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Research Article
Ectomyelois Heinrich, 1956 in China, with descriptions of two new species and a key (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae)
expand article infoYingdang Ren, Linlin Yang
‡ Henan Academy of Agricultural Science, Zhengzhou, China
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Abstract

Only three species belonging to the genus Ectomyelois Heinrich, 1956 are recorded from China, of which two species, E. bipectinalis sp. n. and E. furvivena sp. n. are described as new. We discuss the status of Ectomyelois that has been treated as a junior synonym by previous authors; we treat it as a valid genus, revised status, based on characters of the venation and female genitalia. Photographs of the adults and illustrations of the genitalia are given, along with a key to the three known Chinese species.

Keywords

Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae, Ectomyelois, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, new species, key, China

Introduction

Ectomyelois was established by Heinrich (1956) with Myelois decolor Zeller, 1881 as the type species. It is a small genus consisting of six species: E. ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839), E. decolor (Zeller, 1881), E. furvidorsella (Ragonot, 1888), E. muriscis (Dyar, 1914), E. zeteki Heinrich, 1956, and E. austrella Neunzig & Goodson, 1992. Most are Neotropical, but E. ceratoniae also occurs in the Oriental region. All but one species was described in detail by Heinrich (1956). Ectomyelois was once treated as a junior synonym of Spectrobates Meyrick by Roesler (1968) and subsequently of Apomyelois Heinrich by Roesler & Küppers (1981). A few authors followed these treatments (e.g. Neunzig 1979; Roesler 1983; Heppner and Inoue 1992; Leraut 2002), but most authors (Munroe 1983; Inoue 1982; Palm 1986; Sinev 1986; Goater 1986; Neunzig 1990; Balinsky 1994; Yamanaka 2013) treated Ectomyelois as a valid genus. Indeed, there is little to separate Ectomyelois from Apomyelois in the male genitalia, but the two genera can be distinguished by the venation and the different place of inception of the ductus seminalis from the corpus bursae in the female genitalia. Here, we agree that Ectomyelois, revised status, does indeed represent a valid genus.

Ectomyelois was only represented by the common carob moth E. ceratoniae in China before this study. Herein the three species are described, including two new species: Ectomyelois bipectinalis sp. n. and E. furvivena sp. n.

Material and methods

Genitalia dissections were carried out following the methods described by Li (2002). The photographs of the adults and venation were taken with a Leica M205A, and photographs of the genitalia and details of head were taken with a Leica DM750, with Leica Application Suite 4.2 software to capture images. All the specimens examined are deposited in NKUM unless otherwise noted.

Abbreviations

BMNH Natural History Museum, London, UK

HAASM Insect Collection, Institution of Plant Protection, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, China

NKUM Insect Collection, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A.

ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde, Universität Humboldt, Invalidenstrasse 43, 104 Berlin, Germany

TD Type depository

TL Type locality

Systematic part

Ectomyelois Heinrich, 1956

Ectomyelois Heinrich, 1956: 43. Type species: Myelois decolor Zeller, 1881, by original designation.

Diagnosis

Antenna of male usually shortly ciliate (bipectinate in E. bipectinalis sp. n.), basal shaft without notch or other modifications, of female simple. Labial palpus upturned, nearly reaching apex, third segment distinctly shorter than second. Forewing with R2 closely approximate to the stalk of R3+4+R5, M2 and M3 stalked for less than half of their length. Hindwing with Sc + R1 and Rs strongly anastomosed for most of their lengths, M2 and M3 stalked for not over half of their length. Male genitalia with uncus subtriangular to bell-shaped, apical projection of gnathos simple, slightly bent and furcated at apex, transtilla well developed, juxta U-shaped, with lateral lobes stout, vinculum U-shaped, more truncate and less tapering, phallus without cornutus. Female genitalia with signum consisting of an elongate patch of scobinations (absent in E. furvidorsella) and ductus seminalis from corpus bursae near junction of corpus bursae and ductus bursae.

Ectomyelois is similar to Apomyelois, but can be distinguished from the latter by the forewing with R2 closely approximate to the stalk of R3+4+R5, and the female genitalia with the ductus seminalis arising from the corpus bursae near junction of the corpus bursae and ductus bursae. In Apomyelois, the forewing with R2 shortly stalked with R3+4+R5, and the female genitalia with the ductus seminalis arising from anterior end of the corpus bursae.

Distribution

China (Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan), India, Sri Lanka, Sikkim, Israel, Mediterranean, Central Europe, Norway, United Kingdom, North Africa, Australia, Argentina, United States, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Bahamas, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Guiana, Surinam, Bolivia, Guyana, French Guiana, Brazil.

Key to species of Ectomyelois from China

1 Forewing with narrow grayish white, distinctly notched antemedial line (Fig. 1) E. ceratoniae
Forewing with antemedial line invisible 2
2 Male flagellum bipectinate (Fig. 3b); transtilla trefoiled (Fig. 7); corpus bursae three times as long as wide (Fig. 11) E. bipectinalis sp. n.
Male flagellum simple, not bipectinate (Fig. 5b); transtilla inverse-goblet shape (Fig. 9); corpus bursae twice as long as wide (Fig. 12) E. furvivena sp. n.
Figures 1–6.

Adults of Ectomyelois spp. 1 E. ceratoniae, male (1a, head; 1b, antenna) 2 E. ceratoniae, venation, slide No. RYD04529w 3 E. bipectinalis sp. n., paratype, male (3a head 3b antenna) 4 E. bipectinalis sp. n., venation, slide No. RYD04718w 5 E. furvivena sp. n., paratype, male (5a head 5b antenna) 6 E. furvivena sp. n., venation, slide No. RYD04529w. Scale bars: 2.0 mm.

Figures 7–9.

Male genitalia of Ectomyelois spp. 7 E. ceratoniae, slide No. LJY10595 8 E. bipectinalis sp. n., paratype, slide No. RYD04718 9 E. furvivena sp. n., paratype, slide No. LHX14084. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839)

Figs 1, 2, 7, 10

Myelois ceratoniae Zeller, 1839: 176. TL: Laibach, Austria. TD: BMNH.

Phycis ceratoniella Fischer von Röeslerstamm, 1839: 147. TL: Laibach, Austria. TD: unknown.

Trachonitis pryerella Vaughan, 1870: 130. TL: London, England. TD: BMNH.

Myelois tuerckheimiella Sorhagen, 1881: 103. TL: Berlin, Germany. TD: ZMHB.

Euzophera zellerella Sorhagen, 1881: 104. TL: Berlin, Germany. TD: unknown.

Phycita dentilinella Hampson, 1896: 91. TL: Manipur, India. TD: BMNH.

Hypsipyla psarella Hampson, 1903: 30. TL: Sikhim, India. TD: BMNH.

Heterographis rivularis Warren & Rothschild, 1905: 31. TL: Nakheila, Sudan. TD: unknown.

Myelois oporedestella Dyar, 1911: 30.TL: Florida, USA. TD: USNM.

Myelois phoenicis Durrant, 1915: 303. TL: Constantine, Algeria. TD: BMNM.

Laodamia durandi Lucas, 1950:142. TL: Tunisia. TD: unknown.

Apomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller): Roesler and Küppers 1981: 80.

Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller): Heinrich 1956: 44.

Material examined

CHINA: Guangdong: 9 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Mt. He (22°45'N, 112°57'E), 09−10-X-2002, coll. Guilin Liu & Binglan Zhang, gen. slide nos. RYD04529m, RYD04530f; 1 ♂, same data as former except dated 6-XI-2002. Guangxi: 1 ♀, Milv (21°59'N, 107°52'E), Nanping, Shangsi, 770 m, 3-IV-2002, coll. Shulian Hao & Huaijun Xue, gen. slide no. RYD04658; 1 ♂, Yachang Yard, Leye County (24°47'N, 106°33'E), 665 m, 24-VII-2004, coll. Jiasheng Xu, gen. slide no. KDH05263; 1 ♀, Longrui (22°45'N, 110°55'E), 18-VIII-2011, coll. Muchun Cheng, gen. slide no. RYD20120185 (deposited in HAASM); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Nonggang (23°14'N, 108°10'E), 20-VIII-2011, coll. Dandan Zhang, gen. slide no. RYD2014237 (deposited in HAASM). Hainan: 1 ♂, Mt. Diaoluo (18°39'N, 109°54'E), 29-V-2007, 80 m, coll. Zhiwei Zhang & Weichun Li, gen. slide no. LJY10595. Yunnan: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Ganlanba (22°45'N, 101°08'E), Xishuangbanna, 19-IV-1995, coll. Guangyun Yan, gen. slide nos. RYD04615m, LJY10107f; 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀, Mt. Yunpan (23°44'N, 100°39'E), Puer, 1600 m, 6-VII-2013, coll. Linlin Yang, gen. slide nos. RYD2014219m, RYD2014221f (deposited in HAASM).

Diagnosis

Wingspan 15.0−22.00 mm (Fig. 1). Ectomyelois ceratoniae can be recognized by the following characters: the forewing with a narrow, distinctly notched antemedial line, the hindwing with free element of Sc+R1 very short (Fig. 2); the uncus is bell-shaped, basally protruded on both sides, the apical projection of gnathos is stout, gently curved, about same length of the uncus, the trefoiled transtilla includes a pair of inflated bases and a more constricted central projection, the basally rectangular juxta with a pair of stout lateral lobes in the male genitalia (Fig. 7); and the ovate corpus bursae with signum is an elongate patch of scobinations, the ductus seminalis from junction of corpus and ductus bursae in the female genitalia (Fig. 10). It is quite similar to E. bipectinalis sp. n., but with differences as mentioned in the diagnosis of the latter.

Figures 10–12.

Female genitalia of Ectomyelois spp. 10 E. ceratoniae, slide No. RYD04658 11 E. bipectinalis sp. n., paratype, slide No. LJY10107 12 E. furvivena sp. n., paratype, slide No. RYD04744. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan), Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Sikkim, Israel, Mediterranean, Central Europe, Norway, United Kingdom, North Africa, Australia, Argentina, United States, Puerto Rico, Jamaica.

Ectomyelois bipectinalis sp. n.

Figs 3, 4, 8, 11

Type material

Holotype ♂, CHINA: Guanping (22°14'N, 100°53'E), Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, 1200 m, 19-VIII-2005, coll. Yingdang Ren. Paratypes: Fujian: 2 ♀♀, Mt. Tianzhu (24°35'N, 117°55'E), 220 m, 8,14-IX-2010, coll. Yinghui Sun & Jing Zhang. Gansu: 1 ♂, Fanba (32°44'N, 105°07'E), Wenxian, 718 m, 18-VII-2005, coll. Haili Yu, gen. slide no. RYD04745. Guangxi: 1 ♂, Yachang Yard, Leye County (24°47'N, 106°33'E), 665 m, 24-VII-2004, coll. Jiasheng Xu; 1 ♂, Mt. Yuanbao (25°14'N, 109°07'E), 500 m, 10-VIII-2006, coll. Weichun Li, gen. slide no. LYJ10112; 1 ♂, Pingxincun, Yizhou (24°30'N, 108°40'E), 150 m, 16-VIII-2011, coll. Shulian Hao & Yinghui Sun; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Shaoping Yard, Pingxiang (22°03'N, 106°55'E), 190 m, 24,28-VII-2011, coll. Bingbing Hu; 1 ♀, Qingshan Yard, Pingxiang(22°03'N, 106°55'E), 300 m, 20-VII-2011, coll. Bingbing Hu. Hainan: 1 ♂, Mt. Diaoluo (18°39'N, 109°54'E), 70 m, 27-V-2007, coll. Zhiwei Zhang & Weichun Li, gen. slide no. LJY10104; 1 ♀, Mt. Duowen (19°48'N, 109°45'E), 120 m, 2-V-2009, coll. Qin Jin & Bingbing Hu, gen. slide no. LJY10105; 1 ♀, Wuzhishan (18°46'N, 109°30'E), 740 m, 14-IV-2009, coll. Qin Jin & Bingbing Hu, gen. slide no. LJY10097; 1 ♂, Shuimanxiang (18°53'N, 109°40'E), Wuzhishan, 620 m, 19-IV-2014, coll. Tengteng Liu, Wei Guan & Xuemei Hu; 1 ♂, Mt. Limu (19°10'N, 109°44'E), Qiongzhong, 640−700 m, 4-V-2014, coll. Tengteng Liu, Wei Guan & Xuemei Hu; 1 ♂, Wuzhishan (18°40'N, 109°29'E), 500 m, 12-IV-2013, coll. Yingdang Ren & Xiaoguang Liu, gen. slide no. RYD2013046 (deposited in HAASM). Yunnan: 4 ♂♂, Rare Botanical Garden, Ruili (24°00'N, 97°50'E), 1000 m, 5−8-VII-2005, leg. Yingdang Ren, gen. slide nos. RYD04718, RYD04718w; 1 ♂, Guanping (22°15'N, 100°53'E), Xishuangbanna, 1200 m, 17-VIII-2005, coll. Yingdang Ren, gen. slide no. RYD04717; 1 ♂, Botanical Garden, Menglun (21°52'N, 101°18'E), 570 m, 13-VIII-2005, coll. Yingdang Ren, gen. slide no. RYD04721; 4 ♂♂, Bubang (21°36'N, 101°35'E), Xisuangbanna, 650 m, 22−24-VIII-2005, coll. Yingdang Ren, gen. slide nos. LHX14081, LHX14081w; 1 ♂, Botanical Garden (21°55'N 101°16'E), Xishuangbanna, 560 m, 1-VIII-2010, coll. Yinghui Sun & Lixia Li; 2 ♂♂, Bakaxiaozhai (21°58'N, 101°12'E), Mengla, Xisuangbanna, 630 m, 7-VIII-2010, coll. Yinghui Sun & Lixia Li; 7 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Mengyuan (21°42'N, 101°23'E), Mengla, Xishuangbanna, 640 m, 10~13-VIII-2010, coll. Yinghui Sun & Lixia Li, gen. slide nos. LJY10351, LJY10352; 20 ♂♂, 16 ♀♀, Bubang (21°36'N, 101°35'E), Mengla, 650 m, 12~14-VII-2013, coll. Linlin Yang, gen. slide nos. RYD20120106m, RYD20120107m, RYD20120167f, RYD20120168m (deposited in HAASM).

Diagnosis

This new species is notable superficially for its bipectinate male flagellum. It is much more similar to E. ceratoniae in genitalic structures, but can be distinguished from the latter by the narrower uncus with width almost equaling length, the widest part is at basal 2/5, the apical projection of gnathos approximately 3/5 length of uncus in male, and the elongate corpus bursae three times as long as wide in female. In E. ceratoniae, the uncus is more wide than long, the widest part at base, the apical projection of gnathos nearly the same length as uncus in male, and the corpus bursae is twice as long as wide in female.

Description

Wingspan 19.5−28.0 mm (Figs 3, 4). Vertex brown, with individual scales tipped with grayish white. Antenna (Fig. 3a, b) brown; bipectinate, with pecten about twice length of width of shaft in male, shortly ciliate in female. Labial palpus brown, individual scales white-tipped. Maxillary palpus brown. Occiput, patagium, tegula and thorax brown. Forewing dark grayish fuscous, blackish brown along veins; antemedial line invisible; discal spots blackish brown, separated; postmedial line faint, grayish white, serrated; terminal line black, interrupted; cilia brown. Hindwing grayish white, pale brown along costa, termen and veins; cilia grayish white. Legs brown, mottled with grayish white, spurs grayish white. Abdomen yellowish brown.

Male genitalia (Fig. 8). Uncus bell-shaped, width almost equals length, rounded at apex, triangularly protruded laterally at basal 2/5, arched on basal margin. Apical projection of gnathos about 3/5 length of uncus, clubbed, slightly bent and furcated at apex. Transtilla trefoiled, including a pair of triangularly inflated bases, and a tongue-shaped central projection with rounded apex posteriorly. Valva three times as long as wide, evenly curved toward rounded apex, costal margin almost parallel with ventral margin except slightly convex at basal 2/3; costa strongly sclerotized, broad at base, slightly narrowed and extending to end of valva, without process apically; sacculus strongly sclerotized, stout, 2/5 length of valva. Juxta U-shaped, base an arched belt, with a pair of wide, stout, incurved lateral lobes, expanded and bearing sparse setae apically. Vinculum U-shaped, length almost equal to the widest posterior margin, slightly concave at middle of anterior margin. Phallus slightly shorter than valva, with membranous crimples internally; cornutus absent. Eighth tergite fan-shaped, 4/5 length than width, with a pair of spoon-like sclerites anteriorly; eighth sternite with a pair of triangular plates narrowly connected anteriorly. Culcita (sensu Amsel 1956) simple, one pair of fine scale tufts.

Female genitalia (Fig. 11). Anal papillae triangular, with a few setae, blunt apically. Eighth tergite slightly concave on posterior margin, trapezoidally convex on anterior margin; eighth sternite with membranous part inverse-funneled. Antrum twice as wide as length. Ductus bursae membranous, twice length of apophyses posteriores. Corpus bursae membranous, elongate, slightly shorter than ductus bursae, three times as long as wide; signum an elongate patch of microspines, placed at posterior 2/5. Ductus seminalis from junction of corpus bursae and ductus bursae.

Distribution

China (Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan).

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin prefix bi-, meaning two, and the Latin pectinalis, meaning pectinate, referring to the bipectinate male flagellum.

Ectomyelois furvivena sp. n.

Figs 5, 6, 9, 12

Type material

Holotype ♂, CHINA: Rare Botanical Garden, Ruili (24°00'N, 97°50'E), Yunnan, 1000 m, 8-VII-2005, leg. Yingdang Ren, gen. slide no. RYD04737. Paratypes: Gansu: 1 ♂, Fanba (32°44'N, 105°07'E), Wenxian, 718 m, 18-VII-2005, coll. Haili Yu, gen. slide no. RYD04744. Yunnan: 2 ♂♂, same data as for holotype, gen. slide nos. LHX14084, LHX14084w, LHX14085; 1 ♀, Botanical Garden, Menglun (21°52'N, 101°18'E), 570 m, 13-VIII-2005, coll. Yingdang Ren, gen. slide no. RYD04720; 1 ♂, Baihualing, Mt. Gaoligong (25°31'N, 98°32'E), 1470 m, 30-VII-2013, coll. Linlin Yang, gen. slide no. RYD20120181 (deposited in HAASM).

Diagnosis

This new species is similar to E. bipectinalis sp. n., but can be recognized by the male antenna is not bipectinate, the uncus is rather abruptly narrowed beyond its broad base, tapered apical projection of the gnathos is about half length of the uncus and the inverse-goblet transtilla in the male genitaia. In E. bipectinalis sp. n., the antenna is bipectinate, the uncus protrudes triangularly at basal 2/5, the apical projection of gnathos is about 3/5 length of the uncus and the transtilla is trefoiled in the male genitalia. There is little difference in the female genitalia except the corpus bursae is much broader and the signum is smaller than in E. bipectinalis sp. n.

Description

Wingspan 25.0−30.0 mm (Figs 5, 6). Vertex brown, with individual scales grayish white-tipped. Antenna (Fig. 5a, b) brown, scales dark-tipped. Labial palpus brown, first segment with scales grayish white-tipped. Maxillary palpus brown. Occiput, patagium, tegula and thorax grayish brown, with scales tipped with grayish white. Forewing dark grayish brown with some white powdering, black along veins; antemedial line invisible; discal spots blackish brown, separated; postmedial line faint, grayish white, serrated, gently curved inwardly from costal 1/5 to dorsum 1/5; terminal line black, interrupted; cilia brown. Hindwing grayish white, light brown along costa and veins; cilia white. Foreleg blackish brown; mid- and hind legs brown with grayish white powdering, spurs yellowish brown. Abdomen with each tergite gray basally and grayish white distally, sternite yellowish brown.

Male genitalia (Fig. 9). Uncus bell-shaped, length longer than wide, abruptly narrowed beyond its broad base, rounded at apex. Apical projection of gnathos about half length of uncus, tapered, slightly bent and furcated at apex. Transtilla inverse-goblet shaped; deeply concaved in U shape on anterior margin, a rounded plate protruding on posterior margin. Valva three times as long as wide, evenly curved toward rounded apex, costal margin almost parallel with ventral margin, ventral margin concave at basal 1/3; costa strongly sclerotized, broad at base, narrowed and extending to near end of valva, without process apically; sacculus strongly sclerotized, stout, 2/5 length of valva. Juxta a broad, quadrate plate; lateral lobes ovate, 1.5 times as long as wide, bearing sparse setae in distal half. Vinculum trapezoid, widest posterior margin about 1.6 times of its length, straight on anterior margin. Phallus about 2/3 length of valva, smooth inside; cornutus absent. Eighth tergite cupped, with a pair of triangular sclerites anteriorly; eighth sternite with a pair of boot-like sclerites narrowly connected anteriorly. Culcita simple, one pair of fine scale tufts.

Female genitalia (Fig. 12). Anal papillae triangular, with a few setae, blunt apically. Eighth tergite slightly concave on posterior margin, convex W-shaped on anterior margin; eighth sternite with membranous part inverse-funneled. Antrum somewhat quadrate. Ductus bursae membranous, 1.5 times length of apophyses posteriores. Corpus bursae membranous, about same length as ductus bursae, twice as wide; signum a spindle-like patch of scobinations, at middle of corpus bursae. Ductus seminalis from junction of corpus bursae and ductus bursae.

Distribution

China (Gansu, Yunnan).

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Latin prefix furv-, meaning black, and the Latin vena, vein, referring to the forewing with black scales along its veins in this species.

Discussion

The genus Ectomyelois is characterized by the wing venation, a signum with a patch of microspines and the inception of the ductus seminalis in the female genitalia. Two new species are assigned to this genus based on these characters. Ectomyelois bipectinalis sp. n. is unique for its bipectinate male flagellum, but the other characters, especially the genitalia, are in accord with the generic characters.

Neunzig and Goodson (1992) described one new species, Ectomyelois austrella Neunzig & Goodson, 1992, from Argentina. However, the male genitalia has a basal protuberance on the valva not found in Ectomyelois species, and the female genitalia bears a narrowly and deeply invaginated signum on the corpus bursae also not found in Ectomyelois species. Although we retain this species in Ectomyelois, the characters indicate that austrella might not be suitably placed in this genus.

Acknowledgments

We express our cordial thanks to Prof. H.H. Li and Prof. S.X. Wang (Nankai University, Tianjin) for providing precious references and specimens, to those who participated in the field collection for their hard work, to Dr. H.X. Liu (Kaili University, Guizhou) and Dr. J.Y. Liu (Guiyang Meical University, Guizhou) for dissecting some specimens. We also sincerely thank anonymous referees for their useful comments and suggestions. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31172141 and No. 31093430) and partly funded by the Basic Scientific research project of Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (No. 2015JC19).

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