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Catalogue
Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera
expand article infoJames O'Hara, Pierfilippo Cerretti§
‡ Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Nepean, Canada
§ University of Rome, Roma, Italy
Open Access

Abstract

The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), and Myxophryxe satanas Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini); and Stiremania Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa), and Stiremania robusta Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini). Paraclara Bezzi, 1908 is transferred from the Cylindromyiini to the Hermyini, comb. n. Sarrorhina Villeneuve, 1936 is transferred from the Minthoini to the Graphogastrini, comb. n. Three genera are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Madremyia Townsend, 1916 (Eryciini); Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Blondeliini); and Simoma Aldrich, 1926 (Goniini). Three genera previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); and Trixa Meigen, 1824 (Palaearctic and Oriental regions). Two species are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 (Ethiopia, Kenya); and Simoma grahami Aldrich, 1926 (Namibia). Three species previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Euthera peringueyi Bezzi, 1925 (Oriental Region); Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Leucostoma tetraptera (Meigen, 1824) (Palaearctic Region). New replacement names are proposed for five preoccupied names of Afrotropical species: Billaea rubida O’Hara & Cerretti for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916, preoccupied in the genus Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781, nom. n.; Cylindromyia braueri O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera nigra Villeneuve, 1918, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885, nom. n.; Cylindromyia rufohumera O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera scapularis Villeneuve, 1944, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Ocyptera scapularis Loew, 1845, nom. n.; Phytomyptera longiarista O’Hara & Cerretti for Phytomyzoneura aristalis Villeneuve, 1936, preoccupied in the genus Phytomyptera Rondani, 1845 by Phasiostoma aristalis Townsend, 1915, nom. n.; and Siphona (Siphona) pretoriana O’Hara & Cerretti for Siphona laticornis Curran, 1941, preoccupied in the genus Siphona Meigen, 1803 by Actia laticornis Malloch, 1930, nom. n. New type species fixations are made under the provisions of Article 70.3.2 of the ICZN Code for two genus-group names: Lydellina Villeneuve, 1916, type species newly fixed as Lydellina villeneuvei Townsend, 1933 (valid genus name); and Sericophoromyia Austen, 1909, type species newly fixed as Tachina quadrata Wiedemann, 1830 (synonym of Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Lectotypes are designated for the following nine nominal species based on examination of one or more syntypes of each: Degeeria crocea Villeneuve, 1950; Degeeria semirufa Villeneuve, 1950; Erycia brunnescens Villeneuve, 1934; Exorista oculata Villeneuve, 1910; Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938; Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916; Ocyptera linearis Villeneuve, 1936; Peristasisea luteola Villeneuve, 1934; and Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938. The following four genus-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms or subgenera are recognized as valid generic names: Bogosiella Villeneuve, 1923, status revived; Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, status revived; Perlucidina Mesnil, 1952, status revived; and Thelymyiops Mesnil, 1950, status n. The following six species-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms are recognized as valid species names: Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908, status revived; Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950, status revived (as Medina cinctella (Villeneuve)); Nemoraea miranda intacta Villeneuve, 1916, status revived (as Nemoraea intacta Villeneuve); Succingulum exiguum Villeneuve, 1935, status revived (as Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve)); Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil)); and Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil)). The following 25 new or revived combinations are proposed: Afrophylax aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910), comb. n.; Blepharella orbitalis (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923, comb. revived; Brachychaetoides violacea (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Carceliathrix crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Charitella whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012), comb. n.; Dyshypostena edwardsi (van Emden, 1960), comb. n.; Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939, comb. revived; Estheria buccata (van Emden, 1947), comb. n.; Estheria surda (Curran, 1933), comb. n.; Filistea aureofasciata (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Madremyia setinervis (Mesnil, 1968), comb. n.; Mesnilotrix empiformis (Mesnil, 1976), comb. n.; Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Nealsomyia chloronitens (Mesnil, 1977), comb. n.; Nealsomyia clausa (Curran, 1940), comb. n.; Nilea longicauda (Mesnil, 1970), comb. n.; Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Perlucidina africana (Jaennicke, 1867), comb. n.; Perlucidina perlucida (Karsch, 1886), comb. revived; Prolophosia retroflexa (Villeneuve, 1944), comb. n.; Sturmia profana (Karsch, 1888), comb. n.; additionally, Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is treated as an unplaced species of Goniini, comb. n. and Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is treated as an unplaced species of Leskiini, comb. n. New or revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following nine names: Afrosturmia Curran, 1927 with Blepharella Macquart, 1851, syn. n.; Archiphania van Emden, 1945 with Catharosia Rondani, 1868, syn. revived; Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908 (current name Besseria fossulata), syn. n.; Dexiomera Curran, 1933 with Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, syn. n.; Hemiwinthemia francoisi Verbeke, 1973 with Nemoraea capensis Schiner, 1868 (current name Smidtia capensis), syn. n.; Kinangopana van Emden, 1960 with Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, syn. n.; Metadrinomyia Shima, 1980 with Charitella Mesnil, 1957, syn. n.; Phorocera majestica Curran, 1940 with Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938 (current name Myxophryxe longirostris), syn. n.; and Podomyia discalis Curran, 1939 with Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904 (current name Antistasea fimbriata), syn. n.

Keywords

Afrotropical Region, parasitoids, classification, distribution, zoological nomenclature, systematics, new taxa

Introduction

The Tachinidae are a large cosmopolitan family of flies that are parasitoids of other arthropods, primarily other insects (Stireman et al. 2006). The Afrotropical fauna of the Tachinidae was last catalogued 35 years ago by Crosskey (1980b), who had previously prepared conspecti of the tachinids of Australia and the Oriental Region (Crosskey 1973b, 1976). His catalogue and the keys that followed four years later to the tachinid genera of southern and tropical Africa (Crosskey 1984) continue to this day as the main sources of information on the classification and identification of Afrotropical Tachinidae. Crosskey prefaced his catalogue with a review of the “scanty” knowledge of the biology and hosts of the tachinids of the region, and briefly summarized the unsettled state of the classification. He noted the difficulty of delimiting taxa at all levels and blamed the problem at the species level on the “wealth of intangibly varying characters” (Crosskey 1980b: 822). This has been a familiar lament among taxonomists throughout the world who have attempted to classify regional faunas of the family.

Crosskey (1984) reviewed in some detail the history of tachinid taxonomy in the Afrotropical Region. He unflatteringly portrayed the most prolific of the early taxonomists, Villeneuve and Curran, as failing to bring order to the fauna at the supraspecific level and of leaving a legacy of species largely unidentifiable without study of the types. Van Emden, following in the wake of such workers in the middle part of the 1900s, began the formidable task of revising the Afrotropical fauna subfamily by subfamily (van Emden 1945, 1947, 1960) but died before the project could be completed and with the largest and most difficult subfamily, the Exoristinae, untouched. Mesnil was active too during this time and described a significant number of Afrotropical genera and species even though his primary goal was to revise the entire tachinid fauna of the Palaearctic Region. Verbeke, in a series of papers in the 1960s and 70s, was the last taxonomist of note to advance tachinid classification within the Afrotropics prior to Crosskey’s synthesis of the fauna in his catalogue and keys.

Crosskey’s exemplary skills as a taxonomist, nomenclaturalist and bibliographer ensured that his Afrotropical catalogue and keys were virtually free of errors in their presentation of factual information. His higher classification of the Tachinidae, however, was little changed from his earlier conspecti and in this respect was not progressive. Nevertheless, it suited Crosskey’s desire to construct keys that would first separate tribes and then genera within tribes. His classification was already at odds with the advances being made in tachinid relationships by Mesnil, Herting and Verbeke (O’Hara 2013), but it was the publication of Herting’s (1984) catalogue of Palaearctic Tachinidae that was most influential in galvanizing support for a more phylogenetic classification of the family.

Crosskey’s (1980b) catalogue differed from his conspecti of the Australian and Oriental faunas (Crosskey 1973b, 1976) in lacking information about name-bearing types. This information has been included in the present catalogue based on the examination of all original descriptions and relevant subsequent literature. The major works that have been published on Afrotropical Tachinidae since Crosskey’s catalogue are reviewed below and our revised classification is discussed in light of recent studies on tachinid evolution and conflicting phylogenetic interpretations.

The main impetus for preparing this catalogue was the announcement in 2010 during the 7th International Congress of Dipterology in San José, Costa Rica, of an international effort to publish a Manual of Afrotropical Diptera (A.H. Kirk-Spriggs and B.J. Sinclair, editors, in prep.). The Tachinidae are by far the largest family of Afrotropical Diptera in terms of genera and the Manual chapter detailing this diversity is recognized as a considerable challenge by the authors (P. Cerretti, J.E. O’Hara, J.O. Stireman and D.M. Wood, in prep.). This catalogue is intended as both a companion volume to the Manual chapter and a resource for the chapter authors as they prepare a key to genera and evaluate the diversity, biology and biogeography of the tachinid fauna.

The geographic limits of the Afrotropical Region for the purposes of this catalogue have been changed slightly from those of Crosskey (1980a) to conform to the limits recognized by the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera. As such, Oman and United Arab Emirates, both formerly included within the Palaearctic Region, are treated here as part of the Afrotropical Region.

Numerous specimens of Afrotropical Tachinidae were examined during the preparation of this catalogue. This has led to taxonomic changes within the catalogue and also revealed numerous new species and a smaller number of new genera. Described herein are seven new genera that are well characterized and worthy of formal recognition in this catalogue and by such treatment will be available for inclusion in the key to tachinid genera in the Manual.

The Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region recognized 95 families, 2020 genera and 16,550 species (Crosskey 1980a; including additional genera and species listed in the appendix). The Tachinidae were the dominant family in terms of genera with 210, or 10.4% of all genera of Afrotropical Diptera. The number of tachinid species was proportionally smaller but still high at 996, or 6.0% of all dipteran species.

The number of Afrotropical tachinid genera and species has risen modestly over the past 35 years due to taxonomic activity, an expansion of the region’s boundaries, and the new taxa described herein. The present catalogue records 237 genera, of which 101 (43%) are endemic to the region. Of the 1126 species recorded, a total of 1043 (93%) are endemic. The current numbers represent an increase since 1980 of 29 genera and 130 species. Despite these advances, the tachinid fauna of the region remains understudied and many new taxa await discovery and description.

Materials and methods

Format

This catalogue is arranged in a similar manner to the one on the Tachinidae of China by O’Hara et al. (2009). The sections here under Format are little changed from the same sections in that work but are given here as a convenient guide and have been modified to apply to the Afrotropical Tachinidae. Any changes in format or interpretation of nomenclatural matters compared to O’Hara et al. (2009) are noted.

General

This catalogue cites all nominal species in their original combinations, provides details about name-bearing types, gives known distributions, and is based on the examination of all but a very few of the approximately 525 publications listed in the References.

Valid names are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically according to the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus, species, and subspecies. Synonyms are given for valid names of genera, subgenera, and species and are listed chronologically. Synonymic lists comprise taxa described from the Afrotropical Region, synonyms that have been used as valid names in the literature on Afrotropical Tachinidae, and (where known) misidentifications (given last in synonymic lists).

Each genus-group name is listed with the following information: genus name in italics and capital letters (and additionally in bold if valid, unless misidentified from the Afrotropics), author, year (with letter if applicable), page, note in parentheses if applicable (e.g., junior homonym, proposed as subgenus), type species with author and date, form of type fixation, and region of origin of type species in square brackets if not the Afrotropics. Each type species is cited in its original binomen (Recommendation 67B of the Code, ICZN 1999), and if that name is a synonym then it is followed by the valid name of the species in parentheses. We have invoked Article 70.3.2 of the Code (ICZN 1999) to fix the intended species as the type species for generic names that were based on misidentified type species. This maintains the concepts of these generic names as currently accepted and in prevailing usage. The genera so affected are listed below under “Summary of new taxonomic and nomenclatural changes”.

Type species were fixed by original designation, monotypy, subsequent designation, or in a few instances subsequent monotypy, except for type species newly fixed here for nominal genera based on misidentified type species. Fixation by original designation requires an explicit designation of a type species (Article 68.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999), so a new genus “proposed for” or “erected for” a single species has its type species fixed by monotypy. A new genus proposed before 1931 for a single species and accompanied by the expression “gen. n., sp. n.” or an equivalent also has its type species fixed by monotypy (Article 68.2.1). If, on the other hand, the new genus is proposed for more than one new species and the expression “gen. n., sp. n.” or an equivalent is applied to only one of the new species, then that species is fixed as type species by original designation (Article 68.2.1).

Species are listed by valid name followed by the available name(s) associated with it; i.e., the available name of the valid name plus synonyms. The valid name is represented by the valid specific epithet in bold and italics (in italics only if questionably recorded or misidentified from the Afrotropics) followed by the author, date (no letter), and known distribution. Author and date are enclosed in parentheses if the species has moved from its original genus. The distribution is given first for the Afrotropical Region and then for other regions as explained under “Geographic divisions” and “Distributional data”. Each available name is given in italics in its original combination and spelling followed by author, year (with letter if applicable to match a publication listed in the References), page, and a note in parentheses if applicable (e.g., junior homonym, subsequent spelling). A questionable synonym is preceded by a question mark (e.g., “? Ocyptera cribrata Villeneuve”). Given next is name-bearing type information consisting of status (holotype, lectotype, neotype, or syntypes), sex (of single type, or number and sex of syntypes), type depository (in parentheses), and type locality. If a neotype or lectotype was designated then a citation is given to the designation. Additional information may be given in parentheses with the type depository to cite the number and sex of syntypes existing in a collection if that number is different from the information given in the original description, or if the original description did not provide details about the type series; also, a reference may be cited wherein information can be found about the name-bearing type.

A subsequent spelling of a generic or specific name can be an incorrect subsequent spelling (which is not an available name) or an unjustified emendation (which is an available name with its own author and date). Incorrect subsequent spellings encountered during this study are cited but there are certainly others that escaped our notice. In a departure from the catalogue of O’Hara et al. (2009), an unjustified emendation is cited with an author and date (name only given in the prior catalogue except in rare cases).

The following acronyms are used in this work:

Code International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, specifically the fourth edition published by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in 1999; cited as ICZN 1999

ICZN International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature

JEOH James E. O’Hara

PC Pierfilippo Cerretti

Name-bearing types

We follow the same method developed by O’Hara et al. (2009) for citing name-bearing type information for species described without a holotype designation in the original publication or without a subsequent lectotype or neotype designation. Details are provided about name-bearing types based on the content of an original description and are not biased by existing type material in collections (that information being given in parentheses with the type depository). Our format for citing published data on name-bearing types other than a designated holotype, lectotype or neotype is explained below.

Type(s), male: One or more males. This citation is used for a species described from the male sex without indication of whether a single male (i.e., a holotype) or more than one male (i.e., syntypes) comprised the type series.

Type(s), female: One or more females. See “Type(s), male”.

Type(s), unspecified sex: One or more specimens with no indication of sex.

Syntypes, [number] male[s] and [number] female[s] (e.g., “Syntypes, 3 males and 2 females”): Species described from an indicated number of males and females.

Syntypes, males and females: Species described from both sexes but the number of each sex was not given.

Syntypes, males: Species described from more than one male but without indication of the number of males.

Syntypes, females: Species described from more than one female but without indication of the number of females.

Syntypes, unspecified number and sex: Species described from more than one specimen but without indication of sex or number of specimens.

Avoidance of assumption of holotype

In following the foregoing format we have complied with Recommendation 73F of the Code (ICZN 1999), “Avoidance of assumption of holotype”, which states: “Where no holotype or syntype was fixed for a nominal species-group taxon established before 2000, and when it is possible that the nominal species-group taxon was based on more than one specimen, an author should proceed as though syntypes may exist and, where appropriate, should designate a lectotype rather than assume a holotype (see also Article 74.6)”. See O’Hara et al. (2009: 9–10) for a further discussion of this issue.

By following Recommendation 73F of the Code, assumed holotypes take on the status of syntypes. The recommendation favors “where appropriate” the designation of lectotypes. We have combined the spirit of Recommendation 73F and the provisions of Article 74.5 of the Code (ICZN 1999) to recognize certain published statements (as discussed in next section) about assumed holotypes as lectotype fixations. This follows O’Hara et al. (2009) and is in our opinion the best way to reconcile assumed holotypes with the modern rules of nomenclature, while also giving credit of lectotype fixations to the authors who assumed holotypes (e.g., van Emden 1960, Crosskey 1976).

Lectotypifications

There are two types of lectotypification in zoological nomenclature, explicit and implicit. In the former, a single syntype in a type series is designated as lectotype; in the latter, there is some form of statement that can be construed as the selection of a single name-bearing type. We follow O’Hara et al. (2009) in using the term “lectotype designation” for an explicit lectotypification and “lectotype fixation” for an implicit lectotypification. There is good reason to distinguish between the two because implicit lectotypifications are open to some interpretation, especially with respect to Article 74.5 of the Code (ICZN 1999: 82–83) that deals in part (see also Article 74.6) with lectotype designations before 2000:

“In a lectotype designation made before 2000, either the term ‘lectotype’, or an exact translation or equivalent expression (e.g. ‘the type’), must have been used or the author must have unambiguously selected a particular syntype to act as the unique name-bearing type of the taxon. When the original work reveals that the taxon had been based on more than one specimen, a subsequent use of the term ‘holotype’ does not constitute a valid lectotype designation unless the author, when wrongly using that term, explicitly indicated that he or she was selecting from the type series that particular specimen to serve as the name-bearing type”.

What constitutes a valid lectotypification (or lectotype fixation in our terminology) in the foregoing is largely dependent on how one interprets the passage about an author explicitly indicating “that he or she was selecting from the type series that particular specimen to serve as the name-bearing type”. At one end of the spectrum is the mere mention of a “holotype” or “type” by a subsequent author when the original type series clearly consisted of two or more syntypes. This statement does not constitute a lectotype fixation because the “holotype” is not distinguishable from other syntypes. At the other end of the spectrum is the mention of a “holotype” or “type” with accompanying details about its labelling, features, damage, etc. that clearly distinguishes that specimen from other syntypes; or perhaps there is only one type specimen in a collection and it is an “assumed holotype” (see section above) for a species described from an unspecified number of specimens. We considered these latter statements about a single type to qualify as lectotype fixations under Article 74.5 because they contain an explicit indication that an author accepted the cited “holotype” as the name-bearing type and restricted the term to a single recognizable specimen in a collection. We encountered many “holotype” statements that were not so easily interpretable as the aforementioned ones. For these, we adopted the criteria that there had to be reasonable grounds to believe the information provided would permit the “holotype” or “type” to be recognized in a collection, and we generally required some additional data beyond the mere mention of a “holotype” or “type”, for a statement to qualify as a lectotype fixation.

O’Hara et al. (2009) chose not to recognize lectotype fixations in Townsend’s Manual of Myiology [Parts I–XII, 1934–1942]. They argued that Townsend consistently used the term “Ht” (holotype) for the name-bearing type of a type species of a nominal genus whether or not a holotype had been designated in the original publication or the “Ht” had been personally examined. This approach was adopted to avoid certain pitfalls that would follow from a universal acceptance of these cited holotypes (see O’Hara et al. 2009: 11). We have reconsidered this matter and have elected to follow Crosskey (1969: 88, 1971: 255) and O’Hara and Wood (2004: 4) in accepting the mention of a “Ht” (when accompanied by information about type locality and type depository) in Manual of Myiology as a lectotype fixation if the specimen can be recognized in the cited depository or has a strong possibility of being so recognized. We could not, for practical reasons, examine all putative lectotypes to verify that they can be recognized in their cited depositories. We consider the verification of such putative lectotypes to be a “work in progress” and a task for us and future researchers to be mindful of when dealing with nominal species for which Townsend or other authors may have fixed lectotypes.

Type localities

Type localities are cited first by country and then by location within that country from larger to smaller geographic area or place. Spellings of geographic areas and places largely follow The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World (Times Books 2007), if found in that work. Modern names and spellings are given where these have been determined. Country and province names (the latter generally given only for D.R. Congo, Madagascar and South Africa) are given only in their modern equivalents. For locality names that have changed since they were first published, the modern spelling is given first followed by the original spelling in square brackets and quotes; e.g., Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”]. Elevations are cited in metres (m) or feet (ft) as given by the author. Coordinates given in an original publication are cited in parentheses after the type locality and in their original format; e.g. Kenya, Western, Kakamega Forest, 1600m (0°13′37.2″N 34°52′49.8″E). Coordinates are included for many type localities that we had difficulty locating. These are given in square brackets (generally in degrees and minutes without seconds) after the locality to distinguish them from coordinates provided by an author; e.g., Rwanda, south of Volcan Karisimbi, Rivière Bikwi, 3100m [ca. 1°32′S, 29°30′E]. Localities that we could not find are given in quotes; e.g., Madagascar, “Ambalamalakana” [not located]. A variety of resources were used to locate type localities including atlases, maps, and literature, often found through Internet searches for the locality and/or collector. Two especially useful sources were: 1) the map in de Witte (1937) detailing the mountainous region between Lake Edward and Lake Kivu on the borders of D.R. Congo, Uganda and Rwanda, and 2) the maps in Scott (1958) of northern Ethiopia.

The type localities of almost 30 nominal species were published as the Rwenzori (often published as “Ruwenzori”) Range on the border of D.R. Congo and Uganda, frequently with additional data. Crosskey (1980b) placed some of these localities in D.R. Congo and others in Uganda. Other earlier authors cited only Uganda, and in the absence of evidence to the contrary we have cited all type localities associated with “Ruwenzori” as in Uganda.

Criteria for citing type localities from Sweden, and for nominal species described by Meigen, are explained in O’Hara et al. (2009: 11).

Collections housing name-bearing types

The location of the name-bearing type (holotype, lectotype, neotype, or syntypes) is cited for each nominal species, where known. The collections housing these name-bearing types are listed below with the acronyms used in the text. We largely accepted as accurate the statements about the deposition of name-bearing types given in the original literature unless we had reason to doubt the information given (e.g., types known to have been relocated or are presumed lost). We personally examined many of the types cited in AMNH, BMNH, CNC, IRSNB, MCSN, MRAC, MSNM, MZF, MZUR, NHMW, NMB, NMDA, SAMC, SANC, SMNS, TAU, USNM, ZMHB and ZMUC.

The acronyms of collections cited in this work are as follows:

AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA

BMNH Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)], London, United Kingdom

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada

ETHZ Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich, Switzerland

FMNHH Finnish Museum of Natural History, Zoological Museum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

HUJI Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

IRSNB Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles [Brussels], Belgium

JOS Private collection of J.O. Stireman, Dayton, Ohio, USA

MCSN Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova [Genoa], Italy

MHNG Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève [Geneva], Switzerland

MHNL Musée d’Histoire Naturelle de Lille, Lille, France

MNCN Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain (including the collection of the former Instituto Español de Entomología)

MNHN Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MRAC Musée Royal de 1’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium

MSNM Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano [Milan], Italy

MZF Museo Zoologico “La Specola”, Firenze [Florence], Italy

MZLU Museum of Zoology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

MZUR Museum of Zoology, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma [Rome], Italy

NHMB Naturhistorisches Museum Basel, Basel, Switzerland

NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Wien [Vienna], Austria

NHRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet [Swedish Museum of Natural History], Stockholm, Sweden

NMB National Museum, Bloemfontein, South Africa

NMBA Naturhistorisches Museum der Benediktiner-Abtei Admont, Admont, Austria

NMBZ Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe [formerly National Museum of Southern Rhodesia]

NMDA Department of Arthropoda, KwaZulu-Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

NMCL Naturkunde-Museum Coburg, Coburg, Germany

NMNW National Museum of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia

RMNH Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands [formerly Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum and before that Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie]. The Zoölogisch Museum of the University of Amsterdam [as ZMAN] closed recently and the collections were merged with those of RMNH

SAMC Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa

SANC South African National Collection of Insects, ARC, Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, South Africa [former acronym as PPRI]

SDEI Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Leibniz-Zentrums für Agrarlandschaftsforschung, Müncheberg, Germany

SMF Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

SMNS Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany

TAU Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

USNM National Museum of Natural History [formerly United States National Museum], Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA

ZIN Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde [formerly associated with Humboldt-Universität], Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Berlin, Germany

ZMUC Zoological Museum, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

ZMUH Zoologisches Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universität von Hamburg, Germany

ZMUK Zoologisches Museum der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany

ZMUM Zoological Museum, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

Geographic divisions

The known distribution of each tachinid species recorded from the Afrotropical Region is given next to the valid name in the following order: Afrotropical Region, Palaearctic Region, Oriental Region, Australasian and Oceanian regions [cited as Australasian for brevity], Nearctic Region, and Neotropical Region. Each of these regions is subdivided according to the scheme explained below. Areas close to the Afrotropical Region are subdivided more finely than those that are distant from it. Spellings of countries and areas within countries follow, with few exceptions, The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World (Times Books 2007). The abbreviations and names given below are those used for the distributions given in the Catalogue section.

Afrotropical Region (Fig. 1)

Figure 1.

Countries and major islands of the Afrotropical Region. These are used for distributions within the Afrotropical Region and are listed (with annotations) under Geographic Divisions in the Materials and methods section.

The geographic limits of the Afrotropical Region follow Crosskey (1980a) except for the addition of Oman and United Arab Emirates (formerly part of the Palaearctic Region) to conform to the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera that is currently in preparation (A.H. Kirk-Spriggs and B.J. Sinclair, editors).

The names of countries and islands listed below and shown in Fig. 1 have in a few instances changed from those given in Crosskey (1980a). These changes are noted in the following list. Two new countries have formed since the last catalogue: Eritrea (formerly part of Ethiopia) and South Sudan (formerly part of Sudan). It is not possible to divide old distribution records from “Sudan” into the present countries of Sudan and South Sudan and hence Sudan is used in the sense of both countries in the Catalogue section. There are several nominal species with type localities in this greater Sudan and in all cases these localities are in the present country of Sudan; i.e., no species was described from South Sudan.

Angola.

Ascension (an island dependency of the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena).

Benin.

Botswana.

Burkina [Burkina Faso] (as Upper Volta in Crosskey 1980a).

Burundi.

Cameroon (as Cameroun in Crosskey 1980a).

Cape Verde [Cape Verde Islands].

C.A. Republic [Central African Republic].

Chad.

Comoros [Comoros Islands].

Congo.

Côte d’Ivoire [or Ivory Coast].

Djibouti.

D.R. Congo [Democratic Republic of the Congo] (as Zaire in Crosskey 1980a).

Eq. Guinea [Equatorial Guinea] (including Annobón and Bioco [as “Fernando Póo”] islands of Crosskey 1980a).

Eritrea (new country since Crosskey 1980a [formerly part of Ethiopia]).

Ethiopia.

Gabon.

Gambia [The Gambia].

Ghana.

Guinea.

Guinea-Bissau.

Kenya.

Lesotho.

Liberia.

Madagascar.

Malawi.

Mali.

Mauritania.

Mauritius (including Cargados Carajos and Rodrigues islands of Crosskey 1980a).

Mozambique.

Namibia.

Niger.

Nigeria.

Oman (not included in Afrotropical Region of Crosskey 1980a).

Réunion (France).

Rwanda.

Saint Helena (United Kingdom Overseas Territory).

São Tomé & Príncipe (treated separately in Crosskey 1980a).

Senegal.

Seychelles (including Aldabra, Amirante, Astove, Coëtivy, and Cosmoledo islands of Crosskey 1980a).

Sierra Leone.

Somalia.

South Africa.

South Sudan (see note for Sudan; new country since Crosskey 1980a [formerly part of Sudan]).

Sudan (including, for distributional purposes, South Sudan).

Swaziland.

Tanzania.

Togo.

Tristan da Cunha (an island dependency of the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena).

Tromelin (disputed island territory of France).

U.A. Emirates [United Arab Emirates] (not included in Afrotropical Region of Crosskey 1980a)

Uganda.

Yemen (including South Yemen and Suquţrá [as Socotra] of Crosskey 1980a).

Zambia.

Zimbabwe (as Rhodesia in Crosskey 1980a).

Palaearctic Region (Fig. 2)

Figure 2.

Subdivisions of the Palaearctic and Oriental regions used for distributions outside the Afrotropical Region. The numbers correspond to the countries or areas listed under Geographic Divisions in the Materials and methods section.

The traditional limits of the Palaearctic Region are recognized except that Oman and United Arab Emirates are assigned to the Afrotropical Region to conform with the upcoming Manual of Afrotropical Diptera and the boundary with the Oriental Region through China is as newly defined under Oriental China (area 12). The subdivisions of the Palaearctic Region are explained below and are shown in Fig. 2, where they are labelled according to the following numbering scheme.

1. Europe.

a. British Is. [British Isles].—United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

b. Scand. [Scandinavia].—Iceland, Denmark (excluding Greenland), Norway, Sweden, and Finland.

c. W. Eur. [Western Europe].—Austria, Belgium, Channel Islands, France (excluding Corse), Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Switzerland.

d. E. Eur. [Eastern Europe].—Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kaliningradskaya [or Kaliningrad] Oblast’ (Russia), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

e. SW. Eur. [Southwestern Europe].—Andorra, Portugal (including Azores, excluding Madeira), and Spain (excluding Canary Islands).

f. SC. Eur. [Southcentral Europe].—Corse (France), Italy, Malta, Monaco, and San Marino.

g. SE. Eur. [Southeastern Europe].—Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Montenegro, Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia.

h. Turkey.—Cyprus and Turkey.

2. N. Africa [North Africa].

a. Canary Is. [Canary Islands].—Canary Islands (Spain).

b. Madeira.—Madeira (Portugal).

c. NW. Africa [Northwestern Africa].—Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Western Sahara.

d. NE. Africa [Northeastern Africa].—Egypt and Libya.

3. M. East [Middle East].

a. Israel (treated as a separate division because the Tachinidae are significantly better known from Israel than from the other countries of the Middle East).

b. M. East [Middle East] (excluding Israel).—Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, [Occupied] Palestinian territories, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.

4. Transcaucasia.—Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.

5. C. Asia [Central Asia].—Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

6. Kazakhstan.

7. Russia [or Russian Federation].

a. W. Russia [Western Russia, excluding Kaliningradskaya Oblast’].—Bordering Scandinavia and Eastern Europe to the west, Transcaucasia to the south, Ural Mountains to the east, and Kazakhstan to the southeast.

b. W. Siberia [Western Siberia].—Bordering Western Russia to the west, Kazakhstan and Mongolia to the south, and Yenisey River to the east.

c. E. Siberia [Eastern Siberia].—Bordering Western Siberia to the west, Mongolia and China to the south, and Russian administrative divisions of Chukotskiy [or Chukotka] Avtonomnyy Okrug, Magadanskaya [or Magadan] Oblast’, Khabarovskiy [or Khabarovsk] Kray, and Amurskaya [or Amur] Oblast’ to the east.

d-e. Far East [Russian Far East].—Bordering Eastern Siberia to the west, China and North Korea to the south, and Japan to the southeast.

d. N. Far East [Northern Russian Far East].—Russian administrative divisions of Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Magadanskaya Oblast’, and Kamchatskiy [or Kamchatka] Kray.

e. S. Far East [Southern Russian Far East].—Russian administrative divisions of Khabarovskiy Kray, Amurskaya Oblast’, Yevreyskaya [or Jewish] Avtonomnaya Oblast’, and Sakhalinskaya [or Sakhalin] Oblast’ (including Kuril Islands).

8. Mongolia.

9. Korea.—North and South Korea. Cited as Korea when more detailed distributional data is not available.

a. N. Korea [North Korea].

b. S. Korea [South Korea].

10. Japan (excluding Ryukyu I.).

11. Pal. China [Palaearctic China]. North of the dotted line in Fig. 2, comprising that part of China not listed for Oriental China.

Oriental Region (Fig. 2)

The Oriental Region is bounded on the south by Weber’s Line (following Evenhuis 1989) and on the north and west by the Palaearctic Region. The subdivisions of the Oriental Region are explained below and are shown on Fig. 2, where they are labelled according to the following numbering scheme.

12. Orien. China [Oriental China]. The Oriental portion of China is newly defined here as comprising the southern half of Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Macau, Shanghai, southern half of Sichuan, most of Yunnan except for the extreme northwest portion, and Zhejiang. A species recorded from Palaearctic China and additionally Sichuan and/or Yunnan, with no other records from Oriental China, is recorded only from Palaearctic China; e.g., Periscepsia carbonaria (Panzer).

13. Maldives etc.—Maldives, Lakshadweep (India), British Indian Ocean Territory [or Chagos Archipelago] (United Kingdom Overseas Territory).

14. Pakistan.

15. India.

16. Sri Lanka.

17. Nepal.

18. Bhutan.

19. Bangladesh.

20. Myanmar [or Burma].

21. Laos.

22. Vietnam.

23. Cambodia.

24. Thailand.

25. Andaman & Nicobar Is.—Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).

26. Malaysia.

27. Singapore.

28. Brunei.

29. Indonesia (Oriental part as delimited by Weber’s Line; mainly Borneo, Jawa [or Java], Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi [or Celebes], and Sumatera [or Sumatra]).

30. Christmas & Cocos Is.—Territories of Christmas Island and Cocos [or Keeling] Islands (Australia).

31. Philippines.

32. Taiwan.

33. Ryukyu Is.—Ryukyu Islands [or Nansei-shotō] (Japan).

Australasian and Oceanian regions

These regions are combined under the title of Australasian Region for the purposes of this catalogue. The combined region is bounded on the north by the Oriental Region (Weber’s Line) and is subdivided as follows.

N. Australasian.—Indonesia (Australasian part as delimited by Weber’s Line; mainly Maluku [or Moluccas] Islands, Western New Guinea [or Irian Jaya], and Papua New Guinea (including Bismarck Archipelago).

Australia.

Hawaii.—Hawaiian Islands (USA).

Melanesia.—Melanesia (excluding Papua New Guinea and Bismarck Archipelago, listed as part of N. Australasian), principally Fiji, New Caledonia (France), Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.

Micronesia.—Federated States of Micronesia, principally Guam (USA), Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Northern Mariana Islands (USA), and Palau.

New Zealand.

Polynesia.—Polynesia (excluding New Zealand and Hawaii, each listed separately), principally American Samoa (USA), Cook Islands (New Zealand), Easter Island (Chile), French Polynesia (France), Niue (New Zealand), Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom), Samoa, Tokelau (New Zealand), Tonga, Tuvalu, and Wallis and Futuna (France).

Nearctic Region

The Nearctic Region is arbitrarily defined as America north of Mexico for the purposes of this catalogue, including Greenland (Denmark) and Bermuda (United Kingdom Overseas Territory) but not Hawaii (USA) and the West Indies (following O’Hara and Wood 2004). The Nearctic Region is not subdivided in this catalogue but individual distributions are given for species recorded from the region.

Neotropical Region

This region is bounded on the north by the Nearctic Region. There are only three species recorded from the region in this catalogue: Leucostoma simplex (Fallén), Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (introduced into South Africa and establishment unknown), and Voria ruralis (Fallén).

Sample distribution

A species recorded from all regions and subdivisions recognized here would be cited with the following distribution:

Afrotropical: Angola, Ascension, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, C.A. Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, D.R. Congo, Eq. Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Réunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, São Tomé & Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tristan da Cunha, Tromelin, U.A. Emirates, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (British Is., Scand., W. Eur., E. Eur., SW. Eur., SC. Eur., SE. Eur., Turkey) [or Europe (all), if recorded from all subdivisions], Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea (N. Korea, S. Korea), M. East (Israel, M. East) [or M. East (all)], Mongolia, N. Africa (Canary Is., Madeira, NW. Africa, NE. Africa) [or N. Africa (all)], Pal. China, Russia (W. Russia, W. Siberia, E. Siberia, N. Far East, S. Far East) [or Russia (all)], Transcaucasia. Oriental: Andaman & Nicobar Is., Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Christmas & Cocos Is., India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives etc., Myanmar, Nepal, Orien. China, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Is., Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam. Australasian: Australia, Hawaii, Melanesia, Micronesia, N. Australasian, New Zealand, Polynesia. Nearctic: [individual distribution]. Neotropical: [individual distribution].

Distributional data

Distributions within the Afrotropical Region

Distributions are cited for each species based on published records, examination of specimens in collections, and material collected by the authors (primarily PC) or made available to us by colleagues (see Acknowledgements). The principle source for published records was Crosskey (1980b), which was generally the starting point for the distributions cited here. Crosskey’s distributions were augmented or revised based on subsequent literature. As well, his generalized ranges given for widespread species were further detailed to the country level, as much as possible, using earlier literature. In such instances we cited Crosskey’s generalized range (e.g., “widespread trop. Afr. & sthn Afr.” for Hermya diabolus) and followed this with a list of countries for which we found records.

Distributions outside the Afrotropical Region

The primary sources for extralimital distributions were Herting (1984) and Herting and Dely-Draskovits (1993) for the Palaearctic Region, Fauna Europaea (Tschorsnig et al. 2004) for Europe, Tschorsnig and Báez (2002) for Spain, Portugal and Andorra (and associated islands), Cerretti and Freidberg (2009) for Israel, Cerretti (2010) for Italy, Dawah (2011) for Saudi Arabia, Zeegers (2007) for Yemen, Zeegers (2010) for United Arab Emirates, Richter (2004) for the Russian Far East, Shima (2014) for Japan, O’Hara et al. (2009) for China, Crosskey (1976) for the Oriental Region, Cantrell and Crosskey (1989) for the Australasian and Oceanian regions, Australian Faunal Directory (Ginn 2012) for Australia, O’Hara and Wood (2004) for America north of Mexico (herein as Nearctic Region), and Guimarães (1971) for America south of the United States (herein as Neotropical Region). Other literature on the Tachinidae published after the foregoing sources supplemented these primary references. See notes in O’Hara et al. (2009: 20) regarding the interpretation of records given as Mongolia and West and East Siberia in Herting and Dely-Draskovits (1993).

Classification

The classification adopted here recognizes the usual four subfamilies—Dexiinae, Exoristinae, Phasiinae and Tachininae—a classificatory scheme that has been generally accepted since the time of Herting’s (1984) Palaearctic catalogue (e.g., Wood 1987, Tschorsnig and Richter 1998, Ziegler 1998, O’Hara and Wood 2004, Richter 2004, O’Hara et al. 2009, Cerretti 2010, and Shima 2014). Crosskey (1980b) recognized five subfamilies, the aforementioned four (the Exoristinae as Goniinae) plus the Dufouriinae. The last was recognized by Verbeke (1962a) in his detailed study of tachinid male terminalia but most authors since Herting (1984) have afforded this taxon tribal status within the Dexiinae.

At the tribal level, the greatest difference between the classification of Crosskey (1980b) and modern works was in the treatment of what Crosskey (1973b, 1976) called the “Goniini-Carceliini-Sturmiini-Eryciini complex”. In general terms, the Goniini and Sturmiini of this complex are now united under Goniini and the other two are united under Eryciini (see O’Hara 2013 for a historical review). Females of the Goniini produce microtype eggs and those of the Eryciini produce macrotype eggs, but adult external morphology does not always separate them (e.g., Cerretti et al. 2015). This continues to be a problem for some Afrotropical taxa of GoniiniErycini of unknown reproductive habit and “ambiguous” external morphology.

A few tribes have been moved to other subfamilies since Crosskey (1980b). The Neaerini have been split into the Graphogastrini and Neaerini and transferred, along with the Siphonini, from the Exoristinae (as Goniinae) to the Tachininae. The genus Sarrorhina Villeneuve is moved herein from its placement by Crosskey (1980b) in the Minthoini (Tachininae) to the Graphogastrini, comb. n. The tribe Acemyini is retained in the Exoristinae where most authors, including Crosskey (1980b), have placed it. O’Hara and Wood (2004) and O’Hara et al. (2009) treated it under Tachininae but the recent phylogenetic studies of Cerretti et al. (2014) and Winkler et al. (2015) strongly support its placement in the Exoristinae.

The Campylochetini, Thelairiini, Voriini and Wagneriini were recognized as distinct tribes within the Tachininae by Crosskey (1980b). They have since been moved to the Dexiinae but there has been no consensus on how to treat them tribally with the exception of Wagneriini being included within the Voriini. O’Hara and Wood (2004) recognized the Campylochetini, Thelairiini and Voriini as distinct tribes, O’Hara et al. (2009) recognized only the Campylochetini and Voriini (with Thelairiini included in the latter), and other authors placed all of these taxa in the Voriini (e.g., Herting 1984, Tschorsnig and Herting 1994, Ziegler 1998, Cerretti 2010). We have elected to recognize the single tribe Voriini, which is consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of Cerretti et al. (2014).

The Eloceriini, Linnaemyini, and Loewiini were recognized as tribes (within the Tachininae) by Crosskey (1980b) and subsequent authors have treated them in various ways. These taxa, along with the Polideini (a non-Afrotropical tribe) and Bigonichetini (formerly the Triarthriini) are related in a manner that is not yet clear (O’Hara 2002, Cerretti et al. 2014). For present purposes we recognize two tribes in the Afrotropics, the Ernestiini (including Eloceriini, Linnaemyini and Loewiini) and Bigonichetini (represented by Trichactia Stein). Trichactia was the only member of the Eloceriini recognized from the Afrotropics by Crosskey (1980b) and is treated herein as the only member of the Bigonichetini.

The Eutherini, a small tribe with one of its two genera (Euthera Loew) present in the Afrotropics, have the distinction of being one of only two tribes in recent decades to have been treated in the Phasiinae by some authors (e.g., Crosskey 1980b, Herting 1984, Ziegler 1998, Richter 2004) and in the Dexiinae by others (e.g., Shima 1989, O’Hara and Wood 2004, Cerretti 2010). We follow the latter placement and consider the tribe as possibly a basal member of the subfamily, as first suggested by Shima (1989) and recently supported by Winkler et al. (2014, 2015).

The Imitomyiini have also been treated in the Phasiinae by some authors (e.g., Herting 1984, Richter 2004) and in the Dexiinae by others (e.g., O’Hara and Wood 2004, Cerretti 2010), but were placed by Crosskey (1980b) in the Dufouriinae following Verbeke (1962a). The tribe is placed in the Phasiinae herein as supported by the morphological analysis of Cerretti et al. (2014). Imitomyia Townsend with Diplopota Bezzi in synonymy was recognized as the sole Afrotropical genus of the Imitomyiini by Crosskey (1980b, 1984). Herting (1984) treated both Imitomyia and Diplopota as valid but the synonymy of Crosskey is followed here, as it was by O’Hara (2014).

Another tribe of enigmatic placement, the Strongygastrini, is newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region. The tribe has typically been considered an unusual member of the Phasiinae (because it is ovolarviparous and not restricted to parasitizing heteropterans) (e.g., Verbeke 1962a, Herting 1984, Tschorsnig 1985, Shima 2014) but has been treated in the Tachininae by some recent authors (e.g., O’Hara and Wood 2004, O’Hara et al. 2009, Cerretti 2010). The morphological analysis of Cerretti et al. (2014) and molecular analyses of Winkler et al. (2014, 2015) support the former view and this placement of the Strongygastrini in Phasiinae is followed herein. The Strongygastrini are represented in the Afrotropical Region by a single genus, Rondaniooestrus Villeneuve. Our treatment of Rondaniooestrus and the non-Afrotropical genus Strongygaster Macquart in the Strongygastrini (in Phasiinae) was first advanced by Verbeke (1962a). Crosskey (1980b) placed Rondaniooestrus in the monotypic tribe Rondaniooestrini in the Tachininae, but Tschorsnig (1985) tentatively agreed with Verbeke (1962a) and preliminary unpublished data arising from the Phylogeny and Evolution of World Tachinidae project (see Stireman et al. 2013 for project overview) also supports a close relationship between Rondaniooestrus and Strongygaster.

Crosskey (1976) noted similarities between the Glaurocarini and Ormiini but retained the two as separate tribes in the Tachininae, as did Crosskey (1980b). Tschorsnig (1985) combined them under the Ormiini and Ziegler (1998) supported this grouping. We prefer to recognize the Glaurocarini and Ormiini as distinct tribes pending further study of their relationships.

Within the Phasiinae, the Cinochirini of Crosskey (1980b) have been included within Leucostomatini since Herting (1984) and this arrangement is followed herein. Gymnosoma Meigen was placed in Phasiini by Crosskey (1980b) and Herting (1984) but Tschorsnig (1985) recognized a monophyletic Gymnosomatini based on derived features of the male terminalia. Included within Gymnosomatini were the Afrotropical genera Bogosia Rondani and Bogosiella Villeneuve and the New World genus Trichopoda Berthold. Contemporaneous and subsequent authors have been split in their treatment of the Gymnosoma group, some continuing to include it in the Phasiini (e.g., Barraclough 1985a, Tschorsnig and Herting 1994, Richter 2004, O’Hara et al. 2009, Cerretti 2010, Shima 2014) and others recognizing it as a tribe (e.g., Ziegler 1998, O’Hara and Wood 2004). Trichopoda (of unconfirmed presence as an introduction in South Africa) and related genera have continued to be treated in the literature in the Trichopodini (O’Hara and Wood 2004, Cerretti 2010). However, the recent analysis of Cerretti (2014) and our own studies provide support for the Gymnosomatini sensu Tschorsnig (1985) and we recognize this tribe herein with the genera Bogosia, Bogosiella, Gymnosoma and Trichopoda. Based on our own research we transfer herein Paraclara Bezzi (as Clara Brauer & Bergenstamm in Crosskey 1980b) from the Cylindromyiini to Hermyini, comb. n.

With respect to the priority of family-group names, Sabrosky (1999) is followed unless otherwise noted. We recognize subfamilies, tribes (but not subtribes), genera, subgenera, species, and in rare instances (in deference to existing literature) subspecies (only for the three species Trigonospila prasius Mesnil, Siphona fuliginea Mesnil and Siphona reducta Mesnil).

Review of generic changes since Crosskey’s Afrotropical catalogue

There has been no dramatic reappraisal of the Afrotropical genera of Tachinidae since Crosskey (1980b) but instead a steady succession of taxonomic papers that have introduced gradual changes to the generic classification over the past 35 years. The genera involved and associated references are listed in this section as a review of the changes that have shaped the current generic classification of Afrotropical Tachinidae. The section “Summary of new taxonomic and nomenclatural changes” gives the changes to the current classification that are introduced in this catalogue.

Three lists are given in this section. In the first list that follows are the genera and subgenera that have been described or recorded from the Afrotropical Region since Crosskey (1980b), or were treated under other generic names in that work and have since been recognized as valid names.

Acemya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Zeegers 2007, 2010).

Amnonia Kugler, 1971 (Zeegers 2010).

Anomalostomyia Cerretti & Barraclough, 2007.

Apomorphomyia Crosskey, 1984.

Brachychaetoides Mesnil, 1970 (treated as a synonym of Chlorolydella Townsend, 1933 by Crosskey (1980b) but reinstated as a valid name by Crosskey (1984)).

Calliethilla Shima, 1979 (Cerretti 2012).

Calyptromyia Villeneuve, 1915 (Dear 1981).

Campylocheta Rondani, 1859 (as Elpe Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 in Crosskey (1980b), a genus subsequently synonymized with Campylocheta).

Chryserycia Mesnil, 1977 (described from Madagascar by Mesnil (1977b), a paper missing from Crosskey (1980b)).

Clairvilliops Mesnil, 1959 (treated as a synonym of Dionaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b) and as a synonym of Clairvillia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1984) but subsequently recognized as a valid name).

Clausicella Rondani, 1856 (as Istoglossa Rondani, 1856 in Crosskey (1980b), a genus subsequently synonymized with Clausicella).

Conopomima Mesnil, 1978 (published too late to be included in Crosskey (1980b) but was listed in the simultaneously published Appendix of Crosskey (1980a)).

Crassicornia Kugler, 1980.

Dionomelia Kugler, 1978 (Zeegers 2010).

Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (as Dolichodexia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 in Crosskey (1980b), a genus subsequently synonymized with Estheria).

Eugaedioxenis Cerretti, O’Hara & Stireman, 2015 (Cerretti et al. 2015).

Exoristella Herting, 1984 as subgenus of Exorista Meigen, 1803.

Istocheta Rondani, 1859 (as Prosopofrontina Townsend, 1926 in Crosskey (1980b), a genus subsequently synonymized with Istocheta).

Kaiseriola Mesnil, 1970 (treated as a synonym of Diaprochaeta Mesnil, 1970 by Crosskey (1980b) but reinstated as a valid name by Crosskey (1984)).

Kuwanimyia Townsend, 1916 (Cerretti 2009b).

Lydella Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (as Metoposisyrops Townsend, 1916 in Crosskey (1980b), a genus synonymized with Lydella by Woodley (1994)).

Mediosetiger Barraclough, 1983.

Meigenia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Zeegers 2007).

Minthosoma Zeegers, 2007.

Montanothalma Barraclough, 1996.

Myxogaedia Mesnil, 1956 (treated as a synonym of Pretoriana Curran, 1938 by Crosskey (1980b) and changed to the valid name of the genus by O’Hara (2011)).

Nardia Cerretti, 2009.

Nealsomyia Mesnil, 1939 (Cerretti 2005).

Neophryxe Townsend, 1916 (Cerretti 2012).

Nilea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (recorded from Madagascar by Mesnil (1977b), a paper missing from Crosskey (1980b)).

Ossidingia Townsend, 1919 (treated as a synonym of Nemorilla Rondani, 1856 by Crosskey (1980b) but reinstated as a valid name by Crosskey (1984)).

Paraclara Bezzi, 1908 (treated as a synonym of Clara Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 by Crosskey (1980b) but corrected to the valid name of the genus in the simultaneously published Appendix of Crosskey (1980a)).

Phasia Latreille, 1804 (as Alophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 in Crosskey (1980b), a genus subsequently synonymized with Phasia).

Piligenoides Barraclough, 1985.

Pseudalsomyia Mesnil, 1968 (Cerretti 2012).

Ptilotachina Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 as subgenus of Exorista Meigen, 1803.

Ramonella Kugler, 1980 (Zeegers 2007).

Rhinophoroides Barraclough, 2005.

Rhynchogonia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893 (Zeegers 2010).

Rossimyiops Mesnil, 1953 (Cerretti et al. 2009).

Schembria Rondani, 1861 (Crosskey 1984, Barraclough 1991).

Senometopia Macquart, 1834 was treated as a subgenus of Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been recognized as a separate genus.

Smidtia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (as Timavia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 in Crosskey (1980b), a genus subsequently synonymized with Smidtia).

Spixomyia Crosskey, 1967 as subgenus of Exorista Meigen, 1803.

Stomina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (undetermined species noted by Mesnil (1975a), Crosskey (1984) and Zeegers (2007)).

Stylocarcelia Zeegers, 2007.

Thrixion Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 (Zeegers 2007).

Trichopoda Berthold, 1827 (two species introduced into South Africa in the 1990s but no confirmation of establishment).

In the second list below are given genus-group names that have changed status since Crosskey (1980b). Some are treated as the valid names of subgenera in the current literature but none as the valid name of a genus. Names mentioned in the comments in the list above are not repeated here (i.e., Alophora, Clara, Dolichodexia, Elpe, Istoglossa, Metoposisyrops, Pretoriana, Prosopofrontina, and Timavia).

Alophorella Townsend, 1912 was treated as a subgenus of Alophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b). It is currently recognized as a synonym of Phasia Latreille, 1804. Subgenera of Phasia are not recognized herein because the Afrotropical species have been insufficiently studied.

Asiphona Mesnil, 1954 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been synonymized with Siphona subgenus Aphantorhaphopsis Townsend, 1926.

Carcelita Mesnil, 1975 was treated as a nomen nudum by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been recognized as a subgenus of Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (e.g., Cerretti and Freidberg 2009).

Caricelia Mesnil, 1975 was treated as a subgenus of Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been synonymized with Carcelia subgenus Carcelita Mesnil, 1975.

Ceranthia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been recognized as a subgenus of Siphona Meigen, 1803.

Cuphocera Macquart, 1845 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been synonymized with Peleteria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.

Elfia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1850 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been synonymized with Phytomyptera Rondani, 1845 (a genus also recognized as valid by Crosskey 1980b).

Mapolomyia Verbeke, 1960 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been synonymized with Cahenia Verbeke, 1960 by Crosskey (1984).

Mormonomyia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 was treated as a subgenus of Alophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b). It is currently recognized as a synonym of Phasia Latreille, 1804. Subgenera of Phasia are not recognized herein because the Afrotropical species have been insufficiently studied.

Palexorista Townsend, 1921 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been recognized as a subgenus of Drino Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863.

Phaniola Mesnil, 1978 was listed as a genus by Crosskey (1981a) in the Appendix to the Afrotropical catalogue but was placed in synonymy with Catapariprosopa Townsend, 1927 by Crosskey (1984).

Podotachina Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 was treated as a synonym of Exorista Meigen, 1803 by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been recognized as a subgenus of Exorista.

Stomatomyia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been recognized as a subgenus of Chetogena Rondani, 1856. Subgenera of Chetogena are not recognized herein because the Afrotropical species have been insufficiently studied.

Tricoliga Rondani, 1856 was treated as a synonym of Exorista Meigen, 1803 by Crosskey (1980b, spelled as Thrycolyga) but has subsequently been recognized as a subgenus of Exorista.

Trypherosoma Verbeke, 1962 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but was subsequently synonymized with Gynandromyia Bezzi, 1923 by Crosskey (1984).

Zelindomyia Verbeke, 1962 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but was subsequently synonymized with Gynandromyia Bezzi, 1923 by Crosskey (1984).

Ziminiola Mesnil, 1978 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but is a junior homonym of Ziminiola Gerasimov, 1930 and has subsequently been replaced by the name Mesnilus Özdikmen, 2007.

Zygobothria Mik, 1891 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but has subsequently been recognized as a subgenus of Drino Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863.

In the third list below are given the genus-group names that were treated as valid by Crosskey (1980b) and are still valid but the genera are no longer recognized from the Afrotropical Region.

Clairvillia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but the single Afrotropical species assigned to it (Clairvillia breviforceps van Emden, 1954) has subsequently been placed under Clairvilliops Mesnil, 1959.

Dexiotrix Villeneuve, 1936 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but the single Afrotropical species assigned to it (Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976) was reassigned to Trixa Meigen, 1824 by Zhang and Shima 2005. Dexiotrix empiformis is reassigned to Mesnilotrix gen. n. herein.

Dionaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but the single Afrotropical species assigned to it (Dionaea inermis Mesnil, 1959) has subsequently been placed in synonymy with Clairvilliops breviforceps (van Emden, 1954).

Gymnophryxe Villeneuve, 1922 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but the single Afrotropical species assigned to it (Archiclops africanum Mesnil, 1968) was moved to Brachychaetoides Mesnil, 1970 by Crosskey (1984).

Recent family reassignment of copal inclusions from East Africa

Two copal inclusions from East Africa were believed to be Baltic amber fossils of Tachinidae until Grimaldi et al. (1994) corrected their age and geographic origin. After study of the inclusions, O’Hara et al. (2013) determined that Paleotachina smithii Townsend (1921: 134) is a junior synonym of Aethiopomyia gigas (Stein, 1906) in the family Muscidae and Electrotachina smithii Townsend (1938a: 166) is a species, possibly extant, belonging to the genus Dolichotachina Villeneuve (1913b: 112) in the family Sarcophagidae. Both Paleotachina and Electrotachina were described as monotypic genera with P. smithii and E. smithii as their type species, respectively. Neither inclusion was thought to be of East African origin at the time of Crosskey (1980a, b).

Summary of new taxonomic and nomenclatural changes

New genera and species

Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara. Type species: Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, by designation herein. Gen. n.

Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara. Type species: Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n., by designation herein. Gen. n.

Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (Malawi).

Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (South Africa).

Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara. Type species: Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, by designation herein. Gen. n.

Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara. Type species: Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, by designation herein. Gen. n.

Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda).

Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara. Type species: Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, by designation herein. Gen. n.

Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara. Type species: Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, by designation herein. Gen. n.

Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (South Africa).

Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (South Africa).

Myxophryxe satanas Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (South Africa).

Stiremania Cerretti & O’Hara. Type species: Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n., by designation herein. Gen. n.

Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (South Africa).

Stiremania robusta Cerretti & O’Hara. Sp. n. (South Africa).

Genera newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region

The following genera are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region based on species that were placed in other genera by Crosskey (1980b).

Madremyia Townsend, 1916 (one species placed in Phryxe Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b)). New record.

Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (two species placed in Medina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b)). New record.

The following genus is newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region based on a described species not previously reported from the region.

Simoma Aldrich, 1926 (based on new record of Simoma grahami Aldrich). New record.

Genera no longer recognized from the Afrotropical Region

The following genera, which are currently recorded from the Afrotropical Region in the literature (e.g., O’Hara 2014), are no longer recognized from the region.

Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 [Oriental; also Australasian and Palaearctic]. The two species placed under Calozenillia by Crosskey (1980b: 869, as new combinations) are moved herein to the reinstated genus Perlucidina Mesnil, 1952 (treated as a synonym of Calozenillia by Crosskey (1980b)).

Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 [Palaearctic; also Oriental and Australasian]. The single species recognized under Eurysthaea by Crosskey (1980b: 878), Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927, is moved herein to “Unplaced species of Goniini”.

Trixa Meigen, 1824 [Palaearctic; also Oriental]. Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976 from Madagascar was transferred to Trixa by Zhang and Shima (2005: 59), resulting in the first record of the genus from the Afrotropical Region. Dexiotrix empiformis is reassigned to Mesnilotrix gen. n. herein.

Species newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region

The following species are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region. New country records for Afrotropical species are noted in the Catalogue section.

Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 (Ethiopia, Kenya).

Simoma grahami Aldrich, 1926 (Namibia).

Species misidentified or misrecorded from the Afrotropical Region

Species that are newly recognized as misidentified or misrecorded from the Afrotropical Region are listed here.

Euthera peringueyi Bezzi, 1925 [Oriental]. The type locality was originally given as “Chabra, Congo” and on this basis E. peringueyi was recorded from “Congo: Chabra” by van Emden (1960: 383), from “‘Congo’ [? Zaire]: Chabra” and India by Crosskey (1976: 175), and from “‘Congo’” and India by Crosskey (1980b: 829). The type locality is recognized herein as Chapra in West Bengal, India and E. peringueyi is no longer recorded from the Afrotropical Region.

Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860 [Australasian; also Oriental and Palaearctic]. Recorded from Tanzania by Verbeke (1960: 335) and from “? E. Africa” by Crosskey (1976: 184); not listed in Crosskey (1980b). Treated herein as misidentified from the Afrotropical Region.

Leucostoma tetraptera (Meigen, 1824) [Palaearctic]. Recorded from Botswana, Nigeria and South Africa by Crosskey (1980b: 829), probably based on misidentifications.

New replacement names

Five new names are proposed for preoccupied names of Afrotropical species. Preoccupied names that are currently recognized as junior synonyms are not renamed in this work.

Billaea rubida O’Hara & Cerretti is proposed as a nomen novum for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916, a name preoccupied in the genus Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781 [Nearctic]. Nom. n.

Cylindromyia braueri O’Hara & Cerretti is proposed as a nomen novum for Ocyptera nigra Villeneuve, 1918, a name preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885 [Neotropical]. Nom. n.

Cylindromyia rufohumera O’Hara & Cerretti is proposed as a nomen novum for Ocyptera scapularis Villeneuve, 1944, a junior primary homonym of Ocyptera scapularis Loew, 1845 [Palaearctic]. Nom. n.

Phytomyptera longiarista O’Hara & Cerretti is proposed as a nomen novum for Phytomyzoneura aristalis Villeneuve, 1936, a name preoccupied in the genus Phytomyptera Rondani, 1845 by Phasiostoma aristalis Townsend, 1915 [Nearctic]. Nom. n.

Siphona (Siphona) pretoriana O’Hara & Cerretti is proposed as a nomen novum for Siphona laticornis Curran, 1941, a name preoccupied in the genus Siphona Meigen, 1803 by Actia laticornis Malloch, 1930 [Oriental]. Nom. n.

New type species fixations

Article 70.3.2 of the Code (ICZN 1999) allows the type species of a nominal genus to be fixed as the species intended by the original author if the type species designated by that author was misidentified. We have invoked Article 70.3.2 for the two instances of misidentified type species in this catalogue that had not been dealt with previously (e.g., O’Hara and Wood 2004, O’Hara et al. 2009) to preserve the current concepts of the genera involved. Type species are fixed for the following nominal genera (see Catalogue section for further details).

Lydellina Villeneuve, 1916c: 490. Type species newly fixed as Lydellina villeneuvei Townsend, 1933. Valid generic name.

Sericophoromyia Austen, 1909: 95. Type species newly fixed as Tachina quadrata Wiedemann, 1830. Synonym of Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.

Lectotype designations

Lectotypes are designated for the following nominal species (see Lectotype Designations section).

Degeeria crocea Villeneuve, 1950. This is a valid name in the genus Medina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, as Medina crocea (Villeneuve).

Degeeria semirufa Villeneuve, 1950. This is a valid name in the genus Medina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, as Medina semirufa (Villeneuve).

Erycia brunnescens Villeneuve, 1934. This is a valid name in the genus Thelairosoma Villeneuve, 1916, as Thelairosoma brunnescens (Villeneuve).

Exorista oculata Villeneuve, 1910. This is a valid name in the genus Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (subgenus Carcelita Mesnil, 1975), as Carcelia (Carcelita) oculata (Villeneuve).

Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938. This is a valid name in the genus Kiniatilla Villeneuve, 1938.

Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916. This is a valid name in the genus Myxarchiclops Villeneuve, 1916.

Ocyptera linearis Villeneuve, 1936. This is a junior synonym in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803. The valid name of the species is Cylindromyia soror (Wiedemann, 1830).

Peristasisea luteola Villeneuve, 1934. This is a valid name in the genus Peristasisea Villeneuve, 1934.

Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938. This valid name is designated as the type species of Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n.

New and revived status

Changes to genus-group names

Bogosiella Villeneuve, 1923, which was synonymized with Phasia Latreille, 1804 by Sun and Marshall (2003: 19), is reinstated as a valid name. Status revived.

Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, which was treated as a junior synonym of Sumpigaster Macquart, 1855 by Crosskey (1980b: 842, 1984: 252), is reinstated as a valid name. Status revived.

Perlucidina Mesnil, 1952, which was synonymized with Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 by Crosskey (1980b: 869) and retained in synonymy by Crosskey (1984: 199), is reinstated as a valid name. Status revived.

Thelymyiops Mesnil, 1950, which was originally proposed as a subgenus of Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and was treated as such by Crosskey (1980b: 866, 1984: 279), is removed from Carcelia and elevated to full genus status. Status n.

Changes to species-group names

Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908, which was treated as a junior synonym of Actia zonaria Loew, 1847 in the genus Besseria Robineau-Desvoidy by Crosskey (1980b: 826), is elevated to valid name Besseria fossulata Bezzi. Status revived.

Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950, which was treated as a junior synonym of Degeeria lateralis Villeneuve, 1950 in the genus Medina Robineau-Desvoidy by Crosskey (1980b: 857), is elevated to valid name Medina cinctella (Villeneuve). Status revived.

Nemoraea miranda intacta Villeneuve, 1916, which was treated as a valid name by Curran (1936: 14) and later as a junior synonym of Nemoraea miranda Villeneuve, 1916 by Crosskey (1980b: 843), is elevated to valid name Nemoraea intacta Villeneuve. Status revived.

Succingulum exiguum Villeneuve, 1935, which was treated as a junior synonym of Succingulum mista Villeneuve, 1913 in the genus Trigonospila Pokorny by Crosskey (1980b: 858), is elevated to valid name Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve). Status revived.

Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, which was treated as a junior synonym of Wagneria rufitibia Villeneuve, 1938 in the genus Periscepsia Gistl by Crosskey (1980b: 839), is elevated to valid name Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil). Status n.

Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, which was treated as a junior synonym of Wagneria rufitibia Villeneuve, 1938 in the genus Periscepsia Gistl by Crosskey (1980b: 839), is elevated to valid name Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil). Status n.

New and revived combinations

New and revived combinations proposed in this work are listed below. These are based on the study of type material, authoritatively identified specimens, and/or descriptions and figures in the literature by PC.

Afrosturmia orbitalis Curran, 1927 (type species of Afrosturmia Curran) is moved from its original placement in Afrosturmia to Blepharella Macquart (with Afrosturmia in synonymy). Comb. n.

Alsomyia chloronitens Mesnil, 1977, which was published too late to be included in Crosskey (1980b), is moved to Nealsomyia Mesnil. Comb. n.

Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923 (type species of Bogosiella Villeneuve) is returned to Bogosiella from its placement in Phasia Latreille by Sun and Marshall (2003: 19). Comb. revived.

Campylochaeta violacea Curran, 1927 is moved to Brachychaetoides Mesnil from its placement in Chlorolydella Townsend by Crosskey (1980b: 877, 1984: 286). Comb. n.

Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is moved to Goniini, and treated as an unplaced species within the tribe, from its placement in Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy by Crosskey (1980b: 878, 1984: 295). Comb. n.

Degeeria profana Karsch, 1888 is moved to Sturmia Robineau-Desvoidy from its placement in “Unplaced species of Goniinae” by Crosskey (1980b: 881). Comb. n.

Dexia buccata van Emden, 1947 is moved to Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy from its treatment as a “species of uncertain generic affiliation” by Crosskey (1984: 240). Comb. n.

Dexiomera surda Curran, 1933 (type species of Dexiomera Curran) is moved from its original placement in Dexiomera to Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy (with Dexiomera in synonymy). Comb. n.

Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976 is moved to Mesnilotrix gen. n. from its placement in Trixa Meigen by Zhang and Shima (2005: 59). Comb. n.

Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939 (type species of Dyshypostena Villeneuve) is returned to Dyshypostena Villeneuve from its placement in Sumpigaster Macquart by Crosskey (1980b: 842, 1984: 252). Comb. revived.

Exorista africana Jaennicke, 1867 is moved to Perlucidina Mesnil from its placement in Calozenillia Townsend by Crosskey (1980b: 869, 1984: 281). Comb. n.

Exorista perlucida Karsch, 1886 (type species of Perlucidina Mesnil) is returned to Perlucidina from its placement in Calozenillia Townsend by Crosskey (1980b: 869, 1984: 281). Comb. revived.

Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is moved to Leskiini, and treated as an unplaced species within the tribe, from its original placement in Hemiwinthemia Verbeke. Comb. n.

Kinangopana edwardsi van Emden, 1960 (type species of Kinangopana van Emden) is moved from its original placement in Kinangopana to Dyshypostena Villeneuve (with Kinangopana in synonymy). Comb. n.

Metadrinomyia whitmorei Cerretti, 2012 is moved to Charitella Mesnil from its original placement in Metadrinomyia Shima. Comb. n.

Ocyptera retroflexa Villeneuve, 1944 is moved to Prolophosia Townsend from its placement in Cylindromyia Meigen by Crosskey (1980b: 827). Comb. n.

Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952 is returned to Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm from its placement in Medina Robineau-Desvoidy by Crosskey (1980b: 857). Comb. revived.

Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952 is returned to Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm from its placement in Medina Robineau-Desvoidy by Crosskey (1980b: 857). Comb. revived.

Phorocera clausa Curran, 1940 is moved to Nealsomyia Mesnil from its placement in “Unplaced species of Goniinae” by Crosskey (1980b: 881). Comb. n.

Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938 is moved to Carceliathrix gen. n. (and designated as its type species) from its placement in “Unplaced species of Carceliini” by Crosskey (1980b: 867). Comb. n.

Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938 is moved to Myxophryxe gen. n. (and designated as its type species) from its placement in Pretoriana Curran, 1938 by Crosskey (1980b: 879). Comb. n.

Phryxe setinervis Mesnil, 1968 is moved to Madremyia Townsend from its original placement in Phryxe Robineau-Desvoidy. Comb. n.

Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910 is moved to Afrophylax gen. n. (and designated as its type species) from its placement in “Unplaced species of Carceliini” by Crosskey (1980b: 867). Comb. n.

Sturmia longicauda Mesnil, 1970 is moved to Nilea Robineau-Desvoidy from its original placement in Sturmia Robineau-Desvoidy. Comb. n.

Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927 is moved to Filistea gen. n. (and designated as its type species) from its placement in “Unplaced species of Tachinidae” by Crosskey (1980b: 881). Comb. n.

New and revived synonymies

New and revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the names below. As with the new and revived combinations listed above, they result from the study of type material, authoritatively identified specimens, and/or descriptions and figures in the literature by PC.

Afrosturmia Curran, 1927, which was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b: 867, 1984: 283), is synonymized with Blepharella Macquart, 1851. Syn. n.

Archiphania van Emden, 1945 was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b) but was synonymized with Catharosia Rondani, 1868 by Crosskey (1984). Zeegers (2007) recognized Archiphania as a genus but we follow Crosskey (1984) in treating it as a synonym of Catharosia. Syn. revived.

Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 is synonymized with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908. The current combination is Besseria fossulata Bezzi. Syn. n.

Dexiomera Curran, 1933, which was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b: 832, 1984: 239), is synonymized with Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. Syn. n.

Hemiwinthemia francoisi Verbeke, 1973, which was overlooked by Crosskey (1980b) and later treated as a species of Hemiwinthemia Villeneuve by Crosskey (1984: 201), is synonymized with Nemoraea capensis Schiner, 1868. The current combination is Smidtia capensis (Schiner). Syn. n.

Kinangopana van Emden, 1960, which was treated as a genus by Crosskey (1980b: 841, 1984: 252), is synonymized with Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939. Syn. n.

Metadrinomyia Shima, 1980 is synonymized with Charitella Mesnil, 1957. Syn. n.

Phorocera majestica Curran, 1940 is synonymized with Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938. The current combination is Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve). Syn. n.

Podomyia discalis Curran, 1939 is synonymized with Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904. The current combination is Antistasea fimbriata Bischof. Syn. n.

Catalogue

Subfamily DEXIINAE (Fig. 3)

Figure 3.

Live specimen of Chaetodexia sp. (Dexiini, Dexiinae) from Andasibe, Madagascar (image courtesy of S.A. Marshall).

Tribe DEXIINI

Genus BILLAEA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

BILLAEA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 328. Type species: Billaea grisea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Dexia pectinata Meigen, 1826), by monotypy [Palaearctic].

OMALOGASTER Macquart, 1834: 51 [also 1834: 187]. Type species: Billaea grisea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Dexia pectinata Meigen, 1826), by subsequent designation of Townsend (1916b: 8) [Palaearctic].

GIGAMYIA Macquart, 1844: 115 [also 1844: 272]. Type species: Stomoxys gigantea Wiedemann, 1824, by original designation.

HOMALOGASTER Agassiz, 1846b: 184. Unjustified emendation of Omalogaster Macquart, 1834.

PARAPROSENA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 127 [also 1890: 59]. Type species: Paraprosena waltlii Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 (= Dexia marmorata Meigen, 1838), by monotypy [Palaearctic].

GYMNODEXIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 364 [also 1891: 60]. Type species: Dexia triangulifera Zetterstedt, 1844, by subsequent designation of Brauer (1893: 505) [Palaearctic].

AMPHIBOLIOPSIS Townsend, 1926b: 538. Type species: Gymnostylia minor Villeneuve, 1913, by original designation.

CHAETOBILLAEA Mesnil, 1976: 44 (as subgenus of Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Type species: Billaea (Chaetobillaea) communis Mesnil, 1976, by original designation.

africana (Villeneuve, 1935).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania.

Paraprosena marmorata africana Villeneuve, 1935a: 138. Syntypes, 5 males (possibly 1 male in CNC). Type locality: Kenya.

Billaea neavei van Emden, 1947: 643. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Marsabit [as “Marsabit, Rendili Njoro, N. Frontier District”].

Note: Cooper and O’Hara (1996: 58) recorded a male in CNC as a syntype of Paraprosena marmorata africana Villeneuve, 1935. The specimen is from “Ilesha, S. Nigeria”, which is not the type locality of “l’Afrique orientale anglaise” [= Kenya] given by Villeneuve (1935a: 138). However, the CNC specimen bears a handwritten Villeneuve type label and is perhaps one of the five males mentioned in the original description.

capensis van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Billaea capensis van Emden, 1947: 645. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, 40 miles from Cape Town, Viljoen’s Pass [as “Viljoeus Pass”, ca. 34°5′S 19°3′E].

communis Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Billaea (Chaetobillaea) communis Mesnil, 1976: 45. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Manjakatompo [ca. 19°21′S 47°18′E].

decisa (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Gymnodexia decisa Curran, 1927a: 7. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

edwardsi (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Paraprosena edwardsi van Emden, 1947: 658. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], Mobuku Valley, 7300ft.

gigantea (Wiedemann, 1824).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Stomoxys gigantea Wiedemann, 1824: 41. Type(s), female (1 syntype in ZMUC, Zimsen 1954: 21). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Prom. bon. sp.” = “Promontorium Bonae Spei”].

grandis Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Billaea (Chaetobillaea) grandis Mesnil, 1976: 46. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, “Andohahelo” [presumably Parc National d’Andohahela], 1800m.

interrupta (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Gymnodexia interrupta Curran, 1927a: 8. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

Note: Billaea interrupta (Curran, 1927) is a senior secondary homonym of B. interrupta (Curran, 1929), a name currently treated as valid in the Nearctic Region (O’Hara and Wood 2004: 23). The junior homonym, B. interrupta (Curran, 1929), is not renamed here but will be dealt with in a future publication on Nearctic Tachinidae.

lateralis (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Gymnodexia lateralis Curran, 1927a: 6. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

lativentris van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: Kenya.

Billaea lativentris van Emden, 1947: 646. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Mt. Elgon, 10,500–11,500ft.

minor (Villeneuve, 1913).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda.

Gymnostylia minor Villeneuve, 1913c: 37. Lectotype male (SAMC, examined by JEOH), by fixation of Townsend (1938b: 316) (mention of “Ht male” from Natal in Rambouillet [Villeneuve’s personal collection, since dispersed] is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (Newcastle according to label data).

Note: Gymnostylia minor Villeneuve, 1913 was described from two males, one from “Natal” (South Africa) and the other from Kericho (Kenya) and dated “27-XI-1911”. Villeneuve (1913c: 37) gave the depository for the syntype from Kericho as BMNH but the specimen there is dated “20.I.1913” (D. Whitmore, pers. comm.). The specimen collected on the correct date is in CNC (Brooks et al. 2007: 33) and it is accepted here as the paralectotype. Arnaud (1982: 12) cited a “type” from Kenya in MSNM but did not provide data supporting its status as an original syntype. The male in SAMC labelled “Natal, Newcastle” is assumed to be the lectotype fixed by Townsend (1938b: 316).

orbitalis van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Billaea orbitalis van Emden, 1947: 644. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Malgas [as “Malagas”].

ovata Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Billaea (Chaetobillaea) ovata Mesnil, 1976: 45. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Ranohira.

rhingiaeformis van Emden, 1959.—Afrotropical: Ethiopia.

Billaea rhingiaeformis van Emden, 1959: 186. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Ethiopia, Simien Mountains, Lori, 11,500ft [ca. 13°17′N 38°12′E, see map in Scott (1958, inserted between pp. 58–59)].

rubida O’Hara & Cerretti, nom. n.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916c: 504 (junior secondary homonym of Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781). Syntypes, males (1 male in CNC, MSNM [1 “cotype” according to Arnaud 1982: 13], 7 males in SAMC [examined by JEOH]). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal.

Billaea rubida O’Hara & Cerretti, nom. n. for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916.

Note: Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916 is a junior secondary homonym of Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781, the valid name of a Nearctic species of Billaea (O’Hara and Wood 2004: 23). We hereby propose the new name Billaea rubida to replace the preoccupied name Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve. The same type material applies to the new name. The specific epithet rubida is formed from the Latin rubidus, meaning reddish, alluding to the reddish portions of the abdomen mentioned in the original description and which presumably inspired Villeneuve’s name rutilans.

setosa (Macquart, 1844).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Gymnostylia setosa Macquart, 1844: 88 [also 1844: 245]. Syntypes, males and females (lost, Crosskey 1971: 271). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Cap”].

sjostedti Speiser, 1910.—Afrotropical: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.

Billaea sjostedti Speiser, 1910: 146 (as “sjöstedti”). Lectotype male (NHRS), by fixation of Villeneuve (1914a: 439) (mention of “type (♂)” in NHRS is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: Tanzania, Mt. Kilimanjaro [as “Kilimandjaro”].

Note: Billaea sjostedti Speiser, 1910 was described from two males from the area of “Kilimandjaro”, with one male further restricted to “Kibonoto” [now Kibongoto] at 1000m. Villeneuve (1914a: 439) did not specify which of the two males is the “type (♂)” that he examined, but it is presumed to be identifiable (and distinguishable from the other syntype, if still extant) in NHRS as the syntype accepted here as lectotype.

solivaga Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Billaea (Chaetobillaea) solivaga Mesnil, 1976: 46. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

vanemdeni Fennah, 1959.—Afrotropical: Ghana.

Billaea vanemdeni Fennah, 1959: 682. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Ghana, Tafo, West African Cacao Research Institute.

velutina Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Billaea velutina Mesnil, 1976: 42. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, south of Moramanga, Ampetameloka, 840m.

versicolor (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Gymnodexia versicolor Curran, 1927a: 7. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

villeneuvei (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Gymnodexia villeneuvei Curran, 1927a: 5. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

vitripennis Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Billaea (Homalogaster) vitripennis Mesnil, 1950d: 116. Syntypes, males and females (“Plusieurs exemplaires”) (1 male in CNC). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Hurungwe [as “Urungwe”], Gota Gota.

Genus CHAETODEXIA Mesnil, 1976

CHAETODEXIA Mesnil, 1976: 49. Type species: Chaetodexia keiseri Mesnil, 1976, by original designation.

keiseri Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Chaetodexia keiseri Mesnil, 1976: 50. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Joffreville.

nigrescens Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Chaetodexia keiseri nigrescens Mesnil, 1976: 50. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

pallida Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Chaetodexia pallida Mesnil, 1976: 50. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Ambatolahy [ca. 19°54′S 45°23′E].

trilineata Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Chaetodexia trilineata Mesnil, 1976: 51. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vohiparara [within Parc National de Ranomafana, which is located at ca. 21°13′S 47°26′E].

Genus DEXIA Meigen, 1826

DEXIA Meigen, 1826: 33. Type species: Musca rustica Fabricius, 1775, by designation under the Plenary Powers of ICZN (1988: 74) [Palaearctic].

DEXILLA Westwood, 1840: 140. Type species: Musca rustica Fabricius, 1775, by original designation [Palaearctic].

aurohumera van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: Mozambique.

Dexia aurohumera van Emden, 1947: 634. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Mozambique, Maputo [as “Lorenzo Marques”].

capensis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.—Afrotropical: Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania.

Dexia capensis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 314. Type(s), unspecified sex (MNHN or lost). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Cap de Bonne-Espérance”].

Dexia afra Curran, 1927f: 104. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

cuthbertsoni (Curran, 1941).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe.

Dexilla cuthbertsoni Curran, 1941: 1. Holotype female (AMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Vumba Mountains.

Dexilla bequaerti Curran, 1941: 2. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: Liberia, Du River Camp No. 3.

Note: The relative priority of Dexilla cuthbertsoni Curran, 1941 and Dexilla bequaerti Curran, 1941, when the two are treated as synonyms, was established by van Emden (1947: 637), as the First Reviser (Article 24.2.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999).

inappendiculata Austen, 1909.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Uganda.

Dexia inappendiculata Austen, 1909: 97. Syntypes, 2 males (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], 7000–8000ft.

Dexia monticola Villeneuve, 1935a: 137. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], 1900m.

orphne Curran, 1927.—Afrotropical: Kenya.

Dexia orphne Curran, 1927f: 105. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Amboseli National Park [as “Southern Masai Reserve”].

pollinosa Villeneuve, 1943.—Afrotropical: Nigeria, Tanzania.

Dexia pollinosa Villeneuve, 1943b: 94. Syntypes, 2 males (1 male in CNC). Type locality: northern Nigeria, Abinsi.

rhodesia (Curran, 1941).—Afrotropical: Ghana, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Dexilla rhodesia Curran, 1941: 2. Holotype female (AMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

torneutopoda (Speiser, 1914).—Afrotropical: Cameroon, Nigeria.

Dolichodexia torneutopoda Speiser, 1914: 10. Syntypes, 2 males (1 syntype in SDEI, Rohlfien and Ewald 1974: 145). Type locality: Cameroon.

Dexia venusta Curran, 1927f: 105. Holotype male (SDEI). Type locality: southern Nigeria [as “N. Cameroons”; Northern Cameroons became part of Nigeria in 1961].

uelensis van Emden, 1954.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Dexia uelensis van Emden, 1954: 551. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Uele, Bambesa.

uniseta Curran, 1927.—Afrotropical: Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.

Dexia uniseta Curran, 1927f: 105. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Weenen [ca. 28°51′S 30°4′E].

varivittata Curran, 1927.—Afrotropical: Cameroon, Kenya, Tanzania.

Dexia varivittata Curran, 1927f: 106. Holotype male (SDEI). Type locality: Cameroon (not Nigeria as published, Crosskey 1980b: 832), Buea [ca. 4°10′N 9°14′E].

Genus DINERA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

DINERA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 307. Type species: Dinera grisea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Musca carinifrons Fallén, 1817), by subsequent designation of Townsend (1916b: 6) [Palaearctic].

PHOROSTOMA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 326. Type species: Phorostoma subrotunda Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Musca ferina Fallén, 1817), by monotypy [Palaearctic].

MYOCERA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 328. Type species: Myocera longipes Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Musca ferina Fallén, 1817), by subsequent designation of Townsend (1916b: 8) [Palaearctic].

MYIOCERA Rondani, 1868b: 597. Unjustified emendation of Myocera Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 123).

MYOCEROPS Townsend, 1916c: 178. Type species: Musca carinifrons Fallén, 1816, by original designation [Palaearctic].

AFRICODEXIA Townsend, 1933: 462. Type species: Dexia lugens Wiedemann, 1830, by original designation.

Note: We have not determined who, as the First Reviser (Article 24.2.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999), established the relative priority of Dinera Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Phorostoma Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and Myocera Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 when the three are treated as synonyms.

femoralis (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: Ethiopia, Kenya.

Paraprosena femoralis van Emden, 1947: 659. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Lake Naivasha [as “Lake Naivasha, Masai Reserve”], 6000ft.

fulvotestacea (Villeneuve, 1943).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Myiocera fulvotestacea Villeneuve, 1943b: 95 (as “fulvo-testacea”). Holotype male (not located). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

latigena (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: Malawi.

Paraprosena latigena van Emden, 1947: 663. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Malawi, plateau on Mt. Mulanje [as “Mlanje Mt.”], 6000–7000ft.

lugens (Wiedemann, 1830).—Afrotropical: Kenya, South Africa, Zimbabwe.

Dexia lugens Wiedemann, 1830: 374. Type(s), male (not located). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Kap”].

palliventris (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Uganda.

Paraprosena palliventris van Emden, 1947: 661. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], Kilembe, 4500ft.

spinosa (Walker, 1858).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Dexia spinosa Walker, 1858: 204. Type(s), male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban [as “Port Natal”].

suffulva (Villeneuve, 1943).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Zimbabwe.

Myiocera suffulva Villeneuve, 1943b: 96. Syntypes, 3 males (1 male in CNC). Type localities: D.R. Congo (Sud-Kivu, Kalembelembe to Baraka) and Zimbabwe (Hurungwe [as “Urungwe”], Gota Gota).

Genus ESTHERIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

ESTHERIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 305. Type species: Estheria imperatoriae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Dexia cristata Meigen, 1826), by subsequent designation of Townsend (1916a: 7) [Palaearctic].

DEXIMORPHA Rondani, 1856: 84. Type species: Deximorpha marittima Rondani, 1856 (as “Dexia marittima Macq:”) (= Dexia picta Meigen, 1826), by original designation (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 72) [Palaearctic].

DOLICHODEXIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 118 [also 1890: 50]. Type species: Dolichodexia rufipes Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 (= Dinera pallicornis Loew, 1873), by original designation [Palaearctic].

DEXIOMERA Curran, 1933: 164. Type species: Dexiomera surda Curran, 1933, by original designation. Syn. n.

buccata (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: Mozambique. Comb. n.

Dexia buccata van Emden, 1947: 633. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Mozambique, Maputo [as “Lorenzo Marques”].

Note: Crosskey (1984: 240) left Dexia buccata van Emden, 1947 unplaced, noting “Species of uncertain generic affiliation but not a Dexia”. This species is moved here to Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.

capensis (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891).

Deximorpha capensis Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 417 [also 1891: 113] (as “capensis S. litt. Cap. [Cape of Good Hope]”). Nomen nudum.

Note: Although Deximorpha capensis Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 is an unavailable name, there are seven specimens labelled as capensis from “Cap” [= Cape of Good Hope] and “Coll. Winthem” in NHMW (examined by JEOH). Based on these specimens, D. capensis is moved here from Crosskey’s (1980b: 835) “Unplaced species and names of Dexiini”. This change is not treated as a new combination because D. capensis is an unavailable name.

notopleuralis (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Dexiomera notopleuralis van Emden, 1947: 639. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Willow Grange.

surda (Curran, 1933).—Afrotropical: South Africa. Comb. n.

Dexiomera surda Curran, 1933: 165. Holotype male (formerly in ZMUH but destroyed according to Crosskey 1984: 239). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, Algoa Bay.

Note: Dexiomera surda Curran, 1933 is the type species of Dexiomera Curran, 1933. Crosskey (1980b: 832) treated both genus and species names as valid, but the species (and hence the genus) is moved here to Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.

turneri (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Dexiomera turneri van Emden, 1947: 638. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, Somerset East.

Genus EUPODODEXIA Villeneuve, 1915

EUPODODEXIA Villeneuve, 1915b: 200. Type species: Eupododexia festiva Villeneuve, 1915, by subsequent designation of Townsend (1936a: 140).

HOMOTRIXODES Townsend, 1926b: 529. Type species: Eupododexia diaphana Villeneuve, 1915, by original designation.

amoena Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Eupododexia amoena Mesnil, 1976: 42. Holotype male (NHMB [“to be returned to MNHN”, O’Hara 1996: 132]). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ambatolampy [ca. 19°23′S 47°26′E].

diaphana Villeneuve, 1915.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Eupododexia diaphana Villeneuve, 1915b: 202. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Antananarivo [as “Tananarive”].

festiva Villeneuve, 1915.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Eupododexia festiva Villeneuve, 1915b: 201. Lectotype male (NHMW), by fixation of Townsend (1938b: 335) (mention of “Ht male” from Andrangoloaka in NHMW is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Andrangoloaka [ca. 19°2′S 47°55′E].

gigantea Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Eupododexia gigantea Mesnil, 1976: 41. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: Madagascar, “Ahitsitondrona” [not located].

picta Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Eupododexia picta Mesnil, 1976: 40. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, “Ambalamalakana” [not located].

Genus FRONTODEXIA Mesnil, 1976

FRONTODEXIA Mesnil, 1976: 51. Type species: Frontodexia lutea Mesnil, 1976, by original designation.

lutea Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Frontodexia lutea Mesnil, 1976: 51. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vohiparara [within Parc National de Ranomafana, which is located at ca. 21°13′S 47°26′E].

Genus MESNILOTRIX Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n

MESNILOTRIX Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. Type species: Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, by present designation.

Note: This new genus is described in the New Taxa of Afrotropical Tachinidae section.

empiformis (Mesnil, 1976).—Afrotropical: Madagascar. Comb. n.

Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976: 48. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ambohitantely [Réserve Spéciale, ca. 18°10′S 47°17′E], 1600m.

Note: Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976 was treated in the genus Dexiotrix Villeneuve, 1936 by Crosskey (1980b: 832). It was later reassigned to Trixa Meigen, 1824 when Dexiotrix was synonymized with Trixa by Zhang and Shima (2005: 59). This species is moved here to Mesnilotrix gen. n. and is redescribed in the New Taxa of Afrotropical Tachinidae section. Dexiotrix was no longer recorded from the Afrotropical Region as a result of the taxonomic change of Zhang and Shima (2005) and Trixa is similarly no longer recorded from the region as a result of the reassignment here of D. empiformis to Mesnilotrix.

Genus PILIGENA van Emden, 1947

PILIGENA van Emden, 1947: 666. Type species: Piligena mackieae van Emden, 1947, by monotypy.

mackieae van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: South Africa, Zimbabwe (new record, CNC).

Piligena mackieae van Emden, 1947: 667. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Bot River.

Undescribed sp.: South Africa (Limpopo Province) (MZUR, examined by PC).

Genus PILIGENOIDES Barraclough, 1985

PILIGENOIDES Barraclough, 1985b: 268. Type species: Piligenoides vittata Barraclough, 1985, by original designation.

vittata Barraclough, 1985.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Piligenoides vittata Barraclough, 1985b: 269. Holotype male (NMDA). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, St Lucia Nature Reserve.

Genus PLATYDEXIA van Emden, 1954

PLATYDEXIA van Emden, 1954: 550. Type species: Platydexia maynei van Emden, 1954, by original designation.

maynei van Emden, 1954.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Platydexia maynei van Emden, 1954: 551 (as “maynéi”). Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Sud-Kivu, Kalembelembe to Baraka.

Genus PODODEXIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889

PODODEXIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 117 [also 1890: 49]. Type species: Pododexia arachna Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889, by monotypy.

arachna Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Pododexia arachna Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 117, 166 [also 1890: 49, 98]. Type(s), published as male (7 males and 4 females in NHMW). Type locality: Madagascar.

Note: Pododexia arachna Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 was described from an unspecified number of males from Madagascar. There are seven males and four females in NHMW, most collected by Sikora (or “Sicora”) and two from the locality of Andrangoloaka in Antananarivo Province [ca. 19°2′S 47°55′E], and most identified as arachna by “B. B.” (examined by JEOH). Although the female sex was not mentioned in the original description it seems likely that the four females recorded here were part of the original series of specimens examined by Brauer and Bergenstamm.

hirtipleura Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Pododexia hirtipleura Mesnil, 1976: 39. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ambatolampy [ca. 19°23′S 47°26′E], “Andranotobaka” [not located], 1400m.

similis Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Pododexia similis Mesnil, 1976: 39. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ambatolampy [ca. 19°23′S 47°26′E], “Andranotobaka” [not located], 1400m.

Genus PRETORIAMYIA Curran, 1927

PRETORIAMYIA Curran, 1927f: 106. Type species: Pretoriamyia munroi Curran, 1927, by original designation.

anacrostichalis van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: Kenya.

Pretoriamyia anacrostichalis van Emden, 1947: 653. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Mt. Elgon, 8500ft.

munroi Curran, 1927.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo (new record, IRSNB [PC]), Kenya (new record, MZUR [PC]), South Africa, Tanzania, Yemen.

Pretoriamyia munroi Curran, 1927f: 107. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Gauteng, Pretoria.

ogilviei van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Pretoriamyia ogilviei van Emden, 1947: 650. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Free State, Norvalspont [as “Norvals Pont”], “North Bank Halt” [not located but presumably north of the Orange River in Free State, across the river from Norvalspont in Northern Cape].

plumicornis van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Pretoriamyia plumicornis van Emden, 1947: 651. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, Graaf-Reinet.

sellifera van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Pretoriamyia sellifera van Emden, 1947: 652. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Doring [as “Doorn”] River.

somereni van Emden, 1947.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo (new record, IRSNB [PC]), Uganda.

Pretoriamyia somereni van Emden, 1947: 655. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Semliki National Park [as “Bwamba Valley”, ca. 0°49′N 30°3′E].

Genus PROSENA Lepeletier & Serville, 1828

CALIRRHOE Meigen, 1800: 39. Name suppressed by ICZN (1963: 339).

PROSENA Lepeletier & Serville in Latreille et al., 1828: 499, 500. Type species: Stomoxys siberita Fabricius, 1775, by original designation.

siberita (Fabricius, 1775).—Afrotropical: Mozambique. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (all except Turkey), Japan, Mongolia, Pal. China, Russia (W. Russia, W. Siberia, E. Siberia, S. Far East), Transcaucasia. Oriental: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Ryukyu Is., Sri Lanka, Taiwan. Australasian: Australia, ?Melanesia. Nearctic: introduced and established in United States.

Stomoxys siberita Fabricius, 1775: 798. Type(s), unspecified sex (ZMUC, destroyed and only name label remaining according to Zimsen 1964: 485; originally in ZMUK). Type locality: Denmark, Copenhagen [as “Havniae”].

Stomoxys flavipennis Wiedemann, 1819: 20. Lectotype male (ZMUC), by designation of Crosskey (1966a: 668). Type locality: Indonesia, Jawa.

Prosena longirostris Egger, 1860: 798. Syntypes, males and females (NHMW). Type locality: Austria, including Mödling near Wien.

Prosena sybarita Rondani, 1861a: 280. Unjustified emendation of Stomoxys siberita Fabricius, 1775.

Calirrhoe malayana Townsend, 1926c: 25. Lectotype male (RMNH), by designation of Crosskey (1969: 91). Type locality: Indonesia, Sumatera, Bukittinggi [as “Fort de Kock”] 920m.

Prosena brevirostris van Emden, 1947: 630. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Mozambique, Maputo [as “Lorenzo Marques”].

sibirita. Incorrect subsequent spelling of siberita Fabricius, 1775 (e.g., Aldrich 1928: 130).

Note: Herting (1984: 143) reported the sex of the type(s) of Stomoxys siberita Fabricius, 1775 as male, but on what basis is unknown.

There are likely syntypes of Prosena longirostris Egger, 1860 among the specimens of Prosena siberita (Fabricius) in NHMW (examined by JEOH) but they are not labelled as types and are not easily recognized. Specimens identified by Egger from Austria are labelled as siberita. The only specimens from Austria labelled as longirostris from “Coll. Egger” were identified by Schiner. No specimen is labelled as collected from Mödling (cf. Herting 1974b: 131).

Wiedemann (1819: 20) gave the sex of the type(s) of Stomoxys flavipennis as female, but Crosskey (1966a: 668) found only two males in ZMUC and designated one of them as lectotype. A female in NHMW labelled as flavipennis from “Java” and “Coll. Winthem” is possibly a paralectotype.

Genus PROSENOIDES Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891

PROSENOIDES Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 370 [also 1891: 66]. Type species: Prosenoides papilio Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (as “Prosena papilio S. litt.”) (= Prosena curvirostris Bigot, 1889), by monotypy [Neotropical].

NEOPROSENA Townsend, 1927a: 221. Type species: Neoprosena haustellata Townsend, 1927, by original designation [Neotropical].

PERIPROSENA Villeneuve, 1938c: 14. Type species: Periprosena dispar Villeneuve, 1938, by monotypy.

cytorus (Walker, 1849).—Afrotropical: South Africa, “West Africa”.

Stomyxys cytorus Walker, 1849: 1160 (as “Stomyxys? cytorus”, with “Stomyxys” as an error for Stomoxys). Type(s), unspecified sex (1 male in BMNH according to BMNH database). Type locality: “West Africa”.

dispar (Villeneuve, 1938).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Periprosena dispar Villeneuve, 1938c: 14. Holotype female (CNC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Mokoto [ca. 1°15′S 29°00′E].

longilingua (Villeneuve, 1943).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Myiocera longilingua Villeneuve, 1943b: 95. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Kibati [ca. 1°36′S 29°16′E].

Note: Villeneuve (1943b: 95) gave the type locality of Myiocera longilingua as “Kibati”. Van Emden (1947: 665) was unsure of the location of Kibati and wrote “‘Kibati’ (?Uganda: Kibate River)”. Crosskey (1980b: 834) placed the locality in Tanzania. Villeneuve (1938a: 5) cited “N. Kivu, Kibati” for Wagneria fratella Villeneuve and this locality, in Nord-Kivu of D.R. Congo, is assumed to be the same Kibati as cited for the type locality of M. longilingua.

tenuipes (van Emden, 1947).—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Paraprosena tenuipes van Emden, 1947: 665. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], Namwamba Valley, 6500ft.

Genus PSEUDODINERA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891

PSEUDODINERA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 378 [also 1891: 74]. Type species: Pseudodinera nigripes Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, by monotypy.

nigripes Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Pseudodinera nigripes Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 379 [also 1891: 75] (as “nigripes Wd. Coll. Winth. litt.”). Type(s), male (2 males in NHMW). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Cap b. sp.” = “Cap Bonae Spei”].

Note: Pseudodinera nigripes Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 was described from an unspecified number of males. There are two male syntypes in NHMW, both from “Cap.” [= Cape of Good Hope] and “Coll. Winthem” (examined by JEOH). Townsend (1938b: 369) mentioned “Ht male” from Cape of Good Hope in NHMW but did not restrict the term “Ht” to a single male among the two males in NHMW, and hence did not fix a lectotype.

spinigera (Thomson, 1869).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Dinera spinigera Thomson, 1869: 531. Type(s), male (NHRS). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Promont. bonae spei”].

Genus ZELIOMIMA Mesnil, 1976

ZELIOMIMA Mesnil, 1976: 37. Type species: Zeliomima caudata Mesnil, 1976, by original designation.

caudata Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Zeliomima caudata Mesnil, 1976: 39. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet, 1000m [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

chaetosa Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Zeliomima chaetosa Mesnil, 1976: 39. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Mahajanga, Antsalova [District], Forêt Antsingy, Andobo, 190m [not located but likely within Réserve naturelle intégrale du Tsingy de Bemaraha].

Genus ZEUXIOTRIX Mesnil, 1976

ZEUXIOTRIX Mesnil, 1976: 46. Type species: Zeuxiotrix atra Mesnil, 1976, by original designation.

atra Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Zeuxiotrix atra Mesnil, 1976: 48. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ambohitantely [Réserve Spéciale, ca. 18°10′S 47°17′E].

cinerosa Mesnil, 1976.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Zeuxiotrix cinerosa Mesnil, 1976: 47. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ambohitantely [Réserve Spéciale, ca. 18°10′S 47°17′E].

Unplaced species of Dexiini

brunnicornis Macquart, 1844.—Afrotropical: Réunion.

Dexia brunnicornis Macquart, 1844: 86 [also 1844: 243]. Lectotype male (MNHN), by fixation of Crosskey (1971: 265) (examination of “Holotype ♂” from Réunion in MNHN is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: Réunion [as “Bourbon”].

crassipalpis Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Dinera crassipalpis Mesnil, 1950d: 115. Syntypes, 3 females (not located). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Hurungwe [as “Urungwe”], Gota Gota.

Tribe DUFOURIINI

Genus CHETOPTILIA Rondani, 1862

CHETOPTILIA Rondani, 1862: 166. Type species: Ptilops puella Rondani, 1862, by monotypy [Palaearctic].

CHAETOPTILIA Bezzi & Stein, 1907: 402. Unjustified emendation of Chetoptilia Rondani, 1862 (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 55, 259).

PARAPTILOPS Mesnil, 1975a: 1358. Type species: Chaetoptilia angustifrons Mesnil, 1953, by original designation [Oriental].

cyanea Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Chaetoptilia cyanea Mesnil, 1968a: 53. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Toamasina [as “Tamatave”].

metallica Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Chaetoptilia metallica Mesnil, 1968a: 54. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Morondava [District], forest south of Befasy [ca. 20°35′S 44°22′E].

plumicornis Villeneuve, 1942.—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Chaetoptilia plumicornis Villeneuve, 1942a: 53. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: Uganda, Kampala.

Genus MESNILANA van Emden, 1945

MESNILANA van Emden, 1945: 413. Type species: Mesnilana bevisi van Emden, 1945, by monotypy.

Note: We follow van Emden (1945: 413) and Crosskey (1980b: 829) in placing Mesnilana van Emden, 1945 in Dufouriini but we are uncertain whether this genus belongs here.

bevisi van Emden, 1945.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Mesnilana bevisi van Emden, 1945: 414. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Greenwood Park [suburb of Durban].

Genus PANDELLEIA Villeneuve, 1907

PANDELLEIA Villeneuve, 1907: 392. Type species: Etheria sexpunctata Pandellé, 1896, by monotypy [Palaearctic].

AFROPHASIA Curran, 1939: 1. Type species: Afrophasia dimorphia Curran, 1939, by original designation.

dimorphia (Curran, 1939).—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.

Afrophasia dimorphia Curran, 1939: 1. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, East London.

Pandelleia francoisi Mesnil, 1952a: 2 (as “françoisi”). Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: Burundi, Bururi, 1950m.

translucens (Mesnil, 1959).—Afrotropical: Tanzania.

Rondania translucens Mesnil, 1959: 27. Holotype female (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, Pare Mountains, Usangi.

Genus RHINOPHOROIDES Barraclough, 2005

RHINOPHOROIDES Barraclough, 2005: 381. Type species: Rhinophoroides minutus Barraclough, 2005, by original designation.

Note: Rhinophoroides Barraclough, 2005 is possibly a junior synonym of Mesnilana van Emden, 1945.

minutus Barraclough, 2005.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Rhinophoroides minutus Barraclough, 2005: 382. Holotype male (NMDA). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Merrivale, Tshwalabenyoni, 1000m (29°31′S 20°15′E).

Tribe EUTHERINI

Genus EUTHERA Loew, 1866

EUTHERA Loew, 1866: 46, 47. Type species: Euthera tentatrix Loew, 1866, by monotypy [Nearctic].

EUTHEROPSIS Townsend, 1916c: 178. Type species: Euthera mannii Mik, 1889 (= Ocyptera fascipennis Loew, 1854), by original designation.

PREUTHERA Townsend, 1933: 452. Type species: Euthera (Eutheropsis) peringueyi Bezzi, 1925, by original designation [Oriental].

fascipennis (Loew, 1854).—Afrotropical: Malawi, Tanzania, Yemen. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (SW. Eur., SC. Eur., SE. Eur., Turkey). Oriental: India, Taiwan.

Ocyptera fascipennis Loew, 1854: 20. Type(s), male (1 male in ZMHB). Type locality: Greece, Crete [or Kriti], Heraklion [as “Candia”].

Euthera mannii Mik, 1889: 132. Lectotype female (NHMW), by fixation of Townsend (1931: 391) (examination of “Female Ht” from “Brussa” in NHMW is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: Turkey, Bursa [as “Brussa”].

Euthera burtti van Emden, 1960: 383. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Tanzania, Old Shinyanga.

manni. Incorrect subsequent spelling of mannii Mik, 1889 (e.g., Herting 1984: 162, Zeegers 2007: 404).

peringueyi Bezzi, 1925.—Not Afrotropical [Oriental].

Euthera (Eutheropsis) peringueyi Bezzi, 1925a: 280 (as “péringueyi”).

Note: Bezzi (1925a: 280) was in error in citing the type locality of his new species Euthera peringueyi as “Chabra, Congo”. Arnaud (1982: 13) noted that the holotype in MSNM is labelled “Chapra/Mackenzie” and commented: “Bezzi stated the type was from the ‘Congo,’ but could this be in error for India?” We have determined that this is indeed the case, as Mackenzie collected in Chapra in West Bengal, India, not in the African “Congo” [e.g., Distant (1912) and Banks (1913)]. Van Emden (1960: 383) treated E. peringueyi as a species from “Congo”, Crosskey (1976: 175) recorded it from “‘Congo’ [? Zaire]: Chabra” and India, and Crosskey (1980b: 829) recorded it from “‘Congo’” and India. It is, based on present evidence, a strictly Oriental species.

tuckeri Bezzi, 1925.—Afrotropical: Botswana (new record, NMDA [PC]), Ghana, Kenya (new record, MZUR [PC]), Malawi, Mozambique (new record, MZUR [PC]), South Africa, Sudan, U.A. Emirates, Uganda, Zambia (new record, NMDA [PC]). Palaearctic: Japan. Oriental: Pakistan [also questionably from Sri Lanka according to Crosskey (1976: 175) but this country not listed by Crosskey (1980b: 829)].

Euthera (Eutheropsis) tuckeri Bezzi, 1925a: 279. Holotype male (SAMC). Type locality: South Africa, Mpumalanga, Kaapmuiden [as “Koopmuiden”, ca. 25°33′S 31°20′E].

Tribe VORIINI

Genus ALLOTHELAIRA Villeneuve, 1915

ALLOTHELAIRA Villeneuve, 1915c: 226. Type species: Allothelaira diaphana Villeneuve, 1915, by monotypy.

diaphana Villeneuve, 1915.—Afrotropical: Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania.

Allothelaira diaphana Villeneuve, 1915c: 226. Lectotype male (BMNH), by designation of van Emden (1960: 377). Type locality: Ghana, Aburi.

Note: Allothelaira diaphana Villeneuve, 1915 was described from five males and two females, including two males from Aburi (Ghana). Townsend (1939b: 8) mentioned a “Ht” from Ghana in Rambouillet (Villeneuve’s personal collection, since dispersed) but did not restrict the term “Ht” to a single male among the two males from Ghana in the type series, and hence did not fix a lectotype.

Genus CAMPYLOCHETA Rondani, 1859

CAMPYLOCHETA Rondani, 1859: 157, 169. Type species: Tachina praecox Meigen, 1824, by fixation of O’Hara and Wood (2004: 18) under Article 70.3.2 of the Code (ICZN 1999), misidentified as Tachina schistacea Meigen, 1824 in the original designation by Rondani (1859) [Palaearctic].

ELPE Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863a: 488. Type species: Tachina inepta Meigen, 1824, by original designation [Palaearctic].

MYXACTIA Villeneuve, 1915b: 197. Type species: Myxactia inclinata Villeneuve, 1915, by monotypy.

CAMPYLOCHAETA Bezzi & Stein, 1907: 305. Unjustified emendation of Campylocheta Rondani, 1859 (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 46, 259).

CHAETOPHLEPSIS Townsend, 1915b: 422. Type species: Chaetophlepsis tarsalis Townsend, 1915, by original designation [Neotropical].

inclinata (Villeneuve, 1915).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Myxactia inclinata Villeneuve, 1915b: 197. Holotype male (NHMW). Type locality: Madagascar.

Note: Townsend (1939a: 370) gave the type locality of Myxactia inclinata Villeneuve, 1915 as “Sikora, Madagascar”, but Sikora was the collector. No type locality within Madagascar was given by Villeneuve (1915b) or appears on the data label of the holotype (examined by JEOH).

keiseri Mesnil, 1978.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Campylochaeta keiseri Mesnil, 1978b: 284. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

plumbea (Mesnil, 1952).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Rwanda (new record, IRSNB [PC]).

Frivaldszkia plumbea Mesnil, 1952a: 8. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Bweza, Tshamugussa, 2250m [ca. 1°20′S 29°31′E].

risbeci (Mesnil, 1944).—Afrotropical: Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda.

Frivaldzkia risbeci Mesnil, 1944: 16. Type(s), unspecified sex (MNHN). Type locality: Senegal, Bambey.

vansomereni van Emden, 1960.—Afrotropical: Kenya.

Campylochaeta vansomereni van Emden, 1960: 352. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Meru.

Genus CYRTOPHLOEBA Rondani, 1856

CYRTOPHLOEBA Rondani, 1856: 207. Type species: Tachina ruricola Meigen, 1824, by original designation [Palaearctic].

CYRTHOPLAEBA Rondani, 1857: 13. Unjustified emendation of Cyrtophloeba Rondani, 1856 (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 69).

STACKELBERGULA Richter, 1967: 478. Type species: Stackelbergula eremophila Richter, 1967, by original designation.

CYRTHOPHLAEBA. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Cyrtophloeba Rondani, 1856 (Rondani 1859: 235) (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 68).

CYRTHOPHLEBA. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Cyrtophloeba Rondani, 1856 (Rondani 1857: 13) (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 68).

CYRTOPHLEBA. Incorrect original spelling of Cyrtophloeba Rondani, 1856 (Rondani 1856: 68) (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 69).

arabica Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Cyrtophleba (Stackelbergula) arabica Zeegers, 2007: 374. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, Laḩij [as “Lahj”] (13°03′28″N 44°53′02″E).

eremophila (Richter, 1967).—Afrotropical: U.A. Emirates. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Mongolia.

Stackelbergula eremophila Richter, 1967: 479. Holotype male (ZIN). Type locality: Uzbekistan, Kyzylkum [Desert], 40km east of Dzhingel’dy, Ayakguzhumdy [ca. 40°44′N 63°45′E].

Undescribed spp.: Kenya (Crosskey 1980b: 837), “two new undescribed species from tropical Africa (BMNH)” (Crosskey 1984: 245), and Mozambique (MZUR, examined by PC).

Genus HYLEORUS Aldrich, 1926

HYLEORUS Aldrich, 1926a: 16. Type species: Hyleorus furcatus Aldrich, 1926, by monotypy [Australasian].

STEINIOMYIA Townsend, 1932: 54. Type species: Plagia elata Meigen, 1838, by monotypy [Palaearctic].

NEUROPLAGIA Townsend, 1933: 479. Type species: Plagia elata nudinerva Villeneuve, 1920, by original designation.

AFROPLAGIA Curran, 1938: 6. Type species: Afroplagia fasciata Curran, 1938, by original designation.

fasciatus (Curran, 1938).—Afrotropical: Ghana, South Africa, Uganda.

Afroplagia fasciata Curran, 1938: 6. Holotype male (SAMC, not located by JEOH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Wartburg.

nudinerva (Villeneuve, 1920).—Afrotropical: Yemen. Palaearctic: Europe (SW. Eur.), M. East (Israel).

Plagia elata nudinerva Villeneuve, 1920b: 200. Holotype, unspecified sex [female, examined by PC] (IRSNB). Type locality: Spain (Sierra de Albarracín [as “Sierra Albarracin”] according to label data).

Genus HYSTRICOVORIA Townsend, 1928

HYSTRICOVORIA Townsend, 1928: 395. Type species: Hystricovoria bakeri Townsend, 1928, by original designation.

AFROVORIA Curran, 1938: 5. Type species: Afrovoria munroi Curran, 1938 (= Hystricovoria bakeri Townsend, 1928), by original designation.

ANAVORIA Mesnil, 1953b: 170 (as subgenus of Voria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Type species: Voria (Anavoria) indica Mesnil, 1953 (= Hystricovoria bakeri Townsend, 1928), by monotypy.

bakeri Townsend, 1928.—Afrotropical: Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Yemen. Australasian: ?Australia. Oriental: India, Orien. China, Philippines.

Hystricovoria bakeri Townsend, 1928: 395. Holotype male (USNM). Type locality: Philippines, Luzon, Mt. Makiling [as “Mount Maquiling”].

Afrovoria munroi Curran, 1938: 6. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Mpumalanga, Barberton.

Voria (Anavoria) indica Mesnil, 1953b: 170. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: India, Uttarakhand, Dehra Dun.

Genus NARDIA Cerretti, 2009

NARDIA Cerretti, 2009a: 108. Type species: Plagiomima rufolateralis Crosskey, 1984, by original designation.

rufolateralis (Crosskey, 1984).—Afrotropical: Botswana, Namibia.

Plagiomima rufolateralis Crosskey, 1984: 302. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Botswana, South-East, Sebele [as “Bakgatla, Sebele”; 24°34′S 25°58′E according to Cerretti 2009a: 113].

tsavo Cerretti, 2009.—Afrotropical: Kenya.

Nardia tsavo Cerretti, 2009a: 114. Holotype female (MZUR). Type locality: Kenya, Coast, Tsavo East National Park, Ndara Plains, Aruba Lodge, 444m.

Genus PERISCEPSIA Gistel, 1848

SCOPOLIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 268 (junior homonym of Scopolia Hübner, 1825). Type species: Musca carbonaria Panzer, 1798, by subsequent designation of Zetterstedt (1844: 1239).

PERISCEPSIA Gistel, 1848: x (unnecessary nomen novum for Scopolia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 143).

PHORICHETA Rondani, 1861b: 8 (nomen novum for Scopolia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

RAMONDA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863a: 790. Type species: Ramonda fasciata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (= Tachina spathulata Fallén, 1820), by original designation [Palaearctic].

PHORICHAETA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 106 [also 1890: 38]. Unjustified emendation of Phoricheta Rondani, 1861 (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 143, 265).

WAGNERIA of authors (e.g., Mesnil 1950a, van Emden 1960), not Robineau-Desvoidy, 1930. Misidentification, “on current generic limits” (Crosskey 1980b: 838).

Note: Subgenera of Periscepsia Gistel, 1848 are not recognized here because the subgeneric placements of the Afrotropical species require more study.

abbreviata (Mesnil, 1950).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo. Status n.

Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950a: 1. Holotype, unspecified sex [male, examined by PC] (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Volcan Mikeno, near Rweru [as “Bweru”], 2400m [ca. 1°29′S 29°24′E].

Note: Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950 was treated as a synonym of Wagneria rufitibia Villeneuve, 1938 by Crosskey (1980b: 839) but is recognized here as a distinct species based on examination of the holotype by PC.

Mesnil (1950a: 1) gave the type locality of Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata as “volcan Mikeno, vers Bweru, 2.400m”. The map of Parc National Albert published by de Witte (1937) shows Rweru at 2799m within D.R. Congo about 2km north of the Rwandan border (Volcan Mikeno is 2–3km further north). Without evidence to the contrary, this type locality is treated as within D.R. Congo. Crosskey (1980b: 839) gave the country as Rwanda and this was followed by O’Hara (1996: 130); these authors treated the same locality as within Rwanda for one other species and within D.R. Congo (as “Zaire”) for two others.

amicula (Mesnil, 1950).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, South Africa.

Wagneria amicula Mesnil, 1950a: 1. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Kabasha Escarpment, 1500m [ca. 0°44′S 29°13′E].

canina (Mesnil, 1950).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ethiopia, Rwanda, South Africa.

Wagneria canina Mesnil, 1950a: 2. Holotype, unspecified sex (MRAC). Type locality: Rwanda, Volcan Sabyinyo [as “Sabinyo”], Rwebeya Valley, 3000m [ca. 1°24′S 29°36′E].

carbonaria (Panzer, 1798).—Afrotropical: “widespread n.-e. Afr. to sthn Afr.” (Crosskey 1980b: 839), including D.R. Congo, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Sudan, Yemen, Zimbabwe. Palaearctic: Europe (all), M. East (all), Pal. China, Russia (W. Russia), Transcaucasia. Oriental: India, Pakistan.

Musca carbonaria Panzer, 1798: 15 (and coloured figure on unnumbered facing plate). Type(s), unspecified sex [sex cannot be determined from the figure] (lost). Type locality: Austria (Thompson and Pont 1994: 58).

Dexia nigrans Meigen, 1826: 40. Syntypes, published as females (male(s) in MNHN, Herting 1972: 10). Type locality: not given (Europe, from “Baumhauerischen und Wiedemannischen Museum [= collections]”).

Note: Periscepsia carbonaria (Panzer, 1798) of current authors is likely a species complex but is treated here as a single species pending further study.

caviceps (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Wagneria caviceps van Emden, 1960: 336. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

decolor (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda.

Wagneria decolor van Emden, 1960: 347. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Nyakasura [ca. 0°40′N 30°13′E].

fratella (Villeneuve, 1938).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, Uganda.

Wagneria fratella Villeneuve, 1938a: 5. Holotype, unspecified sex (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Kibati [ca. 1°36′S 29°16′E].

glossinicornis (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: Kenya, South Africa.

Wagneria glossinicornis van Emden, 1960: 337. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Chyulu Hills, 6000ft.

guttipennis (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: Kenya.

Wagneria guttipennis van Emden, 1960: 345. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Naivasha.

kirbyiformis (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Wagneria kirbyiformis van Emden, 1960: 344. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, “Kibali-Ituri”, Kilo [ca. 1°48′N 30°14′E].

lindneri (Mesnil, 1959).—Afrotropical: Tanzania.

Wagneria lindneri Mesnil, 1959: 25. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, west side of Mt. Kibo [one of the three peaks of Mt. Kilimanjaro], 3500–4500m.

natalica (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa.

Wagneria natalica van Emden, 1960: 339. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, “Winzinto River” [not located].

Wagneria laniventris van Emden, 1960: 339. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Ngong.

Wagneria nubilipennis van Emden, 1960: 341. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Meru.

Wagneria z-fuscum van Emden, 1960: 340. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Weenen [ca. 28°51′S 30°4′E].

Note: Mesnil (1978b: 284–285) synonymized the four simultaneously published van Emden (1960) names, and as First Reviser selected Wagneria natalica van Emden, 1960 as the senior synonym (Article 24.2.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999). The specific epithet in Wagneria z-fuscum van Emden, 1960 is assumed to refer to the brown patterning in the wing of the nominal species and therefore “z-fuscum” does not change to “zfuscum” (Article 32.5.2.4.3 of the Code, ICZN 1999).

nudinerva (Mesnil, 1950).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo. Status n.

Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950a: 1. Holotype, unspecified sex [female, examined by PC] (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Rutshuru, 1285m.

Note: Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950 was treated as a synonym of Wagneria rufitibia Villeneuve, 1938 by Crosskey (1980b: 839) but is recognized here as a distinct species based on examination of the holotype by PC.

pallidipennis (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya.

Wagneria pallidipennis van Emden, 1960: 349. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Naivasha.

propleuralis (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: South Africa, Uganda.

Wagneria propleuralis van Emden, 1960: 343. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Semliki National Park [as “Bwamba Valley, Ruwenzori”, ca. 0°49′N 30°3′E].

rufitibia (Villeneuve, 1938).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.

Wagneria rufitibia Villeneuve, 1938a: 4. Holotype, unspecified sex [male, see van Emden 1960: 350] (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Wartburg.

salti (van Emden, 1960).—Afrotropical: Tanzania.

Wagneria salti van Emden, 1960: 348. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Tanzania, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Shira Plateau, 12,450ft [ca. 3°0′S 37°14′E].

vidua (Mesnil, 1950).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda.

Wagneria vidua Mesnil, 1950a: 3. Holotype, unspecified sex (MRAC). Type locality: Rwanda, Volcans Gahinga–Sabyinyo [latter as “Sabinyo”], “Kundhuru ya Tshuve”, 2600m [ca. 1°23′S 29°38′E].

Genus PROSHELIOMYIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891

PROSHELIOMYIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 375 [also 1891: 71]. Type species: Prosheliomyia nietneri Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, by monotypy [Oriental].

Subgenus THRIXIONELLUS Mesnil, 1968

THRIXIONELLUS Mesnil, 1968a: 45 (as subgenus of Prosheliomyia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891). Type species: Prosheliomyia (Thrixionellus) mirabilis Mesnil, 1968, by original designation.

mirabilis Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Prosheliomyia (Thrixionellus) mirabilis Mesnil, 1968a: 45. Holotype male (NHMB [“to be returned to MNHN”, O’Hara 1996: 148]). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Joffreville.

nigricornis Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Prosheliomyia (Thrixionellus) nigricornis Mesnil, 1968a: 47. Holotype male (NHMB [“to be returned to MNHN”, O’Hara 1996: 149]). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Vohiparara [within Parc National de Ranomafana, which is located at ca. 21°13′S 47°26′E].

pallida Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Prosheliomyia (Thrixionellus) pallida Mesnil, 1968a: 48. Holotype male (NHMB [“to be returned to MNHN”, O’Hara 1996: 151]). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Ambanoro [ca. 13°24′S 48°18′E].

Genus REICHARDIA Karsch, 1886

REICHARDIA Karsch, 1886a: 137. Type species: Reichardia insignis Karsch, 1886, by monotypy.

insignis Karsch, 1886.—Afrotropical: Tanzania.

Reichardia insignis Karsch, 1886a: 137. Type(s), unspecified sex (1 male in ZMHB). Type locality: Tanzania, east of Lake Tanganyika, “Kawende” [not located].

Undescribed sp.: Ethiopia (MZUR, examined by PC).

Genus STOMINA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

STOMINA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 411. Type species: Stomina rubricornis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Musca tachinoides Fallén, 1817), by monotypy [Palaearctic].

Undetermined sp(p).—Afrotropical: Malawi (TAU, examined by PC), Namibia, South Africa, Yemen.

Note: Undetermined specimens of this genus were recorded from the Afrotropical Region by Mesnil (1975a: 1329, South Africa), Crosskey (1984: 255, Namibia) and Zeegers (2007: 375, Yemen). An undetermined male from Pretoria (South Africa) in NMDA was examined by PC.

Genus SUBFISCHERIA Villeneuve, 1937

SUBFISCHERIA Villeneuve, 1937a: 210. Type species: Subfischeria flavogrisea Villeneuve, 1937, by monotypy.

flavogrisea Villeneuve, 1937.—Afrotropical: Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa.

Subfischeria flavogrisea Villeneuve, 1937a: 211 (as “flavo-grisea”). Holotype female (CNC). Type locality: South Africa, “Colonie du Cap” ([former Cape Province], “Windsaxton Grigualand” according to label data, Cooper and O’Hara 1996: 73).

Genus THELAIRA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

THELAIRA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 214 (as “Thelaïra”). Type species: Thelaira abdominalis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Musca solivagus Harris, 1780), by subsequent designation of Townsend (1916b: 9) [Palaearctic].

THELAIRIA. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Thelaira Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Coquillett 1910: 614).

altoplani Speiser, 1914.—Afrotropical: Angola, Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Thelaira altoplani Speiser, 1914: 12. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: Cameroon, Dschang.

Thelaira palliventris Curran, 1928b: 378. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Parc National de la Garamba [as “Garamba, Congo”; coordinates on label given as 29°40′E 40°10′N, by Arnaud (1963: 130)].

Musca nigripes of authors (e.g., Bezzi 1908b: 61, Villeneuve 1913c: 37, both as “Thelaira nigripes”), not Fabricius, 1794. Misidentification (Crosskey 1980b: 840).

aurofasciata van Emden, 1960.—Afrotropical: Ghana, Nigeria.

Thelaira aurofasciata van Emden, 1960: 374. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Ghana, Obuasi, Ashanti.

luteiventris van Emden, 1960.—Afrotropical: Nigeria, Sudan.

Thelaira luteiventris van Emden, 1960: 376. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Nigeria, Azare.

madecassa Mesnil, 1978.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thelaira madecassa Mesnil, 1978b: 285. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Antananarivo [as “Tananarive”].

Genus VORIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

VORIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 195. Type species: Voria latifrons Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Tachina ruralis Fallén, 1810), by monotypy [Palaearctic].

PLAGIA Meigen, 1838: 201. Type species: Tachina verticalis Meigen, 1824 (= Tachina ruralis Fallén, 1810), by subsequent designation of Rondani (1856: 69) [Palaearctic].

capensis Villeneuve, 1935.—Afrotropical: Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique (new record, MZUR [PC]), Nigeria, South Africa.

Plagia setosa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 409, 439 [also 1891: 105, 135] (as “setosa Wd. litt. Cap. [Cape of Good Hope]”). Nomen nudum.

Voria capensis Villeneuve, 1935a: 138. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: South Africa.

ruralis (Fallén, 1810).—Afrotropical: “Kenya to South Africa, South Yemen [part of present-day Yemen]” (Crosskey 1980b: 838). Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (all except Turkey), Japan, M. East (Israel), Mongolia, N. Africa (Madeira), Pal. China, Russia (W. Russia, W. Siberia, E. Siberia, S. Far East), Transcaucasia. Oriental: India, Nepal, Orien. China, Pakistan, Ryukyu Is., Taiwan. Australasian: Australia, N. Australasian. Nearctic: widespread. Neotropical: probably widespread.

Tachina ruralis Fallén, 1810: 265. Lectotype male (NHRS), by designation of Crosskey (1973b: 163). Type locality: Sweden, Skåne, Äsperöd [as “Esperöd”].

Subfamily EXORISTINAE (Fig. 4)

Figure 4.

Live specimen of Ossidingia cruciata (Wiedemann) (Winthemiini, Exoristinae) from Magombera Forest near Mangula, Tanzania (image courtesy of S.A. Marshall).

Tribe ACEMYINI

Genus ACEMYA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

ACEMYA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 202. Type species: Acemya oblonga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Tachina acuticornis Meigen, 1824), by subsequent designation of Desmarest in d’Orbigny (1849a: 318) (see Evenhuis and Thompson 1990: 232) [Palaearctic].

ACOMYIA Agassiz, 1846b: 3, 5. Unjustified emendation of Acemya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (see Evenhuis et al. 2010: 33).

ACEMYIA Schiner, 1861: 472. Unjustified emendation of Acemya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (see Evenhuis et al. 2010: 33).

fishelsoni Kugler, 1968.—Afrotropical: Yemen. Palaearctic: M. East (Israel), Mongolia, Pal. China.

Acemyia fishelsoni Kugler, 1968: 65. Holotype female (TAU). Type locality: Israel, Metula.

pyrrhocera Villeneuve, 1922.—Afrotropical: U.A. Emirates. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (W. Eur., SW. Eur., SC. Eur.), Mongolia, Russia (E. Siberia), Transcaucasia.

Acomyia pyrrhocera Villeneuve, 1922c: 342. Syntypes, 1 male and 2 females (not located). Type localities: France, Digne-les-Bains [as “Digne”] and “sud de la France”.

Genus ATLANTOMYIA Crosskey, 1977

ATLANTOMYIA Crosskey, 1977: 145. Type species: Atlantomyia nitida Crosskey, 1977, by original designation.

nitida Crosskey, 1977.—Afrotropical: Saint Helena.

Atlantomyia nitida Crosskey, 1977: 147. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: Saint Helena, Prosperous Bay Plain, 900–1000ft.

Genus CERACIA Rondani, 1865

CERACIA Rondani, 1865: 221. Type species: Ceracia mucronifera Rondani, 1865, by monotypy [Palaearctic].

MYOTHYRIA van der Wulp, 1890: 208. Type species: Myothyria majorina van der Wulp, 1890, by subsequent designation of Coquillett (1910: 573) [Neotropical].

MYIOTHYRIA. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Myothyria van der Wulp, 1890 (e.g., Herting 1958: 4, Mesnil 1962: 790).

Note: Herting (1984: 34) gave the type species of Myothyria van der Wulp, 1890 as M. majorina van der Wulp, 1890, by subsequent designation of Brauer and Bergenstamm (1891: 358 [also 1891: 54]). Brauer and Bergenstamm (1891: 358) wrote “Myothyria v. d. Wp. mit der Art majorina v. d. Wp.”) but did not refer to M. majorina as the type species of Myothyria. Crosskey (1980b: 851) correctly cited the type species as M. majorina, by subsequent designation of Coquillett (1910: 573).

africana (Mesnil, 1959).—Afrotropical: Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.

Myothyria africana Mesnil, 1959: 19. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, Dar es Salaam.

Ceracia burtti van Emden, 1960: 370. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Tanzania, Old Shinyanga.

freyi (Herting, 1958).—Afrotropical: Cape Verde.

Myiothyria freyi Herting, 1958: 4. Holotype male (FMNHH). Type locality: Cape Verde Islands, São Nicolau, Ribeira da Pulga [as “S. Nicolau: Rib. Pulga”].

mucronifera Rondani, 1865.—Afrotropical: Yemen. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (W. Eur., SW. Eur., SC. Eur., SE. Eur.), M. East (Israel), N. Africa (Canary Is., NW. Africa), Transcaucasia. Oriental: Orien. China [Hunan].

Ceracia mucronifera Rondani, 1865: 222. Syntypes, 2 males (MZF). Type locality: Italy, Apennines, near Parma.

murina Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Ceracia murina Mesnil, 1977d: 326. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Antananarivo [as “Tananarive”].

Genus METACEMYIA Herting, 1969

METACEMYIA Herting, 1969: 197. Type species: Acemyia calloti Séguy, 1936, by original designation.

CERACIA of Mesnil (1962: 788), not Rondani, 1865. Misidentification (Herting 1969: 196–197).

aartseni Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: U.A. Emirates, Yemen. Palaearctic: M. East (Israel).

Metacemyia aartseni Zeegers, 2007: 388. Holotype female (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, 12km northwest of Manākhah (15°04′19″N 43°44′27″E).

calloti (Séguy, 1936).—Afrotropical: Senegal, Tanzania, U.A. Emirates, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Palaearctic: Europe (W. Eur., SW. Eur., SC. Eur., Turkey), M. East (Israel), N. Africa (NW. Africa)

Acemyia calloti Séguy, 1936: 324. Holotype female (not located). Type locality: Tunisia, El Aouina.

Ceracia nomadacridis van Emden, 1960: 369. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Tanzania, Rukwa District, Nkamba-Kati.

Ceracia mucronifera of authors (e.g., Mesnil 1962: 789), not Rondani, 1865. Misidentification (Herting 1969: 196–197).

setosa Crosskey, 1973.—Afrotropical: Malawi.

Metacemyia setosa Crosskey, 1973a: 376. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Malawi, Southern Region, Chambe Plateau.

uncinata (Thomson, 1869).—Afrotropical: Botswana, D.R. Congo, South Africa.

Myobia uncinata Thomson, 1869: 526. Lectotype male (NHRS), by fixation of Crosskey (1973a: 379) (examination of “holotype” from Cape of Good Hope in NHRS is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Promont. bonae spei”].

Note: A record of Myobia uncinata Thomson, 1869 from Israel by Kugler (1963: 26, 32, as “Ceracia uncinata”) was questioned by Crosskey (1973a: 380, 1980b: 851). This species was not recorded from Israel by Cerretti and Freidberg (2009).

Tribe ANACAMPTOMYIINI

Genus ANACAMPTOMYIA Bischof, 1904

ANACAMPTOMYIA Bischof, 1904: 79. Type species: Anacamptomyia africana Bischof, 1904, by monotypy.

ROUBAUDIA Villeneuve, 1910a: 249. Type species: Roubaudia rufescens Villeneuve, 1910, by monotypy (not by original designation as given by Zeegers 2014: 96).

PARAROUBAUDIA Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914: 122, 124 (as subgenus of Roubaudia Villeneuve, 1910). Type species: Roubaudia (Pararoubaudia) bisetosa Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914, by monotypy.

Note: A key to the African species of Anacamptomyia Bischof, 1904 was published by Mesnil (1950b: 22–24). A key to the species of Anacamptomyia from Madagascar was given by Zeegers (2014: 97).

africana Bischof, 1904.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, ?Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania.

Anacamptomyia africana Bischof, 1904: 81. Lectotype female (NHMW), by fixation of Townsend (1940: 8) (mention of “Ht female” from Algoa Bay in NHMW is regarded as a lectotype fixation for the only syntype from Algoa Bay, a female that also bears a blue handwritten “Typus” label [examined by JEOH]). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, Algoa Bay.

aurifrons Zeegers, 2014.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Anacamptomyia aurifrons Zeegers, 2014: 97. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, [near] Ambatolampy, Ankaratra Mountains, Manjakatompo, 2000m [ca. 19°21′S 47°18′E].

bisetosa (Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914).—Afrotropical: Benin, Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe.

Roubaudia (Pararoubaudia) bisetosa Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914: 125. Syntypes, males and females (1 female in MRAC). Type localities: Senegal (Dakar) and unspecified localities from Benin [as “Dahomey”] to Senegal.

Note: Roubaudia bisetosa Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914 was described from an unspecified number of males and females. The only specific locality mentioned was Dakar (the locality where the syntype in MRAC was collected) but the range of the species was given as Senegal to Benin. Townsend (1940: 13) mentioned a “Ht male” from Accra (Ghana) in Rambouillet (Villeneuve’s personal collection, since dispersed) but a specimen from that locality has not been located. Unless a male from Accra is found, or is proven to have existed, Townsend’s “Ht male” cannot legitimately be accepted as a lectotype fixation for R. bisetosa.

blommersi Zeegers, 2014.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Anacamptomyia blommersi Zeegers, 2014: 99. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo [as “Tananarive”], 1300m.

gymnops Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Anacamptomyia gymnops Zeegers, 2007: 376. Holotype female (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, Wādī Lahīmah [as “Al Lahima”] (15°24′N 43°32′E).

obscurella Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: “toute Afrique tropicale et australe” (Mesnil 1950b: 24, Crosskey 1980b: 867), including D.R. Congo and presumably South Africa.

Anacamptomyia pallida obscurella Mesnil, 1950b: 24. Syntypes, males and females (1 male and possibly other unrecognized syntypes in CNC). Type localities: Africa, “toute Afrique tropicale et australe” (CNC syntype from D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala).

pallida (Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914).—Afrotropical: Benin, Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Roubaudia rufescens pallida Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914: 124. Syntypes, only the male sex specifically mentioned (2 females in MRAC). Type localities: D.R. Congo, Nigeria, Senegal [including MRAC syntypes from Satadougou], and Zimbabwe.

Note: A male in CNC treated as a syntype of Roubaudia rufescens pallida Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914 by Cooper and O’Hara (1996: 68) was collected from “M fongosi Zulu L.” (label data; the faded lettering was misinterpreted as “M fongoss Zulu L.” by Cooper and O’Hara 1996: 68). Mfongosi is in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa [ca. 28°43′S 30°49′E]. South Africa was not listed as a type locality by Roubaud and Villeneuve (1914) and therefore this specimen is not considered part of the original type series.

pruinosa (Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914).—Afrotropical: Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Roubaudia pruinosa Roubaud & Villeneuve, 1914: 123. Syntypes, male(s) and female(s) (1 female in CNC, 2 males and 1 female in MRAC). Type locality: Senegal, Satadougou [as “Satadougou (Haute-Gambie)”].

rufescens (Villeneuve, 1910).—Afrotropical: Benin, Nigeria.

Roubaudia rufescens Villeneuve, 1910a: 249. Lectotype male (CNC), by fixation of Townsend (1940: 14) (mention of “Ht male” from Dahomey in Rambouillet [Villeneuve’s personal collection, since dispersed] is regarded as a lectotype fixation for the single male syntype in CNC). Type locality: Benin [as “Dahomey”] (country not Congo as given by Crosskey 1980b: 867).

Genus LEUCOCARCELIA Villeneuve, 1921

LEUCOCARCELIA Villeneuve, 1921: 30. Type species: Leucocarcelia argyrata Villeneuve, 1921, by monotypy.

argyrata Villeneuve, 1921.—Afrotropical: Malawi.

Leucocarcelia argyrata Villeneuve, 1921: 30. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Malawi, Mt. Mulanje [as “Mont Mlanje”].

Undescribed spp.: D.R. Congo (MRAC, examined by PC), Nigeria (BMNH, Crosskey 1984: 276).

Genus PARAPALES Mesnil, 1950

PARAPALES Mesnil, 1949b: 102 (as subgenus of Ctenophorocera Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891). Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without designation of type species; no included species) (see Evenhuis and O’Hara 2008: 66).

PARAPALES Mesnil, 1950c: 122 (as subgenus of Ctenophorocera Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891). Type species: Ctenophorocera (Parapales) pallidula Mesnil, 1950, by original designation (see Evenhuis and O’Hara 2008: 67).

brevicornis Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Parapales brevicornis Mesnil, 1977b: 192. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, road from Anosibe An’ Ala [as “Anosibe”] to Moramanga, 840m.

brunnea Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Parapales brunnea Mesnil, 1977b: 192. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Manjakatompo [ca. 19°21′S 47°18′E].

luteicornis Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Parapales luteicornis Mesnil, 1977b: 192. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

micronychia Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Parapales micronychia Mesnil, 1977b: 191. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Joffreville.

pallidula (Mesnil, 1950).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Ctenophorocera (Parapales) pallidula Mesnil, 1950c: 123. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily.

pectinipes Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Parapales pectinipes Mesnil, 1977b: 192. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Nosy Bé, Fascène [ca. 13°19′S 48°19′E].

Tribe BLONDELIINI

Genus AFROLIXA Curran, 1939

AFROLIXA Curran, 1939: 4. Type species: Afrolixa macula Curran, 1939, by original designation.

macula Curran, 1939.—Afrotropical: Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa.

Afrolixa macula Curran, 1939: 4. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: Mozambique, Maputo [as “Lourenco Marquis”].

Undescribed sp.: Côte d’Ivoire, Sudan, Uganda (BMNH, Crosskey 1984: 267).

Genus ANOMALOSTOMYIA Cerretti & Barraclough, 2007

ANOMALOSTOMYIA Cerretti & Barraclough, 2007: 102. Type species: Anomalostomyia namibica Cerretti & Barraclough, 2007, by original designation.

Note: Cerretti and Barraclough (2007: 104) considered Anomalostomyia as congeneric with Crosskey’s (1984: 289) “Undetermined genus”, which was based on a single male from Angola. That specimen, originally in BMNH, cannot be located (Cerretti and Barraclough 2007). Crosskey (1984: 289) treated the genus in Eryciini (and “apparently allied to the Erythrocera-group of genera”) but it has been provisionally placed in Blondeliini by Cerretti and Barraclough (2007) based on the species listed here from Namibia.

namibica Cerretti & Barraclough, 2007.—Afrotropical: Namibia.

Anomalostomyia namibica Cerretti & Barraclough, 2007: 103. Holotype male (NMNW). Type locality: Namibia, Brandberg Mountain, Sonusib Ravine, 1435m (21°04.546′S 14°36.958′E).

Genus BLONDELIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

BLONDELIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 122. Type species: Blondelia nitida Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Tachina nigripes Fallén, 1810), by subsequent designation of Duponchel in d’Orbigny (1842: 609) (see Evenhuis and Thompson 1990: 233) [Palaearctic].

tibialis Mesnil, 1962.—Afrotropical: Burundi (new record, MZUR [PC]), D.R. Congo, South Africa.

Blondelia tibialis Mesnil, 1962: 753. Holotype male (IRSNB [not MRAC as published]). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Kibati [ca. 1°36′S 29°16′E].

Genus CHARITELLA Mesnil, 1957

CHARITELLA Mesnil, 1957: 31. Type species: Charitella gracilis Mesnil, 1957, by monotypy [Oriental].

METADRINOMYIA Shima, 1980: 259. Type species: Metadrinomyia proclinata Shima, 1980, by original designation [Palaearctic]. Syn. n.

Note: Metadrinomyia Shima, 1980 was first recognized from the Afrotropical Region by Cerretti (2012: 325). It is here placed in synonymy with Charitella Mesnil, 1957.

nigrescens Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: ?Madagascar, Malawi.

Charitella nigrescens Mesnil, 1977d: 325. Holotype female (CNC). Type locality: Malawi, Mt. Mulanje [as “Mt. Mlanje”].

whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012).—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo. Comb. n.

Metadrinomyia whitmorei Cerretti, 2012: 325. Holotype male (MZUR). Type locality: Burundi, Kayanza [Province], Parc National de la Kibira, 2200m (2°53′25.9″S 29°27′25.4″E).

Note: The recently described Metadrinomyia whitmorei Cerretti, 2012 is moved here to Charitella Mesnil, 1957.

Undescribed sp. 1: Madagascar (TAU, examined by PC).

Undescribed sp. 2: Comoros (MNHN, examined by PC).

Genus COMPSILURA Bouché, 1834

COMPSILURA Bouché, 1834: 58. Type species: Tachina concinnata Meigen, 1824, by subsequent designation of Mik (1894: 52–53).

concinnata (Meigen, 1824).—Afrotropical: “widespread W. Afr. n.-e. Afr., E. Afr. & sthn Afr.” (Crosskey 1980b: 855), including Nigeria, South Africa. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (all), Japan, M. East (all), N. Africa (Madeira), Pal. China, Russia (W. Russia, W. Siberia, E. Siberia), Transcaucasia. Oriental: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Orien. China, Philippines, Ryukyu Is., Taiwan, Thailand. Australasian: Australia, N. Australasian. Nearctic: introduced and widespread in northeast, also British Columbia to California.

Tachina concinnata Meigen, 1824: 412. Holotype female (NHMW, Herting 1972: 5). Type locality: not given (probably Germany, Hamburg [specimen from von Winthem]).

Phorocera selecta Curran, 1940: 6. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal.

solitaria (Curran, 1940).—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Phorocera solitaria Curran, 1940: 6. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

Undescribed sp.: Madagascar (TAU, examined by PC).

Undetermined sp.: Burundi (MZUR, examined by PC).

Genus DOLICHOTARSINA Mesnil, 1977

DOLICHOTARSINA Mesnil, 1977d: 324. Type species: Dolichotarsina gracilis Mesnil, 1977, by original designation.

gracilis Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Dolichotarsina gracilis Mesnil, 1977d: 325. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

Genus EOMEDINA Mesnil, 1960

EOMEDINA Mesnil, 1960b: 652. Type species: Eomedina grisescens Mesnil, 1960 (= Degeeria apicalis Curran, 1927), by original designation.

Note: See Cerretti and Wyatt (2006) for a diagnosis of Eomedina Mesnil, 1960 and a key to the two species.

apicalis (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania (new record, TAU [PC]), Uganda (new record, TAU [PC]).

Degeeria apicalis Curran, 1927c: 8. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

Eomedina grisescens Mesnil, 1960b: 651. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo [as “Südafrika”, in error], Katanga, Bukama.

hamoyensis Cerretti & Wyatt, 2006.—Afrotropical: Namibia.

Eomedina hamoyensis Cerretti & Wyatt, 2006: 64. Holotype female (NMNW). Type locality: Namibia, Rundu District, Hamoye National Forest (18°12′S 19°43′E).

Genus EOPHYLLOPHILA Townsend, 1926

EOPHYLLOPHILA Townsend, 1926c: 19. Type species: Eophyllophila elegans Townsend, 1926, by original designation [Oriental].

africana Villeneuve, 1935.—Afrotropical: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda.

Eophyllophila africana Villeneuve, 1935a: 136. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (not located). Type localities: Nigeria (Oshogbo) and Uganda (west Rwenzori Range [as “W. Ruwenzori”], 1800m).

Undescribed spp.: Kenya, Malawi, Uganda (all in TAU, examined by PC).

Genus ERYNNIOLA Mesnil, 1977

ERYNNIOLA Mesnil, 1977c: 179. Type species: Erynniola atricolor Mesnil, 1977, by original designation.

atricolor Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Erynniola atricolor Mesnil, 1977c: 181. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

russipes Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Erynniola russipes Mesnil, 1977c: 181. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

Genus FILISTEA Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n

FILISTEA Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. Type species: Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, by present designation.

Note: This new genus is described in the New Taxa of Afrotropical Tachinidae section.

aureofasciata (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Cameroon (new record, ZMHB [PC]), D.R. Congo, Nigeria, Uganda. Comb. n.

Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927c: 8. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n.—Afrotropical: Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Nigeria, Uganda.

Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. Holotype male (ZMHB). Type locality: Cameroon, Kumba [as “Johann-Albrechtshöhe”] (4°38′N 9°28′E).

Note: This new species is described in the New Taxa of Afrotropical Tachinidae section.

Genus ISTOCHETA Rondani, 1859

FALLENIA Meigen, 1838: 265 (junior homonym of Fallenia Meigen, 1820). Type species: Tachina longicornis Fallén, 1810, by subsequent designation of Coquillett (1910: 544) [Palaearctic].

ISTOCHETA Rondani, 1859: 157, 171. Type species: Istocheta frontosa Rondani, 1859 (as “Sp. Typ. nova Frontalis Mihi”, incorrect original spelling, see O’Hara et al. 2011: 101) (= Phorocera cinerea Macquart, 1850), by original designation [Palaearctic].

ISTOCHAETA Marschall, 1873: 334. Unjustified emendation of Istocheta Rondani, 1859 (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 101, 262).

HISTOCHAETA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 445 [also 1891: 141]. Unjustified emendation of Istocheta Rondani, 1859 (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 101).

PROSOPOFRONTINA Townsend, 1926c: 33. Type species: Prosopofrontina pulchra Townsend, 1926, by original designation [Oriental].

UROPHYLLINA Villeneuve, 1937c: 5 (as subgenus of Urophylloides Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893). Type species: Urophylloides (Urophyllina) rufipes Villeneuve, 1937, by monotypy [Oriental].

ANUROPHYLLINA Mesnil, 1961: 693 (as subgenus of Urophyllina Villeneuve, 1937). Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without designation of type species from four included species) (see note below and Evenhuis et al. 2008: 6).

ANUROPHYLLINA Mesnil, 1977d: 322 (as subgenus of Urophyllina Villeneuve, 1937). Type species: Urophylloides bicolor Villeneuve, 1937, by original designation [Oriental].

Note: Herting (1984: 24) accepted Anurophyllina Mesnil, 1961 as an available name and designated Urophylloides bicolor Villeneuve, 1937 as type species. The availability of Anurophyllina Mesnil, 1961 vs. Anurophyllina Mesnil, 1977 was properly cited by O’Hara (1996: 121) and Evenhuis et al. (2008: 6) but O’Hara et al. (2009: 48) inadvertently followed Herting (1984).

cerina (Mesnil, 1977).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Urophyllina (Anurophyllina) cerina Mesnil, 1977d: 322. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Montagne d’Ambre [Parc National, ca. 12°36′S 49°8′E].

conifrons (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Degeeria conifrons Villeneuve, 1950: 2. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: Uganda, Entebbe.

crucigera (Mesnil, 1977).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Urophyllina (Anurophyllina) crucigera Mesnil, 1977d: 322. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

flava (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone.

Viviania flava Curran, 1927f: 108. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Sierra Leone, Njala [ca. 8°14′N 12°1'W].

Degeeria frontosa Villeneuve, 1950: 3. Holotype female (IRSNB). Type locality: Kenya, west side of Mt. Kenya, Ngare Rungai, 2000m.

Genus KINIATILIOPS Mesnil, 1955

KINIATILIOPS Mesnil, 1955: 365. Type species: Kiniatiliops elegans Mesnil, 1955 (= Lomatacantha nigrapex Mesnil, 1952), by monotypy.

bilineatus (Mesnil, 1952).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Lomatacantha bilineata Mesnil, 1952a: 11. Holotype female (not located). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Kamatembe, 2100m [ca. 1°19′S 29°6′E].

nigrapex (Mesnil, 1952).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia.

Lomatacantha nigrapex Mesnil, 1952a: 13. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Rutshuru, 1285m.

Kiniatiliops elegans Mesnil, 1955: 365. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: Rwanda, Byumba [as “terr. Biumba”, a former territory], “Gatsibu” [probably Gatsibo, ca. 1°35′S 30°15′E], 1800m.

trispina Mesnil, 1959.—Afrotropical: Kenya.

Kiniatiliops trispina Mesnil, 1959: 14. Holotype female (SMNS). Type locality: Kenya, Lake Jipe.

Genus KINIATILLA Villeneuve, 1938

KINIATILLA Villeneuve, 1938c: 10. Type species: Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938, by original designation.

KINIATILIA. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Kiniatilla Villeneuve, 1938 (Mesnil 1952a: 14).

brevipalpis Mesnil, 1952.—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo.

Kiniatilia brevipalpis Mesnil, 1952a: 14. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Beni to Lesse [Lesse is located northeast of Beni at ca. 0°45′N 29°46′E].

tricincta Villeneuve, 1938.—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo, Rwanda, Uganda.

Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938c: 11. Lectotype female (IRSNB), by designation herein (see Lectotype Designations section). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Bas-Congo, Mayumbé [a highland area west of Rivière Congo], Kiniati.

Genus LATIGINELLA Villeneuve, 1936

LATIGINELLA Villeneuve, 1936a: 4. Type species: Latiginella rufogrisea Villeneuve, 1936, by monotypy.

handeni Verbeke, 1963.—Afrotropical: Malawi (new record, NMDA [PC]), Mozambique, Tanzania.

Latiginella handeni Verbeke, 1963: 176. Holotype female (MRAC). Type locality: Tanzania, Handeni, 350m.

rufogrisea Villeneuve, 1936.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, Nigeria.

Latiginella rufogrisea Villeneuve, 1936a: 4. Holotype female (IRSNB). Type locality: Kenya, Ikutha.

Genus LINDNERIOLA Mesnil, 1959

LINDNERIOLA Mesnil, 1959: 17. Type species: Lindneriola paradoxa Mesnil, 1959, by monotypy.

paradoxa Mesnil, 1959.—Afrotropical: Tanzania, Uganda.

Lindneriola paradoxa Mesnil, 1959: 17. Holotype female (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, “Ngaruka” [probably Engaruka, ca. 3°0′S 35°58′E].

Undescribed sp. 1: South Africa (NMB, examined by PC).

Undescribed sp. 2: Tanzania (TAU, examined by PC).

Genus MAURITIODORIA Townsend, 1932

MAURITIODORIA Townsend, 1932: 52. Type species: Medoria spinicosta Thomson, 1869, by original designation.

GASTROLEPTINA Villeneuve, 1938c: 6. Type species: Gastroleptina discolor Villeneuve, 1938 (= Medoria spinicosta Thomson, 1869), by monotypy.

spinicosta (Thomson, 1869).—Afrotropical: Mauritius, Réunion.

Medoria spinicosta Thomson, 1869: 522. Lectotype male (NHRS), by fixation of Townsend (1932: 52) (examination of “Male Ht” from Mauritius in NHRS is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: Mauritius.

Clytia spinicosta Thomson, 1869: 523 (junior secondary homonym of Medoria spinicosta Thomson, 1869). Type(s), male (NHRS). Type locality: Mauritius.

Gastroleptina discolor Villeneuve, 1938c: 7. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (BMNH). Type locality: Mauritius.

Note: The relative priority of Medoria spinicosta Thomson, 1869 and Clytia spinicosta Thomson, 1869, when both are placed in the same genus, was established by Crosskey (1980b: 856), as the First Reviser (Article 24.2.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999). Townsend (1932: 52) was probably mistaken when he referred to the “male Pt” of Medoria spinicosta Thomson as bearing the label “Clytia spinicosta, Th”; this specimen is likely the name-bearing type of Clytia spinicosta Thomson, 1869.

Genus MEDINA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

MEDINA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 138. Type species: Medina cylindrica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Tachina collaris Fallén, 1820), by subsequent designation of Coquillett (1910: 565) [Palaearctic].

DEGEERIA Meigen, 1838: 249. Type species: Tachina collaris Fallén, 1820, by subsequent designation of Rondani (1856: 72) [Palaearctic].

carbonata Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Madagascar, South Africa, Tanzania.

Medina carbonata Mesnil, 1968b: 8. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, Makoa [probably near Moshi, ca. 3°21′S 37°19′E].

cinctella (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Malawi. Status revived.

Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950: 7. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: Malawi, Mt. Mulanje [as “Mt. Mlanje”].

Note: Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950 was treated as a synonym of Medina lateralis (Villeneuve, 1950) by Verbeke (1964: 181) and Crosskey (1980b: 857) but is recognized here as a distinct species based on examination of the holotype by PC. The relative priority of Degeeria lateralis Villeneuve, 1950 and Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950, when the two are treated as synonyms, was established by Verbeke (1964: 181), as the First Reviser (Article 24.2.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999).

crocea (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Malawi.

Degeeria crocea Villeneuve, 1950: 3. Lectotype male (IRSNB), by designation herein (see Lectotype Designations section). Type locality: Malawi, Mt. Mulanje [as “Mt. Mlanje”]).

decellei Verbeke, 1964.—Afrotropical: Côte d’Ivoire.

Medina decellei Verbeke, 1964: 169. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: Côte d’Ivoire, Parc du Banco [as “Réserve du Banco”; near Abidjan].

denticulata (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Madagascar, Nigeria.

Degeeria denticulata Villeneuve, 1950: 6. Holotype female (IRSNB). Type locality: Nigeria, Ilesha.

egregia (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Nigeria, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Degeeria egregia Villeneuve, 1950: 4. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: Nigeria, Oshogbo.

lateralis (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo (new record, IRSNB [PC]), Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania.

Degeeria lateralis Villeneuve, 1950: 7. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Cap”].

mira Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Medina mira Mesnil, 1977c: 185. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Mahajanga, Ambato Boeni.

nigra Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Angola, Madagascar, South Africa.

Medina nigra Mesnil, 1968b: 8. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town.

pectinifera Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Medina pectinifera Mesnil, 1977c: 187. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Montagne d’Ambre [Parc National, ca. 12°36′S 49°8′E].

rubricosa (Villeneuve, 1913).—Afrotropical: Nigeria.

Lydella rubricosa Villeneuve, 1913c: 30. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Nigeria, Oshogbo.

Note: Villeneuve’s (1913c: 30–31) description of a single female of Lydella rubricosa from Nigeria was followed by a brief description of a male from Benin (as “Dahomey”). It is not clear whether this male was thought to be conspecific with L. rubricosa and hence part of the type series of this nominal species. We have inferred that the male was not positively associated with the female and is therefore not a syntype of L. rubricosa, and have followed Crosskey (1980b: 857) in excluding Benin from the distribution of M. rubricosa (Villeneuve).

semirufa (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Malawi.

Degeeria semirufa Villeneuve, 1950: 6. Lectotype female (IRSNB), by designation herein (see Lectotype Designations section). Type locality: Malawi, Mt. Mulanje [as “Mt. Mlanje”].

setosella (Villeneuve, 1950).—Afrotropical: Burundi (new record, IRSNB [PC]), Cameroon, D.R. Congo (new record, IRSNB [PC]), Uganda.

Degeeria setosella Villeneuve, 1950: 5. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: northwest Cameroon, Dschang [as “Dchang”] Plateau.

sopha Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Medina sopha Mesnil, 1977c: 184. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet, 1000m [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

spinulifera Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: Tanzania.

Medina spinulifera Mesnil, 1968b: 9. Holotype female (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, Makoa [probably near Moshi, ca. 3°21′S 37°19′E].

succuba Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Medina succuba Mesnil, 1977c: 186. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Moramanga.

vidua Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Medina vidua Mesnil, 1977c: 187. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

Possibly undescribed sp.: Nigeria (Crosskey 1984: 265).

Genus MEIGENIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

MEIGENIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 198. Type species: Meigenia cylindrica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by subsequent designation of Desmarest in d’Orbigny (1849a: 318, as “T. [Tachina] cylindrica”) (see Evenhuis and Thompson 1990: 237) [Palaearctic].

Note: Meigenia cylindrica Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is accepted as the type species of Meigenia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, following Evenhuis and Thompson (1990: 237). This name was treated as a nomen dubium under Meigenia by Herting and Dely-Draskovits (1993: 147). Despite this treatment of the type species of Meigenia as a nomen dubium, the concept of Meigenia is well-established and no useful purpose would be served by calling it into question over the dubious identity of M. cylindrica.

Undetermined sp.: Yemen (Zeegers 2007: 388).

Genus MEDINOSPILA Mesnil, 1977

MEDINOSPILA Mesnil, 1977d: 322. Type species: Medinospila nigella Mesnil, 1977, by original designation.

nigella Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Medinospila nigella Mesnil, 1977d: 323. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

Genus PARARONDANIA Villeneuve, 1916

PARARONDANIA Villeneuve, 1916c: 498. Type species: Pararondania multipunctata Villeneuve, 1916, by monotypy.

multipunctata Villeneuve, 1916.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Pararondania multipunctata Villeneuve, 1916c: 498. Holotype female (CNC [not SAMC as published]). Type locality: South Africa, “Cape Colony” (“S.W. Distr. Cape Col.” according to label data, Cooper and O’Hara 1996: 58; possibly referring to present-day Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope).

Genus PARATRIXA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891

PARATRIXA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 357 [also 1891: 53]. Type species: Paratrixa polonica Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, by monotypy [Palaearctic]. New record.

Note: Mesnil (1952a) described the two Afrotropical species below in Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891. Crosskey (1980b: 857) did not recognize Paratrixa and placed these two species in Medina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. Paratrixa is treated as a genus in the Palaearctic Region (e.g., Herting and Dely-Draskovits 1993: 153, Cerretti 2010: 128) and is reinstated here as an Afrotropical genus with these same two species.

aethiopica Mesnil, 1952.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Rwanda, South Africa. Comb. revived.

Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952a: 10. Holotype female (not located). Type locality: Rwanda, Ruhengeri [1°30′S 29°38′E], “sources Kirii” [not located], 1800–1825m.

stammeri Mesnil, 1952.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, South Africa (new record, IRSNB [PC]). Comb. revived.

Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952a: 9. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Rutshuru, 1285m.

Genus PELASHYRIA Villeneuve, 1935

PELASHYRIA Villeneuve, 1935a: 138. Type species: Pelashyria grisescens Villeneuve, 1935, by monotypy.

grisescens Villeneuve, 1935.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Pelashyria grisescens Villeneuve, 1935a: 139. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Mukule, 1800m [ca. 1°20′S 29°15′E].

Genus PRODEGEERIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894

PRODEGEERIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894: 617 [also 1895: 81]. Type species: Prodegeeria javana Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1894, by monotypy [Oriental].

MYXHYPOSTENA Villeneuve, 1939: 6. Type species: Myxhypostena consobrina Villeneuve, 1939, by original designation.

Note: Villeneuve (1939: 6) wrote about his new genus Myxhypostena: “le scutellum du type à 4 soies marginales”. This statement is accepted as a type species designation for Myxhypostena of the single included species, Myxhypostena consobrina Villeneuve.

consobrina (Villeneuve, 1939).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ghana, Nigeria.

Myxhypostena consobrina Villeneuve, 1939: 6. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (IRSNB). Type localities: D.R. Congo (“Agangula” [not located]) and Nigeria (Oshogbo).

straeleni Mesnil, 1952.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Uganda.

Prodegeeria straeleni Mesnil, 1952a: 14. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

Genus PROSUCCINGULUM Mesnil, 1959

PROSUCCINGULUM Mesnil, 1959: 16. Type species: Prosuccingulum aberrans Mesnil, 1959, by monotypy.

aberrans Mesnil, 1959.—Afrotropical: Tanzania.

Prosuccingulum aberrans Mesnil, 1959: 16. Holotype female (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, west side of Mt. Kibo [one of the three peaks of Mt. Kilimanjaro], 2800m.

Undescribed sp.: Malawi (NMB, examined by PC).

Genus RIOTERIA Herting, 1973

RIOTERIA Herting, 1973: 3. Type species: Rioteria submacula Herting, 1973, by monotypy [Palaearctic].

flava Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Rioteria flava Zeegers, 2007: 395. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, 12km northwest of Manākhah (15°04′19″N 43°44′27″E).

rufitibia (Mesnil, 1959).—Afrotropical: Nigeria, Tanzania.

Tachinophytopsis rufitibia Mesnil, 1959: 14. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, “Ngaruka” [probably Engaruka, ca. 3°0′S 35°58′E].

Undescribed sp. 1: South Africa (NMB, examined by PC).

Undescribed sp. 2: Burkina (MZUR, examined by PC).

Genus TRIGONOSPILA Pokorny, 1886

TRIGONOSPILA Pokorny, 1886: 191. Type species: Trigonospila picta Pokorny, 1886 (= Tachina ludio Zetterstedt, 1849), by monotypy [Palaearctic].

SUCCINGULUM Pandellé, 1894: 52. Type species: Succingulum transvittatum Pandellé, 1896, by subsequent monotypy of Pandellé (1896: 148) [Palaearctic].

bimaculata (Villeneuve, 1935).—Afrotropical: Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda.

Succingulum bimaculatum Villeneuve, 1935a: 142. Holotype female (IRSNB). Type locality: Malawi.

Note: Villeneuve (1935a: 142) cited a second female of Succingulum bimaculatum seen by W.S. Patton but it was not examined by Villeneuve (as evidenced from his statement, “La tarière est exserte sur l’unique ♀ que j’ai vue”) and hence is not a syntype.

exigua (Villeneuve, 1935).—Afrotropical: South Africa. Status revived.

Succingulum exiguum Villeneuve, 1935a: 142. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: South Africa.

Note: Succingulum exiguum Villeneuve, 1935 was treated as a synonym of Trigonospila mista (Villeneuve, 1913) by Crosskey (1980b: 858) but is recognized here as a distinct species based on examination of the holotype by PC.

integra (Villeneuve, 1935).—Afrotropical: “Afrique”. Oriental: India, Myanmar.

Succingulum integrum Villeneuve, 1935a: 142. Holotype male (possibly lost, Crosskey 1976: 218). Type locality: Africa [as “Afrique (région?)”].

mista (Villeneuve, 1913).—Afrotropical: Angola, D.R. Congo, Kenya, Malawi, ?South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.

Succingulum mista Villeneuve, 1913c: 39. Holotype female (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Katanga, Sankisia.

prasius Mesnil, 1977.

prasius prasius Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Trigonospila prasius prasius Mesnil, 1977c: 181, 183. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

prasius trifida Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Trigonospila prasius trifidus Mesnil, 1977c: 183. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Antananarivo [as “Tananarive”].

Unplaced species of Blondeliini

triquetra Macquart, 1844.—Afrotropical: Réunion.

Dexia triquetra Macquart, 1844: 86 [also 1844: 243]. Lectotype male (MNHN), by fixation of Crosskey (1971: 267) (examination of “Holotype ♂” from Réunion in MNHN is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: Réunion [as “Bourbon”].

Tribe ERYCIINI

Genus AFROPHYLAX Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n

AFROPHYLAX Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. Type species: Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, by present designation.

Note: This new genus is described in the New Taxa of Afrotropical Tachinidae section.

aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910).—Afrotropical: Cameroon (new record, ZMHB [PC]), D.R. Congo, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda. Comb. n.

Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910a: 252. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo (as “Congo”, p. 249).

Note: Villeneuve (1910a) described four species from “Congo”. Curran (1927f: 122) treated one of them (Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910) as described from D.R. Congo (as “Belgian Congo”), and used “Belgian Congo” and “Congo” interchangeably in this work and some others. We think it likely that Villeneuve (1910a), like Curran, used “Congo” in the sense of present-day D.R. Congo. However, Crosskey (1980b) interpreted Villeneuve’s Congo as the present-day country of Congo. Crosskey (1980b: 867, 1984: 277) treated Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve as an unplaced species in the “Carceliini”.

Genus ANTISTASEA Bischof, 1904

ANTISTASEA Bischof, 1904: 82. Type species: Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904, by monotypy.

fimbriata Bischof, 1904.—Afrotropical: Kenya (new record, TAU [PC]), South Africa, Zimbabwe.

Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904: 83. Lectotype male (NHMW), by fixation of Townsend (1941: 235) (mention of “Ht male” from Algoa Bay in NHMW is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, Algoa Bay.

Podomyia discalis Curran, 1939: 2. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”]. Syn. n.

Note: Crosskey (1984: 289) commented that Podomyia discalis Curran, 1939 is “almost certainly synonymous” with Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904. We confirm from examination of the name-bearing types that these names are synonyms.

mutans Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Botswana, South Africa.

Antistasea mutans Mesnil, 1970b: 106. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Mfongosi [ca. 28°43′S 30°49′E].

Genus APLOMYA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

APLOMYA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 184. Type species: Aplomya zonata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Tachina confinis Fallén, 1820), by subsequent designation of Robineau-Desvoidy (1863a: 459, 460) (as confinis, with zonata in synonymy) [Palaearctic].

APLOMYIA Agassiz, 1846a: 3. Unjustified emendation of Aplomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (see Evenhuis et al. 2010: 39).

HAPLOMYIA Agassiz, 1846b: 172. Unjustified emendation of Aplomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (see Evenhuis et al. 2010: 39).

PROZENILLIA Villeneuve, 1916c: 487. Type species: Prozenillia distans Villeneuve, 1916, by monotypy.

WIEDEMANNIOMYIA Townsend, 1933: 469. Type species: Tachina metallica Wiedemann, 1824, by original designation.

APLOMYIELLA Mesnil, 1939d: 31. Type species: Tricholyga impexa Villeneuve, 1916 (= Tachina metallica Wiedemann, 1824), by original designation.

ATRICHOLYGA Villeneuve, 1939: 9. Type species: Tricholyga impexa Villeneuve, 1916 (= Tachina metallica Wiedemann, 1824), by monotypy.

confinis (Fallén, 1820).—Afrotropical: ?Malawi, Yemen. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (all), Japan, M. East (all), Mongolia, N. Africa (Canary Is., Madeira), Pal. China, Russia (W. Russia, W. Siberia, E. Siberia, S. Far East), Transcaucasia. Oriental: Orien. China.

Tachina confinis Fallén, 1820: 32. Syntypes, males and females (NHRS and/or MZLU). Type locality: Sweden, Gotland.

Note: Tachina confinis Fallén, 1820 was recorded from Malawi by Villeneuve (1913c: 32) but not by Crosskey (1980b: 876). The presence of this species in Malawi needs confirmation.

distans (Villeneuve, 1916).—Afrotropical: Nigeria, South Africa, Sudan, Uganda.

Prozenillia distans Villeneuve, 1916c: 488. Lectotype male (SAMC, not located by JEOH), by fixation of Townsend (1940: 311) (mention of “Ht male” from Durban in SAMC is regarded as a lectotype fixation, if type can be found in SAMC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

latimana Villeneuve, 1934.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, Uganda.

Aplomyia latimana Villeneuve, 1934c: 409. Holotype female (CNC). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], 1800m.

lycaena (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Ethiopia, Senegal, South Africa.

Zenillia lycaena Curran, 1927d: 333. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Free State, Bloemfontein.

metallica (Wiedemann, 1824).—Afrotropical: “W. Afr. to n.-e. Afr., E. Afr. & sthn Afr.” (Crosskey 1980b: 876), including D.R. Congo, Mozambique, South Africa, Sudan, U.A. Emirates, Yemen. Palaearctic: Japan, M. East (Israel), Pal. China. Oriental: India, Indonesia, Orien. China, Ryukyu Is., Taiwan. Australasian: N. Australasian.

Tachina metallica Wiedemann, 1824: 46. Lectotype male (ZMUC), by fixation of Townsend (1933: 470) (examination of “Male holotype” from East Indies in ZMUC is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: “India orient.” (i.e., “East Indies”).

Tachina nigriventris Wiedemann, 1824: 43. Lectotype male (ZMUC), by fixation of Townsend (1933: 470) (examination of “male holotype” from East Indies in ZMUC is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: “India orient.” (i.e., “East Indies”).

Tachina notata Wiedemann, 1830: 653. Type(s), male (SMF or lost). Type locality: Nubia region [as “Nubien”, a region in southern Egypt and northern Sudan, recorded here as Sudan following Crosskey 1980b: 876].

Tachina socia Wiedemann, 1830: 654. Type(s), female (SMF or lost). Type locality: not given (likely Nubia region).

Phorocera eucalypta Loew, 1852: 659 [also 1862: 19, full description]. Type(s), unspecified sex (1 male in ZMHB). Type locality: Mozambique (Tete [as “Tette”] according to Loew 1862: 20).

Parexorista laeviventris van der Wulp, 1893: 173. Lectotype male (RMNH), by designation of Crosskey (1966a: 674–675) (see also Crosskey 1969: 105). Type locality: Indonesia, Jawa.

Tricholyga impexa Villeneuve, 1916c: 494. Syntypes, 2 males (1 male in NHMW). Type localities: D.R. Congo [as “Congo”, but received from Bequaert and presumably collected from D.R. Congo] and South Africa (Eastern Cape, Uitenhage).

Note: The relative priority of Tachina metallica Wiedemann, 1824 and Tachina nigriventris Wiedemann, 1824, when the two are treated as synonyms, was established by Townsend (1933: 470), as the First Reviser (Article 24.2.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999). Tachina notata Wiedemann, 1830 and Tachina socia Wiedemann, 1830 were synonymized with T. metallica by Crosskey (1980b: 876); their relative priority has not been established by a First Reviser and such action is unnecessary while they are invalid names.

The male syntype of Tricholyga impexa Villeneuve, 1916 in NHMW was collected from Uitenhage, South Africa, on 15 November 1896 and not on 15 December 1896 as given by Villeneuve (1916c: 494) (examined by JEOH).

poultoni (Villeneuve, 1922).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa.

Exorista poultoni Villeneuve, 1922a: 518. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: Nigeria, near Ibadan, Moor Plantation.

seyrigi Mesnil, 1954.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Aplomyia (Aplomyiella) seyrigi Mesnil, 1954: 330. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily.

versicolor (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: South Africa, Uganda.

Zenillia versicolor Curran, 1927d: 334. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, East London.

Genus CADURCIELLA Villeneuve, 1927

CADURCIELLA Villeneuve, 1927: 120. Type species: Cadurciella rufipalpis Villeneuve, 1927, by monotypy.

rufipalpis Villeneuve, 1927.—Afrotropical: Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe. Palaearctic: M. East (Israel).

Cadurciella rufipalpis Villeneuve, 1927: 120. Lectotype male (not located), by fixation of Townsend (1941: 248) (mention of “Ht male” from Salisbury in Rambouillet [Villeneuve’s personal collection, since dispersed] is regarded as a lectotype fixation for the single male in the type series from this locality). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

uniseta (Curran, 1933).—Afrotropical: South Africa, Zimbabwe.

Zenillia uniseta Curran, 1933: 166. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe.

Undetermined sp.: U.A. Emirates, as “cf. Cadurciella spec.” (Zeegers 2010: 681).

Genus CARCELIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Subgenus CARCELIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

CARCELIA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 176. Type species: Carcelia bombylans Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by subsequent designation of Coquillett (1910: 518) (see Evenhuis et al. 2010: 52) [Palaearctic].

CARCELLIA. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Rondani 1859: 103, Stackelberg 1943: 163) (see O’Hara et al. 2011: 46).

nudioculata Villeneuve, 1938.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Rwanda, Uganda.

Carcelia nudioculata Villeneuve, 1938c: 4. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Maniema, Lubutu.

Subgenus CARCELITA Mesnil, 1975

CARCELITA Mesnil, 1975a: 1384. Type species: Carcelia peraequalis Mesnil, 1950, by monotypy.

CARICELIA Mesnil, 1975a: 1384. Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without designation of type species; no included species).

CARICELIA Mesnil, 1975b: 1388. Type species: Carcelia obliterata Mesnil, 1950, by original designation.

Note: See O’Hara (1996: 122) for an explanation of the nomenclatural history of Caricelia Mesnil and Carcelita Mesnil.

abrelicta Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.

Carcelia abrelicta Mesnil, 1950b: 16. Syntypes, males and females (1 female in CNC). Type localities: D.R. Congo and South Africa (Western Cape, Cape Town).

aequalis Villeneuve, 1939.—Afrotropical: Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Carcelia aequalis Villeneuve, 1939: 1. Syntypes, males (“plusieurs individus”) (1 male in CNC, 1 male in SAMC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal.

Note: One male of Carcelia aequalis Villeneuve, 1939 in IRSNB from “Stella B” [former Stella Bush near Durban] (examined by PC) with a Villeneuve determination label is likely an unmarked syntype.

angulicornis Villeneuve, 1916.—Afrotropical: Ghana (new record, CNC), Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa.

Carcelia angulicornis Villeneuve, 1916c: 481. Syntypes, males and females (BMNH, CNC). Type localities: Malawi (Mulanje [as “Mlange”]), Nigeria (Oshogbo), and South Africa.

argyriceps (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Zenillia argyriceps Curran, 1927d: 328. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, [Kanungu District in southwestern Uganda], Kinkizi County, “Kizazi” [not located].

Zenillia hargreavesi Curran, 1928a: 238. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Kampala.

atricans Mesnil, 1955.—Afrotropical: Burundi (new record, CNC, MZUR [PC]), ?Cape Verde, Kenya (new record, CNC), Rwanda, Tanzania.

Carcelia atricans Mesnil, 1955: 362. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: Rwanda, eastern foothills of Volcan Muhabura [as “Muhavura”], 2100m [ca. 1°23′S 29°44′E].

bigoti (Jaennicke, 1867).—Afrotropical: Ethiopia.

Exorista bigoti Jaennicke, 1867: 384 [also 1868: 76]. Type(s), female (SMF). Type locality: Ethiopia, “Simen” (probably the Simien Mountains area).

forcipata Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Carcelia (Carcelita) forcipata Mesnil, 1977b: 178. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Ampefy.

inusta Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Malawi (new record, CNC), South Africa.

Carcelia inusta Mesnil, 1950b: 11. Syntypes, males and females (1 male in CNC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, “Stella” [former Stella Bush near Durban].

keiseri Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Carcelia (Carcelita) keiseri Mesnil, 1977b: 176. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet, 1000m [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

lindneri Mesnil, 1959.—Afrotropical: South Africa (new record, CNC), Tanzania.

Carcelia lindneri Mesnil, 1959: 2. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, Msingi [ca. 4°20′S 34°34′E].

lucidula Villeneuve, 1941.—Afrotropical: C.A. Republic (new record, CNC), D.R. Congo.

Carcelia lucidula Villeneuve, 1941b: 125. Syntypes, 2 males and 1 female (2 males in MRAC, 1 female in CNC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Uele, Dembia.

normula (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda.

Zenillia normula Curran, 1927d: 329. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, “Rosaka” [not located].

oblectanea Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa (new record, CNC).

Carcelia oblectanea Mesnil, 1950b: 15. Syntypes, males and females (1 female in CNC). Type locality: D.R. Congo.

oblimata Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Carcelia oblimata Mesnil, 1950b: 14. Syntypes, males and females (1 female in CNC). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town.

obliterata Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Rwanda, South Africa.

Carcelia obliterata Mesnil, 1950b: 13. Lectotype female (CNC), by fixation of O’Hara (1996: 150). Type locality: South Africa (“Kransp.” according to label data, Cooper and O’Hara 1996: 21).

Note: O’Hara (1996: 150) accepted the specimen labelled as “TYPE” in CNC as the holotype of Carcelia obliterata Mesnil, 1950 under the assumption that the species was likely described from a single specimen. This assumption is contrary to Recommendation 73F, “Avoidance of assumption of holotype”, of the current Code (ICZN 1999). O’Hara’s (1996: 150) treatment of the “TYPE” in CNC as the holotype of C. obliterata is regarded as a lectotype fixation.

oculata (Villeneuve, 1910).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Exorista oculata Villeneuve, 1910a: 251. Lectotype male (IRSNB), by designation herein (see Lectotype Designations section). Type locality: D.R. Congo (as “Congo”, p. 249).

occulata. Incorrect subsequent spelling of oculata Villeneuve, 1910 (Curran 1927d: 335).

Note: Villeneuve (1910a) described four species from “Congo”. Curran (1927f: 122) treated one of them (Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910) as described from D.R. Congo (as “Belgian Congo”), and used “Belgian Congo” and “Congo” interchangeably in this work and some others. We think it likely that Villeneuve (1910a), like Curran, used “Congo” in the sense of present-day D.R. Congo. However, Crosskey (1980b) interpreted Villeneuve’s Congo as the present-day country of Congo.

orbitalis (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: South Africa, Zimbabwe.

Zenillia orbitalis Curran, 1927d: 330. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Gauteng, Pretoria.

patellata Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Carcelia (Carcelita) patellata Mesnil, 1977b: 177. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Montagne d’Ambre [Parc National, ca. 12°36′S 49°8′E].

pellex Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Kenya, South Africa, Uganda.

Carcelia pellex Mesnil, 1950b: 13. Type(s), unspecified sex (not located). Type locality: South Africa.

peraequalis Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Carcelia peraequalis Mesnil, 1950b: 18. Syntypes, males and females (possibly 1 male in CNC [O’Hara 1996: 152], 1 male in IRSNB). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

persimilis Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Madagascar, South Africa.

Carcelia persimilis Mesnil, 1950b: 17. Lectotype male (MNHN), by fixation of O’Hara (1996: 153) (treatment of a male labelled as “TYPE” from Fort-Dauphin in MNHN as the holotype is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Tôlanaro [also commonly known as Taolagnaro or Fort Dauphin and published as “Fort-Dauphin”].

Note: O’Hara (1996: 153) accepted the specimen labelled as “TYPE” in MNHN as the holotype of Carcelia persimilis Mesnil, 1950 under the assumption the species was likely described from a single specimen. However, Mesnil’s description (1950b: 17) clearly mentions both sexes, thus indicating syntypes. O’Hara’s (1996: 153) treatment of the “TYPE” in MNHN as the holotype of C. persimilis is regarded as a lectotype fixation.

vaga (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Zenillia vaga Curran, 1927d: 332. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Kampala.

vara (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania.

Zenillia vara Curran, 1927d: 331. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Kenya, Kabete [ca. 1°16′S 36°43′E, near Nairobi].

vexor (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Zenillia vexor Curran, 1927d: 330. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Subgenus EURYCLEA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863

EURYCLEA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863a: 290. Type species: Euryclea tibialis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863, by original designation [Palaearctic].

setifrons Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Nigeria (new record, CNC), Uganda.

Carcelia (Eucarcelia) setifrons Mesnil, 1949a: 90. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Katanga, Lubumbashi [as “Elisabethville”].

Possibly undescribed spp.: Yemen, as “Carcelia (Caricelia) sp. 1 cf. vexor”, “Carcelia (Caricelia) sp. 2”, and “Carcelia (Caricelia) sp. 3” (Zeegers 2007: 378).

Genus CARCELIATHRIX Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n

CARCELIATHRIX Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. Type species: Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, by present designation.

Note: This new genus is described in the New Taxa of Afrotropical Tachinidae section.

crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo. Comb. n.

Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938c: 2. Lectotype male (MRAC), by designation herein (see Lectotype Designations section). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Bomputu.

claripalpis. Incorrect subsequent spelling of crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938 (original usage not found but spelling listed by Crosskey 1980b: 867).

Note: Crosskey (1980b: 867) treated Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938 as an unplaced species in the “Carceliini”.

Undescribed sp. 1: Namibia (NNIC, examined by PC).

Undescribed sp. 2: South Africa (NMB, examined by PC).

Genus CESTONIA Rondani, 1861

CESTONIA Rondani, 1861b: 105. Type species: Cestonia cineraria Rondani, 1861, by monotypy [Palaearctic].

canariensis Villeneuve, 1936.—Afrotropical: U.A. Emirates. Palaearctic: N. Africa (Canary Is.), M. East (Israel).

Cestonia canariensis Villeneuve in Frey, 1936: 145. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (FMNHH). Type locality: Canary Islands, Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

Note: Cestonia canariensis Villeneuve, 1936, was redescribed by Herting (1981: 3) from the original syntypes.

harteni Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Cestonia harteni Zeegers, 2007: 381. Holotype female (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, Suq Bani Mansour (15°05′15″N 43°52′10″E).

Note: Zeegers (2010: 677) recognized “Cestonia cf. harteni Zeegers” from U.A. Emirates.

rufipes Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Cestonia rufipes Zeegers, 2007: 382. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, Al Kawd [as “Al Kowd”] (15°14′52″N 43°15′16″E).

rutilans Villeneuve, 1929.—Afrotropical: Senegal, Yemen. Palaearctic: N. Africa (NE. Africa).

Cestonia rutilans Villeneuve, 1929a: 102. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (not located). Type locality: Egypt, Al Qāhirah [as “Caire”].

Genus CESTONIONERVA Villeneuve, 1929

CESTONIONERVA Villeneuve, 1929b: 43. Type species: Conogaster petiolata Villeneuve, 1910, by subsequent designation of Townsend (1936b: 137).

Note: Cestonionerva Villeneuve, 1929 was “Formé pour Conogaster petiolata Villen.” (Villeneuve 1929b: 43) and a new species of the genus was also described in the same paper. Crosskey (1980b: 876) and Herting and Dely-Draskovits (1993: 223) interpreted Conogaster petiolata as the type species of Cestonionerva by original designation. However, a fixation by original designation requires an explicit designation of a type species (Article 68.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999), which is lacking in this instance. The type species of Cestonionerva Villeneuve, 1929 was therefore fixed later by the subsequent designation of Townsend (1936b: 137).

petiolata (Villeneuve, 1910).—Afrotropical: U.A. Emirates, Yemen. Palaearctic: C. Asia, M. East (Israel), Mongolia, N. Africa (Canary Is., NE. Africa), Pal. China.

Conogaster petiolata Villeneuve in Becker, 1910b: 144 [also 1910b: 14]. Holotype female (NHMW). Type locality: Yemen, Suquţrá [as “Sokótra”].

Genus CHRYSERYCIA Mesnil, 1977

CHRYSERYCIA Mesnil, 1977b: 185. Type species: Chryserycia fulviceps Mesnil, 1977, by original designation.

fulviceps Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Chryserycia fulviceps Mesnil, 1977b: 186. Holotype female (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antsiranana, Montagne d’Ambre [Parc National, ca. 12°36′S 49°8′E].

Genus DESCAMPSINA Mesnil, 1956

DESCAMPSINA Mesnil, 1956b: 76. Type species: Descampsina sesamiae Mesnil, 1956, by original designation.

sesamiae Mesnil, 1956.—Afrotropical: Cameroon, D.R. Congo (new record, IRSNB [PC]), Nigeria.

Descampsina sesamiae Mesnil, 1956b: 76. Holotype, unspecified sex [male, examined by PC] (MNHN). Type locality: Cameroon, Garoua.

Note: Mesnil (1956b: 76–77) described Descampsina sesamiae from both sexes from Garoua (Cameroon) and wrote “Type dans ma collection”, without giving the sex. O’Hara (1996: 156) treated the type series as comprising syntypes in CNC and MNHN but this is incorrect because a holotype (as “Type”) was designated in the original description.

Genus DIAPROCHAETA Mesnil, 1970

DIAPROCHAETA Mesnil, 1970b: 103. Type species: Diaprochaeta (Diaprochaeta) illustris Mesnil, 1970, by original designation.

illustris Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Diaprochaeta (Diaprochaeta) illustris Mesnil, 1970b: 105. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Zimbabwe, “Sankishya” [not located].

Genus DRINO Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863

Subgenus DRINO Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863

DRINO Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863a: 250. Type species: Drino volucris Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (= Tachina lota Meigen, 1824), by original designation [Palaearctic].

STURMIODORIA Townsend, 1928: 391. Type species: Sturmiodoria facialis Townsend, 1928, by original designation.

cordata (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo, Guinea, Malawi, Rwanda.

Sturmia cordata Curran, 1927a: 12. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

Note: Sturmia cordata Curran, 1927 is moved here from Drino subgenus Palexorista Townsend, 1921 based on examination of the holotype by PC.

facialis (Townsend, 1928).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo. Palaearctic: Pal. China. Oriental: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Orien. China, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand.

Sturmiodoria facialis Townsend, 1928: 392. Holotype female (USNM). Type locality: Philippines, Basilan.

Note: Sturmiodoria facialis Townsend, 1928 was recorded from Africa (D.R. Congo) by Verbeke (1962b: 51) but Crosskey (1984: 284) commented that “confirmation of identity in Africa [is] needed”.

lota (Meigen, 1824).—Afrotropical: Tanzania. Palaearctic: Europe (all except SW. Eur., Turkey), Japan, Pal. China [Ningxia], Russia (W. Russia, W. Siberia, S. Far East). Oriental: Orien. China.

Tachina lota Meigen, 1824: 326. Lectotype male (MNHN), by designation of Herting (1972: 9). Type locality: not given (Europe).

Note: Tachina lota Meigen, 1824 was recorded from Africa (Tanzania) by Mesnil (1959: 8) but Crosskey (1984: 284) commented that “confirmation of identity in Africa [is] needed”.

Subgenus PALEXORISTA Townsend, 1921

PALEXORISTA Townsend, 1921: 134. Type species: Tachina succini Giebel, 1862 (as “Tichina succini Giebel”), by monotypy.

PROSTURMIA Townsend, 1927c: 69. Type species: Prosturmia profana Townsend, 1927 (= Masicera solennis Walker, 1858), by original designation [Oriental].

PROSTURMINA Mesnil, 1949b: 103 (as subgenus of Drino Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863). Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without designation of type species; no included species).

PROSTURMINA Mesnil, 1949c: 8, 32 (as subgenus of Drino Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863). Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without type designation from three included species).

PROSTURMINA Mesnil, 1951: 161 (as subgenus of Drino Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863). Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without type designation; no included species).

PROSTURMINA Mesnil, 1970b: 110 (as subgenus of Drino Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863). Type species: Sturmia vigilans Villeneuve, 1933 (= Sturmia pulchra Curran, 1927), by original designation.

Note: The nomenclatural history of Prosturmina Mesnil was discussed by O’Hara (1996: 128) and Evenhuis and O’Hara (2008: 67).

amicula Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania.

Drino (Prosturmia) amicula Mesnil, 1949c: 30. Syntypes, males and females (1 male in CNC, 2 males in MNHN). Type localities: Mozambique (Rio Zambeze [Tambara according to label data, Cooper and O’Hara 1996: 30; ca. 16°43′S 34°15′E]) and Senegal (Bambey).

ampliceps (Karsch, 1886).—Afrotropical: Angola.

Masicera (Blepharipa) ampliceps Karsch, 1886b: 340. Holotype, unspecified sex [female, examined by JEOH] (ZMHB). Type locality: Angola, Pungo Andongo.

aureocincta Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Drino (Prosturmia) aureocincta Mesnil, 1977b: 179. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Sakaraha.

aureola Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Sierra Leone.

Drino (Prosturmina) aureola Mesnil, 1970b: 110. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Sierra Leone, Bafodia [as “Bafodea”, ca. 9°41′N 11°43′E].

aurifera (Villeneuve, 1943).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Sturmia aurifera Villeneuve, 1943a: 36. Syntypes, males and females (2 males in CNC). Type localities: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala and Maniema, Lubutu.

crassiseta Mesnil, 1968.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Drino crassiseta Mesnil, 1968b: 5. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town, Kirstenbosch.

curvipalpis (van der Wulp, 1893).—Misidentification, not Afrotropical [known from Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions].

Note: An unknown species was recorded as “Drino (Prosturmia T.T.) unisetosa Bar.” (originally described as Sturmia (Sturmia) unisetosa Baranov, 1932, currently a synonym of Drino curvipalpis (van der Wulp, 1893)) from Tanzania by Mesnil (1959: 7). Misidentification (Crosskey 1980b: 872).

flavicans (Wiedemann, 1819).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda.

Tachina flavicans Wiedemann, 1819: 24. Type(s), female (not located). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Prom. bon. sp.” = “Promontorium Bonae Spei”].

Sturmia congolensis Villeneuve, 1910a: 253. Syntypes, 3 females (not located). Type locality: D.R. Congo (as “Congo”, p. 249).

Note: Villeneuve (1910a) described four species from “Congo”. Curran (1927f: 122) treated one of them (Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910) as described from D.R. Congo (as “Belgian Congo”), and used “Belgian Congo” and “Congo” interchangeably in this work and some others. We think it likely that Villeneuve (1910a), like Curran, used “Congo” in the sense of present-day D.R. Congo. However, Crosskey (1980b) interpreted Villeneuve’s Congo as the present-day country of Congo.

flaviseta (Thomson, 1869).—Afrotropical: Mauritius.

Masicera flaviseta Thomson, 1869: 522. Type(s), unspecified sex (NHRS). Type locality: Mauritius.

gilva (Hartig, 1838).—Misidentification, not Afrotropical [known from Palaearctic Region].

Note: An unknown species was recorded as “Sturmia gilva Hartig” (originally described as Tachina gilva Hartig, 1838) from D.R. Congo by Curran (1927f: 116, 1928b: 393). Misidentifications (not recorded from the Afrotropical Region by Herting and Dely-Draskovits 1993: 207).

gilvoides (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, South Africa.

Sturmia gilvoides Curran, 1927f: 117. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Mpumalanga, Barberton.

idonea (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891).—Afrotropical: ?Eritrea, Mozambique, South Africa.

Argyrophylax idonea Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 344 [also 1891: 40]. Type(s), male (NHMW, not located by JEOH). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Cap b. sp.” = “Cap Bonae Spei”].

Sturmia partitor Curran, 1927f: 116. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Free State, Bloemfontein.

Note: Bezzi’s (1908b: 30) record of Drino idonea (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891) (as Sturmia (Argyrophylax) idonea) from Eritrea needs confirmation.

imberbis (Wiedemann, 1830).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, U.A. Emirates, Uganda, Yemen. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (SC. Eur., Turkey), M. East (all), N. Africa (Canary Is., NE. Africa), Transcaucasia.

Tachina imberbis Wiedemann, 1830: 317. Syntypes, 2 or more males (lost, Crosskey 1967b: 93, Ziegler 2011: 8). Type locality: Egypt.

Sturmia zonata Curran, 1927d: 336. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Entebbe.

Note: See Herting (1984: 193, note 142) and Ziegler (2011: 7–8) for a discussion of the identities of Tachina imberbis Wiedemann, 1830, Sturmia zonata Curran, 1927, and Phorcida latigena Mesnil, 1944. Zeegers (2007: 386, 2010: 679) treated T. imberbis as a nomen dubium and used S. zonata as the valid name for this taxon.

inconspicua (Meigen, 1830).—Misidentification, not Afrotropical [known from Palaearctic and Oriental regions].

Note: An unknown species was recorded as “Sturmia (Sturmia) inconspicua” (originally described as Tachina inconspicua Meigen, 1830) from Tanzania by Speiser (1910: 140). The same or a similar species was recorded from Malawi and Uganda by Villeneuve (1913c: 29, as “Sturmia inconspicua”), from D.R. Congo and South Africa by Curran (1927f: 118, 1928b: 393, as “Sturmia inconspicua”) and from Seychelles by Barraclough (2009: 304, as “Drino inconspicua” but noting “Confirmation of identity required”). It was also recorded as “Sturmia bimaculata” (originally described as Tachina bimaculata Hartig, 1838, currently a synonym of Drino inconspicua (Meigen)) from D.R. Congo by Curran (1927f: 118, 1928b: 394). Misidentifications (Crosskey 1980b: 871, 872).

iterata Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: South Africa, Uganda.

Drino (Prosturmia) iterata Mesnil, 1949c: 31. Syntypes, males and females (1 male in CNC). Type localities: Uganda and South Africa.

latigena (Mesnil, 1944).—Afrotropical: Djibouti, U.A. Emirates. Palaearctic: M. East (Israel), N. Africa (NE. Africa).

Phorcida latigena Mesnil, 1944: 15. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Djibouti, Obock [as “Obok”].

Tachina imberbis of authors (e.g., Crosskey 1967b: 93–94, 1980b: 872 [in part], as “Palexorista imberbis”), not Wiedemann, 1830. Misidentification (Herting 1984: 193, note 142; Ziegler 2011: 7–8).

lavinia (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Uganda.

Sturmia lavinia Curran, 1927c: 14. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

laxa (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe. Oriental: India.

Sturmia laxa Curran, 1927d: 335. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Tanzania, Morogoro.

mayneana (Villeneuve, 1930).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Sturmia mayneana Villeneuve, 1930b: 59. Syntypes, males and females (“plusieurs individus”) (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

melancholica Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Drino (Prosturmia) melancholica Mesnil, 1949c: 16. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (CNC). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

nova Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Drino (Prosturmia) nova Mesnil, 1949c: 27. Syntypes, males and females (1 male in CNC, MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily.

obliterata Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: Malawi, Senegal, South Africa.

Drino (Prosturmia) patruelis obliterata Mesnil, 1949c: 18. Syntypes, males and females (MNHN). Type localities: Malawi (Mt. Mulanje [as “Mt. Mlanje”]), Senegal (Bambey), and South Africa.

parachrysops (Bezzi, 1925).—Afrotropical: Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Yemen. Palaearctic: M. East (M. East [Saudi Arabia, Dawah 2011: 5]). Oriental: India, ?Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka.

Sturmia parachrysops Bezzi, 1925b: 114. Lectotype male (BMNH), by designation of Crosskey (1967b: 78). Type locality: Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpar.

patruelis Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Drino (Prosturmia) patruelis Mesnil, 1949c: 17. Syntypes, males and probably females (“nombreux exemplaires”) (1 male and possibly other syntypes in CNC). Type localities: South Africa and Zimbabwe (Harare [as “Salisbury”]).

pulchra (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Uganda.

Sturmia pulchra Curran, 1927a: 16. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Entebbe.

Sturmia vigilans Villeneuve, 1933: 278. Holotype female (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

quadrizonula (Thomson, 1869).—Afrotropical: widespread, including D.R. Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Saint Helena, São Tomé & Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe (Crosskey 1977: 152, in part).

Masicera quadrizonula Thomson, 1869: 521. Lectotype female (NHRS), by designation of Crosskey (1970: 580). Type locality: Saint Helena.

Note: Masicera quadrizonula Thomson, 1869 was redescribed by Crosskey (1970: 580, 1977: 151).

rufa Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Drino rufa Zeegers, 2007: 385. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, Sana’a (15°21′17″N 44°12′24″E).

salva (Wiedemann, 1830).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Tachina salva Wiedemann, 1830: 340. Type(s), female (1 syntype in ZMUC, Zimsen 1954: 23). Type locality: South Africa [as “China”, in error according to Crosskey 1980b: 872].

subaurata (Walker, 1853).—Afrotropical: Madagascar, South Africa.

Tachina subaurata Walker, 1853: 298. Type(s) female (BMNH). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Cape”].

succini (Giebel, 1862).—Afrotropical: ?Tanzania.

Tachina succini Giebel, 1862: 319. Holotype female (NMCL). Type locality: not given (in copal; “East Africa presumed”, Crosskey 1980b: 872).

Note: Tachina succini Giebel, 1862 was described from a copal inclusion originally thought to be an amber fossil (Crosskey 1966c: 133). Its provenance is unknown but likely East Africa, particularly Zanzibar, a popular source of copal since the early 1800s.

tenella (Bezzi, 1911).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Erycia (Bactromyia) tenella Bezzi, 1911: 60. Holotype female (USNM). Type locality: South Africa, Gauteng, Pretoria.

terrosa Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Drino (Prosturmia) terrosa Mesnil, 1949c: 20. Type(s), unspecified sex (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily.

ugandana (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Sturmia ugandana Curran, 1927c: 16. Holotype male (AMNH; not BMNH, see Arnaud and Owen 1981: 239). Type locality: Uganda, Entebbe.

Subgenus ZYGOBOTHRIA Mik, 1891

ZYGOBOTHRIA Mik, 1891: 193. Type species: Sturmia atropivora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by original designation.

FORMOSODORIA Townsend, 1933: 475. Type species: Sturmia (Argyrophylax) dilabida Villeneuve, 1916 (= Meigenia ciliata van der Wulp, 1881), by original designation.

atropivora (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).—Afrotropical: “widespread Afrotrop Reg.” (Crosskey 1980b: 874), including D.R. Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, U.A. Emirates, Uganda. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (all except British Is., Scand.), Japan, M. East (all), N. Africa (Canary Is., NW. Africa), Pal. China, Russia (W. Russia), Transcaucasia. Oriental: India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Orien. China, Ryukyu Is., Sri Lanka. Australasian: Australia.

Sturmia atropivora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 171. Syntypes, more than 80 males and females (lost, Herting 1974a: 24). Type locality: not given (France).

Sturmia masakensis Curran, 1927f: 117. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Masaka.

masakesnsis. Incorrect subsequent spelling of masakensis Curran, 1927 (Curran 1928b: 388).

ciliata (van der Wulp, 1881).—Afrotropical: “widespread mainland Afrotrop. Reg.” (Crosskey 1980b: 874), including Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, U.A. Emirates, Uganda. Palaearctic: Pal. China. Oriental: India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan. Australasian: Australia, N. Australasian.

Meigenia ciliata van der Wulp, 1881: 38. Lectotype male (RMNH), by designation of Crosskey (1967c: 104). Type locality: Indonesia, Sumatera, Alahanpanjang [as “Alahan pandjang”].

Sturmia (Argyrophylax) dilabida Villeneuve, 1916c: 479. Type(s), unspecified number and including at least 1 male (SAMC, not located by JEOH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Note: Sturmia dilabida Villeneuve, 1916 was described from one or more specimens, at least one of which was male. The type locality was given as Durban and the depository as SAMC. There are several specimens in SAMC identified by Villeneuve as S. dilabida but none from Durban. Unless type material of S. dilabida is discovered in SAMC or is proven to have existed there, Townsend’s (1941: 270) mention of “Ht male” from Durban in SAMC cannot be accepted as a lectotype fixation. The identity of S. dilabida was confused with that of Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann, 1824) by Villeneuve (1933: 280). Townsend (1932: 32, 1933: 475) erred in citing the type locality of S. dilabida as Taiwan [as “Formosa”] and the type depository as SDEI [as “Berlin-Dahlem”]. Later, Townsend (1941: 270) correctly cited the type locality as Durban.

Sturmia munroi Curran, 1927c: 17. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, Eastern Cape, East London.

Sturmia (Sturmia) macrophallus Baranov, 1932: 76. Lectotype male (SDEI), by designation of Crosskey (1967c: 105). Type locality: Taiwan, P’ingtung Hsien, Changkou [as “Kankau”, near Hengch’un].

Formosodoria foeda Villeneuve, 1933: 280 (as “Formosodoria foeda T. T.”). Nomen nudum (proposed in synonymy [with Sturmia dilabida Villeneuve, 1916 and Tachina convergens Wiedemann, 1824, the latter misidentified] and not made available by subsequent usage before 1961).

Tachina convergens of Mesnil (1951: 169, as “Drino convergens”), not Wiedemann, 1824. Misidentification (Crosskey 1963: 77, 1980b: 874).

grandicornis Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Drino (Zygobothria) grandicornis Mesnil, 1977b: 178. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Mananjary.

Genus EUGAEDIOXENIS Cerretti, O’Hara & Stireman, 2015

EUGAEDIOXENIS Cerretti, O’Hara & Stireman in Cerretti et al., 2015: 494. Type species: Gaedioxenis haematodes Villeneuve, 1937, by original designation.

haematodes (Villeneuve, 1937).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Gaedioxenis haematodes Villeneuve, 1937a: 207. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: South Africa, “Colonie du Cap” ([former Cape Province], between Somerset West and Strand according to label data, Cooper and O’Hara 1996: 39).

horridus Cerretti, O’Hara & Stireman, 2015.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Eugaedioxenis horridus Cerretti, O’Hara & Stireman in Cerretti et al., 2015: 501. Holotype male (MZUR). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Anysberg Nature Reserve, 840m (33°26′37.76″S 20°47′29.25″E).

Genus HYPERSARA Villeneuve, 1935

HYPERSARA Villeneuve, 1935a: 139. Type species: Hypersara argentata Villeneuve, 1935, by monotypy.

argentata Villeneuve, 1935.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Nigeria.

Hypersara argentata Villeneuve, 1935a: 140. Holotype male (not located). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Walikale [ca. 1°25′S 28°00′E].

Undescribed sp.: Ethiopia (TAU, examined by PC).

Genus INTRAPALES Villeneuve, 1938

INTRAPALES Villeneuve, 1938c: 8. Type species: Intrapales remotella Villeneuve, 1938, by monotypy.

hirsuta Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Intrapales hirsuta Mesnil, 1977b: 185. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

insularis Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Intrapales insularis Mesnil, 1977b: 184. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Anosimparihy [ca. 21°30′S 47°59′E].

remotella Villeneuve, 1938.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Nigeria (new record, CNC), Sierra Leone, Tanzania.

Intrapales remotella Villeneuve, 1938c: 8. Syntypes, 2 males and 1 female (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

Genus KAISERIOLA Mesnil, 1970

KAISERIOLA Mesnil, 1970b: 105 (as subgenus of Diaprochaeta Mesnil, 1970). Type species: Diaprochaeta (Kaiseriola) aperta Mesnil, 1970, by original designation.

Note: Kaiseriola Mesnil, 1970 was treated as a synonym of Diaprochaeta Mesnil, 1970 by Crosskey (1980b: 877) but was later recognized as a genus by Crosskey (1984: 201, 294).

aperta (Mesnil, 1970).—Afrotropical: Mozambique (new record, JOS [PC]), South Africa.

Diaprochaeta (Kaiseriola) aperta Mesnil, 1970b: 105. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

obscura (Mesnil, 1970).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Diaprochaeta (Kaiseriola) obscura Mesnil, 1970b: 106. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Moramanga.

Genus LUBUTANA Villeneuve, 1938

LUBUTANA Villeneuve, 1938c: 10. Type species: Lubutana divaricata Villeneuve, 1938, by original designation.

divaricata Villeneuve, 1938.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda.

Lubutana divaricata Villeneuve, 1938c: 10. Syntypes, males (IRSNB). Type localities: D.R. Congo (Maniema, Lubutu; Nord-Kivu, Walikale [ca. 1°25′S 28°00′E]), Malawi (Mt. Mulanje [as “Mont Mlanje”]) and Nigeria (Degema).

mayeri Mesnil, 1955.—Afrotropical: Nigeria.

Lubutana mayeri Mesnil, 1955: 363. Holotype female (CNC). Type locality: Nigeria, Oshogbo.

perplexa Mesnil, 1955.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Rwanda, Uganda.

Lubutana perplexa Mesnil, 1955: 362. Holotype female (MRAC). Type locality: Rwanda, eastern foothills of Volcan Muhabura [as “Muhavura”], 2100m [ca. 1°23′S 29°44′E].

Genus LYDELLA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

LYDELLA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 112. Type species: Lydella grisescens Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, by subsequent designation of Robineau-Desvoidy (1863a: 855) [Palaearctic].

METOPOSISYROPS Townsend, 1916d: 320. Type species: Metoposisyrops oryzae Townsend, 1916, by original designation [Oriental].

Note: Metoposisyrops Townsend, 1916 was synonymized with Lydella Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Woodley (1994: 135).

sesamiae (Mesnil, 1968).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo (new record, IRSNB [PC]), Mozambique (new record, MZUR [PC]), Namibia (new record, MZUR [PC]), Nigeria, Uganda.

Metagonistylum sesamiae Mesnil, 1968b: 4. Holotype female (CNC). Type locality: Uganda, Kidetok, Serere [ca. 1°30′N 33°33′E].

Genus MADREMYIA Townsend, 1916

MADREMYIA Townsend, 1916d: 305. Type species: Madremyia parva Townsend, 1916 (= Phorocera saundersii Williston, 1889), by original designation [Neotropical]. New record.

Note: Madremyia Townsend, 1916 is newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region for a species previously placed in Phryxe Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.

setinervis (Mesnil, 1968).—Afrotropical: Tanzania. Comb. n.

Phryxe setinervis Mesnil, 1968b: 5. Holotype female (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, southwest side of Mt. Kilimanjaro [as “Kilimandjaro”], 3500m.

Note: Phryxe setinervis Mesnil, 1968 was treated as a species of Phryxe Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b: 879) but is moved here to Madremyia Townsend, 1916.

Genus MYXARCHICLOPS Villeneuve, 1916

MYXARCHICLOPS Villeneuve, 1916c: 494. Type species: Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916, by subsequent designation of Townsend (1936b: 222).

caffer Villeneuve, 1916.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916c: 495. Lectotype male (CNC), by designation herein (see Lectotype Designations section). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Town.

major Villeneuve, 1930.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Myxarchiclops major Villeneuve, 1930a: 353. Syntypes, 2 females (CNC). Type locality: South Africa, “Colonie du Cap” ([former Cape Province], Somerset West according to label data, Cooper and O’Hara 1996: 54).

Genus NEOLYDELLA Mesnil, 1939

NEOLYDELLA Mesnil, 1939a: 209 (as subgenus of Lydella Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Type species: Lydella (Neolydella) pruinosa Mesnil, 1939, by monotypy.

pruinosa (Mesnil, 1939).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Lydella (Neolydella) pruinosa Mesnil, 1939a: 209. Syntypes, 3 males (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily, “région sud de l’Ile”.

Genus NILEA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863

NILEA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863a: 275. Type species: Nilea innoxia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863, by original designation [Palaearctic].

longicauda (Mesnil, 1970).—Afrotropical: Madagascar. Comb. n.

Sturmia longicauda Mesnil, 1970b: 91. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Moramanga.

Note: Sturmia longicauda Mesnil, 1970 was treated as a species of Sturmia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b: 874) but is moved here to Nilea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863.

perplexa Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Burundi (new record, MZUR [PC]), Madagascar, Mozambique (new record, MZUR [PC]), South Africa (new record, NMDA [PC]).

Nilea perplexa Mesnil, 1977b: 188. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Foulpointe [ca. 17°41′S 49°31′E].

Undescribed sp.: Tanzania (TAU, examined by PC).

Genus PARADRINO Mesnil, 1949

PARADRINO Mesnil, 1949b: 103 (as subgenus of Drino Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863). Type species: Sturmia halli Curran, 1939 (as “Paradrino Halli Curr.”, p. 100), by monotypy (see Evenhuis and O’Hara 2008: 66).

halli (Curran, 1939).—Afrotropical: Botswana, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Sturmia halli Curran, 1939: 2. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Kadoma [as “Gatooma”].

Sturmia rhodesiensis Jones, 1939: 16. Syntypes, males and females (BMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Mazoe.

Note: Jones (1939: 15) wrote in a footnote on the first page of his paper: “After the present manuscript had been sent to the printers, Curran published a description of this species under the name of Sturmia halli sp. n. (1939, Amer. Mus. Nov. 1022, pp. 2–3).” Since the name Sturmia rhodesiensis was not explicitly proposed in synonymy with Sturmia halli, it is treated as both an available name and a subjective synonym of S. halli.

Undescribed species of “?Paradrino”: Yemen (Zeegers 2007: 392).

Genus PHRYXE Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

PHRYXE Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 158. Type species: Phryxe athaliae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Tachina vulgaris Fallén, 1810), by subsequent designation of Robineau-Desvoidy (1863a: 329, 358) (as vulgaris, with athaliae in synonymy) [Palaearctic].

Note: The single species recognized in Phryxe Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b: 879), Phryxe setinervis Mesnil, 1968, is moved herein to Madremyia Townsend, 1916. We record Phryxe in the Afrotropical Region from an undescribed species.

Undescribed sp.: Ethiopia (TAU, examined by PC).

Genus PSEUDOPERICHAETA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889

PSEUDOPERICHAETA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 92 [also 1890: 24]. Type species: Pseudoperichaeta major Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 (= Phryxe palesioidea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830), by monotypy [Palaearctic].

ACHAETONEURILLA Mesnil, 1939a: 210 (as subgenus of Pseudoperichaeta Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889). Type species: Pseudoperichaeta (Achaetoneurilla) madecassa Mesnil, 1939, by monotypy.

laevis Villeneuve, 1932.—Afrotropical: Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Pseudoperichaeta laevis Villeneuve, 1932: 285. Syntypes, males and females (not located). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

Phorocera bolyodes Curran, 1933: 166. Holotype female (BMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

bothyodes. Incorrect subsequent spelling of bolyodes Curran, 1933 (original usage not found but spelling listed by Crosskey 1980b: 880).

leo (Curran, 1941).—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Phorocera leo Curran, 1941: 10. Holotype female (AMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Mutare [as “Umtali”].

Pseudoperichaeta pilosa Villeneuve, 1942a: 52. Syntypes, 2 males (1 male in CNC). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Hurungwe [as “Urungwe”], Gota Gota.

madecassa Mesnil, 1939.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Pseudoperichaeta (Achaetoneurilla) madecassa Mesnil, 1939a: 210. Syntypes, 12 males and females (3 males and 2 females in CNC, MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily, “région sud de l’Ile”.

nestor (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Nigeria, Tanzania.

Phorocera nestor Curran, 1927c: 12. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

pacta Villeneuve, 1932.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Mauritius, South Africa, Zimbabwe.

Pseudoperichaeta pacta Villeneuve, 1932: 285. Holotype female (not located). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, “région de Cape-Town”.

sallax (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Phorocera sallax Curran, 1927c: 11. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

Genus PTILOCATAGONIA Mesnil, 1956

PTILOCATAGONIA Mesnil, 1956b: 79 (as subgenus of Sisyropa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889). Type species: Sisyropa (Ptilocatagonia) viridescens Mesnil, 1956, by monotypy.

viridescens (Mesnil, 1956).—Afrotropical: Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia.

Sisyropa (Ptilocatagonia) viridescens Mesnil, 1956b: 79. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, Msingi [ca. 4°20′S 34°34′E].

Note: Mesnil (1956b: 79) described Sisyropa viridescens from a “Mâle capturé à Msingi (Ruwenzori)”. The type locality of Msingi is in Tanzania, whereas “Ruwenzori” refers to the Rwenzori Range on the border between D.R. Congo and Uganda. The country of the type locality was incorrectly cited as Uganda by Crosskey (1980b: 873) and O’Hara (1996: 160).

Genus SENOMETOPIA Macquart, 1834

SENOMETOPIA Macquart, 1834: 160 [also 1834: 296]. Type species: Carcelia aurifrons Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (= Tachina excisa Fallén, 1820), by subsequent designation of Townsend (1916b: 8) (earlier type fixations set aside by ICZN 2012: 242; see Evenhuis and Thompson 1990: 237 and O’Hara and Evenhuis 2011: 61) [Palaearctic].

STENOMETOPIA Agassiz, 1846b: 351. Unjustified emendation of Senometopia Macquart, 1834.

EOCARCELIA Townsend, 1919b: 582. Type species: Eocarcelia ceylanica Townsend, 1919, by original designation [Oriental].

EOCARCELIOPSIS Townsend, 1928: 392. Type species: Eocarceliopsis bakeri Townsend, 1928, by original designation [Oriental].

EUCARCELIA Baranov, 1934: 393. Type species: Tachina excisa Fallén, 1820, by original designation [Palaearctic].

albatella (Villeneuve, 1941).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Malawi.

Carcelia albatella Villeneuve, 1941b: 125. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Sud-Kivu, Kalembelembe to Baraka.

evolans (Wiedemann, 1830).—Afrotropical: Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, Sierra Leone, ?Yemen.

Tachina evolans Wiedemann, 1830: 321. Type(s), unspecified sex (not located). Type locality: Sierra Leone.

Note: Tachina evolans Wiedemann, 1830 has been misidentified from other places in the Afrotropical Region and from the Palaearctic Region, as noted by Crosskey (1980b: 865), Shima (2006: 64, 66) and O’Hara et al. (2009: 78). Given such a history of misidentifications, we treat the record from Yemen by Zeegers (2007: 396) as questionable. Curran (1927d: 327) examined the “type” of T. evolans but did not state where he had seen it or give any details about it.

hectica (Speiser, 1910).—Afrotropical: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.

Carcelia hectica Speiser, 1910: 141. Holotype male (NHRS). Type locality: Tanzania, Mt. Kilimanjaro [as “Kilimandjaro”], valley at Kibongoto [as “Kibonoto”].

illota (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania. Oriental: India, Laos, Orien. China. Australasian: Australia.

Zenillia illota Curran, 1927d: 328. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Tanzania, Morogoro.

judicabilis (Mesnil, 1949).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Malawi, Zimbabwe.

Carcelia (Eucarcelia) evolans judicabilis Mesnil, 1949a: 90. Holotype, unspecified sex [male, examined by PC] (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Katanga, Lubumbashi [as “Elisabethville”].

laetifica (Mesnil, 1949).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ghana, Nigeria.

Carcelia (Eucarcelia) evolans laetifica Mesnil, 1949a: 89. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Katanga, Lubumbashi [as “Elisabethville”].

norma (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda.

Zenillia norma Curran, 1927d: 329. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Uganda, Bugoma Forest [ca. 1°16′N 30°57′E].

Genus SISYROPA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889

SISYROPA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 163 [also 1890: 95]. Type species: Tachina thermophila Wiedemann, 1830, by monotypy [Oriental].

STYLURODORIA Townsend, 1933: 476. Type species: Stylurodoria stylata Townsend, 1933, by original designation.

CTENOPHOROCEROPSIS Baranov, 1938: 408. Type species: Ctenophoroceropsis yerburyi Baranov, 1938, by original designation.

POUJADEA Mesnil, 1949b: 102. Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without designation of type species; no included species) (see Evenhuis and O’Hara 2008: 67).

EOCATAGONIA Mesnil, 1949b: 103 (as subgenus Sisyropa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889). Nomen nudum (proposed after 1930 without designation of type species; no included species) (see Evenhuis and O’Hara 2008: 66).

POUJADEA Mesnil, 1950c: 108. Type species: Zenillia insolita Curran, 1927, by monotypy (see Evenhuis and O’Hara 2008: 67).

EOCATAGONIA Mesnil, 1950c: 148 (as subgenus Sisyropa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889). Type species: Sisyropa (Eocatagonia) argyrata Mesnil, 1950, by monotypy (see Evenhuis and O’Hara 2008: 66).

argyrata Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: Senegal.

Sisyropa (Eocatagonia) argyrata Mesnil, 1950c: 148. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Senegal.

boveyi Mesnil, 1958.—Afrotropical: Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania.

Sisyropa (Catagonia) boveyi Mesnil, 1958: 252. Holotype male (ETHZ). Type locality: Guinea, Réserve de la Biosphère des Monts Nimba [as “Réserve du Mt Nimba”], foot of Mont Nimba.

insolita (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Zenillia insolita Curran, 1927c: 5. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

insoleta. Incorrect subsequent spelling of insolita Curran, 1927 (Curran 1927d: 327).

madecassa Mesnil, 1944.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Sisyropa formosa madecassa Mesnil, 1944: 14. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Ikongo-Ankarimbelo region, Forêt Tanala.

negator (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Sturmia negator Curran, 1927c: 15. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

negastor. Incorrect subsequent spelling of negator Curran, 1927 (Curran 1928b: 391).

stylata (Townsend, 1933).—Afrotropical: Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan. Oriental: India, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.

Stylurodoria stylata Townsend, 1933: 476. Holotype female (SDEI). Type locality: Taiwan, P’ingtung Hsien, Changkou [as “Kankau”, near Hengch’un].

subdistincta (Villeneuve, 1916).—Afrotropical: Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania.

Catagonia subdistincta Villeneuve, 1916c: 484. Syntypes, 2 males (SAMC, not located by JEOH). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Sisyropa cinerosa Mesnil, 1944: 15. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Senegal, Bambey.

yerburyi (Baranov, 1938).—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Ctenophoroceropsis yerburyi Baranov, 1938: 409. Holotype male (BMNH, Sabrosky and Crosskey 1969: 39). Type locality: Yemen, ‘Adan [as “Aden”].

yerburi. Incorrect subsequent spelling of yerburyi Baranov, 1938 (original usage not found but spelling listed by Crosskey 1980b: 873).

Possibly undescribed spp.: Nigeria (BMNH, Crosskey 1984: 281).

Genus STURMIOPSIS Townsend, 1916

STURMIOPSIS Townsend, 1916d: 313. Type species: Sturmiopsis inferens Townsend, 1916, by original designation.

RHODESINA Curran, 1939: 3 (junior homonym of Rhodesina Malloch, 1921). Type species: Rhodesina parasitica Curran, 1939, by original designation.

CURRANOMYIA Townsend in Cuthbertson & Munro, 1941: 115 (nomen novum for Rhodesina Curran, 1939).

Note: Barraclough (2004) published a review of Sturmiopsis Townsend, 1916 but was apparently unaware of the key to species of Sturmiopsis and the description of Sturmiopsis setifrons Mesnil, 1977 by Mesnil (1977b: 186–187).

inferens Townsend, 1916.—Afrotropical: Madagascar (probably introduced, Barraclough 2004: 12). Oriental: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Orien. China, Nepal, Philippines.

Sturmiopsis inferens Townsend, 1916d: 313. Holotype female (USNM). Type locality: Indonesia, Jawa, Bogor [as “Buitenzorg”].

parasitica (Curran, 1939).—Afrotropical: Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Oriental: India (introduced, Barraclough 2004: 17).

Rhodesina parasitica Curran, 1939: 3. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

Sturmiopsis angustifrons Mesnil, 1959: 11. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, Kisangara.

setifrons Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Sturmiopsis setifrons Mesnil, 1977b: 187. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Ambalavao.

Genus STYLOCARCELIA Zeegers, 2007

STYLOCARCELIA Zeegers, 2007: 396. Type species: Stylocarcelia stylata Zeegers, 2007, by original designation.

stylata Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Stylocarcelia stylata Zeegers, 2007: 396. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, Sana’a (15°21′17″N 44°12′24″E).

Genus THECOCARCELIA Townsend, 1933

THECOCARCELIA Townsend, 1933: 471. Type species: Argyrophylax pelmatoprocta Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (= Masicera acutangulata Macquart, 1851), by original designation [Palaearctic].

THELYCARCELIA Townsend, 1933: 475. Type species: Thelycarcelia thrix Townsend, 1933 (= Sturmia sumatrana Baranov, 1932), by original designation [Oriental].

Note: The relative priority of Thecocarcelia Townsend, 1933 and Thelycarcelia Townsend, 1933, when the two are treated as synonyms, was established by Mesnil (1950b: 20), as the First Reviser (Article 24.2.2 of the Code, ICZN 1999).

acutangulata (Macquart, 1851).—Afrotropical: “W. Afr. to E. Afr. & sthn Afr.” (Crosskey 1980b: 866), including D.R. Congo, Madagascar. Palaearctic: Europe (all except Scand., Turkey), Japan, Transcaucasia.

Masicera acutangulata Macquart, 1851a: 478. Type(s), female (MHNL or lost). Type locality: Switzerland, Chur [as “Coire”].

Masicera incedens Rondani, 1861b: 22. Type(s), female (MZF, Herting 1969: 195; 1 female syntype and 1 male non-type in MZF [examined by PC]). Type locality: Italy, plain near Parma.

Argyrophylax pelmatoprocta Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 344 [also 1891: 40]. Syntypes, males and females (2 males and 4 females in NHMW). Type locality: “M.-Europa”.

Note: Argyrophylax pelmatoprocta Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 was described from an unspecified number of males and females from “M.-Europa”. Herting (1974b: 140) reported on a female syntype from Bisamberg [near Wien, Austria] in NHMW but this collection includes an additional two males and three females identified as pelmatoprocta by “B. B.” or “Bergenst.” from other localities in Europe and these specimens are considered syntypes as well (examined by JEOH).

ebenina Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, South Africa.

Thecocarcelia ebenina Mesnil, 1950b: 21. Syntypes, males and possibly females (not located). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal.

flavicosta Zeegers, 2007.—Afrotropical: Yemen.

Thecocarcelia flavicosta Zeegers, 2007: 398. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: Yemen, Laḩij [as “Lahj”] (13°03′28″N 44°53′02″E).

latifrons Mesnil, 1949.—Afrotropical: Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Thecocarcelia latifrons Mesnil, 1949b: 56. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Mozambique, Rio Zambezi, near Chemba, “Nova Choupanga”.

Note: Zeegers (2010: 681) recognized “Thecocarcelia cf. latifrons Mesnil” from U.A. Emirates.

latimana Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Thecocarcelia latimana Mesnil, 1950b: 22. Syntypes, males and females (not located). Type locality: South Africa.

pauciseta Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thecocarcelia pauciseta Mesnil, 1977b: 181. Holotype male (NHMB [“to be returned to MNHN”, O’Hara 1996: 152]). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, 15km [south of] Mananara, Ivontaka [ca. 16°18′S 49°49′E].

robusta Mesnil, 1950.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Thecocarcelia robusta Mesnil, 1950b: 22. Syntypes, males (1 male in CNC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

trichops Herting, 1967.—Afrotropical: South Africa, Zambia. Palaearctic: Europe (W. Eur., SW. Eur., SC. Eur., SE. Eur.), Japan, Pal. China.

Thecocarcelia trichops Herting, 1967: 4. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: France, Vaucluse, Lagnes.

Note: Specimens from the Afrotropical Region identified as Thecocarcelia trichops Herting, 1967 should be checked to confirm their identity.

ventralis Mesnil, 1959.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania.

Thecocarcelia ventralis Mesnil, 1959: 2. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, “Torina” [not located].

vibrissata Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thecocarcelia vibrissata Mesnil, 1977b: 181. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Fianarantsoa, Ifanadiana [ca. 21°18′S 47°38′E].

Genus THELAIRODRINO Mesnil, 1954

THELAIRODRINO Mesnil, 1954c: 470 (as subgenus of Thelairosoma Villeneuve, 1916). Type species: Thelairosoma gracilis Mesnil, 1952, by original designation [Oriental].

anaphe (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Sturmia anaphe Curran, 1927e: 447. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Tanzania, Morogoro.

Note: Sturmia anaphe, described by Curran (1927e: 447), was referred to as “Sturmia anaphe, sp. n.” by Curran (1927f: 126) with the accompanying note, “It will be described fully in the Entomologische Mitteilungen” (i.e., in Curran 1927e, which was published first).

cardinalis (Mesnil, 1949).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Drino cardinalis Mesnil, 1949a: 91. Holotype, unspecified sex [male, examined by PC] (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Katanga, Lubumbashi [as “Elisabethville”].

potina (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Sturmia potina Curran, 1927f: 118. Holotype male (SANC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Port Shepstone.

Genus THELAIROSOMA Villeneuve, 1916

THELAIROSOMA Villeneuve, 1916c: 499. Type species: Thelairosoma fumosum Villeneuve, 1916, by monotypy.

SEYRIGOMYIA Mesnil, 1944: 11. Type species: Seyrigomyia fulvella Mesnil, 1944, by original designation.

LESPESIOPSIS Mesnil, 1954c: 471 (as subgenus of Thelairosoma Villeneuve, 1916). Type species: Thelairosoma (Lespesiopsis) coerulescens Mesnil, 1954, by monotypy.

THELAIROXENIS Mesnil, 1954c: 472 (as subgenus of Thelairosoma Villeneuve, 1916). Type species: Thelairosoma (Thelairoxenis) pallidum Mesnil, 1954, by original designation.

angustifrons (Villeneuve, 1916).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda.

Sturmia (Blepharipoda) angustifrons Villeneuve, 1916c: 478. Syntypes, 3 males and 1 female (1 male in SAMC). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

atrum Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thelairosoma (Thelairosoma) atrum Mesnil, 1970b: 101. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

brunnescens (Villeneuve, 1934).—Afrotropical: Rwanda, Uganda.

Erycia brunnescens Villeneuve, 1934d: 69. Lectotype female (IRSNB), by designation herein (see Lectotype Designations section). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], 2500m.

carbonatum (Mesnil, 1944).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Seyrigomyia carbonata Mesnil, 1944: 13. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily.

coerulescens Mesnil, 1954.—Afrotropical: Burundi, D.R. Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania.

Thelairosoma (Lespesiopsis) coerulescens Mesnil, 1954c: 471. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: northwest Tanzania, edge of virgin forest, 1800–2200m.

comatum Villeneuve, 1938.—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Thelairosoma comatum Villeneuve, 1938b: 2. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], 2300m.

diaphanum Mesnil, 1954.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Thelairosoma (Thelairoxenis) diaphanum Mesnil, 1954c: 472. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

flavipalpe Villeneuve, 1938.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Thelairosoma flavipalpe Villeneuve, 1938b: 3. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Walikale [ca. 1°25′S 28°00′E].

fulvellum (Mesnil, 1944).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Seyrigomyia fulvella Mesnil, 1944: 12. Holotype, unspecified sex (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toliara, Bekily.

fumosum Villeneuve, 1916c: 500.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique (new record, MZUR [PC]), South Africa, Tanzania.

Thelairosoma fumosum Villeneuve, 1916c: 500. Lectotype male (SAMC), by fixation of Townsend (1940: 98) (mention of “Ht male” from Durban in SAMC is regarded as a lectotype fixation for the male syntype in SAMC labelled by Villeneuve as “Typ.” [examined by JEOH]). Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

hybridum Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thelairosoma (Seyrigomyia) hybrida Mesnil, 1970b: 103. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Antananarivo [as “Tananarive”].

ingrami Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Thelairosoma (Seyrigomyia) ingrami Mesnil, 1970b: 103. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Uganda, Serere [ca. 1°30′N 33°33′E].

longicorne Mesnil, 1954.—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Thelairosoma (Thelairoxenis) longicorne Mesnil, 1954c: 473. Holotype male (BMNH). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

lutescens Mesnil, 1954.—Afrotropical: Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe.

Thelairosoma (Seyrigomyia) lutescens Mesnil, 1954c: 474. Holotype, unspecified sex (BMNH, not located by D. Whitmore, pers. comm.). Type locality: South Africa.

major Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thelairosoma (Seyrigomyia) major Mesnil, 1970b: 102. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Mandraka [near Antananarivo, not located].

melancholicum Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thelairosoma (Seyrigomyia) melancholica Mesnil, 1970b: 102. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

obversum Villeneuve, 1943.—Afrotropical: Zimbabwe.

Thelairosoma obversum Villeneuve, 1943a: 40. Syntypes, 3 males (not located). Type locality: Zimbabwe, Harare [as “Salisbury”].

pallidum Mesnil, 1954.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Malawi, Nigeria.

Thelairosoma (Thelairoxenis) pallidum Mesnil, 1954c: 472. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Katanga, Lubumbashi [as “Elisabethville”].

palposum Villeneuve, 1938.—Afrotropical: “W. Afr. to E. Afr. & sthn Afr.” (Crosskey 1980b: 881), including D.R. Congo, Gabon.

Thelairosoma palposum Villeneuve, 1938b: 2. Syntypes, 1 male and 1 female (1 male in IRSNB). Type localities: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Walikale [ca. 1°25′S 28°00′E] and Gabon, “Bas-Ogooué” [delta region of the Rivière Ogooué].

pulchellum (Mesnil, 1944).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Seyrigomyia pulchella Mesnil, 1944: 13. Holotype, unspecified sex (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, central plateau of Fianarantsoa.

quadriguttatum (Mesnil, 1944).—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Seyrigomyia quadriguttata Mesnil, 1944: 12. Holotype, unspecified sex [male, see O’Hara 1996: 154] (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar.

rosatum Villeneuve, 1943.—Afrotropical: Malawi.

Thelairosoma rosatum Villeneuve, 1943a: 39. Holotype female (not located). Type locality: Malawi, Mt. Mulanje [as “Mt. Mlanje”].

triste Mesnil, 1970.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Thelairosoma (Seyrigomyia) tristis Mesnil, 1970b: 102. Holotype male (CNC). Type locality: Madagascar, Toamasina, Périnet [ca. 18°55′S 48°25′E].

varipes Villeneuve, 1943.—Afrotropical: Malawi.

Thelairosoma varipes Villeneuve, 1943a: 39. Syntypes, 3 males and 4 females (not located). Type locality: Malawi.

Genus THELYCONYCHIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889

THELYCONYCHIA Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889: 89 [also 1890: 21]. Type species: Masicera (Ceromasia) solivaga Rondani, 1861, by monotypy.

TORINAMYIA Mesnil, 1959: 2. Type species: Torinamyia delicatula Mesnil, 1959, by monotypy.

delicatula (Mesnil, 1959).—Afrotropical: Tanzania, Uganda.

Torinamyia delicatula Mesnil, 1959: 2. Holotype male (SMNS). Type locality: Tanzania, “Torina” [not located].

solivaga (Rondani, 1861).—Afrotropical: Botswana, U.A. Emirates, Yemen. Palaearctic: C. Asia, Europe (all except British Is., Scand.), Japan, M. East (Israel), Pal. China, Russia (E. Siberia, S. Far East), Transcaucasia. Oriental: Pakistan.

Masicera (Ceromasia) solivaga Rondani, 1861b: 24. Type(s), male (MZF, Herting 1969: 201; 8 male syntypes and 6 female non-types in MZF [examined by PC]). Type locality: Italy, plain near Parma.

Note: Thelyconychia solivaga (Rondani, 1861) of current authors is likely a species complex but is treated here as a single species pending further study. Crosskey’s (1980b: 867) record of T. solivaga from Canary Islands may have been based on a misidentification because the species was not recorded from there by Tschorsnig and Báez (2002) or Tschorsnig et al. (2004).

Genus THELYMYIOPS Mesnil, 1950

THELYMYIOPS Mesnil, 1950b: 10 (as subgenus of Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Type species: Carcelia coniformis Villeneuve, 1941, by monotypy. Status n.

Note: Thelymyiops Mesnil, 1950 was treated as a subgenus of Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Crosskey (1980b: 866). It is here raised to a genus and the characters that distinguish it will be given in the Tachinidae chapter of the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera (in prep.).

coniformis (Villeneuve, 1941).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda.

Carcelia coniformis Villeneuve, 1941b: 124. Holotype female (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

Unplaced species of Eryciini

varicornis Curran, 1940.—Afrotropical: Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Phorocera varicornis Curran, 1940: 7. Holotype female (AMNH). Type locality: border between Zambia and Zimbabwe, Victoria Falls.

Note: Phorocera varicornis Curran, 1940 was treated as an “Unplaced species of Goniinae” [= Exoristinae] by Crosskey (1980b: 881) and is moved here based on examination of the holotype by PC. It cannot be placed to genus at the present time.

Tribe ETHILLINI

Genus AMNONIA Kugler, 1971

AMNONIA Kugler, 1971: 71. Type species: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971, by original designation.

carmelitana Kugler, 1971.—Afrotropical: Ethiopia (new record, TAU [PC]), Kenya (new record, TAU [PC]). Palaearctic: M. East (Israel).

Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971: 71. Holotype male (TAU). Type locality: Israel, Zikhron Ya’aqov.

Note: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 is newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region.

deemingi Zeegers, 2010.—Afrotropical: U.A. Emirates.

Amnonia deemingi Zeegers, 2010: 674. Holotype male (RMNH). Type locality: U.A. Emirates, 7km south of Jazīrat al Hamrā [as “al-Jazirat al-Hamra”] (25°39′N 55°45′E).

Genus CALLIETHILLA Shima, 1979

CALLIETHILLA Shima, 1979: 147. Type species: Calliethilla caerulea Shima, 1979, by original designation [Oriental].

hirta Cerretti, 2012.—Afrotropical: Uganda.

Calliethilla hirta Cerretti, 2012: 322. Holotype male (TAU). Type locality: Uganda, Rwenzori Range [as “Ruwenzori”], Itojo.

Genus ETHILLA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863

ETHILLA Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863a: 202. Type species: Tachina aemula Meigen, 1824, by original designation [Palaearctic].

ETHYLLA Mesnil, 1939d: 32. Unjustified emendation of Ethilla Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (see Evenhuis et al. 2010: 76).

adiscalis Mesnil, 1977.—Afrotropical: Madagascar.

Ethilla adiscalis Mesnil, 1977b: 173. Holotype male (MNHN). Type locality: Madagascar, Antananarivo, Manjakatompo [ca. 19°21′S 47°18′E].

tenor (Curran, 1927).—Afrotropical: ?Angola, D.R. Congo, ?Kenya, ?Malawi.

Zenillia tenor Curran, 1927c: 5. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

Note: Crosskey (1984: 270) recorded specimens in BMNH from Angola, Kenya and Malawi that are “probably” Zenillia tenor Curran, 1927.

Possibly undescribed sp.: South Africa (BMNH, Crosskey 1984: 270).

Genus ETHYLLOIDES Verbeke, 1970

ETHYLLOIDES Verbeke, 1970: 286. Type species: Ethylloides emdeni Verbeke, 1970, by original designation.

emdeni Verbeke, 1970.—Afrotropical: South Africa.

Ethylloides emdeni Verbeke, 1970: 288. Holotype male (MZLU). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape Peninsula, Hout Bay, Skoorsteenkop.

Genus GYNANDROMYIA Bezzi, 1923

GYNANDROMYIA Bezzi, 1923: 97. Type species: Gynandromyia seychellensis Bezzi, 1923, by original designation.

ZENILLIANA Curran, 1927c: 3 (as subgenus of Zenillia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Type species: Zenillia (Zenilliana) devastator Curran, 1927 (= Myxexorista habilis Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891), by monotypy.

ZELINDOMYIA Verbeke, 1962a: 166. Type species: Zelindomyia grossa Verbeke, 1962, by original designation.

TRYPHEROSOMA Verbeke, 1962a: 167. Type species: Trypherosoma gilva Verbeke, 1962, by original designation.

Note: Trypherosoma Verbeke, 1962 and Zelindomyia Verbeke, 1962 were synonymized with Gynandromyia Bezzi, 1923 by Crosskey (1984: 200, 271).

bafwankei Verbeke, 1962.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Gynandromyia bafwankei Verbeke, 1962a: 172. Lectotype male (IRSNB), by fixation of Verbeke (1962b: 44) (examination of “Type, 1♂” from Bafwankei is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Bafwakei [as “Bafwankei”, ca. 1°41′N 27°02′E, near Bomili].

Note: The name Gynandromyia bafwankei was made available by Verbeke (1962a: 172) in a key that was apparently intended to precede the full description by Verbeke (1962b: 43, as “Gynandromyia bafwankei n. sp.”). No specimens were mentioned in the first work but two males, “Type” and “Paratype”, were cited in the second. We regard the “Type” as the lectotype of G. bafwankei by fixation of Verbeke (1962b: 44).

basilewskyi (Verbeke, 1960).—Afrotropical: Tanzania.

Zenilliana basilewskyi Verbeke, 1960: 337. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: Tanzania, Olkokola, Mt. Meru, towards northwest, 2500–2600m.

crypta (Verbeke, 1962).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Trypherosoma crypta Verbeke, 1962a: 167, 168. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Bafwakei [as “Bafwankei”, ca. 1°41′N 27°02′E, near Bomili].

fumigata (Verbeke, 1962).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Trypherosoma fumigata Verbeke, 1962a: 167, 168. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

gilva (Verbeke, 1962).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Trypherosoma gilva Verbeke, 1962a: 167, 168. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Équateur, Eala.

grossa (Verbeke, 1962).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Zelindomyia grossa Verbeke, 1962a: 167. Holotype male (IRSNB). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Mapolo.

habilis (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891).—Afrotropical: “widespread W. Afr., E. Afr. & sthn Afr.” (Crosskey 1980b: 861), including D.R. Congo, Malawi, South Africa.

Myxexorista habilis Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: 332 [also 1891: 28] (as “habilis Wd. litt. Coll. Wiedm.”). Type(s), male (NHMW, not located by JEOH). Type locality: South Africa, Western Cape, Cape of Good Hope [as “Cap b. sp.” = “Cap Bonae Spei”].

Zenillia (Zenilliana) devastator Curran, 1927c: 3. Holotype female (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

Zenillia fuscicosta Curran, 1927c: 4. Holotype male (AMNH). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Kisangani [as “Stanleyville”].

invaginata (Villeneuve, 1939).—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Zenilliana devastator invaginata Villeneuve, 1939: 9. Syntypes, 2 females (not located). Type localities: D.R. Congo, Orientale, Bafwakei [as “Bafwankei”, ca. 1°41′N 27°02′E, near Bomili] and Équateur, Irebu.

kibatiana Verbeke, 1962.—Afrotropical: D.R. Congo.

Gynandromyia kibatiana Verbeke, 1962a: 172. Lectotype male (IRSNB), by fixation of Verbeke (1962b: 41) (examination of “Type, 1♂” from Kibati is regarded as a lectotype fixation). Type locality: D.R. Congo, Nord-Kivu, Parc National des Virunga [as “P.N.A”, former Parc National Albert], foot of Mt. Nyiragongo [as “Nyaragongo”], Kibati [ca. 1°36′S 29°16′E].

Note: The name Gynandromyia kibatiana was made available by Verbeke (1962a: 172) in a key that was apparently intended to precede the full description by Verbeke (1962b: 39, as “Gynandromyia kibatiana n. sp.”). No specimens were mentioned in the first work but a male “Type” and two “Paratypes” (one male and one female) were cited in the second. We regard the “Type” as the lectotype of G. kibatiana by fixation of Verbeke (1962b: 41).

mesnili Verbeke, 1962.—Afrotropical: Burundi.

Gynandromyia mesnili Verbeke, 1962a: 172. Holotype male (MRAC). Type locality: Burundi, Bururi, 1800–2000m.

Note: The name