc. (figs 2, 21–31); Rapp 1984: 4

Neoscona pratensis Emerton, 1884; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Distribution

Southeast, central and east Texas; Bexar, Brazos, Fayette, Galveston, Jefferson, Kerr, Lavaca, Leon, Refugio, San Patricio, Victoria

Time of activity

Male (April – May, August, October); female (April – May, August, November)

Habitat

(crops: rice); (plants: bluebonnets, Indian paintbrush, miscellaneous vegetation)

Method

sweeping [mf]

Type

Connecticut, New Haven

Etymology

Latin, pertaining to a meadow

Collection

MCZ, TAMU

Araneus texanus (Archer, 1951)

Araneus texanus Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1973: 534 [T], mf, desc. (figs 362–374)

Conepeira texana Archer, 1951; Archer 1951b: 20, mf, desc. (figs 48, 69); Vogel 1967: 25; Vogel 1970b: 3

Distribution

Brazos, Edwards, Freestone, Gillespie, Limestone

Locality

Riley Estate

Time of activity

Male (April); female (May – June)

Habitat

(nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f]); (plants: bluebonnets, Indian paintbrush); (soil/woodland: trees)

Method

Beating [f]; sweeping [m]

Type

Texas (male, Limestone Co., Mexia, M. Kagan, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (state)

Collection

TAMU

Araneus thaddeus (Hentz, 1847)

Araneus thaddeus Dondale et al. 2003: 211, mf, desc. (figs 436–443) [Levi 1973: 543, mf, desc. (figs 415–425)]

Distribution

close to Rio Grande Valley, South Texas

Type

Alabama

Etymology

one of twelve apostles

Genus Araniella Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942

Araniella displicata (Hentz, 1847)

Araniella displicata Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Breene 1988: 35; Breene et al. 1989: 162; Breene et al. 1993a: 169; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Breene et al. 1993c: 10, 47, 107, mf (figs 166A-C); Dean et al. 1987: 268; Jackman 1997: 75, desc., 161; Rapp 1984: 4; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 14 [Levi 1974: 294 [S, T], mf, desc. (figs 1–21)]

Epeira cucurbitina (Clerck, 1757); McCook 1893: 149

Epeira displicata Hentz, 1847; Marx 1890: 544

Distribution

Burleson, Cameron, Erath, Galveston, Hidalgo, Jefferson, Travis

Locality

Galveston Island State Park

Time of activity

Male (March – April); female (February – May)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, rice, sugarcane); (grass: grassy and shrub area); (orchard: citrus); (soil/woodland: Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [f]; suction trap [imm.]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, scattered

Collection

TAMU

Genus Argiope Audouin, 1826

Argiope argentata (Fabricius, 1775)

Argiope argentata Bradley 2013: 86; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1968: 345, mf, desc. (figs 42, 73, 112–136); Levi 2004: 58; McCook 1893: 220; Marx 1890: 541; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

Southern 1/4 Texas; Cameron, Nueces, Zapata

Locality

Corpus Christi Botanical Gardens

Time of activity

Male (May); female (May, October)

Habitat

(web: in web)

Type

unknown

Etymology

Latin, silver

Collection

TAMU

Argiope aurantia Lucas, 1833

Argiope aurantia Agnew et al. 1985: 3; Barron et al. 1999: 550; Bonnet 1955: 675; Breene et al. 1993c: 10, 47, 101, mf (figs 147A-C); Brown 1974: 232; Bumroongsook et al. 1992: 18; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 37; Dean and Sterling 1990: 404; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1987: 268; Dondale et al. 2003: 155, mf, desc. (figs 323–328); Harwood 1974: 131; Hoffmaster 1985: 627; Jackman 1997: 75, desc., 161 (photo 21h); Jackman et al. 2007: 199; Jones 1936: 70; Kagan 1942: 23; Kagan 1943: 258; Levi 1968: 338 [S], mf, desc. (figs 43–57); Levi 2004: 52; Nyffeler et al. 1986: 200; Nyffeler et al. 1987c: 368; Nyffeler et al. 1988a: 55; Nyffeler et al. 1992a: 1181; Reddell 1965: 170; Reddell and Finch 1963: 48; Roberts 2001: 48; Sterling et al. 1979: 979; Taber and Fleenor 2003: 236; Taber and Fleenor 2005: 275 (figs 12–13); Vogel 1970b: 4; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Argiope cophinaria (Walckenaer, 1841); McCook 1893: 217

Epeira riparia Hentz, 1847; Hentz 1875: 106

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Archer, Atascosa, Bastrop, Bell, Bexar, Brazos, Burleson, Clay, Collin, Colorado, Comal, Comanche, Cooke, Coryell, Dallas, DeWitt, Denton, Erath, Fannin, Galveston, Gonzales, Grimes, Harris, Hays, Houston, Hunt, Johnson, Kendall, Kerr, Leon, Liberty, Matagorda, McLennan, Nacogdoches, Navarro, Potter, Robertson, Sabine, San Patricio, Travis, Victoria, Walker, Washington, Wichita, Williamson, Wilson

Locality

Adriance Pecan Orchard, Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Brison Pecan Orchard, Ellis Prison Unit, Fort Hood, Fort Sam Houston, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lackland Air Force Base, Lake Grapevine, Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park, Stubblefield Lake, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area, Welder Wildlife Refuge, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center, Williams Lake

Caves

Bell (Medusa Cave [Fort Hood], Road Side Sink [Fort Hood], Seven Cave [Fort Hood]); Coryell (Brokeback Cave [Fort Hood], Mixmaster Cave [Fort Hood]); Hays (Ezell’s Cave, Fern Cave); Kendall (Cueva de los Tres Bobos); Williamson (Steam Cave)

Time of activity

Male (June – September); female (June – November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts); (grass: grass, grassland); (landscape features: barns, cave); (littoral: wetlands); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest); (orchard: pecan); (plants: miscellaneous vegetation, vegetation); (soil/woodland: hackberry woodland, trees); (structures: under picnic table); (web: large spider web)

Method

Beating [mf]; cardboard band [imm.]; fogging [m]; pitfall trap [imm.]; suction trap [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

North America

Etymology

New Latin, orange

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, MSU, TAMU, TMM

Argiope blanda O. P.-Cambridge, 1898

Argiope blanda Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1968: 348, mf, desc. (figs 137–153); Levi 2004: 60; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

South Texas; Cameron

Locality

Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (May)

Type

Guatemala, Santa Ana

Etymology

Latin, smooth

Collection

MCZ

Argiope trifasciata (Forskål, 1775)

Argiope trifasciata Agnew et al. 1985: 3; Breene 1988: 23–24; Breene et al. 1988: 180; Breene et al. 1993c: 10, 47, 101, mf (figs 148A-C); Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 8, 13 (fig. 3, photo 13); Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1988: 285–286; Dondale et al. 2003: 157, mf, desc. (figs 329–335); Jackman 1997: 76, desc., 161 (photo 21i); Jäger 2012: 294; Jones 1936: 70; Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1968: 340 [S], mf, desc. (figs 58–72, 74–91); Levi 2004: 54; Nyffeler et al. 1986: 200; Nyffeler et al. 1987c: 370; Rapp 1984: 4; Roberts 2001: 48; Rogers and Horner 1977: 523; Taber and Fleenor 2003: 236; Vogel 1970b: 4; Young and Edwards 1990: 14

Argiope avara Thorell, 1859; McCook 1893: 222, pl. XIV

Distribution

Widespread; Archer, Bastrop, Bell, Bexar, Borden, Brazos, Brown, Burleson, Burleson/Lee, Burnet, Caldwell, Carson, Clay, Collin, Concho, Coryell, Dallas, Denton, Ector, Erath, Fannin, Fayette, Galveston, Garza, Houston, Howard, Lubbock, Martin, Nueces, Oldham, Pecos, Potter, Presidio, Rains, Reagan, Runnels, Travis, Upton, Walker, Ward, Wichita, Young

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit, Lake Dallas, Lick Creek Park, Pantex Lake (edge), Texas A&M University Rangeland Area, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Time of activity

Male (June – October); female (January, July, September – November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, guar, peanuts); (grass: broom weed, grassland, pasture); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [imm.]); (plants: bush, miscellaneous vegetation, roadside vegetation, vegetation, Baccharis); (soil/woodland: oak, post oak savanna, post oak savanna with pasture, saltcedar, trees/shrubs); (web: in web)

Method

Beating [m]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Egypt

Etymology

Latin, three stripes on abdomen of immature

Collection

DMNS, JCC, MSU, TAMU, TTU

Genus Colphepeira Archer, 1941

Colphepeira catawba (Banks, 1911)

Colphepeira catawba Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1978: 422, mf, desc. (figs 1–15); Roth 1982: 11–2; Roth 1985: B-6–6, B-6–11; Roth 1994: 69

Distribution

Brazos, Val Verde, Wilbarger

Locality

Seminole Canyon State Park

Time of activity

Male (May, October)

Type

North Carolina, Asheville

Etymology

Indian tribe

Collection

TAMU

Genus Cyclosa Menge, 1866

Cyclosa berlandi Levi, 1999

Cyclosa berlandi Levi 1999: 358, mf, desc. (figs 322–332)

Cyclosa walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889); Levi 1977a: 84 [west Texas record]

Distribution

Brewster

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Chisos Mountains

Time of activity

Female (September)

Type

Ecuador, 20 km N Cuenca

Etymology

Person (Berland described spiders from the mountains of Ecuador, illustrated the abdomen of the male, with three posterior tubercles and a nondiagnostic view of the male palpus. As there is only one common species in the area with triforked abdomen in males; the identification is easy, Levi 1999).

Cyclosa caroli (Hentz, 1850)

Cyclosa caroli Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 82, mf, desc. (figs 51–63); Levi 1999: 336, mf, desc. (figs 162–180)

Distribution

East and south Texas; McLennan

Type

Alabama

Etymology

undetermined

Collection

MSU

Cyclosa conica (Pallas, 1772)

Cyclosa conica Rapp 1984: 4; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 15 [Levi 1977a: 78, mf, desc. (figs 1–19); page 80: many specimens of C. turbinata erroneously labeled as C. conica]

Distribution

Galveston, Jefferson

Habitat

(crops: rice)

Type

Germany

Etymology

Greek, conical

Cyclosa turbinata (Walckenaer, 1841)

Cyclosa turbinata Agnew et al. 1985: 3; Breene et al. 1993c: 11, 47, 105, mf (figs 159A-C); Brown 1974: 232; Bumroongsook et al. 1992: 17; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1990: 404; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1987: 268; Dean et al. 1988: 286; Dondale et al. 2003: 164, mf, desc. (figs 347–354); Jackman 1997: 77, desc., 161; Levi 1977a: 80, mf, desc. (figs 20, 38–50); Levi 1999: 356, mf, desc. (figs 314–321); Liao et al. 1984: 410; Nyffeler and Sterling 1994: 1295, 1298; Nyffeler et al. 1986: 196; Nyffeler et al. 1988a: 55; Nyffeler et al. 1992a: 1181; Nyffeler et al. 1992c: 2; Vincent and Frankie 1985: 380; Vogel 1970b: 3; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Distribution

Widespread; Bandera, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Collin, Comanche, Delta, Erath, Fannin, Goliad, Houston, Hunt, Kaufman, McLennan, Nacogdoches, Presidio, Robertson, Travis, Val Verde, Walker, Wharton, Wichita, Williamson

Locality

Adriance Pecan Orchard, Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Ellis Prison Unit, Goliad State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lost Maples State Park, South Padre Island, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (March – September); female (March – October)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts); (grass: grassland, pasture); (littoral: behind sand dune, past dunes, shrub); (orchard: pecan); (plants: bluebonnets, croton, miscellaneous vegetation, prickly pear, Baccharis, Monarda citriodora); (soil/woodland: live oak, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia); (web: web in hollow sycamore tree, web in shrub)

Method

Beating [m]; cardboard band [m]; D-Vac suction [m]; fogging [mf]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, top-shaped

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Cyclosa walckenaeri (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)

Cyclosa walckenaeri Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 84, mf, desc. (figs 64–77 [see note below]); Levi 1999: 360, mf, desc. (figs 38, 333–343)

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr

Locality

Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Female (April, June, September)

Habitat

(grass: grasses); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f] from Chalybion californicum); (soil/woodland: savanna with native grasses)

Method

Lindgren flight trap [f]; sweeping [f]

Type

Guatemala, Volcan de Fuego

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Collection

TAMU

Note

West Texas record is Cyclosa berlandi.

Genus Eriophora Simon, 1864

Eriophora edax (Blackwall, 1863)

Eriophora edax Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1972: 150, desc. (figs 337–338); Kaston 1978: 143, desc. (figs 360–361); Levi 1971b: 296, mf, desc. (figs 35–48)

Distribution

South Texas; Cameron, Hidalgo

Locality

Anzalduas County Park, Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Frontera Audubon, Russell Farm, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (March – April, August, October); female (February, May – June, August, December)

Habitat

(orchard: grapefruit, orange); (structures: on pavement)

Type

Brazil, Rio de Janeiro

Etymology

Latin, greedy or devouring

Collection

MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844)

Eriophora ravilla Bradley 2013: 89; Breene et al. 1993c: 11, 47, 103, mf (figs 154A-D); Dean et al. 1982: 254; Jackman 1997: 77, desc., 161 (photo 21k); Levi 1971b: 286 [S, T], mf, desc. (figs 7–24); Roewer 1942: 866; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Epeira ravilla C. L. Koch, 1844; Banks 1910: 43; Marx 1890: 547; McCook 1893: 161

Araneus ravillus (C. L. Koch, 1844); Petrunkevitch 1911: 312

Epeira balaustina McCook, 1888; McCook 1893: 155

Epeira bivariolata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889; McCook 1893: 159

Araneus balaustinus (McCook, 1888); Petrunkevitch 1911: 281

Eriophora variolata O. P.-Cambridge, 1889; F. O. P.-Cambridge 1903: 464

Araneus variolatus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889); Petrunkevitch 1911: 323; Vogel 1970b: 3

Distribution

Southeast and south Texas; Aransas, Brazoria, Brazos, Cameron, Harris, Hidalgo, Nacogdoches, Nueces, Walker

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit, Frontera Audubon, Lick Creek Park, Resaca de la Palma State Park, Russell Farm, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (March – April, November); female (March – June, August, October – November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (grass: grasses); (orchard: orange, grapefruit); (soil/woodland: forest, palm forest); (structures: around house)

Method

Beating [mf]; sweeping [m]

Type

Mexico

Etymology

Latin, gray-yellow

Collection

NMSU, TAMU

Genus Eustala Simon, 1895

Eustala anastera (Walckenaer, 1841)

Eustala anastera Agnew et al. 1985: 3; Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Bonnet 1956: 1837; Breene et al. 1993c: 11, 47, 104, mf (figs 155A-C); Brown 1974: 232; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1990: 402, 404; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1988: 285–286; Dondale et al. 2003: 267, mf, desc. (figs 600–611); Jackman 1997: 78, desc., 161 (photo 21l); Kagan 1942: 30; Kagan 1943: 258; Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1977a: 114 [S], mf, desc. (figs 205–232, 280–285, 298–302, 314–315); Liao et al. 1984: 410; Rapp 1984: 4; Rogers and Horner 1977: 523; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Epeira anastera Walckenaer, 1841; McCook 1893: 172

Eustala anestera (Walckenaer, 1841); Vogel 1970b: 4

Eustala prompta (Hentz, 1847); Jones 1936: 70

Distribution

Widespread; Archer, Atascosa, Bastrop, Baylor, Bee, Blanco, Brazos, Brown, Burleson, Cameron, Clay, Collin, Colorado, Comanche, Dallas, Erath, Galveston, Gillespie, Hidalgo, Houston, Howard, Hunt, McLennan, Montague, Nacogdoches, Nueces, Orange, Presidio, Robertson, Scurry, Travis, Walker, Wichita

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Big Bend Ranch State Park, Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Ellis Prison Unit, Frontera Audubon, Galveston Island State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lick Creek Park, Proctor Lake, Russell Farm, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (March – October); female (April – December)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, guar, peanuts); (grass: grass, grassland, grassy and shrub area, pasture); (littoral: salt marsh area, sandy area); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f]); (objects: croton cage); (orchard: grapefruit, orange, pecan, sour orange, tangerine); (plants: bluebonnets, Indian paintbrush, vegetation); (soil/woodland: brush, mesquite, saltcedar, trees/shrubs, Juniperus ashei, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [m]; beating/sweeping [f]; black light trap [m]; boll weevil pheromone trap [mf]; cardboard band [mf]; D-Vac suction [f]; fogging [mf]; pitfall trap [mf]; suction trap [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Greek, solid throughout

Collection

DMNS, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Eustala bifida F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904

Eustala bifida Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 108, mf, desc. (figs 167–175, 178)

Distribution

Cameron, Wichita

Locality

Russell Farm, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (March); female (February)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: palm grove)

Method

Boll weevil pheromone trap [m]

Type

Costa Rica, San Jose

Etymology

Latin, female abdomen with two conical tubercles at end

Collection

MSU, NMSU

Eustala brevispina Gertsch & Davis, 1936

Eustala brevispina Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Bonnet 1956: 1839; Gertsch and Davis 1936: 12, mf, desc. (figs 9–10); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 106, mf, desc. (figs 149–158); Roewer 1942: 768; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

Cameron

Locality

Russell Farm

Time of activity

Male (December); female (March, May – June)

Method

Boll weevil pheromone trap [f]

Type

Texas (male, Cameron Co., December 1934, L. I. Davis, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, short spines

Collection

NMSU

Eustala cameronensis Gertsch & Davis, 1936

Eustala cameronensis Bonnet 1956: 1839; Gertsch and Davis 1936: 13, m, desc. (fig. 13); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 112, m, desc. (figs 189–191); Roewer 1942: 768

Eustala cameronsis Gertsch & Davis, 1936; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo

Time of activity

Male (“January-March”, September)

Type

Texas (male, Cameron Co., January-March 1936, L. I. Davis, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

locality (county)

Eustala cepina (Walckenaer, 1841)

Eustala cepina Breene et al. 1993c: 11, 47, 104, mf (figs 156A-C); Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1990: 404; Dondale et al. 2003: 271, mf, desc. (figs 622–631); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 118, mf, desc. (figs 233–252, 286–290, 303–308, 316)

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Archer, Brazos, Cameron, Clay, Colorado, Comanche, Dickens, Fayette (imm.), Hunt, Montague, Robertson, Throckmorton, Travis, Walker, Wichita, Willacy, Williamson

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Ellis Prison Unit, Holmes Pecan Orchard

Time of activity

Male (March – July); female (March – August)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest); (orchard: pecan); (plants: bluebonnets, Indian paintbrush, vegetation); (soil/woodland: tree, trees/shrubs, Quercus buckleyi)

Method

Beating [f]; cardboard band [f]; fogging [mf]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, field

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Eustala clavispina (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)

Eustala clavispina Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 106, mf, desc. (figs 159–166, 176–177)

Eustala rosae Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935; Gertsch and Davis 1936: 14; Vogel 1970b: 4 [Texas records]

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo

Locality

Hoblitzelle Farms

Time of activity

Male (February)

Type

Guatemala, Vera Paz, Cubilguitz

Etymology

Latin, upper side of abdomen with claviform spines

Collection

TAMU

Eustala conchlea (McCook, 1888)

Eustala conchlea [Levi 1977a: 122, mf, desc. (figs 269–279, 296, 312, 318)]

Distribution

Clay

Type

California

Etymology

Greek, shell-like

Collection

MSU

Eustala devia (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936)

Eustala devia Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 101 [T], mf, desc. (figs 118–127)

Neosconella devia Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936; Bonnet 1958: 3061; Gertsch and Mulaik 1936b: 16, f, desc. (fig. 38); Vogel 1970b: 4

Aranea devia (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936); Roewer 1942: 860

Distribution

Hidalgo

Time of activity

Female (August)

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, August 25, 1935, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, out of the way

Eustala emertoni (Banks, 1904)

Eustala emertoni Dondale et al. 2003: 269, mf, desc. (figs 612–621); Jackman 1997: 161; Jackman et al. 2007: 199; Levi 1977a: 120, mf, desc. (figs 253–268, 291–295, 309–311, 317); Tugmon et al. 1990: 44

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Archer, Bastrop, Bell, Bosque, Brazoria, Brazos, Brown, Cameron, Colorado, Denton, Hunt, Kaufman, Robertson, Travis, Walker, Wichita

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lacuna Park, Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lick Creek Park, Nash Prairie, South Padre Island

Time of activity

Male (April – July, September – November); female (March – October)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (grass: grass, grass marsh, grassland); (littoral: behind dune, dune vegetation, low dune grass); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest); (orchard: pecan); (plants: croton, miscellaneous vegetation, vegetation); (soil/woodland: woods, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia); (web: large spider web)

Method

Beating [f]; beating/sweeping [f]; D-Vac suction [f]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Genus Gasteracantha Sundevall, 1833

Gasteracantha cancriformis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Gasteracantha cancriformis Bonnet 1957: 1945; Brown 1974: 232; Bumroongsook et al. 1992: 18; Jackman 1997: 78, desc., 161 (photo 21m); Levi 1978: 437, mf, desc. (figs 69–84); Liao et al. 1984: 410; McCook 1893: 211; Marx 1890: 539; Petrunkevitch 1911: 343; Roth 1982: 11–2; Roth 1985: B-6–2, B-6–8; Roth 1994: 68; Taber and Fleenor 2003: 237; Taber and Fleenor 2005: 281; Vogel 1970b: 5; Yantis 2005: 197

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Bastrop, Bell, Bexar, Brazoria, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Denton, Galveston, Gonzalez, Grimes, Harris, Hidalgo, Leon, McLennan, Nacogdoches, Sabine, San Patricio, Shelby, Travis, Van Zandt, Walker, Wharton, Wichita, Zapata

Locality

5-Eagle Ranch, Adriance Pecan Orchard, Lick Creek Park, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Nash Prairie, Palmetto State Park, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (April, June – July, September – October); female (January – December)

Habitat

(grass: grassland); (littoral: sedge meadow); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [imm.] from Chalybion californicum); (orchard: pecan); (plants: bush, miscellaneous vegetation, vegetation); (soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, oak pine forest, post oak savanna, post oak woods [%: 85], re-vegetated site, trees, woods); (web: web near creek)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [f]; beating [mf]; beating/sweeping [f]; malaise trap [f]; sweeping [f]; uv light [m]

Type

Jamaica

Etymology

Latin, crab-like

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Note

Color variation of abdomen of female includes white, yellow, orange and red.

Genus Gea C. L. Koch, 1843

Gea heptagon (Hentz, 1850)

Gea heptagon Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Breene et al. 1993c: 11, 47, 101, mf (figs 146A-C); Brown 1974: 232; Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dean and Sterling 1985: 116; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1992: 3–4; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1987: 268; Dean et al. 1988: 285–286; Dondale et al. 2003: 151, mf, desc. (figs 314–322); Jackman 1997: 79, desc., 161; Kagan 1942: 37; Kagan 1943: 258; Kaston 1972: 143, desc. (fig. 320); Kaston 1978: 137, desc. (fig. 343); Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1968: 324, mf, desc. (figs 1–24); Nyffeler and Sterling 1994: 1295, 1298; Nyffeler et al. 1987c: 372; Nyffeler et al. 1988a: 55; Nyffeler et al. 1989: 374, 377; Nyffeler et al. 1992c: 2; Rapp 1984: 5; Roth 1982: 11–2; Roth 1985: B-6–2, B-6–8; Roth 1994: 67; Vogel 1970b: 4; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Distribution

East and south Texas; Brazos, Burleson, Caldwell, Colorado, Comal, Erath, Fayette, Fort Bend, Galveston, Houston, Howard, Jefferson, Kerr, Madison, Matagorda, McLennan, Nacogdoches, Nueces, Polk, San Patricio, Travis, Van Zandt, Walker, Wichita

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Ellis Prison Unit, Lick Creek Park, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (March – November); female (March, May – September)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, rice); (grass: grassland, grassy and shrub area, pasture); (littoral: salt marsh area); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [mf]); (plants: Indian paintbrush, miscellaneous vegetation, vegetation, yarrow, Monarda citriodora); (soil/woodland: forest, saltcedar, Quercus virginiana); (structures: indoors)

Method

Beating/sweeping [f]; D-Vac suction [f]; pitfall trap [mf]; suction trap [imm.]; sweeping [mf]

Type

North Carolina and Alabama

Etymology

Greek, seven-sided

Collection

DMNS, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Genus Hypsosinga Ausserer, 1871

Hypsosinga funebris (Keyserling, 1892)

Hypsosinga funebris Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 8, 13; Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dondale et al. 2003: 292, mf, desc. (figs 688–696); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1975b: 273 [S]

Hypsosinga singaeformis (Scheffer, 1904); Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 37; Levi 1972: 246, mf, desc. (figs 58–71)

Distribution

Andrews, Atascosa, Bell, Bexar, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Carson, Fayette, Glasscock, Hidalgo, Howard, Kerr, Motley, Sterling, Uvalde, Val Verde

Locality

5-Eagle Ranch, Fort Hood, Garner State Park, NK Ranch, South Padre Island, Seminole Canyon State Park

Caves

Bell (Canyon Side Sink [Fort Hood])

Time of activity

Male (March 30-April 6, April – July, September); female (April – July, September)

Habitat

(grass: dune, grassland); (landscape features: cave); (littoral: dune, near playa); (plants: Indian paintbrush, miscellaneous vegetation, roadside vegetation); (soil/woodland: post oak savanna with pasture, trees/shrubs)

Method

Beating [mf]; pitfall trap [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Florida, Crescent City

Etymology

Latin, of a funeral

Collection

TAMU

Hypsosinga rubens (Hentz, 1847)

Hypsosinga rubens Agnew et al. 1985: 3; Breene et al. 1993c: 11, 47, 107, mf (figs 165A-C); Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dondale et al. 2003: 289, mf, desc. (figs 675–687); Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 152, desc. (fig. 380); Levi 1972: 248 [S], mf, desc. (figs 72–88); Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Singa nigripes Keyserling, 1884; McCook 1893: 232; Marx 1890: 549

Araneus nigripes (Keyserling, 1884); Petrunkevitch 1911: 306

Distribution

North-central and central Texas; Aransas, Brazos, Brown, Erath, Fannin, Hunt, Kenedy, Montague, Montgomery, San Saba, Travis, Walker, Young

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit, Goose Island State Park, Jones State Forest, Lick Creek Park, NK Ranch

Time of activity

Male (March – May, August), female (March – June, August)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts); (plants: miscellaneous vegetation); (soil/woodland: juniper, woods, Juniperus ashei, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [f]; hanging carrion trap [f]; pitfall trap [f]; sweeping [f]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, red

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Genus Kaira O. P.-Cambridge, 1889

Kaira alba (Hentz, 1850)

Kaira alba Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977b: 216, mf, desc. (figs 117–129); Levi 1993c: 216, mf, desc. (figs 1- 2, 23–28)

Distribution

North-central and south Texas; Brazos, Denton, Hidalgo, Travis, Uvalde

Locality

Garner State Park, Lick Creek Park

Time of activity

Male (May, July)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: Quercus virginiana)

Method

Beating [m]; beating/sweeping [m]

Type

North Carolina

Etymology

Latin, white

Collection

TAMU

Kaira altiventer O. P.-Cambridge, 1889

Kaira altiventer Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977b: 218, mf, desc. (figs 130–137); Levi 1993c: 213, mf, desc. (figs 3–22)

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo

Locality

Frontera Audubon

Time of activity

Male (March, August); female (December)

Habitat

(orchard: grapefruit, sour orange); (soil/woodland: low shrubs)

Type

Panama, Veragux

Etymology

Latin, high belly

Collection

TAMU

Kaira hiteae Levi, 1977

Kaira hiteae Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977b: 220, m, desc. (figs 138–140); Levi 1993c: 222, f, desc. (figs 82–85)

Distribution

Brazos, Cameron, Colorado, Dallas, Grayson, Travis

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, South Padre Island, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (July – August); female (September – November)

Habitat

(plants: vegetation)

Method

sweeping [f]

Type

Arkansas, Boston Mountains, Cove Creek Valley

Etymology

Person (The species is named after M. Hite, the collector of several specimens of this rare species, Levi 1993c).

Collection

MCZ, TAMU

Genus Larinia Simon, 1874

Larinia directa (Hentz, 1847)

Larinia directa Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Banks 1894: 8; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Brown 1974: 232; Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dean and Sterling 1990: 404; Hoffmaster 1985: 627; Jackman 1997: 79, desc., 161; Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1975a: 105 [T], mf, desc. (figs 1–12, 31, 34, 37–41); Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Drexelia directa (Hentz, 1847); Woods and Harrel 1976: 43

Distribution

Southern ½ Texas, west Texas; Archer, Bosque, Brazos, Brewster, Burleson, Cameron, Colorado, Erath, Fayette, Freestone, Goliad, Hidalgo, Hopkins, Howard, Hunt, Jefferson, Kenedy, Nacogdoches, Presidio, San Patricio, Victoria, Walker, Wichita, Willacy

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Lacuna Park, Lick Creek Park, Russell Farm, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Somerville Lake, South Padre Island, Welder Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (February – August, October, December); female (February – September)

Habitat

(crops: peanuts, rice, sugarcane); (littoral: dune); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f]); (orchard: grapefruit, orange); (plants: bluebonnets, Indian paintbrush, miscellaneous vegetation, vegetation, next to cotton field); (soil/woodland: saltcedar)

Method

Boll weevil pheromone trap [mf]; moth pheromone trap [f]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

South Carolina and Alabama

Etymology

Latin, straight

Collection

DMNS, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Genus Larinioides Caporiacco, 1934

Larinioides cornutus (Clerck, 1757)

Larinioides cornutus Dondale et al. 2003: 184, mf, desc. (figs 395–401); Grasshoff 1983: 227 [T]; Guarisco 2008b: 5; Jackman 1997: 80, desc., 161; Jackman et al. 2007: 199; Roberts 2001: 48

Nuctenea cornuta (Clerck, 1757); Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Levi 1974: 306 [S, T], mf, desc. (figs 61–62, 67–76, 94, 97–98, 110–111, 118–119, 126); Rapp 1984: 5

Araneus cornutus Clerck, 1757; Vogel 1970b: 3

Epeira strix Hentz, 1847; Jones 1936: 70

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Archer, Baylor, Brown, Burnet, Clay, Comanche, Cooke, Dallas, Denton, Galveston, Grayson, Hood, Hunt, Lee, Palo Pinto, Potter, Travis, Wichita

Locality

Galveston Island State Park, Inks Lake State Park, Lake Somerville State Park [Nails Creek Unit], Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lakeside Park South, Proctor Lake, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Time of activity

Male (March – April, June, August – September, November); female (January – May, July – December)

Habitat

(grass: grassy and shrub area, pasture); (littoral: salt marsh area); (soil/woodland: sandy area, tree, under bark); (structures: house); (web: communal web, dead in web, large spider web)

Method

Beating [mf]; pitfall trap; sweeping

Type

Sweden

Etymology

Latin, referring to horn or projection

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Larinioides patagiatus (Clerck, 1757)

Larinioides patagiatus Dondale et al. 2003: 186, mf, desc. (figs 402–408); Grasshoff 1983: 227 [T]; Jackman 1997: 161

Nuctenea patagiata (Clerck, 1757); Levi 1974: 309, mf, desc. (figs 77–84, 100–102, 107, 112–113, 120–123, 127)

Distribution

South Texas

Type

Sweden

Etymology

Latin, gold-bordered

Larinioides sclopetarius (Clerck, 1757)

Larinioides sclopetarius Grasshoff 1983: 227 [T]; Jackman 1997: 161

Nuctenea sclopetaria (Clerck, 1757) [Levi 1974: 310 [S], mf, desc. (figs 85–88, 103–104, 108, 114–115, 124–125, 128)]

Araneus sericatus Clerck, 1757; Brown 1974: 232

Distribution

Nacogdoches

Locality

Lake Rayburn

Time of activity

Male (August); female (August)

Type

Sweden

Etymology

Greek, pointed

Genus Mangora O. P.-Cambridge, 1889

Mangora calcarifera F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904

Mangora calcarifera Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1975a: 132, mf, desc. (figs 131–144); Levi 2005a: 150

Distribution

South Texas; Cameron

Time of activity

Male (March, September); female (October)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: palm grove)

Type

Guatemala, Petexbatún

Etymology

Latin, spur on palp

Mangora fascialata Franganillo, 1936

Mangora fascialata Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Breene et al. 1993c: 11, 47, 102, mf (figs 150A-C); Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1975a: 128, mf, desc. (figs 110–117); Levi 2005a: 162

Distribution

South Texas; Brazos, Brewster, Comal, Coryell, Erath, Frio, Hidalgo, Uvalde

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Garner State Park, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (June – July); female (May – July)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (littoral: cane and mesquite along river); (soil/woodland: post oak savanna with pasture)

Method

sweeping

Type

Cuba

Etymology

Latin, a band

Collection

TAMU

Mangora gibberosa (Hentz, 1847)

Mangora gibberosa Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Breene et al. 1993c: 12, 47, 102, mf (figs 151A-C); Brown 1974: 232; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1988: 286; Dondale et al. 2003: 134, mf, desc. (figs 271–277); Hoffmaster 1985: 627; Jackman 1997: 161; Kagan 1942: 36; Kagan 1943: 258; Kaston 1978: 140, desc. (fig. 352); Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1975a: 130, mf, desc. (figs 118–130); Levi 2005a: 161; Nyffeler et al. 1988a: 55; Vogel 1970b: 4; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Anderson, Bastrop, Brazos, Burleson, Cherokee, DeWitt, Erath, Fannin, Goliad, Gonzales, Henderson, Houston, Howard, Hunt, Kerr, Lavaca, Limestone, McLennan, Nacogdoches, Polk, Presidio, Rains, San Patricio, Travis, Uvalde, Van Zandt, Walker, Wichita, Williamson

Locality

Bastrop State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Garner State Park, Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park, Riley Estate, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area, Welder Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (May – November); female (April – November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (grass: grass, grassland, meadow, pasture); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest in garage [f]); (plants: miscellaneous vegetation, roadside vegetation, vegetation, Baccharis); (soil/woodland: post oak savanna, saltcedar, willow)

Method

sweeping [mf]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, humped

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Mangora maculata (Keyserling, 1865)

Mangora maculata Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Dondale et al. 2003: 139, mf, desc. (figs 285–290); Henderson 2007: 65, 76, 79, 82; Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 140, desc. (fig. 353); Levi 1975a: 122, mf, desc. (figs 58–68); Levi 1975a: 122

Distribution

Southeast Texas; Brazos, Comanche, Erath, Gonzales, Travis, Walker

Locality

Lick Creek Park, Nabor’s Lake, Palmetto State Park

Time of activity

Male (May – August); female (June – July, July 15-August 15)

Habitat

(nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f]); (plants: vegetation); (soil/woodland: upland woods, woods, Quercus buckleyi)

Method

Beating [m]; pitfall trap [f]; sweeping [m]

Type

Maryland, Baltimore

Etymology

Latin, markings

Collection

TAMU

Mangora placida (Hentz, 1847)

Mangora placida Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Brown 1974: 232; Dondale et al. 2003: 136, mf, desc. (figs 278–284); Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1972: 146, desc. (fig. 328); Kaston 1978: 140, desc. (fig. 351); Levi 1975a: 126, mf, desc. (figs 80–81, 90–101); Levi 2005a: 164

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Bastrop, Brazos, Burleson, Comal, Erath, Fannin, Gonzales, Kerr, Montague, Montgomery, Nacogdoches, Polk, Travis, Walker, Wichita

Locality

5-Eagle Ranch, Bastrop State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Jones State Forest, Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park, Sam Houston National Forest, Stubblefield Lake

Time of activity

Male (February – July), female (March – October)

Habitat

(littoral: creek bank, near creek, sedge meadow); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [imm.]); (orchard: pecan); (plants: miscellaneous vegetation, vegetation); (soil/woodland: brush, old field, trees, woods, Juniperus ashei, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [mf]; beating/sweeping [f]; cardboard band [mf]; fogging [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, mild or gentle, placid

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Mangora spiculata (Hentz, 1847)

Mangora spiculata Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1975a: 125, mf, desc. (figs 82–89); Levi 2005a: 164

Distribution

East and south Texas; Hunt, Montgomery, Orange, Walker

Locality

Jones State Forest

Time of activity

Male (June, August); female (April, August)

Habitat

(plants: vegetation)

Method

sweeping [mf]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, a point

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Genus Mastophora Holmberg, 1876

Mastophora alvareztoroi Ibarra & Jiménez, 2003

Mastophora alvareztoroi Levi 2003: 360, mf, desc. (figs 296–307)

Distribution

Hidalgo

Locality

Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Female (December)

Type

Mexico, Chiapas, Rancho Alejandria, Municipio Estacion Juarez

Etymology

Person (The species was named after the collector, the late Miguel Alvarez del Toro, who dedicated his life to the study and protection of the Chiapas fauna and is the author of a book on Chiapas spiders, Levi 2003).

Mastophora cornigera (Hentz, 1850)

Mastophora cornigera Gertsch 1955: 233, mf, desc. (figs 1–5, 37, 41–42); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 2003: 344, mf, desc. (figs 169–182, 455); Liao et al. 1984: 410; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

Brazos, Cameron, Duval, Galveston, Hidalgo, Robertson, San Patricio, Travis, Wilson

Locality

Frontera Audubon, Lick Creek Park, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Welder Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (March – April, June – July, October – December); female (January – February, June – July, October, December)

Habitat

(orchard: grapefruit); (soil/woodland: scrub live oak, Quercus buckleyi, Quercus virginiana, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [m]; beating/sweeping [m]; fogging [m]; sweeping [m]

Eggs/spiderlings

Brazos [eggsac collected July 24, 2002, hatched week of August 26, 34 males, 65 immatures]; Cameron [62 males, 64 immatures, emerged June; 63 males, 64 immatures, emerged February; eggsac collected February 10, 1980, hatch March 15, 18 males, 25 immatures]; Hidalgo [59 males, 70 immatures, emerged April] [TAMU]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, horned

Collection

TAMU

Mastophora leucabulba (Gertsch, 1955)

Mastophora leucabulba Levi 2003: 358, mf, desc. (figs 288–295)

Agathostichus leucabulba Gertsch, 1955; Jackman 1997: 161

Agatostichus leucabulba Gertsch, 1955; Gertsch 1955: 250, f, desc. (figs 34, 38, 40); Roth 1982: 11–1; Roth 1985: B-6–3, B-6–8; Roth 1994: 68; Vogel 1967: 22; Vogel 1970b: 3

Distribution

Cameron, Duval, Hidalgo, Wilson

Locality

Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (April)

Type

Texas (female, Cameron Co., E of Harlingen, January-March, 1936, L. I. Davis, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, white bulbous processes on carapace

Collection

TAMU

Mastophora phrynosoma Gertsch, 1955

Mastophora phrynosoma Bradley 2013: 96; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 2003: 336, mf, desc. (figs 86–99, 449–450)

Distribution

Walker

Locality

Huntsville State Park

Time of activity

Female (September)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: bush, elm)

Type

North Carolina, Burlington

Etymology

Greek, toad-like

Collection

TAMU

Mastophora stowei Levi, 2003

Mastophora stowei Levi 2003: 334, mf, desc. (figs 63–74, 447)

Distribution

Harrison

Time of activity

Female (July)

Type

Florida, Gainesville

Etymology

Person (The species is named after the collector, Mark Stowe, who has contributed much to our knowledge of Mastophora, Levi 2003).

Genus Mecynogea Simon, 1903

Mecynogea lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1841)

Mecynogea lemniscata Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Breene et al. 1993c: 12, 47, 105, mf (figs 158A-C); Dean and Sterling 1990: 404; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Jackman 1997: 80, desc., 161 (photo 21q); Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1980: 13 [S, T], mf, desc. (figs 1–15); Roth 1982: 11–2; Roth 1985: B-6–4, B-6–9; Roth 1994: 69, 72; Yantis 2005: 197; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Allepeira lemniscata (Walckenaer, 1841); Exline 1948: 311

Epeira basilica McCook, 1878; McCook 1878: 133; McCook 1889: 164

Hentzia basilica (McCook, 1878); Comstock 1912: 417; Comstock 1940: 431; McCook 1893: 244; Petrunkevitch 1911: 349; Vogel 1970b: 5

Argiope basilica McCook, 1878; Marx 1890: 541

Allepeira basilica (McCook, 1878); Bryant 1940: 358; Roewer 1942: 778

Mecynogea basilica (McCook, 1878); Brown 1974: 232

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Archer, Bexar, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Comanche, Erath, Garza, Gonzales, Hidalgo, Houston, Howard, Hunt, Hutchinson, Nacogdoches, Sabine, Travis, Walker, Wichita

Locality

5-Eagle Ranch, Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Johnson Ranch, Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park, Proctor Lake, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (May – July); female (May – August)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [mf in Chalybion californicum, f in Sceliphron caementarium]); (soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, pine woods [%: 99], saltcedar, willow, woods); (web: in web, web in oak tree)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [m]; beating [m]; malaise trap [m]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, adorned with ribbons

Collection

MCZ, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Genus Metazygia F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904

Metazygia wittfeldae (McCook, 1894)

Metazygia wittfeldae Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Breene et al. 1993c: 12, 47, 106, mf (figs 162A-C); Dean et al. 1982: 254; Guarisco 2008b: 5; Jackman 1997: 161; Jackman et al. 2007: 199; Kaston 1953: 190, desc. (fig. 467); Kaston 1972: 158, desc. (fig. 352); Kaston 1978: 150, desc. (fig. 376); Levi 1977a: 92, mf, desc. (figs 90–103); Levi 1995: 81; Rice 1986: 124; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Distribution

Central, southeast and south Texas; Brazos, Burnet, Cameron, Dallas, Fort Bend, Goliad, Hood, Hunt, Lee, Montgomery, San Patricio, Walker, Washington

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit, Goliad State Park, Lake Buchanan, Lake Corpus Christi State Park, Lake Somerville State Park [Nails Creek Unit], Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lakeside Park South, Russell Farm

Time of activity

Male (March – April, June – August); female (March – May, July – November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (web: large spider web)

Method

Boll weevil pheromone trap [mf]

Type

Florida

Etymology

Person (after the late Miss Anna Wittfeld, of Merrit Island, Florida)

Collection

MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Metazygia zilloides (Banks, 1898)

Metazygia zilloides Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Breene et al. 1993a: 169; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977a: 92, mf, desc. (figs 104–111); Levi 1995: 86; Rice 1986: 124

Distribution

Central and south Texas; Bell, Cameron, Hidalgo, Hunt, Lee, Montgomery, San Patricio, Starr, Travis, Willacy

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Frontera Audubon, Lake Corpus Christi State Park, Lake Somerville State Park [Nails Creek Unit], Russell Farm, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (March, October, December); female (March – April, July – December)

Habitat

(crops: sugarcane); (orchard: citrus, grapefruit, orange, sour orange); (web: large spider web)

Method

Boll weevil pheromone trap [mf]

Type

Mexico, Tepic

Etymology

like Zilla californica Banks, 1896 = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1758)

Collection

DMNS, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Genus Metepeira F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903

Metepeira arizonica Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942

Metepeira arizonica Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977b: 200, mf, desc. (figs 12–13, 39–46); Piel 2001: 66, mf, desc. (figs 206–212)

Distribution

West Texas; Brewster, Presidio

Locality

Big Bend National Park

Time of activity

Female (March)

Type

Arizona, Canyon Lake

Etymology

locality (state)

Collection

MSU

Metepeira comanche Levi, 1977

Metepeira comanche Jackman 1997: 161; Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1977b: 204, mf, desc. (figs 61–69); Piel 2001: 62, mf, desc. (figs 185–191)

Metepeira n. sp.; Rogers and Horner 1977: 523

Distribution

Widespread; Andrews, Archer, Bastrop, Baylor, Borden, Brewster, Collin, Crane, Gaines, Garza, Haskell, Howard, Jim Wells, Jones, Kent, Kimble, Kinney, Motley, Nacogdoches, Reagan, Taylor, Upton, Val Verde, Ward, Webb, Wichita

Locality

Seminole Canyon State Park

Time of activity

Male (February, April – July); female (February, May – July, September – November)

Habitat

(crops: guar); (grass: grass); (plants: miscellaneous vegetation); (soil/woodland: juniper, saltcedar, tree, trees/shrubs); (web: in web)

Method

Beating [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Texas (male, Haskell Co., 9.7 km W O’Brien, February 3, 1971, C. E. Rogers, holotype, MCZ)

Etymology

Indian tribe (The name is a noun in apposition after the Indian tribe of the Texas plains, Levi 1977b).

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Note

Levi 1977 lists Wells Co. but it is Jim Wells Co.

Metepeira foxi Gertsch & Ivie, 1936

Metepeira foxi Dondale et al. 2003: 320, mf, desc. (figs 749–757); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977b: 210, mf, desc. (figs 87–96)

Distribution

West Texas; Hudspeth

Time of activity

Female (May)

Type

Utah, Richfield

Etymology

Person

Collection

MCZ

Metepeira labyrinthea (Hentz, 1847)

Metepeira labyrinthea Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Bradley 2013: 97; Brown 1974: 232; Dean and Sterling 1990: 405; Dondale et al. 2003: 317, mf, desc. (figs 740–748); Gertsch 1939b: 25; Jackman 1997: 81, desc., 161; Levi 1977b: 196, mf, desc. (figs 1–11, 14–20); Piel 2001: 14, 17; Roberts 2001: 49; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Metepeira labyrinthica (Hentz, 1847); Reddell 1965: 170; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

Widespread; Archer, Bosque, Brazos, Brewster, Brown, Comanche, Erath, Maverick, Nacogdoches, Potter, Sutton, Walker, Wichita

Locality

Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Chisos Mountains, Ellis Prison Unit, Lick Creek Park, Nabor’s Lake, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Caves

Sutton (Felton Cave)

Time of activity

Male (May – August); female (May – August, October)

Habitat

(crops: peanuts); (landscape features: cave); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [mf]); (orchard: pecan); (soil/woodland: trees, woods); (structures: indoors, porch); (web: in web, web in oak tree)

Method

Beating [m]; fogging [f]; suction trap [m]

Type

North Carolina and Alabama

Etymology

Greek, type of web

Collection

MSU, TAMU, TMM

Metepeira minima Gertsch, 1936

Metepeira minima Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Gertsch 1936: 10, m, desc. (fig. 31); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1977b: 206, mf, desc. (figs 70–77); Piel 2001: 82, mf, desc. (figs 278–285); Roewer 1942: 869; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

South Texas; Bastrop, Cameron, Hidalgo, Kenedy

Locality

Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (May); female (October – November)

Method

Beating [f]; boll weevil pheromone trap [m]

Type

Texas (male, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, May 27, 1935, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, petite shape, small

Collection

DMNS, TAMU

Genus Micrathena Sundevall, 1833

Micrathena gracilis (Walckenaer, 1805)

Micrathena gracilis Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Bonnet 1957: 2868; Breene et al. 1993c: 12, 47, 100, mf (figs 144A-C); Brown 1974: 232; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dondale et al. 2003: 146, mf, desc. (figs 299–306); Jackman 1997: 161; Jones 1936: 69; Levi 1978: 433, mf, desc. (figs 55–68); Taber and Fleenor 2005: 281 (fig. 12–11); Vogel 1970b: 5; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Aransas, Archer, Bastrop, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Comanche, Dallas, Erath, Goliad, Gonzalez, Grayson, Hardin, Harris, Houston, Jim Wells, Liberty, Montgomery, Nacogdoches, Red River, San Patricio, Travis, Walker (imm.), Wichita

Locality

5-Eagle Ranch, Buescher State Park, Decker’s Prairie, Ellis Prison Unit, Goose Island State Park, Lick Creek Park, Nabor’s Lake, Palmetto State Park

Time of activity

Male (May – July); female (January, May – November)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (grass: pasture); (littoral: along creek, creek bank, on tree fungus and marsh edge); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [pen f] Chalybion californicum); (soil/woodland: forest, woods, Quercus buckleyi); (web: web by creek)

Method

Beating/sweeping [mf]; sweeping [m]

Type

Carolina (of 1805)

Etymology

Latin, slender

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Micrathena mitrata (Hentz, 1850)

Micrathena mitrata Brown 1974: 232; Dondale et al. 2003: 148, mf, desc. (figs 307–313); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1978: 428, mf, desc. (figs 28–40); Levi 1985: 486

Distribution

East Texas; Nacogdoches, Sabine

Time of activity

Female (October)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest); (web: web near creek)

Method

Malaise trap [f]

Type

North Carolina and Alabama

Etymology

Latin, abdomen above resembles a bishop’s mitre

Collection

TAMU

Micrathena sagittata (Walckenaer, 1841)

Micrathena sagittata Breene et al. 1993c: 12, 47, 100, mf (figs 145A-C); Brown 1974: 232; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dondale et al. 2003: 143, mf, desc. (figs 291–298); Jackman 1997: 81, desc., 161 (photo 21a); Kaston 1972: 139, desc. (fig. 311); Kaston 1978: 133, desc. (fig. 334); Levi 1978: 430, mf, desc. (figs 41–54); Magalhaes and Santos 2012: 52; Taber and Fleenor 2005: 281 (fig. 12–10); Vogel 1970b: 5

Distribution

Central, east and south Texas; Brazos, Cameron, Gonzales, Hardin, Hidalgo, Nacogdoches, Walker

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Frontera Audubon, Palmetto State Park, Resaca de la Palma State Park, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (June – August, October – November); female (April – May, August, October)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (littoral: near creek, wetlands); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [imm.]); (orchard: grapefruit); (soil/woodland: palm forest, woods)

Method

Beating [f]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, arrow- (head) like

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Genus Neoscona Simon, 1864

Neoscona arabesca (Walckenaer, 1841)

Neoscona arabesca Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Armstrong and Richman 2007: 395; Berman and Levi 1971: 474 [S, T], mf, desc. (figs 1–3, 5–6, 8, 10, 14–42, 125–126); Bonnet 1958: 3055; Breene et al. 1993a: 169; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Breene et al. 1993c: 12, 47, 106, mf (figs 164A-C); Breene et al. 1994: 8; Brown 1974: 232; Bumroongsook et al. 1992: 17; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Dean and Eger 1986: 141; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1990: 405; Dean et al. 1982: 254; Dean et al. 1987: 268; Dean et al. 1988: 285–286; Dondale et al. 2003: 171, mf, desc. (figs 363–371); Hoffmaster 1985: 627; Jackman 1997: 82, desc., 161 (photo 21t); Li 1990: 137, 142, 144; Liao et al. 1984: 410; Nyffeler and Sterling 1994: 1295, 1298; Nyffeler et al. 1987a: 357; Nyffeler et al. 1989: 374, 377; Nyffeler et al. 1992a: 1181; Nyffeler et al. 1992c: 2; Rapp 1984: 5; Rice 1986: 124; Vogel 1970b: 4; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Epeira arabesca Walckenaer, 1841; McCook 1893: 148; Marx 1890: 542

Epeira trivittata Keyserling, 1864; Jones 1936: 70

Araneus trivittatus (Keyserling, 1864); Jones 1936: 70

Neoscona minima F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904; Bonnet 1958: 3058; Brown 1974: 233; Gertsch and Mulaik 1936b: 20, m (fig. 30); Kagan 1942: 27; Kagan 1943: 258; Vogel 1970b: 4; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43

Aranea minima (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904); Roewer 1942: 847

Distribution

Widespread; Atascosa, Bee, Brazoria, Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Collin, Colorado, Comanche, Dallas, Erath, Falls, Fannin, Fayette, Galveston, Gillespie, Hays, Henderson, Hidalgo, Houston, Hunt, Jefferson, Jim Wells, Matagorda, McLennan, Montague, Nacogdoches, Polk, Rains, Robertson, San Patricio, Travis, Victoria, Walker, Webb, Wichita, Willacy, Williamson

Locality

Adriance Pecan Orchard, Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Galveston Island State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lake Corpus Christi State Park, Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lick Creek Park, Proctor Lake, Ramsey Prison Farm, Resaca de la Palma State Park, Russell Farm, Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area, Welder Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (January – December); female (January – December)

Habitat

(crops: corn, cotton, peanuts, rice, sugarcane, watermelon); (grass: grass, grassland, grassy and shrub area, pasture); (littoral: salt marsh area); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [mf], nest of Chalybion californicum); (orchard: citrus, orange, pecan, tangerine, Valley lemon); (plants: bluebonnets, croton, garden, Indian paintbrush, miscellaneous vegetation, pepper, roadside vegetation, Hibiscus sp., Monarda citriodora); (soil/woodland: brushy area, hibiscus, mesquite, oak, post oak savanna); (structures: fence next to cotton field)

Method

Beating [mf]; boll weevil pheromone trap [mf]; cardboard band [mf]; D-Vac suction [mf]; fogging [mf]; pitfall trap [f]; suction trap [mf]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Spanish, Arabic-like pattern

Collection

DMNS, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Neoscona crucifera (Lucas, 1838)

Neoscona crucifera Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Dondale et al. 2003: 173, mf, desc, (figs 372–377); Guarisco 2008b: 5; Jackman 1997: 161; Jackman et al. 2007: 199; Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Levi 1993a: 231 [S]; Roberts 2001: 49; Yantis 2005: 197

Neoscona hentzii (Keyserling, 1864); Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Berman and Levi 1971: 478, mf, desc. (figs 51–58, 128); Hoffmaster 1985: 627

Distribution

Widespread; Archer, Bastrop, Bell, Brazos, Brown, Clay, Comanche, Erath, Gillespie, Howard, Hunt, Leon, Nacogdoches, Potter, Presidio, Robertson, Runnels, San Patricio, Tarrant, Tom Green, Travis, Walker, Washington, Wheeler, Wichita

Locality

Big Bend Ranch State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lake Tawakoni State Park, Riley Estate, Stubblefield Lake Recreation Area, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area, Welder Wildlife Refuge, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Time of activity

Male (April, July – October); female (June – November)

Habitat

(littoral: palmetto-cypress swamp); (orchard: pecan, pecan orchard); (soil/woodland: juniper, post oak woods [%: 90], saltcedar, wetland/woodland park); (structures: bedroom, outside house, under house eave); (web: in web, in web in woods, large spider web, on web in bosque, web under eave of house)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [f]; beating [mf]; black light trap [m]; cardboard band [f]; fogging [mf]; suction trap [f]; tile trap [m]

Eggs/spiderlings

Comanche [eggsac laid June 1, 2001, hatched July 12; 533 spiderlings] [TAMU]

Type

Canary Islands

Etymology

Latin, cross-bearing

Collection

DMNS, MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Neoscona domiciliorum (Hentz, 1847)

Neoscona domiciliorum Berman and Levi 1971: 477, mf, desc. (figs 43–50, 127); Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1972: 157, desc. (fig. 350); Kaston 1978: 149, desc. (fig. 374); Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Distribution

Central and east Texas; Cameron, Hidalgo, Jefferson, Montgomery, Runnels, Travis, Wichita, Williamson

Locality

Frontera Audubon

Caves

Williamson (Williams Cave)

Time of activity

Male (November); female (June, October – November)

Habitat

(crops: rice); (grass: grass); (landscape features: cave); (littoral: flood plain); (orchard: grapefruit, Valley lemon); (soil/woodland: trees/shrubs)

Method

Beating [f]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, refers to a house

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Neoscona nautica (L. Koch, 1875)

Neoscona nautica Berman and Levi 1971: 498 [S], mf, desc. (figs 13, 111–120, 132); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1993a: 228

Epeira volucripes Keyserling, 1885; Marx 1890: 548

Distribution

Central Texas; Galveston, Travis

Time of activity

Male (September); female (August – September)

Habitat

(structures: warehouse)

Type

Sudan

Etymology

Greek, for sailor

Collection

MCZ, TAMU

Neoscona oaxacensis (Keyserling, 1864)

Neoscona oaxacensis Berman and Levi 1971: 486 [S], mf, desc. (figs 4, 9, 11, 78–90, 129); Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 8, 16 (photo 14); Jackman 1997: 83, 161, desc.; Kaston 1972: 157, desc. (fig. 351); Kaston 1978: 149, desc. (fig. 375); Knutson et al. 2010: 515; Roberts 2001: 49; Rogers and Horner 1977: 523; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Neoscona vertebrata (McCook, 1888); Kagan 1942: 26; Kagan 1943: 258

Distribution

Western 2/3 Texas; Archer, Bastrop, Bell, Borden, Brazos, Brewster, Burleson, Carson, Clay, Coleman, Ector, Fisher, Guadalupe, Hidalgo, Howard, Hunt, Kendall, Lubbock, Martin, McLennan, Montague, Potter, Presidio, Randall, Reagan, Scurry, Upton, Ward, Wichita, Wilbarger

Locality

Lake Thomas, Palo Duro Canyon State Park, Pantex Lake (edge), Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Time of activity

Male (June – October); female (February, June – December)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, guar); (grass: grass, shrubs and tall grass); (orchard: pecan, pecan orchard); (littoral: near playa); (plants: roadside vegetation, vegetation, Baccharis); (soil/woodland: juniper, saltcedar, trees/shrubs)

Method

Beating [m]; D-Vac suction [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Mexico, Oaxaca

Etymology

locality (Mexican state)

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU, TTU

Neoscona utahana (Chamberlin, 1919)

Neoscona utahana Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Berman and Levi 1971: 485 [S], mf, desc. (figs 68–77, 135); Breene et al. 1993a: 169; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Breene et al. 1993c: 13, 47, 106, mf (figs 163A-C); Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Hoffmaster 1985: 627; Jackman 1997: 161; Young and Edwards 1990: 15

Neoscona eximia Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936; Bonnet 1958: 3058; Gertsch and Mulaik 1936b: 19, mf, desc. (fig. 32); Kagan 1942: 28; Kagan 1943: 258; Vogel 1970b: 4

Aranea eximia (Gertsch and Mulaik, 1936); Roewer 1942: 860

Distribution

Widespread; Brazos, Cameron, Erath, Hidalgo, McLennan, Nueces, San Patricio, Travis, Walker, Winkler

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Welder Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (July – August); female (June, August – December)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, sugarcane); (orchard: citrus); (structures: under house eave)

Method

suction trap [m]

Type

Utah, Fillmore

Etymology

locality (state)

Collection

DMNS, TAMU

Genus Ocrepeira Marx, 1883

Ocrepeira ectypa (Walckenaer, 1841)

Ocrepeira ectypa Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1993b: 56 [T]

Wixia ectypa (Walckenaer, 1841); Bonnet 1959: 4828; Vogel 1970b: 4 [Levi 1976: 380 [S], mf, desc. (figs 88–100, 110, 113, 123)]

Wixia infumata (Hentz, 1850); Jones 1936: 70

Distribution

Cameron, Dallas

Locality

Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Female (October)

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Greek, carved

Collection

TAMU

Ocrepeira georgia (Levi, 1976)

Ocrepeira georgia Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1993b: 56 [T]

Wixia georgia Levi, 1976; Dean and Eger 1986: 141 [Levi 1976: 382, mf, desc. (figs 101–109, 111, 114, 124)]

Distribution

Bandera, Brazos, Cameron, Hidalgo, Travis

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Lost Maples State Park

Time of activity

Male (April, May, October); female (April – May, October)

Habitat

(plants: bluebonnets, Indian paintbrush); (soil/woodland: brushy area, savanna with native grasses, Quercus buckleyi, Ulmus crassifolia)

Method

Beating [f]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Georgia, Athens

Etymology

locality (The specific name is a noun in apposition after the state of the type locality, Levi, 1976).

Collection

TAMU

Ocrepeira globosa (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904)

Ocrepeira globosa Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1993b: 75 [T], f, desc. (figs 36–40)

Wixia globosa F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904; Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Levi 1976: 382, f, desc. (figs 116–120)

Distribution

Brown, Dallas, Erath

Time of activity

Female (October – November)

Habitat

(plants: vegetation)

Method

suction trap [f]

Type

Mexico, Guerrero, Tepetlapa

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, globe or ball-like

Collection

MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Ocrepeira redempta (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936)

Ocrepeira redempta Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1993b: 84 [T], mf, desc. (figs 88–93)

Aranea redempta Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936; Gertsch and Mulaik 1936b: 18, f, desc. (fig. 39); Roewer 1942: 862

Araneus redemptus Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936; Bonnet 1955: 581; Vogel 1970b: 3

Neoscona redempta (Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936); Berman and Levi 1971: 499, f, desc. (figs 121–124)

Distribution

Hidalgo

Time of activity

Female (October)

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, October 10, 1935, C. Rutherford, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, redeemed

Genus Scoloderus Simon, 1887

Scoloderus nigriceps (O. P.-Cambridge, 1895)

Scoloderus nigriceps Bradley 2013: 100; Traw 1996: 64 [S], mf, desc. (figs 18–26)

Scoloderus cordatus (Taczanowski, 1879); Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1976: 386, mf, desc. (figs 126–136); Roth 1982: 11–2; Roth 1985: B-6–3, B-6–8; Roth 1994: 68

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo

Locality

Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Female (February, April)

Type

Mexico, Teapa

Etymology

Latin, markings on abdomen

Collection

TAMU

Genus Singa C. L. Koch, 1836

Singa eugeni Levi, 1972

Singa eugeni [Levi 1972: 236, mf, desc. (figs 25–34)]

Distribution

Jim Wells

Type

Wisconsin, Iowa Co.

Etymology

Person (The species is named after arachnologist Count Eugen Keyserling, Levi 1972).

Collection

MSU

Singa keyserlingi McCook, 1894

Singa keyserlingi [Levi 1972: 232, mf, desc. (figs 9–24)]

Distribution

Bee

Type

Missouri, St. Louis

Etymology

Person (The species is named after arachnologist Count Eugen Keyserling)

Collection

MSU

Singa sp.

Singa Brown 1974: 233; Jones 1936: 70; Rogers and Horner 1977: 523

Distribution

Nacogdoches, Rolling Plains

Habitat

(crops: guar); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [f])

Genus Verrucosa McCook, 1888

Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer, 1841)

Verrucosa arenata Brown 1974: 233; Jackman 1997: 161; Kaston 1978: 143, desc. (fig. 359); Levi 1976: 358, mf, desc. (figs 1–11); Lise et al. 2015: 11, mf, desc. (figs 8–38); Rapp 1984: 5; Roth 1982: 11–2; Roth 1985: B-6–6, B-6–11; Roth 1994: 69; Vogel 1970b: 4

Distribution

Eastern ½ Texas; Bastrop, Brazos, Galveston, Gonzalez, Grayson, Nacogdoches, Sabine, San Jacinto, Tyler, Walker

Locality

Buescher State Park, Galveston Island State Park, Kirby State Forest, Lick Creek Park, Palmetto State Park, Stubblefield Lake Recreation Area

Time of activity

Male (May – August); female (May – July, September – November)

Habitat

(littoral: near creek, salt marsh, sedge meadow); (nest/prey: mud dauber nest [mf]); (soil/woodland: beech-magnolia forest, tree, woods)

Method

Beating [m]; beating/sweeping [f]; Lindgren funnel trap [m]; malaise trap [m]

Type

Georgia

Etymology

Latin, sandy

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Genus Wagneriana F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1904

Wagneriana tauricornis (O. P.-Cambridge, 1889)

Wagneriana tauricornis Bradley 2013: 102; Jackman 1997: 161; Levi 1976: 370, mf, desc. (figs 57–73); Roth 1982: 11–2; Roth 1985: B-6–5, B-6–11; Roth 1994: 69

Distribution

Southeast and south Texas; Brooks, Cameron, DeWitt, Hidalgo

Locality

Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (July); female (September – November)

Habitat

(plants: miscellaneous vegetation); (soil/woodland: ebony-guayacan association)

Method

pitfall trap [f]; sweeping [m]

Type

Guatemala

Etymology

Latin, bull-horned

Collection

TAMU

Family Caponiidae Simon, 1890

Genus Orthonops Chamberlin, 1924

Orthonops lapanus Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940

Orthonops lapanus Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 324, mf, desc. (fig. 16); Jackman 1997: 161; Platnick 1995: 15, mf, desc. (figs 36–38); Richman et al. 2011a: 46; Vogel 1967: 32; Vogel 1970b: 5

Orthonops gertschi Chamberlin, 1928; Gertsch 1935a: 31; Roewer 1942: 316; Vogel 1970b: 5 [Texas records]

Distribution

Brewster, Hays, Hidalgo, Kerr, Presidio, Starr, Travis, Webb

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Big Bend Ranch State Park, Chihuahuan desert, Chisos Basin, Chisos Mountains, Dalquest Research Site, La Mesa Ranch, Raven Ranch

Caves

Travis (Dobie Shelter)

Time of activity

Male (January, June, August – November); female (January – February, May – June, August – December)

Habitat

(landscape features: under rock); (soil/woodland: Juniperus managed plot, leaf litter, upland deciduous forest)

Method

Flight intercept trap on ground [mf]; pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Texas (male, Starr Co., 3 miles E Rio Grande City, January 21, 1939, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Latin, with shorter legs

Collection

MSU, NMSU, TAMU, TMM

Genus Tarsonops Chamberlin, 1924

Tarsonops systematicus Chamberlin, 1924

Tarsonops systematicus Bond and Taylor 2013: 60; Comstock 1940: 305, desc.; Gertsch 1935a: 31, f (fig. 35); Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 324; Jackman 1997: 161; Ubick 2005a: 76 (fig. 18.10); Vogel 1970b: 5 [Chamberlin 1924b: 601, f, desc. (fig. 37)]

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo, Llano, Starr, Webb

Locality

Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (February – March); female (January – February, July, September – November)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: dense coastal brush)

Method

pitfall trap [m]

Type

Mexico, Sonora, San Pedro Bay

Etymology

Greek, systematic

Collection

TAMU

Family Clubionidae Wagner, 1887

Note. Species incorrectly reported from Texas

Clubiona johnsoni Gertsch, 1941; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 16 [not in Texas]

Clubiona plumbi Gertsch, 1941; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 16 [not in Texas]

Clubiona riparia L. Koch, 1866; Woods and Harrel 1976: 43; Young and Edwards 1990: 16 [not in Texas]

Genus Clubiona Latreille, 1804

Clubiona abboti L. Koch, 1866

Clubiona abboti Bonnet 1956: 1107; Breene et al. 1993c: 14, 47, 85, mf (figs 99A-B); Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Dean and Sterling 1987: 6; Dean and Sterling 1990: 405; Dondale and Redner 1982: 41, mf, desc. (figs 45–42–45, 47); Gertsch 1941b: 15, mf (figs 32–36); Henderson 2007: 61, 76, 79, 82; Jackman 1997: 161; Nyffeler et al. 1992c: 2; Vogel 1970b: 5

Clubiona abbotti L. Koch, 1866; Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 8, 16; Jones 1936: 69; Rapp 1984: 7; Young and Edwards 1990: 16

Clubiona abbotii abbotii L. Koch, 1866; Edwards 1958: 417, mf, desc. (figs 42–43, 83, 181–182, 236)

Clubiona abboti abboti L. Koch, 1866; Vogel 1970b: 5

Distribution

Brazos, Brewster, Burleson, Carson, Colorado, Comal, Dallas, Delta, Erath, Floyd, Freestone, Galveston, Goliad, Harris, Jefferson, Kerr, Liberty, Nueces, Orange, Robertson, Travis, Walker, Wichita

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Ellis Prison Unit, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lick Creek Park, Zilker Park

Time of activity

Male (January, May – December); female (February, April – December)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts); (grass: grass, grassland, grassy and shrub area); (littoral: near playa, near water); (orchard: pecan); (plants: Monarda citriodora); (soil/woodland: post oak woodland)

Method

cardboard band [mf]; D-Vac suction [mf]; fogging [f]; pitfall trap [mf]; suction trap [m]; sweeping

Type

Maryland, Baltimore

Etymology

Person (naturalist)

Collection

DMNS, MSU, TAMU

Clubiona adjacens Gertsch & Davis, 1936

Clubiona adjacens Bonnet 1956: 1108; Edwards 1958: 408, m, desc. (figs 54–55, 160); Gertsch 1941b: 8, m (figs 30–31); Gertsch and Davis 1936: 19, m, desc. (fig. 35); Jackman 1997: 161; Roewer 1955: 513; Vogel 1970b: 5

Distribution

Cameron

Time of activity

Male (May)

Type

Texas (male, Cameron Co., May 1–2, 1936, L. I. Davis, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Latin, species closely related to Clubiona abboti L. Koch, 1866

Clubiona catawba Gertsch, 1941

Clubiona catawba Dean and Eger 1986: 142; Dean and Sterling 1990: 405; Dean et al. 1988: 287; Dondale and Redner 1982: 53, mf, desc. (figs 68–71); Edwards 1958: 426, mf, desc. (figs 76–77, 92, 194, 244); Jackman 1997: 162; Vogel 1970b: 5

Distribution

Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Colorado, Gillespie, Goliad, Houston, Starr, Travis, Victoria, Walker

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Ellis Prison Unit, Lick Creek Park, South Padre Island

Time of activity

Male (May – October); female (January, April, August)

Habitat

(grass: dunes, grassland, pasture); (plants: bluebonnets); (soil/woodland: forest, live oak forest, post oak savanna, post oak savanna with pasture)

Method

pitfall trap [m]; suction trap [m]; sweeping [mf]

Type

Tennessee, Kingston

Etymology

Indian tribe

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Clubiona kagani Gertsch, 1941

Clubiona kagani Dean and Sterling 1990: 405; Edwards 1958: 425, f, desc. (figs 89, 200, 243); Gertsch 1941b: 6, f, desc. (fig. 16); Irungu 2007: 30; Jackman 1997: 162; Kagan 1942: 57 (desc.); Kagan 1943: 258; Roewer 1955: 515; Vogel 1967: 34; Vogel 1970b: 5; Young and Edwards 1990: 16

Distribution

Harris, Hidalgo, McLennan, Walker

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit

Time of activity

Female (March 30-April 5, July)

Habitat

(crops: cabbage, cotton)

Method

pitfall trap [f]; suction trap [f]

Type

Texas (female, McLennan Co., Riesel, July 26, 1940, M. Kagan, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (collector)

Collection

TAMU

Clubiona kiowa Gertsch, 1941

Clubiona kiowa Edwards 1958: 428, mf, desc. (figs 62–63, 90, 186, 245); Gertsch 1941b: 12, m, desc. (figs 23–24); Jackman 1997: 162; Pfannenstiel 2008a: 204; Roewer 1955: 515; Vogel 1967: 35; Vogel 1970b: 5

Distribution

Cameron, Colorado, Dallas, Hidalgo

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (April 28-May 5, June – August); female (April 28-May 5, May – June, August – September)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, soybean); (orchard: grapefruit, sour orange, tangerine)

Method

pitfall trap [mf]; sweeping [m]

Type

Texas (male, Dallas Co., Dallas, 1936, J. H. Robinson, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Indian tribe

Collection

TAMU

Clubiona maritima L. Koch, 1867

Clubiona maritima Dondale and Redner 1982: 35, mf, desc. (figs 38–41); Edwards 1958: 432 [S], mf, desc. (figs 131–133, 139, 180, 214); Jackman 1997: 162; Jones 1936: 69; Pfannenstiel 2008a: 204; Vogel 1970b: 5

Clubiona transversa Bryant, 1936; Bonnet 1956: 1161; Bryant 1936: 97, f, desc. (fig. 8); Jones 1936: 69; Roewer 1955: 518

Distribution

Archer, Cameron, Dallas, Hidalgo

Locality

White Rock Lake

Time of activity

Male (June); female (March, June)

Habitat

(crops: cotton)

Type

Virgin Islands, St. Thomas

Etymology

Latin, maritime

Collection

MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Clubiona pygmaea Banks, 1892

Clubiona pygmaea Dondale and Redner 1982: 34, mf, desc. (figs 34–37); Edwards 1958: 392, mf, desc. (figs 97–98, 135, 173, 226); Jackman 1997: 162; Vogel 1970b: 6

Distribution

Hidalgo

Type

New York, Ithaca, Fall Creek

Etymology

Latin, pygmy

Genus Elaver O. P.-Cambridge, 1898

Elaver chisosa (Roddy, 1966)

Elaver chisosa Brescovit et al. 1994: 36 [T]; Jackman 1997: 162

Clubionoides chisosa Roddy, 1966; Roddy 1966: 401, f, desc. (fig. 5); Vogel 1967: 36; Vogel 1970b: 6

Distribution

Brewster

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Chisos Basin, Chisos Mountains

Time of activity

Female (September)

Type

Texas (female, Brewster Co., Big Bend National Park, Chisos Mountains, September 28, 1950, W. J. Gertsch, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Chisos Mountains)

Elaver dorotheae (Gertsch, 1935)

1

Elaver dorotheae Brescovit et al. 1994: 36 [T, spelling]; Jackman 1997: 162

Clubiona dorothea Gertsch, 1935; Roewer 1955: 514

Clubiona dorotheae Gertsch, 1935; Bonnet 1956: 1122; Gertsch 1935b: 12, f, desc. (fig. 25)

Clubionoides dorothea (Gertsch, 1935); Edwards 1958: 381, mf, desc. (figs 22, 34–36, 208); Vogel 1970b: 6

Distribution

Hidalgo

Time of activity

Female (“September-December”)

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, September-December 1933, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (first name of collector’s wife, Dorothea)

Elaver excepta (L. Koch, 1866)

Elaver excepta Brescovit et al. 1994: 36 [T]; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Jackman 1997: 162; Yantis 2005: 200

Clubionoides excepta (L. Koch, 1866); Agnew et al. 1985: 8; Brown 1974: 233; Dondale and Redner 1982: 98, mf, desc. (figs 7, 178–181); Edwards 1958: 377, mf, desc. (figs 19, 31–33, 211); Vogel 1970b: 6

Elaver expecta (L. Koch, 1866); Trevino 2014: 11

Distribution

Bell, Brazos, Cameron, Comal, Denton, Erath, Gonzales, Harris, Hidalgo, Hunt, Kaufman, Kerr, Madison, Nacogdoches, Robertson, Sabine, Walker, Webb

Locality

Holmes Pecan Orchard, Huntsville State Park, Lake Tawakoni State Park, Lick Creek Park, Parson’s Slough, Riley Estate

Time of activity

Male (March – July, July 24-August 6, September – October); female (January, March – October)

Habitat

(grass: short grass, sandy-prairie grass, tall grass prairie); (littoral: sedge meadow); (orchard: pecan); (soil/woodland: beech magnolia forest, leaf litter, old field, post oak woods [%: 76], sandy area, sandy by water, tree, upland deciduous forest); (structures: bedroom ceiling, on [wall, wall in house])

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [f]; beating [f]; cardboard band [mf]; flight intercept trap on ground [m]; malaise trap [mf]; pitfall trap [m]

Type

Maryland, Baltimore

Etymology

Latin, to exclude

Collection

DMNS, MCZ, MSU, TAMU

Elaver mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935)

Elaver mulaiki Brescovit et al. 1994: 37 [T]; Jackman 1997: 162

Clubiona mulaiki Gertsch, 1935; Bonnet 1956: 1135; Gertsch 1935b: 11, mf, desc. (figs 22–24); Roewer 1955: 516

Clubionoides mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935); Edwards 1958: 379, mf, desc. (figs 20, 24–26, 207); Vogel 1970b: 6

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr

Locality

Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (September); female (February)

Habitat

(orchard: grapefruit)

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., 7 miles E Edinburg, February 8, 1935, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (collector)

Collection

TAMU

Elaver texana (Gertsch, 1933)

Elaver texana Brescovit et al. 1994: 37 [T]; Jackman 1997: 162

Clubiona texana Gertsch, 1933; Bonnet 1956: 1160; Gertsch 1933c: 7, f, desc. (fig. 16); Roewer 1955: 517

Clubionoides texana (Gertsch, 1933); Edwards 1958: 380, mf, desc. (figs 23, 27–30, 210); Rapp 1984: 7; Vogel 1970b: 6

Distribution

Cameron, Galveston, Hidalgo, Nueces, Starr

Locality

Frontera Audubon, Laguna Madre

Time of activity

Male (October); female (January)

Habitat

(orchard: grapefruit, orange)

Type

Texas (female, Cameron Co., Brownsville, January 3–11, 1928, Lutz, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (state)

Collection

TAMU

Family Corinnidae Karsch, 1880

Note. Phrurolithus, Phruronellus, Phrurotimpus and Scotinella transferred to Phrurolithidae (Ramírez 2014: 342). Meriola and Trachelas transferred to Trachelidae (Ramírez 2014: 342).

Note. Species incorrectly reported from Texas

Castianeira cingulata (C. K. Koch, 1842) [not in Texas]

Thargalia zonoria Hentz, 1847; Marx 1890: 514 [not in Texas]

Genus Castianeira Keyserling, 1879

Castianeira alteranda Gertsch, 1942

Castianeira alteranda Agnew et al. 1985: 4, 10; Jackman 1997: 162; Young and Edwards 1990: 16 [Reiskind 1969: 206, mf, desc. (figs 66–69, 83)]

Distribution

Brazos, Coryell, Erath, Knox, Williamson

Locality

Stiles Farm Foundation, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (May, July – September); female (May, July – August, September 28-October 5, October)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts); (soil/woodland: post oak savanna with pasture); (structures: indoors)

Method

pitfall trap [mf]

Eggs/spiderlings

Erath [29 eggs in eggsac] [TAMU]

Type

Montana, Hamilton

Etymology

Latin, similar in coloration and general appearance to Castianeira amoena (C. L. Koch, 1841)

Collection

FSCA, MSU, TAMU

Castianeira amoena (C. L. Koch, 1841)

Castianeira amoena Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Jackman 1997: 112, 162; Kaston 1972: 227, desc. (fig. 511); Kaston 1978: 218, desc. (fig. 557); Petrunkevitch 1911: 452; Reiskind 1969: 204 [S], mf, desc. (figs 70–73, 84–85); Richman et al. 2011a: 47; Yantis 2005: 66, 196, 199; Young and Edwards 1990: 16

Thargalia amoena C. L. Koch, 1847; Marx 1890: 513

Distribution

Eastern 2/3 Texas; Brazos, Comanche, Cooke, Coryell, Erath, Grimes, Hidalgo, Houston, Leon, Madison, Parker, Presidio, Robertson, Travis, Uvalde

Locality

Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Chihuahuan desert, Dalquest Research Site, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lick Creek Park, Riley Estate

Time of activity

Male (June – September, December); female (July – November)

Habitat

(crops: peanuts); (grass: grass); (orchard: pecan); (soil/woodland: leaf litter, pine woods [%: 74], post oak savanna with pasture, post oak woods [%: 60, 76, 80, 100], sandy area, woods, Ulmus crassifolia); (structures: in building, indoors)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [mf]; pitfall trap [mf] (in sand [m]) sweeping [f]; tile trap [m]

Eggs/spiderlings

Erath [21 eggs in eggsac] [TAMU]

Type

Carolina (of 1841)

Etymology

Latin, lovely

Collection

MSU, NMSU, TAMU

Castianeira crocata (Hentz, 1847)

Castianeira crocata Breene et al. 1993c: 13, 47, 83, mf (figs 92A-B); Jackman 1997: 112, 162; Reiskind 1969: 200, mf, desc. (figs 44–45, 56); Roberts 2001: 50 [male probably floridana (Banks, 1904)]; [Reiskind 1969: 201, m, desc. (figs 42–43, 59); page 200 – male of C. floridana probably very close to crocata]; [Reiskind 1981: 173, m (fig. 3)]

Distribution

Southeast and south Texas; Brazos, Burleson, Cameron, Clay, Colorado, Coryell, Kenedy, Lubbock, Montague, Potter, Williamson

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Kenedy Ranch, Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Stiles Farm Foundation, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Time of activity

Male (July 28-August 8); female (April – August)

Habitat

(crops: cotton); (soil/woodland: post oak savanna with pasture)

Method

pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, saffron-yellow

Collection

MSU, TAMU, TTU

Castianeira cubana (Banks, 1926)

Castianeira cubana Jackman 1997: 162; Reiskind 1969: 247 [S], mf, desc. (figs 216–219, 276)

Myrmecotypus cubanus Banks, 1926; Bonnet 1957: 3020; Bryant 1933: 190, f, desc. (pl. 4, figs 43, 45); Bryant 1940: 445; Comstock 1940: 592; Roewer 1955: 634

Distribution

Cameron, Kenedy

Locality

Kenedy Ranch, Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge

Time of activity

Male (April); female (October)

Habitat

(littoral: dense coastal brush, sand dune under live oak)

Method

Beating [f]; yellow pan trap [m]

Type

Cuba, Soledad

Etymology

locality (country)

Collection

TAMU

Castianeira descripta (Hentz, 1847)

Castianeira descripta Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Breene et al. 1993b: 647; Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 8, 16 (photo 15); Dondale and Redner 1982: 114, mf, desc. (figs 211–217); Jackman 1997: 112, desc., 162 (photo 34d); Kaston 1972: 226, desc. (fig. 508); Kaston 1978: 217, desc. (fig. 554); Reiskind 1969: 208, mf, desc. (figs 88–91, 121); Trevino 2014: 11; Vogel and Durden 1972: 1; Young and Edwards 1990: 16

Distribution

East, central, and south Texas; Archer, Brazos, Brown, Burleson, Cameron, Carson, Comanche, Coryell, Erath, Hays, Hidalgo, Kerr, Knox, Robertson, Tom Green (imm.), Travis, Webb, Wichita

Locality

Bill Haney Pecan Orchard, Holmes Pecan Orchard, NK Ranch, Pantex Lake (edge), Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (March – September); female (April – October)

Habitat

(crops: cotton, peanuts, sugarcane); (landscape features: rocks); (littoral: near playa); (orchard: pecan); (plants: miscellaneous vegetation); (soil/woodland: post oak savanna with pasture, sandy area); (structures: indoors, in lab)

Method

pitfall trap [mf] (in sand [f]); ramp trap [f]; sweeping [f]; tile trap [f]

Type

North Carolina

Etymology

Latin, descriptive

Collection

AMNH, DMNS, MSU, TAMU, TTU

Castianeira gertschi Kaston, 1945

Castianeira gertschi Breene et al. 1993c: 13, 47, 83, mf (figs 93A-C); Dean et al. 1982: 255; Dondale and Redner 1982: 109, mf, desc. (figs 196–200); Jackman 1997: 162; Kaston 1972: 226, desc. (fig. 510); Kaston 1978: 218, desc. (fig. 556); Reiskind 1969: 217, mf, desc. (figs 104–107, 120); Young and Edwards 1990: 16

Distribution

South Texas; Brazos, Hunt, Walker

Locality

Ellis Prison Unit

Time of activity

Male (July); female (February)

Habitat

(crops: cotton)

Method

pitfall trap [m]

Type

Connecticut, Indian Neck

Etymology

Person (arachnologist)

Collection

TAMU

Castianeira longipalpa (Hentz, 1847)

Castianeira longipalpa Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Cokendolpher et al. 2008: 16; Irungu 2007: 30; Jackman 1997: 112, 162; Platnick 2000 [spelling]; Trevino 2014: 11; Yantis 2005: 66, 196, 199

Castianeira longipalpus (Hentz, 1847); Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Breene et al. 1993c: 13, 47, 84, mf (figs 94A-C); Dean et al. 1982: 255; Reiskind 1969: 186, mf, desc. (figs 7–10, 50–53); Young and Edwards 1990: 16

Distribution

South Texas; Anderson, Archer, Bee, Bexar, Brazos, Burleson, Colorado, Comanche, Cooke, Coryell, Erath, Goliad, Hidalgo, Houston, Jeff Davis, Kenedy, Leon, Lubbock, Robertson, Walker, Webb, Wichita

Locality

Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Ellis Prison Unit, Goliad State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Kenedy Ranch, Nabor’s Lake, Somerville Lake, Texas A&M University Rangeland Area

Time of activity

Male (March – August, October); female (May – August, October – November)

Habitat

(crops: cabbage, cotton, peanuts); (grass: pasture); (littoral: near playa, sand dune area); (orchard: pecan); (plants: Compositae); (soil/woodland: pine woods [%: 60, 69, 74, 84], post oak savanna with pasture, post oak woods [%: 41, 92], sand dune area, sandy area); (structures: in [building, lab])

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [mf]; pitfall trap [mf] (in sand [m]); ramp trap [m]; tile trap [m]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, long neck on palp

Collection

FSCA, MSU, TAMU

Castianeira nanella Gertsch, 1933

Castianeira nanella Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Richman et al. 2011a: 48 [Reiskind 1969: 225, mf, desc. (figs 129–132, 149–150)]

Distribution

Brewster, Presidio

Locality

Chihuahuan desert, Dalquest Research Site

Method

pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Utah, Salt Lake City, City Creek Canyon

Etymology

Greek, dwarfish

Collection

MSU

Castianeira occidens Reiskind, 1969

Castianeira occidens Agnew et al. 1985: 4; Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Jackman 1997: 162; Richman et al. 2011a: 48; Trevino 2014: 11; Young and Edwards 1990: 16 [Reiskind 1969: 211, mf, desc. (figs 96–99, 113–115)]

Distribution

Brewster, Erath, Presidio, Webb, Wichita

Locality

Chihuahuan desert, Dalquest Research Site

Time of activity

Male (September); female (March)

Habitat

(crops: peanuts); (landscape features: under rock)

Method

pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Arizona, Lakeside

Etymology

noun, the West (The specific name is a noun in apposition meaning the West, Reiskind 1969).

Collection

FSCA, MSU

Castianeira peregrina (Gertsch, 1935)

Castianeira peregrina Jackman 1997: 162; Reiskind 1969: 251 [T], f, desc. (fig. 207)

Mazax peregrina Gertsch, 1935; Bonnet 1957: 2741; Gertsch 1935b: 15, f, desc. (fig. 30) [not male]; Vogel 1970b: 6

Apochinomma peregrinum (Gertsch, 1935); Roewer 1955: 608

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo

Time of activity

Female (February – March, November)

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., 5 miles S San Juan, February 22, 1935, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, pilgrim

Castianeira trilineata (Hentz, 1847)

Castianeira trilineata Agnew et al. 1985: 8; Dondale and Redner 1982: 104, mf, desc. (figs 182–186); Henderson 2007: 58, 76, 79, 82; Jackman 1997: 162 (photo 34a); Reiskind 1969: 219, mf, desc. (figs 108–110, 119)

Distribution

Central and southeast Texas; Brazos, Coryell, Erath, Hidalgo, Hunt, Montgomery, Robertson

Locality

Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lick Creek Park

Time of activity

Male (March – June, October); female (April – July, September)

Habitat

(grass: grass); (soil/woodland: disturbed habitat, leaf litter, post oak savanna with pasture, sandy area, woods); (structures: on floor in lab, sink in house)

Method

pitfall trap [mf]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, three horizontal light bands on abdomen

Collection

MSU, TAMU

Genus Falconina Brignoli, 1985

Falconina gracilis (Keyserling, 1891)

Falconina gracilis Bonaldo 2000: 79, mf, desc. (figs 36–38, 41–42, 63, 101, 215–228); Calixto et al. 2013: 181, 188–189; Henderson 2007: 61, 63, 65–66, 76, 79, 82; Irungu 2007: 30; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 77; Trevino 2014: 11; Ubick and Richman 2005a: 82; Yantis 2005: 200

Corinna sp.; Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Bexar, Brazoria, Brazos, Burleson, Colorado, Coryell, Fayette, Fort Bend, Goliad, Grimes, Harris, Hays, Henderson, Hidalgo, Polk, Robertson, San Patricio, Travis, Victoria, Washington, Webb, Williamson

Locality

5-Eagle Ranch, Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Brazos Bend State Park, Goliad State Park, Holmes Pecan Orchard, Lick Creek Park, NK Ranch, Somerville Lake, Stiles Farm Foundation, Welder Wildlife Refuge

Caves

Bexar (Crownridge Canyon Cave); Travis (Five Pocket Cave)

Time of activity

Male (January, January 26-February 22, March – November); female (January, March – November)

Habitat

(crops: cabbage, cotton); (grass: grassland); (landscape features: cave); (nest/prey: pocket gopher burrows); (orchard: pecan); (soil/woodland: buckeye-sycamore forest, Juniperus unmanaged plot, open field, post oak savanna with pasture, post oak woodland, post oak woods [%: 60], sandy area, upland woods); (structures: around house, bathroom floor, in house, indoors, on floor in house)

Method

5 gallon bucket trap [imm.]; cardboard band [mf]; flight intercept trap [m]; flight intercept trap on ground [m]; pitfall trap [mf]; tile trap [m]

Type

Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul

Etymology

Latin, slender

Collection

TAMU, TMM

Note

Ubick and Richman (2005a) noted that this species has been associated with Solenopsis invicta Buren, red imported fire ant, in Texas (page 82, Cokendolpher, pers. comm.). In a study in a post oak savanna with pasture habitat by Calixto (2008), a yearly total of Falconina and ants indicates that Falconina was most abundant in pitfall traps that contained the most S. invicta. Also the following ant genera were most abundant in traps with F. gracilis: Diplorhoptrum, Forelius, Monomorium, and Paratrechina. Two genera of ants, Brachymyrmex and Strumigenys, were only found in traps that contained the most F. gracilis. Both S. invicta and F. gracilis were more abundant in 2006 than 2007 at all three locations. More rain occurred in 2007 than 2006. Thanks to Alejandro Calixto for identifying the ants.

Genus Mazax O. P.-Cambridge, 1898

Mazax kaspari Cokendolpher, 1978

Mazax kaspari Cokendolpher 1978b: 230, mf, desc. (figs 1–7); Jackman 1997: 162; Ubick and Richman 2005a: 80

Distribution

Presidio

Time of activity

Male (March); female (March)

Habitat

(grass: grass along river)

Type

Texas (male, Presidio Co., 4 km W Lajitas, March 28, 1975, T. C. Kaspar, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (The specific name is in honor of the biologist Mr . T. C . Kaspar, who collected the type specimens, Cokendolpher 1978b).

Mazax pax Reiskind, 1969

Mazax pax Jackman 1997: 162; Reiskind 1969: 264 [S], mf, desc. (figs 233–236, 285); Roth 1982: 13–2; Ubick and Richman 2005a: 80

Mazax spinosa O. P.-Cambridge, 1898; Comstock 1940: 592

Distribution

Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr

Locality

Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Time of activity

Male (September)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: palm forest)

Method

Flight intercept trap on ground [m]

Type

Mexico, Tabasco, Teapa

Etymology

Latin, peace

Collection

TAMU

Genus Septentrinna Bonaldo, 2000

Septentrinna bicalcarata (Simon, 1896)

Septentrinna bicalcarata Bonaldo 2000: 85, mf, desc. (figs 229–233); Trevino 2014: 11; Ubick and Richman 2005a: 82

Distribution

Brewster, Hudspeth, Webb

Locality

Big Bend National Park, Guadalupe Pass, Signal Peak

Time of activity

Male (May); female (April – May)

Type

Arizona

Etymology

Latin, two-spurred

Collection

MSU

Family Ctenidae Keyserling, 1877

Genus Anahita Karsch, 1879

Anahita punctulata (Hentz, 1844)

Anahita punctulata Jackman 1997: 162; Peck 1981: 158 [T], mf, desc. (figs 1–4); Roth 1982: 14–1; Roth 1985: B-9–1; Roth 1994: 86; Sissom et al. 1999: 260, mf, desc.; Ubick and Dávilla 2005: 84

Ctenus punctulatus Hentz, 1844; Marx 1890: 567

Distribution

Harris (Houston), Tyler

Locality

Kirby State Forest

Time of activity

Male (April 27-May 8)

Method

Flight intercept trap on ground [m]

Type

Alabama

Etymology

Latin, minute white dots on abdomen

Collection

TAMU

Genus Ctenus Walckenaer, 1805

Ctenus valverdiensis Peck, 1981

Ctenus valverdiensis Jackman 1997: 162; Peck 1981: 164, f, desc. (figs 18–19); Sissom et al. 1999: 261, m, desc. (figs 3–5, 7–9)

Ctenus sp.; Reddell 1965: 170; Reddell 1970: 405

Distribution

Val Verde

Caves

Val Verde (Cave 8, Diablo Cave, East Gypsum Cave, Ladder Cave, Langtry East Gypsum Cave, Tarantula Cave)

Time of activity

Male (May, September); female (January, September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Val Verde Co., East Gypsum Cave, January 25, 1964, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, J. Porter, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (The specific name refers to the type locality, Peck 1981).

Collection

TMM

Genus Leptoctenus L. Koch, 1878

Leptoctenus byrrhus Simon, 1888

Leptoctenus byrrhus Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Cokendolpher 1993: 39; Gertsch 1935b: 24, mf (figs 56–60); Gertsch 1939b: 25; Jackman 1997: 162; Peck 1981: 166, mf, desc. (figs 20–21, 24–25); Polotow and Brescovit 2014: Appendix S1; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 77; Richman et al. 2011a: 47; Roth 1982: 14–1; Roth 1985: B-9–1; Roth 1994: 86; Sissom et al. 1999: 261, f, desc. (figs 1–2); Ubick and Dávilla 2005: 84

Ctenus byrrhus (Simon, 1888); Bonnet 1956: 1277; Comstock 1940: 569, desc.; Reddell 1965: 170 [part]; Vogel 1970b: 7

Distribution

Central and south Texas; Bandera, Bexar, Brewster, Cameron, Hidalgo, Kendall, Kerr, Medina, Presidio, Starr, Terrell, Val Verde

Locality

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park, Big Bend National Park, Chihuahuan desert, Chisos Basin, Chisos Mountains, Dalquest Research Site, Lost Maples State Park, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Sabal Palm Audubon Sanctuary

Caves

Bexar (Get A Rope Cave, Up the Creek Cave); Medina (Haby Bat Cave); Terrell (Longley Cave); Val Verde (Diablo Cave, Ladder Cave, Langtry East Gypsum Cave, Unnamed Cave No. 8)

Time of activity

Male (February 28-March 13, March 26-April 1, April – October); female (July – September, November)

Habitat

(grass: grass); (landscape features: cave, under rock); (soil/woodland: forest litter, palm forest, re-vegetated site, upland deciduous forest)

Method

carrion trap [m]; flight intercept trap on ground [m]; pitfall trap [mf]; yellow pan trap [m]

Type

Mexico

Etymology

Latin, red

Collection

MCZ, MSU, TAMU, TMM

Family Cybaeidae Banks, 1892

nomen dubium

Cybaeus austinensis (Chamberlin, 1924); Bonnet 1956: 1301; Bonnet 1958: 3339; Roewer 1955: 89; Roth and Brown 1986: 15

Parauximus austinensis Chamberlin 1924; Chamberlin 1924a: 2; Roth 1985: 10; Chamberlin and Ivie 1932: 7

Locality. Texas: Austin, R. V. Chamberlin, August, 1909

Note. Described in Dictynidae (Chamberlin 1924a: 2), transferred to Agelenidae (Chamberlin and Ivie 1932: 7), transferred to Cybaeidae (Brignoli 1983: 467). Listed as nomen dubium (Roth and Brown 1986: 15).

Family Dictynidae O. P.-Cambridge, 1871

These are federally endangered (US Fish and Wildlife Service 2010). All are from Bexar Co.

Cicurina baronia Gertsch, 1992 Robber Baron Cave

Cicurina madla Gertsch, 1992 Madla’s Cave

Cicurina venii Gertsch, 1992 Braken Bat Cave

Cicurina vespera Gertsch, 1992 Government Canyon Bat Cave

Note. species incorrectly reported from Texas

Emblyna altamira (Gertsch & Davis, 1942); Jackman 1997: 163 [not in Texas]

Dictyna altamira Gertsch & Davis, 1942; Vogel 1970b: 7

Dictyna crosbyi Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940; Roewer 1955: 1320 [not in Texas]

nomen nudum

Dictyna texana Banks, 1898; Banks 1910: 18; F. O. P.-Cambridge 1902: 359, errata [Texas record] [see Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958: 133, Dictyna iviei Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936]

Genus Argennina Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936

Argennina unica Gertsch & Mulaik, 1936

Argennina unica Bennett 2005a: 99; Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958: 17, f, desc. (pl. 2, fig. 10); Gertsch and Mulaik 1936a: 2, f, desc. (fig. 5); Gertsch and Mulaik 1940: 326; Jackman 1997: 162; Lehtinen 1967: 216; Roewer 1955: 1303; Roth 1982: 15–1; Roth 1985: B-11–1; Roth 1994: 89; Vogel 1970b: 7

Distribution

Hidalgo

Type

Texas (female, Hidalgo Co., Edinburg, spring 1933, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, singular

Genus Brommella Tullgren, 1948

Brommella lactea (Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1958)

Brommella lactea Brignoli 1983: 518 [T]; Jackman 1997: 162

Pagomys lactea Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1958; Chamberlin and Gertsch 1958: 16, f, desc.; Vogel 1967: 59; Vogel 1970b: 8

Distribution

Randall

Locality

Palo Duro Canyon

Time of activity

Female (December)

Type

Texas (female, Randall Co., Palo Duro Canyon, near Amarillo, December 1934, D. & S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, of milk

Genus Cicurina Menge, 1871

Note. transferred from Agelenidae to Dictynidae (Lehtinen 1967: 223)

Cicurina aenigma Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina aenigma Gertsch 1992: 94, f, desc. (figs 29–30); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Hays

Time of activity

Female (April)

Type

Texas (female, Hays Co., April 13, 1939, D. & S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, enigma, secret

Cicurina arcuata Keyserling, 1887

Cicurina arcuata Agnew et al. 1985: 7; Bonnet 1956: 1086; Jackman 1997: 162; Jones 1936: 69; Vogel 1970b: 2 [Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 63, mf, desc. (figs 46–47, 84–85)]

Distribution

Dallas, Erath

Time of activity

Female (March)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: under [log, log in woods], woods)

Type

United States

Etymology

Latin, an arch

Collection

TAMU

Cicurina armadillo Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina armadillo Gertsch 1992: 95, f, desc. (figs 33–34, chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Travis

Time of activity

Female (January)

Habitat

(nest/prey: armadillo nest)

Type

Texas (female, Travis Co., near Austin, January 8, 1948, Chelden, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Spanish, animal

Cicurina bandera Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina bandera Gertsch 1992: 111, f, desc. (figs 113–114); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 14, f, desc. (figs 8–9, 135)

Distribution

Bandera

Caves

Bandera (Fossil Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March, July)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bandera Co., Fossil Cave, July 23, 1966, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Named for Bandera County, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina bandida Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina bandida Culver et al. 2003: 463; Gertsch 1992: 107, f, desc. (figs 79–80); Jackman 1997: 162, 171; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 14 f, desc. (figs 10–11, 132); Paquin and Hedin 2005b: 2–7; Paquin and Hedin 2006: 165; Paquin et al. 2008: 142 [S], mf, desc. (figs 2–3, 4a–g, 5a)

Cicurina cueva Gertsch, 1992; Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 107, f, desc. (figs 81–82); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 22, f, desc. (figs 32–33, 132); Paquin and Hedin 2005b: 2–7

Cicurina reyesi Gertsch, 1992; Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 107, f, desc. (figs 85–86); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 41, f, desc. (figs 88–89, 132); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3254; Paquin and Hedin 2005b: 2, 4–7

Distribution

Travis

Caves

Travis (Airman’s Cave, Bandit Cave, Blowing Sink, Cave X, Driskill Cave, Flint Ridge Cave, Get Down Cave, Ireland’s Cave, Lost Gold Cave, Lost Oasis Cave, Maple Run Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March – June, September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Travis Co., Bandit Cave, May 26, 1966, J. Reddell, J. Fish, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (Specific name from Spanish bandido, bandit, named for Bandit Cave, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina baronia Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina baronia Cokendolpher 2004a: 38, f, desc. (figs 28–31); Federal Register 1998: 71855–71856, 71858, 71860, 71866; Federal Register 2000: 81419–81421, 81425, 81428, 81433; Federal Register 2002: 55064, 55066–55067, 55075, 55086–55087, 55089; Federal Register 2003: 17156, 17158, 17176, 17191, 17203; Gertsch 1992: 109, mf, desc. (figs 89–90, 155–156); Jackman 1997: 162, 171; NABN 2001: 8; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 15, f, desc. (figs 12–13, 134); Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 79; SWCA Environmental Consultants 2007: 3

Distribution

Bexar

Caves

Bexar (Robber Baron Cave)

Time of activity

Male (June, December); female (April)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., Robber Barron Cave, April 1969, R. Bartholomew, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Robber Baron Cave, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina barri Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina barri Culver et al. 2003: 463; Gertsch 1992: 117, f, desc. (figs 141–142); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 15, f, desc. (figs 14–15, 137)

Distribution

Sutton

Caves

Sutton (Caverns of Sonora [=Mayfield Cave])

Time of activity

Female (August)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Sutton Co., Caverns of Sonora, August 29, 1959, T. Barr, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Specific name for Thomas Barr, dean of American speleologists, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina blanco Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina blanco Gertsch 1992: 95, f, desc. (figs 7–8); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Blanco

Time of activity

Female (February)

Type

Texas (female, Blanco Co., 10 miles E Johnson City, February 23, 1986, S. J. Harden, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Spanish, white (refers to Blanco Co.)

Cicurina browni Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina browni Culver et al. 2003: 463; Gertsch 1992: 98, f, desc. (figs 53–54); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 16, f, desc. (figs 16–17, 130); Paquin and Hedin 2005b: 10; SWCA Environmental Consultants 2007: 1–2, 3–32

Distribution

Williamson

Caves

Williamson (Brown’s Cave)

Time of activity

Female (April)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Williamson Co., Brown’s Cave, April 23, 1989, W. Elliott, J. Reddell, M. Reyes, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Named for Brown’s Cave, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina brunsi Cokendolpher, 2004

Cicurina brunsi Cokendolpher 2004a: 38, f, desc. (figs 32–33); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 16, f, desc. (figs 18–19, 134); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 79

Distribution

Bexar

Locality

Camp Bullis

Caves

Bexar (Stahl Cave)

Time of activity

Female (November)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., Stahl Cave, Camp Bullis, November 1, 2001, J. R. Reddell & M. Reyes (molted December 14, 2001, August 2, 2002), holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (The specific name is honoring Dusty Bruns for his efforts in promoting cave research and sound cave management at Camp Bullis, Cokendolpher 2004a).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina bullis Cokendolpher, 2004

Cicurina bullis Cokendolpher 2004a: 39, f, desc. (figs 34–36); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 17, f, desc. (figs 20–21, 134); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 80

Distribution

Bexar

Locality

Camp Bullis

Caves

Bexar ([all Camp Bullis] Eagles Nest Cave, Hilger Hole, Isocow Cave, Platypus Pit, Root Canal Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March – April, November – December)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., Isocow Cave, Zone 3, Camp Bullis, March 2, 1994, W. Elliott & G. Veni, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (The specific name is a noun in apposition; taken from Camp Bullis, Cokendolpher 2004a).

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina buwata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1940

Cicurina buwata Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 74, immature, desc. (fig. 94); Cokendolpher 2004a: 32 [S], f, desc. (figs 19–20); Gertsch 1992: 78, 120; Hedin 2015: 348; Jackman 1997: 162; Nicholas 1960: 156; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 18, f, desc. (figs 22–23, 131); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253; Paquin and Hedin 2005b: 10; Reddell 1965: 169; Reddell and Finch 1963: 40; Roth and Brown 1986: 7; SWCA Environmental Consultants 2007: 1–2, 3–32; Vogel 1967: 7; Vogel 1970b: 2

Cicurina elliotti Gertsch, 1992; Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 101, f, desc. (figs 73–74); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Travis, Williamson

Caves

Travis (Backyard Cave, Cotterell Cave, Fossil Garden Cave, Gallifer Cave, McNeil Bat Cave); Williamson (Beck’s Sewer Cave, Bev’s Grotto, Buttercup River Cave, Good Friday Cave, McNeil Quarry Cave, Marigold Cave, Rattlesnake Filled Cave, Testudo Tube, T.W.A.S. A Cave, Underline Cave)

Time of activity

Female (January – June, August – September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (immature, Travis Co., cave near Austin, March 12–18, 1903, J. H. Comstock, type, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

undetermined

Collection

TMM

Cicurina caliga Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2001

Cicurina caliga Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 38, f, desc. (figs 1–2, 3A); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 19, f, desc. (figs 24–25, 129); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253

Distribution

Bell

Locality

Fort Hood

Caves

Bell ([all Fort Hood] Buchanan Cave, Streak Cave, Triple J Cave)

Time of activity

Female (May – June, November)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bell Co., Triple J Cave, November 1994, M. Warton, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, noun for army boot (army base)

Collection

TMM

Cicurina caverna Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina caverna Culver et al. 2003: 463; Gertsch 1992: 115, f, desc. (figs 131–132); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 19, f, desc. (figs 26–27, 137)

Distribution

Kimble

Caves

Kimble (Flemming’s Bat Cave)

Time of activity

Female (February)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Kimble Co., Flemming’s Bat Cave, February 21, 1964, W. H. Russell, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, a cavern

Collection

TMM

Cicurina coryelli Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina coryelli Cokendolpher 2004b: 61; Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 40, f, desc. (figs 3 B, 4–7); Gertsch 1992: 103, f, desc. (figs 71–72); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 22, f, desc. (figs 30–31, 129); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253

Distribution

Coryell

Locality

Fort Hood

Caves

Coryell ([all Fort Hood] Big Red Cave, Egypt Cave, Tippit Cave)

Time of activity

Female (January, April – May)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Coryell Co., Tippit Cave, January 31, 1992, J. Reddell, M. Reyes, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Coryell County, Texas, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina davisi Exline, 1936

Cicurina davisi Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 59, mf, desc. (figs 41, 83); Exline 1936: 18, f, desc. (fig. 24); Jackman 1997: 162; Roth and Brown 1986: 7; Vogel 1970b: 2

Distribution

Concho, Kerr, Llano

Locality

Raven Ranch

Time of activity

Male (December); female (December)

Type

Texas (female, Llano Co., December 1934, L. I. Davis, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Person (collector)

Cicurina delrio Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina delrio Gertsch 1992: 96, f, desc. (figs 21–22, chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 23, f, desc. (figs 34–35, 138)

Distribution

Val Verde

Locality

Ellison Brite Ranch

Caves

Val Verde (Cave No. 8, Diablo Cave, Sunset Cave)

Time of activity

Female (August, December)

Habitat

(landscape features: under rock); (objects: under rotting shirt)

Type

Texas (female, Val Verde Co., 12 miles NW Del Rio, Sunset Cave, December 14, 1962, J. Reddell, W. Russell, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Del Rio, Texas, used in apposition, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina dorothea Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina dorothea Gertsch 1992: 94 [S], f, desc. (figs 35–36); Jackman 1997: 162

Cicurina texana (Gertsch, 1935); Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 78, f, desc. (fig. 64) [part]; Vogel 1970b: 2

Cicurina minorata (Gertsch & Davis, 1936); Henderson 2007: 68, 76, 79, 82 [misidentified]

Distribution

Brazos, Kerr

Locality

Lick Creek Park, Raven Ranch

Time of activity

Female (August, September 17-October 20, December)

Habitat

(soil/woodland: post oak woodland)

Method

pitfall trap [f]

Type

Texas (female, Kerr Co., Raven Ranch, August 1939, D. & S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Specific name for Dorothea Mulaik, collector of many Texas spiders, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TAMU

Cicurina ezelli Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina ezelli Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 99, f, desc. (figs 61–62); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 23, f, desc. (figs 36–37, 133); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253

Distribution

Hays

Caves

Hays (Ezell’s Cave, Grapevine Cave)

Time of activity

Female (July, September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Hays Co., Ezell’s Cave, September 7, 1963, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, R. Ballinger, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Ezell’s Cave, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina gruta Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina gruta Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 117, f, desc. (figs 147–148); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 24, f, desc. (figs 38–39, 138 [sic 28–29])

Distribution

Edwards

Caves

Edwards (Dunbar Cave)

Time of activity

Female (September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Edwards Co., Dunbar Cave, September 29, 1956, W. McAlister, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Spanish, cave

Collection

TMM

Cicurina hexops Chamberlin & Ivie, 1940

Cicurina hexops Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 79, m, desc. (fig. 92); Gertsch 1992: 90, m, desc. (figs 49–50); Jackman 1997: 162; Roth and Brown 1986: 7; Vogel 1967: 7; Vogel 1970b: 2

Distribution

Tom Green

Time of activity

Male (December)

Type

Texas (male, Tom Green Co., Water Valley, December 1939, S. & D. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Latin, 6 eyes

Cicurina holsingeri Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina holsingeri Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 98, f, desc. (figs 57–58); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 24, f, desc. (figs 40–41, 138)

Distribution

Val Verde

Locality

Seminole Canyon State Park

Caves

Val Verde (Seminole Canyon Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Val Verde Co., Seminole Canyon State Park, March 4, 1983, W. R. Elliott, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named for Dr. John R. Holsinger of Old Dominion University, specialist on many cave animals, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina hoodensis Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2001

Cicurina hoodensis Cokendolpher 2004b: 61; Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 43, f, desc. (figs 3C, 10–11); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 25, f, desc. (figs 42–43, 129); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253

Distribution

Bell

Locality

Fort Hood

Caves

Bell ([all Fort Hood] Buchanan Cave, Camp 6 Cave No. 1, Peep in the Deep Cave, Talking Crows Cave, Treasure Cave, Triple J Cave)

Time of activity

Female (April – June, November)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bell Co., Buchanan Cave, May 7, 1998, L. J. Graves, J. Reddell & M. Reyes, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (This species is named for its occurrence on Fort Hood, Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b).

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina joya Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina joya Gertsch 1992: 96, f, desc. (figs 13–14, chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 80

Distribution

Comal

Caves

Comal (Brehmmer Cave, Heidrich’s Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Comal Co., Heidrich’s Cave, March 19, 1960, W. J. Gertsch, W. Ivie, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Spanish, jewel

Collection

TMM

Cicurina loftini Cokendolpher, 2004

Cicurina loftini Cokendolpher 2004a: 41, f, desc. (figs 37–39); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 27, f, desc. (figs 46–47, 134); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253; Paquin and Hedin 2005b: 10; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 80; White et al. 2009: 341

Distribution

Bexar

Caves

Bexar (Caracol Creek Coon Cave, SBC Cave)

Time of activity

Female (February, June)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., Caracol Creek Coon Cave, June 15, 1993, J. Loftin, J. R. Reddell, M. Reyes & G. Veni, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (The species is named after James Loftin of San Antonio, for his years of cave explorations, Cokendolpher 2004a).

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina machete Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina machete Gertsch 1992: 114, f, desc. (figs 125–126); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 28, f, desc. (figs 48–49, 130)

Distribution

San Saba

Caves

San Saba (Whiteface Cave)

Time of activity

Female (February)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, San Saba Co., Whiteface Cave, February 9, 1964, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, K. Garrett, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Spanish, cutlass

Collection

TMM

Cicurina madla Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina madla Cokendolpher 2004a: 42, f, desc. (figs 40–46); Federal Register 1998: 71855–71856, 71858, 71860, 71866; Federal Register 2000: 81419–81421, 81425, 81428, 81433; Federal Register 2002: 55064, 55066–55067, 55074– 55075, 55086–55087, 55089; Federal Register 2003: 17156, 17158, 17175–17176, 17190–17191, 17195; Gertsch 1992: 109, f, desc. (figs 91–92); Jackman 1997: 162, 171; NABN 2001: 8; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 28, f, desc. (figs 50–51, 134–135); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3253–3254; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 80; SWCA Environmental Consultants 2007: 3

Distribution

Bexar, Uvalde

Locality

Camp Bullis

Caves

Bexar (Christmas Cave, Headquarters Cave [Camp Bullis], Helotes Blowhole, Hills and Dales Pit, Logan’s Cave, Lost Pothole (=Lost Pot), Madla’s Cave, Madla’s Drop Cave, Robber’s Cave)

Time of activity

Female (February, June – July, September – October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., Madlas’s Cave, October 4, 1963, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Madlas’s Cave, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina marmorea Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina marmorea Gertsch 1992: 90, f, desc. (figs 11–12); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Burnet

Time of activity

Female (November)

Type

Texas (female, Burnet Co., 8 miles N Marble Falls, November 8, 1964, J. Reddell, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, marble for Marble Falls

Cicurina mckenziei Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina mckenziei Gertsch 1992: 115, f, desc. (figs 139–140); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 30, f, desc. (figs 54–55, 136)

Distribution

Bandera

Caves

Bandera (Fog Fissure)

Time of activity

Female (October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bandera Co., Fog Fissure, October 30, 1963, D. McKenzie, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named for David McKenzie, student of caves, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina medina Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina medina Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 117, m, desc. (figs 149–150); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 30, m, desc. (figs 56–57, 135)

Distribution

Medina

Caves

Medina (Boehme’s Cave)

Time of activity

Male (February)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (male, Medina Co., Boehme’s Cave, February 16, 1964, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, J. Porter, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

locality (Named for Medina County, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina menardia Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina menardia Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 98, mf, desc. (figs 59–60, 157–158); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 32, f, desc. (figs 58–59, 137)

Distribution

Menard

Caves

Menard (Powell’s Cave)

Time of activity

Male (September); female (September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Menard Co., Powell’s Cave, September 16, 1978, J. Reddell, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Menard County, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina microps Chamberlin & Ivie, 1940

Cicurina microps Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 77, mf, desc. (figs 61–62, 91); Gertsch 1992: 97, mf, desc. (figs 16, 51–52, chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162; Roewer 1955: 51; Roth and Brown 1986: 7; Vogel 1967: 8; Vogel 1970b: 2

Distribution

Kerr, McCulloch, Travis

Locality

Raven Ranch

Time of activity

Male (November – December); female (December)

Type

Texas (male, Kerr Co., Raven Ranch, December 16, 1939, D. & S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

Greek, small eyes

Collection

DMNS

Cicurina minorata (Gertsch & Davis, 1936)

Cicurina minorata Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 80, f, desc. (figs 63, 96); Cokendolpher 2004a: 46, f, desc. (figs 48–51); Gertsch 1992: 92 [T], f, desc. (fig. 15); Jackman 1997: 162; Roewer 1955: 51; Roth and Brown 1986: 7; Vogel 1970b: 2

Chorizomma minorata Gertsch & Davis, 1936; Gertsch and Davis 1936: 6, f, desc. (fig. 8)

Chorizomma minoratum Gertsch & Davis, 1936; Bonnet 1956: 1076

Distribution

Bexar

Time of activity

Female (December)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., San Antonio, December 1934, L. I. Davis, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, very small

Cicurina mirifica Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina mirifica Gertsch 1992: 88, f, desc. (figs 5–6, chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 32, f, desc. (figs 60–61, 137)

Distribution

Pecos

Caves

Pecos (Amazing Maze Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Pecos Co., Amazing Maze Cave, March 1, 1986, A. Cobb, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, wonder, amazing

Collection

TMM

Cicurina mixmaster Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2001

Cicurina mixmaster Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 41, f, desc. (figs 8–9); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 33, f, desc. (figs 62–63, 129); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3254

Distribution

Coryell

Caves

Coryell (Mixmaster Cave)

Time of activity

Female (November)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Coryell Co., Mixmaster Cave, November 5, 1998, J. Cokendolpher, J. Krejca, J. Reddell & M. Reyes, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Noun in apposition; referring to the type locality, Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b).

Cicurina modesta Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina modesta Gertsch 1992: 90, m, desc. (figs 45–46); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Kerr

Method

pitfall trap [m]

Type

Texas (male, Kerr Co., Camp Verde, no date, W. Rogers, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

Latin, modest

Cicurina neovespera Cokendolpher, 2004

Cicurina neovespera Cokendolpher 2004a: 47, f, desc. (figs 52–53); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 33, f, desc. (figs 64–65, 134); Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 80

Distribution

Bexar

Caves

Bexar (Elm Springs Cave [=Grubbs Cave ES], La Cantera Sink [=Grubbs Cave No. 23])

Time of activity

Female (October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., Elm Springs Cave, no date, A. G. Grubbs, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Greek, meaning new kin of Cicurina vespera Gertsch, 1992

Collection

TMM

Cicurina obscura Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina obscura Gertsch 1992: 113, f, desc. (figs 115–116); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 34, f, desc. (figs 66–67, 135)

Distribution

Bandera

Caves

Bandera (Sutherland Hollow Cave)

Time of activity

Female (August)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bandera Co., Sutherland Hollow Cave, August 4, 1974, S. Sweet, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, obscure

Collection

TMM

Cicurina orellia Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina orellia Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 105, f, desc. (figs 107–108); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 34, f, desc. (figs 68–69, 135)

Distribution

Real

Caves

Real (Orell Crevice Cave, Ramsey Bat Cave)

Time of activity

Female (August)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Real Co., Orell Crevice Cave, August 18, 1963, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Named for Orell Crevice Cave, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina pablo Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina pablo Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 105, f, desc. (figs 105–106); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 35, f, desc. (figs 70–71, 135)

Distribution

Uvalde

Caves

Uvalde (Pablo’s Cave)

Time of activity

Female (April)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Uvalde Co., Pablo’s Cave, April 5, 1963, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Pablo’s Cave, used in apposition, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina pampa Chamberlin & Ivie, 1940

Cicurina pampa Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 79, f, desc. (fig. 60); Cokendolpher 2004a: 48 [S], f, desc. (figs 54–60); Gertsch 1992: 90, f, desc. (figs 23–24); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3254; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 80; Roewer 1955: 51; Roth and Brown 1986: 8; Vogel 1967: 8; Vogel 1970b: 2

Cicurina gatita Gertsch, 1992; Gertsch 1992: 92, f, desc. (figs 27–28); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Bexar, Kendall

Locality

Camp Bullis

Caves

Bexar (Black Cat Cave, Cherry Hollow Cave (20b) [=Cave No. 19], Cross the Creek Cave [Camp Bullis], Karst Feature 471–4, Porcupine Squeeze Cave [=Grubs Cave No. 189], Stone Oak Parkway Pit, Up the Creek Cave [Camp Bullis], Vera Cruz Shaft [Camp Bullis])

Time of activity

Female (January – April, October – December)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Kendall Co., December 1939, D. & S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Spanish, grassy plain

Collection

TMM

Cicurina pastura Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina pastura Gertsch, 1992: 114, f, desc. (figs 123–124); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 35, f, desc. (figs 72–73, 136)

Distribution

Kerr

Caves

Kerr (Water Pond Pasture Cave)

Time of activity

Female (October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Kerr Co., Water Pond Pasture Cave, October 16, 1976, D. Pate, R. Fieseler, C. Yates, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, pasture

Collection

TMM

Cicurina patei Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina patei Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 113, f, desc. (figs 117–118); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 36, f, desc. (figs 74–75, 138)

Distribution

Val Verde

Caves

Val Verde (Fawcett’s Cave)

Time of activity

Female (April, August)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Val Verde Co., Fawcett’s Cave, August 8, 1987, D. Pate, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named for Dale Pate, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina platypus Cokendolpher, 2004

Cicurina platypus Cokendolpher 2004a: 51, f, desc. (figs 61–62); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 38, f, desc. (figs 76–77, 134); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3254; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 80

Distribution

Bexar

Locality

Camp Bullis

Caves

Bexar (MARS Pit [Camp Bullis], Platypus Pit)

Time of activity

Female (March, October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bexar Co., Platypus Pit, March 30, 1995, J. R. Reddell & M. Reyes, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (The specific name is a noun in apposition; taken from the type locality Platypus Pit, Cokendolpher 2004a).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina porteri Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina porteri Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 115, f, desc. (figs 133–134); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 38, f, desc. (figs 78–79, 138)

Distribution

Val Verde

Caves

Val Verde (Oriente Milestone Molasses Bat Cave)

Time of activity

Female (January)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Val Verde Co., Oriente Milestone Molasses Bat Cave, January 25, 1964, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, J. Porter, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named for John Porter, student of caves, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina puentecilla Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina puentecilla Gertsch 1992: 111, f, desc. (figs 99–100); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 39, f, desc. (figs 80–81, 134); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3254; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 81; White et al. 2009: 341

Distribution

Bexar, Comal

Caves

Bexar (B-52 Cave, Black Cat Cave); Comal (Natural Bridge Caverns)

Time of activity

Female (September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Comal Co., Natural Bridge Caverns, September 2, 1978, A. G. Grubbs, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Spanish, little bridge

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina rainesi Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina rainesi Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 117, f, desc. (figs 143–144); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 39, f, desc. (figs 82–83, 138)

Distribution

Edwards

Caves

Edwards (3-Bounce Pit)

Time of activity

Female (February, July)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Edwards Co., 3-Bounce Pit, February 1974, T. Raines, J. Lewis, R. Fieseler, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named for Terry Raines, student of caves, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina reclusa Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina reclusa Gertsch 1992: 111, f, desc. (figs 97–98); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 40, f, desc. (figs 84–85, 134); Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 81

Distribution

Comal

Caves

Comal (Kappelman Cave, Kappelman Salamander Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Comal Co., Kappelman Salamander Cave, March 15, 1964, W. Russell, J. Reddell, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, recluse

Collection

TMM

Cicurina riogrande Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940

Cicurina riogrande Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 76, f, desc. (figs 57–58); Gertsch 1992: 97, f, desc. (figs 3–4); Jackman 1997: 162; Roth and Brown 1986: 8; Vogel 1967: 9; Vogel 1970b: 2

Cicurina riogranda Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940; Roewer 1955: 52

Distribution

Starr

Time of activity

Female (January)

Type

Texas (female, Starr Co., 5 miles E Rio Grande City, January 12, 1939, S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (city)

Cicurina robusta Simon, 1886

Cicurina robusta Exline 1936: 20, mf, desc. (figs 21, 21a); Jackman 1997: 162; Vogel 1970b: 2 [Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 68, mf, desc. (figs 53, 87)]

Distribution

Travis

Type

Colorado

Etymology

Latin, hard, strong

Cicurina rosae Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina rosae Gertsch 1992: 94, f, desc. (figs 31–32); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

Kimble

Time of activity

Female (November)

Type

Texas (female, Kimble Co., 7 miles E Junction, November 19, 1967, R. Carpenter, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Specific name for Rose Carpenter, friend and collector of many Texas spiders, Gertsch 1992).

Cicurina rudimentops Chamberlin & Ivie, 1940

Cicurina rudimentops Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 76, f, desc. (fig. 59); Gertsch 1992: 95, f, desc. (figs 19–20, chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162; Roewer 1955: 52; Roth and Brown 1986: 8; Vogel 1967: 9; Vogel 1970b: 2

Distribution

Jim Wells

Time of activity

Female (December)

Type

Texas (female, Jim Wells Co., 17 miles N Alice, December 1939, D. & S. Mulaik, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, rudimentary eyes

Note

Duval is wrong county listed in Gertsch 1992

Cicurina russelli Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina russelli Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 107, f, desc. (figs 83–84); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 41, f, desc. (figs 90–91, 133)

Distribution

Hays

Caves

Hays (Boyett’s Cave)

Time of activity

Female (March)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Hays Co., Boyett’s Cave, March 30, 1963, J. Reddell, W. Russell, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named for William Russell, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina sansaba Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina sansaba Gertsch 1992: 114, mf, desc. (figs 127–128, 153–154); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 42, f, desc. (figs 92–93, 130)

Distribution

San Saba

Caves

San Saba (Gorman Cave, Lemons Ranch Cave)

Time of activity

Male (June); female (March, June)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, San Saba Co., Gorman Cave, March 15, 1963, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (Specific name for San Saba County, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina selecta Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina selecta Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 105, f, desc. (figs 111–112); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 42, f, desc. (figs 94–95, 135)

Distribution

Uvalde

Caves

Uvalde (Sandtleben Cave [=Davy Crockett Cave])

Time of activity

Female (October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Uvalde Co., Sandtleben Cave, October 18, 1964, J. Reddell, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Latin, to choose

Collection

TMM

Cicurina serena Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina serena Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 105, f, desc. (figs 109–110); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 43, f, desc. (figs 96–97, 135)

Cicurina sheari Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina sheari Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 115, f, desc. (figs 135–136); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 44, f, desc. (figs 98–99, 136)

Distribution

Real

Caves

Real (Ramsey Bat Cave)

Time of activity

Female (October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Real Co., Ramsey Bat Cave, October 2, 1976, D. Pate, R. Hemperly, K. Heuss, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Named for William A. Shear, student of spider behavior and evolution, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina sintonia Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina sintonia Gertsch 1992: 95, mf, desc. (figs 25–26, 47–48, chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162

Distribution

San Patricio

Time of activity

Male (November); female (November)

Type

Texas (female, San Patricio Co., Sinton, November 20, 1959, H. E. Laughlin, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Sinton, Texas, Gertsch 1992).

Cicurina sprousei Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina sprousei Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 113, f, desc. (figs 119–120); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 44, f, desc. (figs 100–101, 136)

Distribution

Bandera, Bexar, Travis, Williamson

Caves

Bandera (Station “C” Cave)

Time of activity

Female (June, August – October)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bandera Co., Station “C” Cave, September 4, 1988, P. Sprouse, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Specific name for Peter Sprouse, student of caves, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM, TTU

Cicurina stowersi Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina stowersi Gertsch 1992: 113, f, desc. (figs 121–122); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 46, f, desc. (figs 102–103, 136)

Distribution

Kerr

Caves

Kerr (Stowers Cave)

Time of activity

Female (May)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Kerr Co., Stowers Cave, May 3, 1969, R. Bartholomew, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Stowers Cave, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina suttoni Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina suttoni Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 115, mf, desc. (figs 137–138, 151–152); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 46, f, desc. (figs 104–105, 137)

Distribution

Sutton

Caves

Sutton (Felton Cave)

Time of activity

Male (October); female (July)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave, rotting root in cave)

Type

Texas (female, Sutton Co., Felton Cave, July 4, 1964, J. Reddell, holotype, AMNH)

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Sutton County, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina texana (Gertsch, 1935)

Cicurina texana Calixto et al. 2013: 181; Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 78, m, desc. (fig. 90) [part – not f, fig. 64, see C. dorothea]; Gertsch 1992: 92 [T], m, desc. (figs 43–44); Jackman 1997: 162; Roewer 1955: 53; Roth and Brown 1986: 8; Vogel 1970b: 2

Chorizomma texana Gertsch, 1935; Gertsch 1935a: 15, m, desc. (figs 36–37); Vogel 1970b: 2

Chorizomma texanum Gertsch, 1935; Bonnet 1956: 1077

Distribution

Llano, Robertson

Locality

Holmes Pecan Orchard

Time of activity

Male (October, December)

Habitat

(orchard: pecan)

Method

pitfall trap [m]

Type

Texas (male, Llano Co., Llano, December 1934, L. I. Davis, holotype, AMNH)

[female unknown]

Etymology

locality (state)

Collection

TAMU

Cicurina travisae Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina travisae Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 101, f, desc. (figs 63–70); Hedin 2015: 348, 354 [S]; Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 47, f, desc. (figs 106–107, 131); Paquin and Hedin 2005b: 10; SWCA Environmental Consultants 2007: 1–2, 3–32

Cicurina reddelli Gertsch, 1992; Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 105, f, desc. (figs 77–78); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 40, f, desc. (figs 86–87, 131); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3254

Cicurina wartoni Gertsch, 1992; Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 101, f, desc. (figs 75–76); Jackman 1997: 162, 171; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 55, f, desc. (figs 122–123–131)

Distribution

Travis, Williamson

Caves

Travis (Amber Cave, Broken Arrow Cave, Cotterell Cave, Kretschmarr Cave, Kretschmarr Double Pit, McDonald Cave (=Schulze Cave), North Root Cave, Pickle Pit, Pisarowicz Cave, Root Cave, Salamander Cave, Spider Cave, Tooth Cave); Williamson (Testudo Cave)

Time of activity

Female (January – June, August, December)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Travis Co., Tooth Cave, August 5, 1963, J. Reddell, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Specific name for Mrs. Nevenna Tsanoff Travis, tireless sponsor for preservation of caves, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina troglobia Cokendolpher, 2004

Cicurina troglobia Cokendolpher 2004b: 60, f, desc. (figs 1–3); Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 47, f, desc. (figs 108–109, 130); Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3254

Cicurina spp.; Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 37

Distribution

Bell

Caves

Bell (Seven Mile Mountain Cave)

Time of activity

Female (June)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Bell Co., Seven Mile Mountain Cave, June 28, 2000, J. Reddell, M. Reyes, molted to maturity July 14, 2001, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Greek, cave and life

Collection

TTU

Cicurina ubicki Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina ubicki Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 109, f, desc. (figs 87–88); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 48, f, desc. (figs 110–111, 133)

Distribution

Hays

Caves

Hays (Fern Cave, McGlothlin Cave)

Time of activity

Female (May, September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Hays Co., Fern Cave, September 2, 1989, D. Ubick, S. Fend, S. Renkes, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

Person (Specific name for Darrell Ubick, collector of many cave spiders, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina uvalde Gertsch, 1992

Cicurina uvalde Culver et al. 2003: 464; Gertsch 1992: 103, f, desc. (figs 101–102); Jackman 1997: 162; Paquin and Dupérré 2009: 48, f, desc. (figs 112–113, 135)

Distribution

Uvalde

Caves

Uvalde (Rambie’s Cave)

Time of activity

Female (April, August – September)

Habitat

(landscape features: cave)

Type

Texas (female, Uvalde Co., Rambie’s Cave, April 6, 1963, J. Reddell, D. McKenzie, holotype, AMNH)

[male unknown]

Etymology

locality (Specific name for Uvalde County, Gertsch 1992).

Collection

TMM

Cicurina varians Gertsch & Mulaik, 1940

Cicurina varians Barr and Reddell 1967: 260; Broussard and Horner 2006: 253; Chamberlin and Ivie 1940: 57, mf, desc. (figs 42, 82, 93, 95); Cokendolpher 2004a: 33, f (figs 12, 21–27); Cokendolpher and Polyak 2004: 189; Cokendolpher and Reddell 2001b: 44; Gertsch 1992: 81, (chart 1); Jackman 1997: 162; Kunath and Smith 1968: 37–38, 44, 80, 103; McKenzie and Reddell 1964: 7, 15, 22, 47, 49; Paquin and Hedin 2004: 3255; Reddell 1964: 7, 11, 33–35, 38, 41; Reddell 1965: 169; Reddell 1967: 14, 23, 26–27, 50, 54; Reddell 1970: 404; Reddell 1973: 29, 56, 69, 79, 111, 115; Reddell 1994: 6; Reddell and Cokendolpher 2004: 82; Reddell and Finch 1963: 8–9, 21, 25, 28, 30, 40–41, 43, 48, 50, 53–54; Reddell and Smith 1965: 20, 33, 46; Richman et al. 2011a: 47; Roberts 2001: 49; Smith and Reddell 1971: 21, 24–25, 29, 31, 41; Vogel 1967: 9; Vogel 1970b: 2; White et al. 2009: 341; Yantis 2005: 196

Distribution

Widespread in caves; Anderson, Bandera, Bee, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Brewster, Burnet, Cherokee, Childress, Comal, Concho, Coryell, Crockett, Culberson, Dallas, Edwards, Gillespie, Hardeman, Hays, Irion, Jeff Davis, Jim Wells, Kendall, Kerr, Kimble, King, Kinney, Lampasas, Llano, Mason, Medina, Menard, Pecos, Potter, Presidio, Randall, Real, San Saba, Schleicher, Sutton, Terrell, Travis, Uvalde, Val Verde, Wheeler, Wichita, Williamson

Locality

Camp Bullis, Chihuahuan desert, Dalquest Research Site, Fort Hood, Lost Maples State Park, Raven Ranch, Wildcat Bluff Nature Center

Caves

Bandera (Emmett Wilson Cave, Fog Fissure, Fossil Cave, Garrison Hilltop Cave, Station “C” Cave No. 1); Bell (Adam’s Gold Mine, Black Cave, Camp 6 Cave No. 1 [Fort Hood], Figure 8 Cave [Fort Hood], Fools Cave [Fort Hood], Gnarla Cave [Fort Hood], Hill’s Cave, Jagged Walls Cave [Fort Hood], Moffatt Pit Cave [Fort Hood], Nolan Creek Cave [Fort Hood], Price Pit Cave [Fort Hood], Root Sink [Fort Hood], Rugger’s Rift Cave, Sledgehammer Cave [Fort Hood], Sparta Cave [Fort Hood], Streak Cave [Fort Hood], Talking Crows Cave [Fort Hood], Tres Dedos Cave [Fort Hood], Valentine Cave [Fort Hood], Viper Den Cave [Fort Hood]); Bexar (Assassin Cave, B-52 Cave [Camp Bullis], Banzai Mud Dauber Cave [Camp Bullis], Bear Cave, Black Cat Cave, Boneyard Pit [Camp Bullis], Breached Dam Cave, Bunny Hole [Camp Bullis], Caracol Creek Coon Cave, Constant Sorrow Cave, Cross the Creek Cave [Camp Bullis], Dangerfield Cave [Camp Bullis], Dirtwater Cave, Dogleg Cave [Camp Bullis], Eagles Nest Cave [Camp Bullis], Friesenhahn Cave, Glinn’s Gloat Hole [Camp Bullis], Goat Cave [Government Canyon State Natural Area], Government Canyon Bat Cave [Government Canyon State Natural Area], Han’s Grotto, Headquarters Cave [Camp Bullis], Hector’s Hole [Camp Bullis], Hilger Hole [Camp Bullis], Hills and Dales Pit, Hitzfelder’s Bone Hole [=Hitzfelder Cave], Hold Me Back Cave [Camp Bullis], Hornet’s Last Laugh Pit, Isocow Cave [Camp Bullis], Isopit, Kamikazi Cricket Cave, Lone Gunman Pit [Camp Bullis], Low Priority Cave [Camp Bullis], MARS Shaft [Camp Bullis], Madla’s Cave, Mattke Cave, Max and Roberts Cave, Niche Cave, One Formation Cave [Government Canyon State Natural Area], Peace Pipe Cave, Platypus Pit [Camp Bullis], Porcupine Parlor Cave, Raging Cajun Cave [=Rajin’ Cajun Cave], Robber Baron Cave, Robbers Cave, Root Canal Cave [Camp Bullis], Some Monk Chanted Evening Cave, Stevens Ranch Cave No. 1, Stone Oak Parkway Pit, Strange Little Cave [Camp Bullis], Sunless City Cave, Tall Tales Cave, Twin Pits, Up the Creek Cave [Camp Bullis], Vera Cruz Shaft [Camp Bullis], Well Done Cave, Winston’s Cave [Camp Bullis], Wurzbach Bat Cave); Blanco (Davis Blowout Cave, Llewellyn Cave, T Cave); Brewster (O.T.L. Cave, Split Tank Cave); Burnet (Beaver Creek Bat Cave, Crossing Cave, Duncan’s Flea Cave, Fenceline Sink, Longhorn Caverns, Marble Falls Cave No. 3, Persimon Sink, Pie Cave, Porcupine Cave, Shin Oak Sink, Simon Says Sink No. 2, Simons 1174 Sink, Simons Rattlesnake Well, Simons Squeeze-Down Pit, Simons Squirm-Around Cave, Snake Pit Sink, Snelling’s Cave, Tree Ladder Sink, Wagon Trail Cave); Childress (Black Hand Cave, Buzzard Wall Cave); Comal (Bear Creek Cave, Bracken Bat Cave, Brehmmer-Heidrich Cave, Camp Bullis Cave No. 3, Coreth Bat Cave, Deepwater Cave, Ebert Cave, Fischer Cave, Hitzfielder’s Cave, Kappelman Cave, Kappelman Salamander Cave, Klar’s Cave, Lewis Cave, Little Gem Cave, Natural Bridge Caverns, Startzville Bat Cave, Washington Cave, Wyley’s Cave); Coryell (Brokeback Cave [Fort Hood], Chigiouxs’ Cave [Fort Hood], Copperhead Cave No. 2 [Fort Hood], Diamond Cave, Egypt Cave [Fort Hood], Gann Cave [Fort Hood], Mixmaster Cave [Fort Hood], Oxygen Bottle Cave, Rocket River Cave System (Double Tree Cave, Rocket River Cave) [Fort Hood], Rocke