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A checklist of helminth parasites of Elasmobranchii in Mexico
expand article infoAldo Iván Merlo-Serna, Luis García-Prieto
‡ Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, Mexico
Open Access

Abstract

A comprehensive and updated summary of the literature and unpublished records contained in scientific collections on the helminth parasites of the elasmobranchs from Mexico is herein presented for the first time. At present, the helminth fauna associated with Elasmobranchii recorded in Mexico is composed of 132 (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species), which belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 incertae sedis families of cestodes). These data represent 7.2% of the worldwide species richness. Platyhelminthes is the most widely represented, with 128 taxa: 94 of cestodes, 22 of monogeneans and 12 of trematodes; Nematoda and Annelida: Hirudinea are represented by only 2 taxa each. These records come from 54 localities, pertaining to 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 sampled localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness: 72 and 54 species, respectively. Up to now, 48 elasmobranch species have been recorded as hosts of helminths in Mexico; so, approximately 82% of sharks and 67% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. The present list provides the host, distribution (with geographical coordinates), site of infection, accession number in scientific collections, and references for the parasites. A host-parasite list is also provided.

Keywords

Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Hirudinea, Sharks, Rays, Richness, Selachii, Batoidea

Introduction

According to Eschmeyer and Fong (2015), 1338 species of elasmobranchs have been described worldwide (768 rays and 570 sharks). However, Naylor et al. (2012), based on the fact that since 2005 more than 130 new species have been described, considered that more species remain to be discovered. According to these authors, this increase is a result of reassessment of geographic variation; some of the increase represents recognition of subtle morphological variants among congeneric forms that nevertheless exhibit substantial molecular sequence divergence (cryptic species). In Mexico, this group is represented by 204 known species (95 rays and 109 sharks) (Del Moral-Flores and Pérez-Ponce de León 2013) (Table 1); this richness constitutes 15% of the living species in the world. Nonetheless, most of the species recorded in Mexican waters also have been found in international waters, and many of them are cosmopolitan (Espinoza-Pérez et al. 2004).

Species of Elasmobranchii reported from Mexico and richness of associated helminths (modified from Del Moral-Flores and Pérez-Ponce de León 2013).

Subclass Order Family Genera Species Sampled species Helminth recorded
Selachii Hexanchiformes Chlamydoselachidae 1 1 0 0
Hexanchidae 3 4 1 1
Echinorhinidae 1 1 0 0
Squalidae 2 4 0 0
Centrophoridae 1 4 0 0
Squaliformes Etmopteridae 2 8 0 0
Somniosidae 3 3 0 0
Oxynotidae 1 1 0 0
Dalatiidae 4 5 0 0
Squatiniformes Squatinidae 1 4 1 2
Heterodontiformes Heterodontidae 1 2 2 7
Ginglymostomatidae 1 1 1 3
Orectolobiformes Rhicodontidae 1 1 0 0
Odontaspididae 2 3 0 0
Pseudocarcharhiidae 1 1 0 0
Megachasmidae 1 1 0 0
Lamniformes Alopidae 1 4 2 6
Cetorhinidae 1 1 0 0
Lamnidae 3 4 0 0
Scyliorhinidae 6 15 0 0
Triakidae 3 11 5 9
Carcharhiniformes Carcharhinidae 7 25 5 19
Sphyrnidae 1 6 3 5
TOTALS* 7 23 48 109 20 52
Batoidea Torpediniformes Torpedinidae 1 2 0 0
Narcinidae 2 4 2 5
Pristiformes Pristidae 1 3 0 0
Rhinobatidae 2 10 5 10
Rhinobatiformes Platyrhinidae 1 1 0 0
Arhynchobatidae 2 4 0 0
Rajiformes Rajidae 9 29 2 2
Anacanthobatidae 2 4 1 1
Urotrygonidae 2 10 5 27
Dasyatidae 3 9 5 26
Gymnuridae 1 4 0 0
Myliobatiformes Myliobatidae 3 8 8 38
Rhinopteridae 1 2 0 0
Mobulidae 2 6 0 0
TOTALS* 5 14 32 95 28 108

Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) are host to a great variety of parasites in nature, particularly helminths. Up to now, more than 1500 helminth species have been recorded in association with these hosts worldwide; cestodes represent the most diverse group, with approximately 1133 species, followed by monogeneans with 226, nematodes with 83, digeneans with 50-60, leeches with 23, and aspidogastreans with 2 (Caira et al. 2012). In addition, 4 species of acanthocephalans have been found only in elasmobranchs (Weaver and Smales 2014). In Mexico, the first record of a helminth parasitizing an elasmobranch was made by Caballero y Caballero (1945), who described the digenean Staphylorchis pacifica (=Petalodistomum pacificum) from the body cavity of an undetermined shark in the Pacific slope of this country. Since then, a great amount of information has been generated, most of it in the last 2 decades, particularly in the Gulf of California. The main goal of this checklist is to compile and discuss all these data and to establish some patterns of richness, geographical distribution and host spectrum.

Methods

This checklist contains information updated until December, 2015, and comes from two different sources: 1) retrospective bibliographical search, using different databases such as CAB Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, and Zoological Record; 2) Search in databases of national [Colección Nacional de Helmintos (CNHE), Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico] and international [Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML), University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA; National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA, formerly United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC), Beltsville, Maryland, USA] parasite collections.

The checklist is divided into two sections; the first includes a parasite-host list, presented in phylogenetic order, starting with the phylum Platyhelminthes (Trematoda, Monogenoidea and Cestoda), and followed by the phyla Nematoda and Annelida (Hirudinea). Each phylum contains families, genera, and species in alphabetical order. The nomenclature and classification for each metazoan group is based on the following references: Trematoda (Gibson et al. 2002; Jones et al. 2005; Bray et al. 2008), Monogenoidea (Boeger and Kritsky 1993), Cestoda (Caira et al. 2014b), Nematoda (Anderson et al. 1974–1983; Gibbons 2010), and Hirudinea (Sawyer 1986; Davies 1991). The information for each helminth species includes species name, authority, and site of infection. We use “NA” when some data are not available in the original source. Next, we present species distributions, referring to states of the Mexican Republic (in caps) where the record was made as well as the specific locality name, followed by the species of host and the bibliographic references related to records. For specimens deposited in a collection, acronyms are as follows:

BMNH The British Museum (Natural History) Collection at the Natural History Museum, London, UK

CNHE Colección Nacional de Helmintos, Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Mexico City, México

CPMHN-UABCS Colección Parasitológica del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico

ECOPA El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico

HWML Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Nebraska, United States

IPCAS Institute of Parasitology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Česke Budějovice, Czech Republic

LRP Lawrence R. Penner Collection, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs CT, USA

MNHG-INV or PLAT Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland

SBMNH Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California, United States

TINRO Pacific Fisheries Research Center, Vladivostok, Russian Federation

UCLA Helminthological Collection, Zoology Department, University of California at Los Angeles

USNPC Accession numbers used in this work correspond to those given by United States National Parasite Collection, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, which was recently transferred to the

National Museum of Natural History

(USMN), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA

The name of the type locality (TL), type host (TH), and original reference (OR) of the new species described from elasmobranchs recorded in Mexico are indicated with abbreviations of these words in superscript.

The host-parasite list is ordered alphabetically by families of elasmobranchs; each family includes the scientific name of the host and the authority name. Then, the scientific names of the species of helminths are listed in alphabetical order, indicating in parentheses the parasite group to which they belong. The scientific names of elasmobranchs were updated following Froese and Pauly (2014); higher levels of classification follow Del Moral-Flores and Pérez-Ponce de León (2013).

Results

To date, 48 species of elasmobranchs (20 sharks and 28 rays) have been recorded as host of 132 taxa of helminths (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species); these parasite species belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 families of cestodes that are incertae sedis). Platyhelminthes is represented by 128 taxa: 94 taxa of cestodes, 22 taxa of monogeneans and 12 taxa of trematodes; for both Nematoda and Annelida (Hirudinea) only 2 species have been recorded. The 54 sampled sites for helminths are located in 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness (72 and 54, respectively) (Fig. 1). Up to now, no helminths parasitizing elasmobranchs from Mexican waters have been reported from the states of Michoacán and Tabasco; for Chiapas, Colima, Tamaulipas and Yucatán, only one record each has been reported. Below, we present the checklist of helminth parasites recorded in elasmobranch species caught in Mexico, which summarizes the current knowledge on this group in the country.

Figure 1.

Map of Mexico showing the localities that have been sampled for elasmobranchs as hosts of helminth species.

Parasite-host list

Trematoda Rudolphi, 1808

Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906

Pleorchis magniporus Arai, 1962

Site of infection. Intestine.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía MagdalenaTL: Urolophus maculatusTH (see Arai 1962OR).

Specimens in collections. UCLA.

Azygiidae Lühe, 1909

Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837) Stafford, 1904

Site of infection. Body cavity, stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Heterodontus francisci, Heterodontus mexicanus, Mustelus henlei, Squatina californica (see Curran and Overstreet 2000).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3852).

Bucephalidae Poche, 1907

Prosorhynchus truncatus Verma, 1936

Site of infection. Intestine.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: El Comitán: Dasyatis brevis (see Villarreal-Lizárraga 1995).

Specimens in collections. CPMHN-UABCS (20).

Gorgoderidae Looss, 1899

Anaporrhutum euzeti Curran, Blend & Overstreet, 2003

Site of infection. Pericardial and body cavities.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Dasyatis brevis (see Curran et al. 2003). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: LoretoTL: Myliobatis longirostrisTH (see Curran et al. 2003OR). NA: Golfo de California: Dasyatis longa, Diplobatis ommata, Mobula munkiana, Myliobatis californica, Narcine entemedor, Rhinobatos productus, Urolophus halleri, Urolophus maculatus, Zapteryx exasperata (see Curran et al. 2013)

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4499); HWML (16702); SBMNH (345780).

Nagmia cisloi Curran, Blend & Overstreet, 2009

Site of infection. Body cavity.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de La PazTL: Mobula thurstoniTH (see Curran et al. 2009OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6198).

Nagmia rodmani Curran, Blend & Overstreet, 2009

Site of infection. Body cavity.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Loreto TL: Narcine entemedor TH (see Curran et al. 2009OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6199); HWML (48889); SBMNH (423115).

Probolitrema richiardii (López, 1888) Looss, 1902

Site of infection. Body cavity.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Isla San Esteban: Urobatis sp. (see Curran et al. 2009). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de Santa Inés: Dasyatis brevis, Mustelus lunulatus, Urolophus maculatus (see Markell 1956). NA: Golfo de California: Dasyatis brevis, Dasyatis longa, Myliobatis californica, Myliobatis longirostris, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus (see Curran et al. 2009)

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6200); HWML (48890); SBMNH (423116); USNPC (49354).

Notes. The specimens of Bahía de Santa Inés were identified as Probolitrema mexicana, but this species is a synonym of P. richiardi according to Curran et al. (2009).

Staphylorchis pacifica (Caballero y Caballero, 1945) Campbell, 2008

Site of infection. Body cavity.

Locality. COLIMA: Manzanillo TL: “Tiburón no determinadoTH” (see Caballero y Caballero 1945OR). JALISCO: Puerto Vallarta: “Elasmobranchii” (CNHE); NAYARIT: Punta Mita: “Tiburón no determinado” (see Bravo-Hollis 1954); San Blás: Carcharhunus limbatus (see Lamothe-Argumedo 1969). SINALOA: Mazatlán: Galeorhinus galeus (see Winter 1959).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (921, 1069, 1111, 1585, 3246).

Notes. The original description of this species was made under the name Petalodistomum pacificum (Caballero y Caballero 1945); later, this species was transferred to Nagmia by Markell (1953). This act was accepted by Sogandares-Bernal (1959) and Curran et al. (2009) but rejected by Caballero y Caballero et al. (1956) and Winter (1959). Lamothe-Argumedo (1969) erected Winteria to accommodate this species, but this genus was considered a synonym of Nagmia (Curran et al. 2009). Pigulevski (1953) divided the genus Petalodistomum in 2 subgenera, including the species of Petalodistomum described by Caballero y Caballero (1945) in Petalodistomum (Petalodistomum). Currently, this trematode species is accepted as Staphylorchis pacifica (see Campbell 2008).

Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925

Helicometrina nimia Linton, 1910

Site of infection. Stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Las Barrancas: Prionace glauca (see Méndez 2005).

No specimens in collections.

Ptychogonimidae Dollfus, 1937

Ptychogonimus megastomum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1900

Site of infection. Stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Mustelus californicus (see Curran and Overstreet 2000); Puertecitos: Mustelus lunulatus (see Curran and Overstreet 2000).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3853-4).

Syncoeliidae Loos, 1899

Paronatrema vaginicola Dollfus, 1937

Site of infection. Buccal cavity, cloaca, gills.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Boca de Álamo: Alopias pelagicus, Prionace glauca (see Curran and Overstreet 2000); Puntarena, San Isidro: Prionace glauca (see Curran and Overstreet 2000). SINALOA: Bahía Santa María: Alopias pelagicus (see Curran and Overstreet 2000).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3855); HWML (15263, 15265).

Syncoelium vermilionensis Curran & Overstreet, 2000

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Puntarena: Mobula japanica (see Curran and Overstreet 2000); Santa MaríaTL: Mobula thurstoni TH (see Curran and Overstreet 2000OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3850); HWML (15261).

Monogenoidea Bychowsky, 1937

Capsalidae Baird, 1853

Benedeniella posterocolpa (Hargis, 1955) Yamaguti, 1963

Site of infection. Skin.

Locality. CAMPECHE: Estuario Champotón: Rhinoptera bonasus (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2005).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4370).

Listrocephalos guberleti (Caballero y Caballero & Bravo-Hollis, 1962) Bullard, Payne & Braswell, 2004

Site of infection. Gills, skin.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Urolophus halleri (see Bullard et al. 2004); Isla San Esteban: Urobatis concentricus, Urolophus maculatus, Urobatis sp. (see Bullard et al. 2004). SONORA: Bahía de GuaymasTL: Urolophus halleri TH (see Caballero y Caballero and Bravo-Hollis 1962OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (34-5); USNPC (94826-8).

Notes. This species was described as Entobdella guberleti (Caballero y Caballero and Bravo-Hollis 1962) and transferred to Listrocephalos by Bullard et al. (2004).

Listrocephalos kearni Bullard, Payne & Braswell, 2004

Site of infection. Skin.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Dasyatis brevis TH (see Bullard et al. 2004OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Dasyatis brevis (see Bullard et al. 2004).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5021-2); USNPC (94829-34).

Listrocephalos whittingtoni Bullard, Payne & Braswell, 2004

Site of infection. Skin.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Dasyatis longa TH (see Bullard et al. 2004OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de La Paz: Dasyatis longa (see Bullard et al. 2004).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5023-4); USNPC (94835-9).

Hexabothriidae Price, 1942

Dasyonchocotyle dasyatis (Yamaguti, 1968) Boeger & Kritsky, 1989

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. SINALOA: Mazatlán: Dasyatis longa (see Escorcia-Ignacio et al. 2015).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (9361).

Loimoidae Price, 1936

Loimos winteri Caballero y Caballero & Bravo-Hollis, 1961

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. SONORA: Bahía de GuaymasTL: Carcharhinus brachyurusTH (see Caballero y Caballero and Bravo-Hollis 1961OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (86-7).

Loimosina parawilsoni Bravo-Hollis, 1970

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. SINALOA: MazatlánTL: Sphyrna lewini TH (see Bravo-Hollis 1970OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (153-4).

Monocotylidae Taschenberg, 1879

Anoplocotyloides papillatus (Doran, 1953) Young, 1967

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. SINALOA: Mazatlán: Rhinobatos glaucostigma (see Bravo-Hollis 1969).

Specimens in collection. CNHE (178).

Notes. Based on the morphology of the posterior hooks of the haptor, Neifar et al. (2002) considered that this material is composed of 2 different monocotylideans.

Calicotyle californiensis Bullard & Overstreet, 2000

Site of infection. Body cavity.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Mustelus californicusTH (see Bullard and Overstreet 2000OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3907).

Calicotyle kroyeri Diesing, 1850

Site of infection. Cloaca, rectum.

Locality. CAMPECHE: Bancos de Campeche: Anacanthobatis folirostris, Dipturus olseni (see Chisholm et al. 1997).

No specimens in collections.

Calicotyle urobati Bullard & Overstreet, 2000

Site of infection. Cloaca, rectum.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Urolophus halleri TH, Urolophus maculatus (see Bullard and Overstreet 2000OR); Bahía de San Francisquito: Urolophus halleri (see Bullard and Overstreet 2000); Puertecitos: Urolophus maculatus (see Bullard and Overstreet 2000). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Urolophus halleri, Urolophus maculatus (see Bullard and Overstreet 2000).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3908-9); HWML (15365-6); USNPC (89777-8).

Dasybatotreminae gen. sp.

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. GUERRERO: Acapulco: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Carbajal-Violante 2012).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8287-8).

Decacotyle floridana (Pratt, 1910) Chisholm & Whittington, 1998

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. CAMPECHE: Ciudad del Carmen: Aetobatus narinari (CNHE); Estuario Champotón: Aetobatus narinari (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2005). QUINTANA ROO: Holbox: Aetobatus narinari (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2005).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (327, 4368).

Notes. Specimens from Ciudad del Carmen were identified as Heterocotyle aetobatis Hargis, but this species was considered a synonym of Decacotyle floridana by Chisholm and Whittington (1998).

Denarycotyle gardneri Pulido-Flores, Monks & Violante-González, 2015

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. GUERRERO: AcapulcoTL: Rhinoptera steindachneriTH (Pulido-Flores et al. 2015OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (9558-9); HWML (75364-7).

Dendromonocotyle cortesi Bravo-Hollis, 1969

Site of infection. Skin.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL, Isla Rasa: “Mantarraya grisTH” (see Bravo-Hollis 1969OR) .

Specimens in collections. CNHE (149-50).

Notes. Valid species according to Chisholm et al. (2004).

Dendromonocotyle octodiscus Hargis, 1955

Site of infection. Skin.

Locality. GOLFO DE MEXICO (Mexico): Dasyatis americana, Urobatis jamaicensis (see Fehlauer-Ale and Littlewood 2011). QUINTANA ROO: Blanquizal, Holbox: Dasyatis americana (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2005); El Paso de los Cedros (Cozumel), Ixmapuit (Isla Contoy), Xcalak: Urobatis jamaicensis (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2005). YUCATÁN: Ría Lagartos: Urobatis jamaicensis (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2005).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4362-3, 4366-7); ECOPA (001); USNPC (90353).

Notes. Valid species accordig to Chisholm et al. (2004).

Euzetia lamothei Pulido-Flores & Monks, 2008

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. CAMPECHE: Ciudad del CarmenTL: Rhinoptera bonasusTH (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2008OR). QUINTANA ROO: Isla Contoy: Rhinoptera bonasus (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2008).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6067-8); HWML (48817); CHE (P00056).

Heterocotyle sp.

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. GUERRERO: Acapulco: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Carbajal-Violante 2012).

No specimens in collections.

Monocotylidae gen. sp.

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía Almejas: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Gómez del Prado-Rosas and Euzet 1997).

No specimens in collections.

Notes. This material was recorded as Quadritestis almehensis n. gen., n. sp., but its description was not published, so that name is a nomen nudum.

Spinuris lophosoma Doran, 1953

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía Almejas: Rhinobatos productus (see Gómez del Prado-Rosas and Euzet 1999).

No specimens in collections.

Spinuris mexicana Bravo-Hollis, 1969

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. SINALOA: MazatlánTL: Rhinobatos glaucostigmaTH (see Bravo-Hollis 1969OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (151-2).

Spinuris zapterygis Gómez del Prado-Rosas & Euzet, 1999

Site of infection. Gills.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía AlmejasTL: Zapteryx exasperataTH (see Gómez del Prado-Rosas and Euzet 1999OR).

Specimens in collections. BM(NH) (1997.1.28.1); CNHE (2975-6); CPMHN-UABCS (54); MNHN (547HF Tk80); USNPC (87037).

Cestoda Rudolphi, 1808

Anthocephaliidae Ruhnke, Caira & Cox, 2015

Anthocephalum currani Ruhnke & Seaman, 2009

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles, Puertecitos: Dasyatis brevis (see Ruhnke and Seaman 2009); Bahía de Los Ángeles: Dasyatis dipterura (see Ruhnke et al. 2015). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: PuntarenaTL: Dasyatis brevisTH (see Ruhnke and Seaman 2009OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6234-5); USNPC (100993).

Notes. This species was identified as Anthocephalum n. sp. 2. in Olson et al.’s (1999) phylogenetic analysis.

Anthocephalum duszynskii Ruhnke, 1994

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto Peñasco (Bahía Cholla)TL: Urolophus halleriTH (see Ruhnke 1994 OR).

Specimens in collections. HWML (37095); USNPC (83437).

Anthocephalum lukei Ruhnke & Seaman, 2009

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles, PuertecitosTL: Dasyatis longaTH (see Ruhnke and Seaman 2009OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de La Paz: Dasyatis longa (see Ruhnke and Seaman 2009).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6232-3); USNPC (100995).

Notes. This species was identified as Anthocephalum n. sp. 1. in the Olson et al.’s (1999) phylogenetic analysis.

Anthocephalum michaeli Ruhnke & Seaman, 2009

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Dasyatis longa (see Ruhnke and Seaman 2009); Isla San Esteban: Urolophus maculatus (see Caira et al. 2001). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de La Paz, LoretoTL, Puntarena, San José del Cabo: Dasyatis longaTH (see Ruhnke and Seaman 2009OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6230-1); LRP (4232); USNPC (100998-9, 101000).

Notes. Specimens from Isla San Esteban, identified as A. duszynskii by Caira et al. (2001), were re-identified as A. michaeli by Ruhnke and Seaman (2009).

Cathetocephalidae Dailey & Overstreet, 1973

Cathetocephalus resendezi Caira, Mega & Ruhnke, 2005

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Carcharhinus leucasTH (see Caira et al. 2005OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5300).

Cathetocephalus thatcheri Dailey & Overstreet, 1973

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. VERACRUZ: Playa Chachalacas: Carcharhinus leucas (see Méndez and Dorantes 2013).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6860).

Echeneibothriidae de Beauchamp, 1905

Echeneibothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Santa Rosalía: Myliobatis californicus (see Caira et al. 1999), Raja velezi (see Healy et al. 2009).

Specimens in collections. LRP (4217).

Notes. This material was recorded as Discobothrium sp., but according to Euzet (1994), this genus is a synomym of Echeneibothrium.

Echinobothriidae Perrier, 1897

Echinobothrium fautleyae Tyler & Caira, 1999

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Rhinoptera steindachneriTH (see Tyler and Caira 1999OR); Puertecitos: Myliobates californica, Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Tyler and Caira 1999). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Loreto: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Tyler and Caira 1999); Puntarena: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Tyler and Caira 1999); Santa Rosalía: Myliobates californica, Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Tyler and Caira 1999).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3340-1); HWML (33910-11); USNPC (88217-19).

Echinobothrium hoffmanorum Tyler, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de San Francisquito: Urolophus halleri, Urolophus maculatus (see Tyler 2001); Isla San EstebanTL: Urolophus maculatusTH (see Tyler 2001OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Puntarena: Urobatis concentricus (see Tyler 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3916-9).

Echinobothrium mexicanum Tyler & Caira, 1999

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Myliobatis longirostrisTH, Myliobatis californica (see Tyler and Caira 1999OR); Puertecitos: Myliobatis californica (see Tyler and Caira 1999). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Loreto: Myliobatis longirostris, Myliobatis californica (see Tyler and Caira 1999); Santa Rosalía: Myliobatis longirostris (see Tyler and Caira 1999).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3343-5); HWML (33912-14); USNPC (88220-21).

Echinobothrium rayallemangi Tyler, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Rhinobatos leucorhynchusTH (see Tyler 2001OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Rhinobatos leucorhynchus (see Tyler 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3920-22).

Escherbothriidae Ruhnke, Caira & Cox, 2015

Escherbothrium molinae Berman & Brooks, 1994

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. GUERRERO: Bahía de Acapulco: Urotrygon sp. (see Zaragoza-Tapia et al. 2013).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8513-4); HWML (49850-3).

Eutetrarhynchidae Guiart, 1927

Dollfusiella litocephalus (Heinz & Dailey, 1974) Beveridge, Neifar & Euzet, 2004

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de San Quintín: Triakis semifasciata (see Heinz and Dailey 1974).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (072672).

Notes. The original denomination of this species was Eutetrarhynchus litocephalus, but it was transferred to the genus Dollfusiella by Beveridge et al. (2004).

Dollfusiella cortezensis (Friggens & Duszynski, 2005) Schaeffner, 2014

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto PeñascoTL: Urolophus halleriTH (see Friggens and Duszynski 2005OR).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (92215).

Notes. Notes. Published as Eutetrarhynchus sp. in Friggens and Brown (2005). The original denomination of this species was Eutetrarhynchus cortezensis, but it was transferred to the genus Dollfusiella by Schaeffner (2014).

Fellicocestus mobulae Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Gall bladder.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la Paz: Mobula sp. (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006a); PuntarenaTL: Mobula japanicaTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006aOR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5452); USNPC (97899, 9700).

Eutetrarhynchidae gen. sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. VERACRUZ: Playa de Chachalacas: Carcharhinus leucas (see Mendez and Dorantes 2013).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6169).

Hemionchos maior Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la PazTL: Mobula japanicaTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006aOR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5466-7).

Hemionchos mobulae Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la PazTL, Puntarena: Mobula japanicaTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006aOR): Loreto, Santa Rosalía: Mobula munkiana (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006a).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5465-6); LRP (3961); USNPC (97908-9).

Hemionchos striatus Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la PazTL: Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoniTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006aOR); Loreto: Mobula thurstoni, Myliobatis californica (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006a).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5460); LRP (3948); USNPC (97904-6).

Mecistobothrium myliobati Heinz & Dailey, 1974

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto Peñasco: Urolophus halleri (see Friggens and Brown 2005).

No specimens in collections.

Mobulocestus lepidoscolex Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Nephridial system.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la PazTL: Mobula thurstoniTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006aOR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5458); USNPC (97902).

Mobulocestus mollis Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Cloaca.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la PazTL: Mobula thurstoniTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006aOR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5456).

Mobulocestus nephriditis Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Nephridial system.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la PazTL: Mobula thurstoniTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006aOR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5454); USNPC (97901).

Oncomegas paulinae Toth, Campbell & Schmidt, 1992

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto PeñascoTL: Urolophus halleriTH (see Toth et al. 1992OR).

Specimens in collections. BMNH (1991.10.30.1-3); USNPC (082186).

Parachristianella dimegacantha Krause, 1959

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la Paz: Dasyatis longa (see Campbell and Beveridge 2007); Loreto: Urotrygon simulatrix (see Campbell and Beveridge 2007); San José del Cabo: Sphyrna zygaena (see Campbell and Beveridge 2007).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (97925-7).

Parachristianella parva Campbell & Beveridge, 2007

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Urolophus maculatusTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2007OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5472).

Parachristianella trygoni Dollfus, 1946

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Dasyatis brevisTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2007OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Loreto: Mobula munkiana (see Campbell and Beveridge 2007).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (97923-4).

Prochristianella minima Hainz & Daily, 1974

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto Peñasco: Urolophus halleri (see Friggens and Brown 2005).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (92211, 92216).

Prochristianella multidum Friggens & Duzynski, 2005

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto PeñascoTL: Urolophus halleriTH (see Friggens and Duszynski 2005OR).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (92218-9).

Pseudochristianella elegantissima Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Puertecitos: Dasyatis brevis (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006b). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de la PazTL: Dasyatis brevisTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006bOR); San José del Cabo: Dasyatis longa (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006b)

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5468); USNPC (97915-6).

Pseudochristianella nudiscula Campbell & Beveridge, 2006

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Myliobatis longirostris, Rhinobatos productus (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006b). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Zapteryx exasperata, Rhinobatos productusTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006bOR); San José del Cabo: Dasyatis longa (see Campbell and Beveridge 2006b).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (5470); USNPC (97917, 97921-2).

Lacistorhynchidae Guiart, 1927

Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819)

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. VERACRUZ: Playa Chachalacas: Carcharhinus leucas (see Méndez and Dorantes 2013).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6867).

Floriceps caballeroi Cruz-Reyes, 1977

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Laguna de AgiabampoTL: Negaprion brevirostrisTH (see Cruz-Reyes 1977OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (479-80).

Notes. According to Palm (2004), this material is a synonym of F. saccatus. However, the poor condition of the type material re-examined during the present study precludes any conclusion about the taxonomic status of this species.

Floriceps saccatus Cuvier, 1817

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: NA: Notorhynchus cepedianus (see Heinz and Dailey 1974).

No specimens in collections.

Litobothriidae Dailey, 1969

Litobothrium aenigmaticum Caira, Jensen, Waeschenbach & Littlewood, 2014

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa MaríaTL, Santa Rosalía: Alopias pelagicusTH (see Caira et al. 2014aOR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8941-4).

Litobothrium amplifica (Kurochkin & Slankis, 1973) Euzet, 1994

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Alopias pelagicus (see Olson and Caira 2001). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Alopias pelagicus (see Olson and Caira 2001). OAXACA: Golfo de TehuantepecTL: Alopias superciliosusTH (see Kurochkin and Slankis 1973OR).

Specimens in collections. BMNH (2000.3.7.8.10); CNHE (4051); TINRO (72020).

Notes. This species was described as a member of the genus Renyxa, but Euzet (1994) considered Renyxa as a synonym of Litobothrium.

Litobothrium daileyi Kurochkin & Slankis, 1973

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Alopias pelagicus (see Olson and Caira 2001). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Alopias pelagicus (see Olson and Caira 2001). OAXACA: Golfo de TehuantepecTL: Alopias superciliosusTH (see Kurochkin and Slankis 1973OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4050); TINRO (72012).

Litobothrium janovyi Olson & Caira, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Alopias superciliosusTH (see Olson and Caira 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4052-3).

Litobothrium nickoli Olson & Caira, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Alopias pelagicusTH (see Olson and Caira 2001OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Alopias pelagicus (see Caira et al. 2014a).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4054-55); LRP (8321).

Lecanicephalidea incertae sedis (Family)

Aberrapex senticosus Jensen, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Myliobatis californicaTH (see Jensen 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4188); HWML (16374); USNPC (91208).

Notes. This species appears as Discobothrium n. sp. in Caira et al. (1999) and Caira et al. (2001).

Healyum harenamica Jensen, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Punta ArenaTL: Mobula japanicaTH (see Jensen 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4186); HWML (16376); USNPC (91212).

Healyum pulvis Jensen, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Punta ArenaTL: Mobula japanicaTH (see Jensen 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4184); HWML (16377); USNPC (91213).

Notes. This taxon appears as New genus 3 n. sp., in the phylogenetic analysis done by Caira et al. (2001).

Paraberrapex manifestus Jensen, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Squatina californicaTH (see Jensen 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4179); HWML (16375); USNPC (91209).

Notes. Paraberrapex manifestus was referred to as New genus 2 n. sp. in the phylogenetic analysis done by Caira et al. (2001).

Quadcuspibothrium francisi Jensen, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Punta ArenaTL: Mobula japanicaTH (see Jensen 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4182); HWML (16378); USNPC (91214).

Notes. This species was referred to as New genus 4 n. sp. in the phylogenetic analysis done by Caira et al. (2001).

Tetragonocephalidae Yamaguti, 1959

Tylocephalum sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Caira et al. 1999). GUERRERO: Bahía de Acapulco: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Carbajal-Violante 2012).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8295-8296).

Onchoproteocephalidea incertae sedis (Family)

Acanthobothrium bajaensis Appy & Dailey, 1973

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de San QuintínTL: Heterodontus francisciTH (see Appy and Dailey 1973OR).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (72567-8).

Acanthobothrium bullardi Goshroy & Caira, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL, Puertecitos: Dasyatis brevisTH (see Goshroy and Caira 2001OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Dasyatis brevis (see Goshroy and Caira 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4045-6); LRP (2060–2062); USNPC (90466-8).

Acanthobothrium cleofanus Monks, Brooks & Pérez-Ponce de León, 1996

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. JALISCO: Bahía de ChamelaTL: Dasyatis longaTH (see Monks et al. 1996OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (2670-1); HWML; MNHG INV.

Acanthobothrium dasi Goshroy & Caira, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: PuertecitosTL: Dasyatis brevisTH (see Goshroy and Caira 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4043-4); HWML (15549-51); LRP (2051-4); USNPC (90463-5).

Acanthobothrium dollyae Caira & Burge, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL, Isla San Esteban: Diplobatis ommataTH (see Caira and Burge 2001OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Punta Arena: Diplobatis ommata (see Caira and Burge 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4169-70); LRP (2097-2101); USNPC (90837-9).

Acanthobothrium maryanskii Caira & Burge, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: LoretoTL, Punta Arena: Diplobatis ommataTH (see Caira and Burge 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4171-2); LRP (2012-3); USNPC (90840-1).

Acanthobothrium olseni Dailey & Mudry, 1968

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. Sonora: Puerto Peñasco: Urolophus halleri (see Friggens and Brown 2005).

No specimens in collections.

Acanthobothrium parviuncinatum Young, 1954

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Puertecitos: Urolophus halleri (see Caira et al. 1999). SONORA: Puerto Peñasco: Urolphus halleri (see Friggens and Brown 2005).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4171-2); LRP (2012-3); USNPC (90840-1).

Acanthobothrium puertecitense Caira & Zahner, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Puertecitos: Heterodontus francisci (see Caira and Zahner 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4175-6); LRP (2105-6); USNPC (90843).

Notes. Caira et al. (2001) recorded this species as Acanthobothrium n. sp. 1.

Acanthobothrium rajivi Goshroy & Caira, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: PuertecitosTL: Dasyatis brevisTH (see Goshroy and Caira 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4043-4); HWML (15552); LRP (2055-6); USNPC (90461).

Acanthobothrium royi Caira & Burge, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Loreto, Punta ArenaTL: Diplobatis ommataTH (see Caira and Burge 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4173-4); LRP (2014); USNPC (90842).

Acanthobothrium santarosaliense Caira & Zahner, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Heterodontus francisciTH (see Caira and Zahner 2001OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4177-78); LRP (2107); USNPC (90844).

Acanthobothrium soberoni Goshroy & Caira, 2001

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles, PuertecitosTL: Dasyatis brevisTH (see Goshroy and Caira 2001OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Loreto: Dasyatis brevis (see Goshroy and Caira 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4040-1); HWML (15548); LRP (2057-9); USNPC (90462).

Acanthobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Urolophus halleri (see Caira et al. 2001), Puertecitos: Heterodontus francisci (see Caira et al. 2001). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa Rosalía: Urolophus maculatus (see Caira et al. 2001). NA: NA: Dasyatis longa (see Healy et al. 2009). SONORA: Puerto Peñasco: Urolophus halleri (see Friggens and Brown 2005).

No specimens in collections.

No specimens in collections

Acanthobothroides sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Dasyatis brevis (see Goshroy and Caira 2001). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José del Cabo: Dasyatis brevis (see Goshroy and Caira 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4048); USNPC (90439).

Notes. This material probably represents a new species as it differs from both A. thorsoni and A. pacificus (see Goshroy and Caira 2001).

Onchobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Intestine.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Ensenada: Urolophus halleri (HWML).

Specimens in collections. HWML (31324).

Phoreibothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Carcharhinus leucas (see Caira et al. 2001). NA: Golfo de México (Mexico): Sphyrna mokarran (see Caira et al. 2001). VERACRUZ: Playa Chachalacas: Carcharhinus leucas (see Mendez and Dorantes 2013).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6866).

Platybothrium angelbahiense Healy, 2003

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los ÁngelesTL: Carcharhinus leucasTH (see Healy 2003OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4727-9); LRP (3213-3215); USNPC (92236).

Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952

Site of infection. Intestine, spiral valve, stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Bahía de La Paz, San Isidro: Prionace glauca (see Healy 2003); Las Barrancas, Punta Abreojos, Punta Belcher: Prionace glauca (see Méndez 2005).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4730).

Platybothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Carcharhinus leucas (see Caira et al. 1999).

Specimens in collections. CSMNH.

Notes. Caira et al. (1999) identified this material as Platybothrium cervinum, but according to Healy (2003) these specimens represent an undescribed species.

Platybothrium tantulum Healy, 2003

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna cygaena (see Healy 2003). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José del Cabo: Sphyrna lewini (see Healy 2003).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4731-3).

Prosobothrium armigerum Cohn, 1902

Site of infection. Intestine, stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Punta Abreojos, Punta Belcher: Prionace glauca (see Méndez 2005).

No specimens in collections.

No specimens in collections

Otobothriidae Dollfus, 1942

Otobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José del Cabo: Sphyrna zygaena (see Schaeffner and Beveridge 2013). VERACRUZ: Playa Chachalacas: Carcharhinus leucas (see Méndez and Dorantes 2005).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6863-3).

Phyllobothriidae Braun, 1900

Orygmatobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Puertecitos: Mustelus henlei (see Caira et al. 1999).

No specimens in collections.

Paraorygmatobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. VERACRUZ: Playa Chachalacas: Carcharhinus leucas (see Méndez and Dorantes 2013).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (6864-5).

Notes. This material was recorded as Paraorygmatobothrium sp. 1 and sp. 2.

Phyllobothrium hallericola Church & Schmidt, 1990

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto PeñascoTL: Urolophus halleriTH (see Church and Schmidt 1990OR).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (81051-2).

Notes. The accession number published by Church and Schmidt (1990) is wrong.

Phyllobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Intestine, spiral valve, stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Las Barrancas, Punta Abreojos, Punta Belcher: Prionace glauca (see Méndez 2005). GUERRERO: Bahía de Acapulco: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Carbajal-Violante 2012). SONORA: Puerto Peñasco: Urolophus halleri (see Friggens and Brown 2005, Church and Schmidt 1990).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8291-2); USNPC (81053).

Notes. The accession number published by Church and Schmidt (1990) is wrong.

Pterobothriidae Pintner, 1931

Pterobothrioides carvajali Campbell & Beveridge, 1997

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: PuertecitosTL: Dasyatis longaTH (see Campbell and Beveridge 1997OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3142); USNPC (85472).

Rhinebothriidea incertae sedis (Family)

Serendip danbrooksi Monks, Zaragoza-Tapia, Pulido-Flores & Violante-González, 2015

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. GUERRERO: Bahía de AcapulcoTL: Rhinoptera steindachneriTH (Monks et al. 2015OR). SINALOA: Mazatlán: Rhinoptera steindachneri (Monks et al. 2015).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8293-4; 9725-7); HWML (75091-104); MNGH-PLAT (90513-5).

Notes. This species appears as Serendip sp. in Carbajal-Violante (2012). According to Ruhnke et al. (2015) the genus Serendip is clearly a candidate for membership in the Rhinebothriidea; a molecular analysis will be necessary to assign it to family level.

Rhinebothriidae Euzet, 1953

Glyphobothrium zwerneri Williams & Campbell, 1977

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. CAMPECHE: Ciudad del Carmen: Rhinoptera bonasus (see Pulido-Flores and Monks 2014).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8838).

Notes. The inclusion of this cestode species in Rhinebothriidae follows Appeltans et al. (2012).

Rhinebothrium chollaensis Friggens & Duszynski, 2005

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto Peñasco (Bahía Cholla)TL: Urolophus halleriTH (see Friggens and Duszynski 2005OR).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (92213-4).

Notes. Published as Rhinebothrium sp. in Friggens and Brown (2005).

Rhinebothrium gravidum Friggens & Duszynski, 2005

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto PeñascoTL: Urolophus halleriTH (see Friggens and Duszynski 2005OR).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (92212).

Notes. Published as Rhinebothrium sp. in Friggens and Brown (2005).

Rhinebothrium maccallumi Linton, 1924

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. NA: NA: Dasyatis americana (see Healy et al. 2009).

No specimens in collections.

Notes. Species identification requires verification according to Healy et al. (2009).

Rhinebothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Puertecitos: Dasyatis brevis (see Healy et al. 2009). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Loreto: Urolophus maculatus (see Caira et al. 1999); San José del Cabo: Dasyatis longa (see Healy et al. 2009).

Specimens in collections. LRP (3893, 3896).

Notes. The records of Healy et al. (2009) of D. brevis and D. longa were made as Rhinebothrium sp.5 and Rhinebothrium sp.6, respectively.

Rhinebothrium urobatidium (Young, 1955) Appy & Dailey, 1977

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. SONORA: Puerto Peñasco: Urolophus halleri (see Friggens and Brown 2005).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (92202-5).

Scalithrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José del Cabo: Dasyatis longa (see Healy et al. 2009).

Specimens in collections. LRP (3895).

Notes. This record appears as Scalithrium n. sp. in Healy et al. (2009).

Rhinoptericolidae Carvajal & Campbell, 1975

Rhinoptericola megacantha Carvajal & Campbell, 1975

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. GUERRERO: Bahía de Acapulco: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Carbajal-Violante 2012).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8297-8).

Rhinoptericola sp.

Site of infection. Stomach.

Locality. GUERRERO: Bahía de Acapulco: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Carbajal-Violante 2012).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (8299-8300).

Tentaculariidae Poche, 1926

Nybelinia anthicosum Heinz & Dailey, 1974

Site of infection. Spiral valve, stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Playa María: Heterodontus francisci (see Heinz and Dailey 1974). SONORA: Bahía de San Carlos: Heterodontus francisci (see Heinz and Dailey 1974).

Specimens in collections. USNPC (72675).

Nybelinia sp.

Site of infection. Stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Las Barrancas: Prionace glauca (see Méndez 2005).

No specimens in collections.

Tetraphyllideaincertae sedis (Family)

Anthobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Intestine, stomach.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Punta Abreojos, Punta Belcher, Las Barrancas: Prionace glauca (see Méndez 2005).

No specimens in collections.

Caulobothrium opisthorchis Riser, 1955

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Myliobatis californicus (see Healy et al. 2009).

Specimens in collections. LRP (3910).

Caulobothrium sp.

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Myliobatis californicus (see Healy et al. 2009).

Specimens in collections. LRP (3012).

Notes. According to Healy et al. (2009) this material represents an undescribed species; recorded as Caulobothrium n. sp. 1 in Caira et al. (1999) and Caira et al. (2001).

Duplicibothrium cairae Ruhnke, Curran & Holbert, 2000

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de los Ángeles, Puertecitos: Rhinoptera steindachneri (see Ruhnke et al. 2000). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Rhinoptera steindachneriTH (see Ruhnke et al. 2000OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3846-7); HWML (15275,15276); USNPC (89726-7).

Notes. This species was reported as Duplicibothrium n. sp. 1 in the phylogenetic analysis done by Olson et al. (1999).

Duplicibothrium paulum Ruhnke, Curran & Holbert, 2000

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de los Ángeles, PuertecitosTL: Rhinoptera steindachneriTH (see Ruhnke et al. 2000OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3848); HWML (15277, 15278); USNPC (89728-9).

Notes. This species was reported as Duplicibothrium n. sp. 2 in the phylogenetic analysis done by Olson et al. (1999).

Pedibothrium brevispine Linton, 1909

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José del Cabo: Ginglymostoma cirratum (see Caira and Euzet 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4191).

Pedibothrium manteri Caira, 1992

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José del Cabo: Ginglymostoma cirratum (see Caira and Euzet 2001).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4190).

Symcallio evani (Caira, 1985) Bernot, Caira & Pickering, 2015

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía de Los Ángeles: Mustelus lunulatus (see Nasin et al 1997); PuertecitosTL: Mustelus lunulatusTH (see Caira 1985OR). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José del Cabo, Santa Rosalía: Mustelus lunulatus (see Nasin et al. 1997).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3071); USNPC (78600, 87127).

Notes. This species was described as Calliobothrium evani and recently transferred to Symcallio by Bernot et al. (2015). Type host of S. evani was determined by Caira (1985) as “unidentified shark of the family Carcharhinidae”; its accurate specific identity was established by Nasin et al. (1997).

Symcallio riseri (Nasin, Caira & Euzet, 1997) Bernot, Caira & Pickering, 2015

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Puertecitos: Mustelus henlei (see Caira 1985, Nasin et al. 1997). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Santa RosalíaTL: Mustelus henleiTH (see Nasin et al. 1997OR).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (3068-70); HWML (22537).

Notes. Specimens from Puertecitos were identified by Caira (1985) as Calliobothrium lintoni Euzet, 1954 and re-identified by Nasin et al. (1997) as C. riseri. This species was recently transferred to Symcallio by Bernot et al. (2015).

Nematoda Cobb, 1932

Gnathostomatidae Lane, 1923

Echinocephalus jenzeni Hoberg, Brooks, Molina & Erbe, 1998

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. CHIAPAS: Laguna Mar Muerto: Himantura pacifica (see Hoberg et al. 1998).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (2642).

Echinocephalus pseudouncinatus Millemann, 1951

Site of infection. Spiral valve.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Bahía San Francisquito, Isla Ángel de la Guarda (Puerto Refugio): Heterodontus francisci (see Milleman 1963); Bahía San Felipe: Myliobatis californica (see Milleman 1963). BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Laguna Ojo de Liebre (Guerrero Negro), Punta Abreojos: Heterodontus francisci (see Gómez del Prado-Rosas 1984).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (2289); USNPC (57448, 57450-2).

Annelida Lamarck 1809

Hirudinea Lamarck, 1818

Piscicolidae Johnston, 1865

Piscicolidae gen. sp.

Site of infection. Skin.

Locality. BAJA CALIFORNIA: Isla San Esteban: Zapteryx exasperata (CNHE).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (4027).

Notes. This specimen was deposited at the CNHE by Steve Curran as the holotype of the new species Pseudaustrobdella cairae, but their description was not published.

Stibarobdella macrothela (Schmarda, 1861) Llewellyn, 1966

Site of infection. Skin.

Locality. TAMAULIPAS: Matamoros: Ginglymostoma cirratum (CNHE). VERACRUZ: Isla de Sacrificios: Elasmobranquio no determinado (CNHE).

Specimens in collections. CNHE (1640, 5572).

Host-parasite list

Selachii

ALOPIIDAE

Alopias pelagicus Nakamura

Litobothrium aenigmaticum (C)

Litobothrium amplifica (C)

Litobothrium daileyi (C)

Litobothrium nickoli (C)

Paronatrema vaginicola (T)

Alopias superciliosus Lowe

Litobothrium amplifica (C)

Litobothrium daileyi (C)

Litobothrium janovyi (C)

CARCHARHINIDAE

Carcharhinus brachyurus Günther

Liomos winteri (M)

Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle)

Cathetocephalus resendezi (C)

Cathetocephalus thatcheri (C)

Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (C)

Eutetrarhynchidae gen. sp. (C)

Phoreiobothrium sp. (C)

Platybothrium angelbahiense (C)

Platybothrium sp. (C)

Otobothrium sp. (C)

Paraorygmatobothrium sp. (C)

Carcharhinus limbatus Müller & Henle

Staphylorchis pacifica (T)

Negaprion brevirostris (Poey)

Floriceps caballeroi (C)

Prionace glauca (Linnaeus)

Anthobothrium sp. (C)

Helicometrina nimia (T)

Nybelinia sp. (C)

Paronatrema vaginicola (T)

Phyllobothrium sp. (C)

Platybothrium auriculatum (C)

Prosobothrium armigerum (C)

GINGLYMOSTOMATIDAE

Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre)

Pedibothrium brevispine (C)

Pedibothrium manteri (C)

Stibarobdella macrothela (H)

HETERODONTIDAE

Heterodontus francisci (Girard)

Acanthobothrium bajaensis (C)

Acanthobothrium puertecitense (C)

Acanthobothrium santarosaliense (C)

Acanthobothrium sp. (C)

Echinocephalus pseudouncinatus (N)

Nybelinia anthicosum (C)

Otodistomum veliporum (T)

Heterodontus mexicanus Taylor & Castro-Aguirre

Otodistomum veliporum (T)

HEXANCHIDAE

Notorynchus cepedianus (Péron)

Floriceps saccatus (C)

SPHYRNIDAE

Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith)

Loimosina parawilsoni (M)

Platybothrium tantulum (C)

Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell)

Phoreiobothrium sp. (C)

Sphyrna zygaena (L.)

Otobothrium sp. (C)

Parachristianella dimegacantha (C)

Platybothrium tantulum (C)

SQUATINIDAE

Squatina californica Ayres

Otodistomum veliporum (T)

Paraberrapex manifestus (C)

TRIAKIDAE

Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus)

Staphylorchis pacifica (T)

Mustelus californicus Gill

Calicotyle californiensis (M)

Ptychogonimus megastomum (T)

Mustelus henlei (Gill)

Calliobothrium evani (C)

Calliobothrium riseri (C)

Orygmatobothrium sp. (C)

Otodistomum veliporum (T)

Mustelus lunulatus Jordan & Gilbert

Calliobothrium evani (C)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Ptychogonimus megastomum (T)

Triakis semifasciata Girard

Dollfusiella litocephalus (C)

Undetermined shark

Staphylorchis pacifica (T)

Undetermined Elasmobranchii

Staphylorchis pacifica (T)

Stibarobdella macrothela (H)

Batoidea

ANACANTHOBATIDAE

Anacanthobatis folirostris Bigelow & Schroeder

Calicotyle kroyeri (M)

DASYATIDAE

Dasyatis americana Hildebrand & Schroeder

Dendromonocotyle octodiscus (M)

Rhinebothrium maccallumi (C)

Dasyatis brevis (Garman)

Acanthobothrium bullardi (C)

Acanthobothrium dasi (C)

Acanthobothrium rajivi (C)

Acanthobothrium soberoni (C)

Acanthobothroides sp. (C)

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Anthocephalum currani (C)

Listrocephalos kearni (M)

Parachristianella trygonis (C)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Prosorhynchus truncatus (T)

Pseudochristianella elegantissima (C)

Rhinebothrium sp. (C)

Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan & Gilbert)

Anthocephalum currani (C)

Dasyatis longa (Garman)

Acanthobothrium cleofanus (C)

Acanthobothrium sp. (C)

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Anthocephalum lukei (C)

Anthocephalum michaeli (C)

Dasyonchocotyle dasyatis (M)

Listrocephalos wittingtoni (M)

Parachristianella dimegacantha (C)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Pseudochristianella elegantissima (C)

Pseudochristianella nudiscula (C)

Pterobothrioides carvajali (C)

Rhinebothrium sp. (C)

Scalithrium sp. (C)

Himantura pacifica Beebe & Tee-Van

Echinocephalus jenzeni (N)

MYLIOBATIDAE

Aetobatus narinari Euphrasen

Decacotyle floridana (M)

Mobula japanica (Müller & Henle)

Fellicocestus mobulae (C)

Healyum harenamica (C)

Healyum pulvis (C)

Hemionchos maior (C)

Hemionchos mobulae (C)

Hemionchos striatus (C)

Quadcuspibothrium francisi (C)

Syncoelium vermilionense (T)

Mobula munkiana Notarbartolo-di-Sciara

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Hemionchos mobulae (C)

Parachristianella trygonis (C)

Mobula sp.

Fellicocestus mobulae (C)

Mobula thurstoni (Lloyd)

Hemionchos striatus (C)

Mobulocestus lepidoscolex (C)

Mobulocestus mollis (C)

Mobulocestus nephriditis (C)

Nagmia cisloi (T)

Syncoelium vermilionense (T)

Myliobatis californica Gill

Aberrapex senticosus (C)

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Caulobothrium opisthorchis (C)

Caulobothrium sp. (C)

Echeneibothrium sp. (C)

Echinobothrium fautleyae (C)

Echinobothrium mexicanum (C)

Echinocephalus pseudouncinatus (N)

Hemionchos striatus (C)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Myliobatis longirostris Applegate & Fitch

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Echinobothrium mexicanum (C)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Pseudochristianella nudiscula (C)

Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill)

Benedeniella posterocolpa (M)

Euzetia lamothei (M)

Glyphobothrium zwerneri (C)

Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann & Jenkins

Dasybatotreminae gen. sp. (M)

Denarycotyle gardneri (M)

Duplicibothrium cairae (C)

Duplicibothrium paulum (C)

Echinobothrium fautleyae (C)

Heterocotyle sp. (M)

Monocotylidae gen. sp. (M)

Phyllobothrium sp. (C)

Rhinoptericola megacantha (C)

Rhinoptericola sp. (C)

Serendip danbrooksi (C)

Tylocephalum sp. (C)

NARCINIDAE

Diplobatis ommata (Jordan & Gilbert)

Acanthobothrium dollyae (C)

Acanthobothrium maryanskii (C)

Acanthobothrium royi (C)

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Narcine entemedor Jordan & Starks

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Nagmia rodmani (T)

RAJIDAE

Dipturus olseni Bigelow & Schroeder

Calicotyle kroyeri (M)

Raja velezi Chirichigno

Echeneibothrium sp. (C)

RHINOBATIDAE

Rhinobatos glaucostigma Jordan & Gilbert

Anoplocotyloides papillatus (M)

Spinuris mexicana (M)

Rhinobatos lentiginosus Garman

Paramonilicaecum gen. sp. (T)

Rhinobatos leucorhynchus Günther

Echinobothrium rayallemangi (C)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Rhinobatos productus Ayres

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Pseudochristianella nudiscula (C)

Spinuris lophosoma (M)

Zapteryx exasperata (Jordan & Gilbert)

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Piscicolidae gen. sp. (H)

Pseudochristianella nudiscula (C)

Spinuris zapterygis (M)

UROTRYGONIDAE

Urobatis concentricus Osburn & Nichols

Listrocephalos guberleti (M)

Echinobothrium hoffmanorum (C)

Urobatis jamaicensis Cuvier

Dendromonocotyle octodiscus (M)

Urobatis sp.

Listrocephalos guberleti (M)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Urolophus halleri Cooper

Acanthobothrium olseni (C)

Acanthobothrium parviuncinatum (C)

Acanthobothrium sp. (C)

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Anthocephalum duszynskii (C)

Calicotyle urobati (M)

Dollfusiella cotezensis (C)

Echinobothrium hoffmanorum (C)

Listrocephalos guberleti (M)

Mecistobothrium myliobati (C)

Onchobothrium sp. (C)

Oncomegas paulinae (C)

Phyllobothrium hallericola (C)

Phyllobothrium sp. (C)

Prochristianella minima (C)

Prochristianella multidum (C)

Rhinebothrium chollaensis (C)

Rhinebothrium gravidum (C)

Rhinebothrium urobatidium (C)

Urolophus maculatus (Garman)

Acanthobothrium sp. (C)

Anaporrhutum euzeti (T)

Anthocephalum michaeli (C)

Calicotyle urobati (M)

Echinobothrium hoffmanorum (C)

Listrocephalos guberleti (M)

Parachristianella parva (C)

Pleorchis magniporus (T)

Probolitrema richiardii (T)

Rhinebothrium sp. (C)

Urotrygon simulatrix Miyake & Eachran

Parachristianella dimegacantha (C)

Urotrygon sp.

Escherbothrium molinae (C)

“Mantarraya gris”

Dendromonocotyle cortesi (M)

Discussion

To date, 132 helminth taxa (110 named species and 22 taxa not assigned to species) have been reported as parasites of elasmobranch species in Mexico. Seventy-three of these taxa are represented by holotypes from Mexican waters. All of these taxa have been collected in the adult stage (132). Thus, the richness of helminth species parasitizing elasmobranchs distributed in Mexican waters represents 7.2% of the worldwide species richness for this group (see Caira et al. 2012).

The 132 taxa parasitize 48 taxa of elasmobranchs (4 of them not assigned to species), within 15 families; Myliobatidae (8 species) and Urotrygonidae (6) being the families with the highest number of species sampled, due to the fact that100% and 60% respectively of the species of these two families recorded in Mexico, have been studied for helminths. In addition, helminths have been reported from 9 of the 12 orders of elasmobranchs in Mexican waters; no records are available for Squaliformes, Orectolobiformes (Selachii) or Rhinobatiformes (Batoidea). Fifteen of the 23 families of sharks have not been reported as hosts of helminths, as well as half of the families of rays. From the 204 known species of elasmobranchs recorded in Mexican waters, only 26% of them have been studied for helminths; thus, only 18.3% and 32.6% of shark and ray species, respectively, have been examined for, and found to host, helminths (Table 1). This value is similar to that found by Randhawa and Poulin (2010), who established that only 317 species (26%) of this globally distributed group of hosts have been examined for intestinal parasites (specifically tapeworms).

The species of elasmobranchs with the higher parasite species richness are Urolophus halleri (with 19 taxa), Dasyatis longa (14) and Dasyatis brevis (13). However, 8 shark and 9 ray species have been recorded only once as hosting helminths. In total, Batoidea is parasitized by 109 taxa of helminths and Selachii by 52, of which 56% and 61%, respectively, are cestode species. The mean value of species harbored by a host is 2.8 for sharks and 3.8 for rays; these traits are in accordance with the findings reported by Randhawa and Poulin (2010), who noted that, on average, batoids harbor significantly more species of tapeworms than sharks.

Anaporrhutum euzeti and Probolitrema richardii (Trematoda) are the species with the broadest host spectrum; the former species is associated with 11 species of rays from three localities, and the latter has been found in 7 species of rays and one shark from three localities. Higher host specificity was shown by cestodes; 62 of the 76 nominal species of this group were specialists for a particular species of elasmobranch. These results are in accordance with Caira and Jensen (2014) who noted that the majority of tapeworm species are extremely host-specific, exhibiting species-specific (i.e., oioxenous) associations with their hosts. However, more conclusive results can be obtained only by increasing the sampling of this group of vertebrates on both coasts of Mexico, through comprehensive studies in which complete necropsies of elasmobranchs are conducted, avoiding partial analysis of a particular site of infection or organ system, which is a common trait of the research in this field according to Caira et al. (2012).

Dendromonocotyle octodiscus had the widest geographic distribution, being found in 7 localities; this monogenean is followed by Echinobothrium fautleyae, Anthocephalum michaeli and Staphylorchis pacifica, which are distributed in 5 localities each, as well as Symcallio evani and Calicotyle urobati, recorded in 4 locations each. Acanthobothrium is the most specious genus, as it is represented by 14 species parasitizing 6 species of elasmobranchs.

Along with the increase in the number of species described worldwide, the number of helminth species parasitizing sharks and rays recorded in Mexico has increased in the past 2 decades, after slow growth from 1945, when Caballero y Caballero (1945) described the first species associated with this group of hosts (Staphylorchis pacifica). Between 1945 and 1994, only 20 species were reported in this group of hosts in the country. From 1995 to the present, this number increased more than 400%, rising to 107 species (Figure 2). According to Caira and Jensen (2014), approximately 250 species were erected over the past 2 decades; 36 of them were collected from elasmobranchs inhabiting Mexican waters.

Figure 2.

Cumulative curve of helminth species recorded in Mexico over 70 years of research.

The helminthological record of elasmobranchs distributed in Mexico is asymmetrically constituted in terms of the helminth groups represented, the hosts studied and the geographical distribution of the sampling sites. Cestodes are the most widely represented group, with 76 named species and 18 not assigned to species. The main reasons that explain this asymmetry can be summarized in two points: 1) the great diversity of cestodes associated with elasmobranchs, as nine of the 19 orders included in this Class infect this group of hosts, and eight are even exclusive parasites of them (Caira et al. 2014b); cestodes are by far the most diverse group of metazoan parasites of elasmobranchs, representing more than half of the described species for this host group (Caira et al. 2012); 2) the particular interest of a research team lead by Janine N. Caira from the University of Connecticut to inventory the fauna of tapeworm parasites of sharks and rays distributed in the Gulf of California, through the project “A systematic survey of the metazoan parasites of elasmobranchs from the Sea of Cortez” between 1993 and 1994. As a result of this project, more than 45 species of cestode were recorded in this area of Mexico, 36 of which were described as new species. The most intensively studied host group is Batoidea, with 32% of the species in the country harboring at least 1 species of helminth; on the other hand, only 18% of the species of sharks caught in Mexico have been reported as hosting helminths. To determine if this could represent a bias in sampling and not a reflection of the real richness of the helminths in the different groups of hosts, more sampling efforts are necessary. Likewise, the specific richness of helminths is concentrated in two states, i.e., Baja California Sur (69 helminth species reported to date) and Baja California (54), both located in the Gulf of California, up to now, the most intensively sampled region of Mexico.

In addition to the 132 helminth taxa recorded so far in elasmobranchs inhabiting Mexican waters, another 8 taxa of helminths were found in this group of hosts: 2 acanthocephalans, Corynosoma sp. (Méndez 2005) and Gorgorhynchoides bullocki (Monks et al. 2009), and 6 nematodes, Anisakis simplex, Hedruris sp. (Méndez 2005), Anisakis sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Terranova sp. (Pérez-Ponce de León et al. 1999), and Mexiconema cichlasomae (Moravec et al. 1998). However, their presence in elasmobranchs is considered accidental; elasmobranchs can be infected through 2 ways: 1) ingestion of prey acting as intermediate hosts for almost completely developed larvae and 2) ingestion of definitive hosts constituting an accidental, probably postcyclic transmission (Moravec et al. 1998; Anderson 2000; Weaver and Smales 2014).

In spite of the great amount of information generated in the last 20 years, new records of the helminth fauna of Elasmobranchii in Mexico remain scarce and fragmentary. To date, 81.7% of sharks and 67.4% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. Completing the helminthological inventory for this group of vertebrates is a major challenge, as recent estimates establish the number of species to be described associated with these hosts at approximately 3600, considering only the tapeworms (Randhawa and Poulin 2010). Only through efforts such as the one conducted by Caira and collaborators in the Gulf of California will a comprehensive understanding of these host-parasite associations be achieved.

Sampled localities for elasmobranchs as hosts of helminths in Mexico.

Baja California N W
1) Bahía de Los Ángeles 28°54'31" 113°29'47"
2) Bahía San Felipe 28°42'00" 112°35'00"
3) Bahía San Francisquito 29°45'05" 114°18'36"
4) Bahía de San Quintín 30°27'09" 115°56'54"
5) Ensenada 31°51'14" 116°37'45"
6) Isla Ángel de la Guarda (Puerto Refugio) 29°26'26" 113°34'25"
7) Isla Rasa 28°49'01" 112°58'25"
8) Isla San Esteban 28°41'39" 112°31'30"
9) Playa María 31°52'18" 116°39'31"
10) Puertecitos 30°20'59" 114°38'27"
Baja California Sur
11) Bahía Almejas 24°31'00" 111°39'50"
12) Bahía de La Paz 24°14'30" 110°28'08"
13) Bahía de Santa Inés 27°02'55" 111°58'37"
14) Bahía Magdalena 25°20'00" 112°05'00"
15) Boca de Álamo 23°53'51" 109°48'12"
16) El Comitán 24°08'00" 110°25'00"
17) Isla Magdalena 24°15'00" 111°30'00"
18) Laguna Guerrero Negro (Ojo de Liebre) 27°51'21" 114°14'28"
19) Las Barrancas 26°00'30" 112°12'17"
20) Loreto 26°01'00" 111°19'50"
21) Punta Abreojos 26°27'45" 112°43'48"
22) Punta Arena 24°04'00" 109°50'00"
23) Punta Belcher 25°20'00" 112°05'00"
24) San Isidro 23°53'00" 109°47'00"
25) San José del Cabo 23°04'49" 109°40'49"
26) Santa María 27°24'53" 112°18'17"
27) Santa Rosalía 27°20'04" 112°15'35"
Campeche
28) Bancos de Campeche 19°53'03" 90°31'43"
29) Ciudad del Carmen 19°51'33" 90°31'35"
30) Estuario Champotón 19°20'56" 90°41'18"
Chiapas
31) Laguna Mar Muerto (El Paredón) 15°59'00" 94°00'00"
Colima
32) Manzanillo 19°04'54" 104°19'31"
Guerrero
33) Bahía de Acapulco 16°49'21" 99°52'55"
Jalisco
34) Bahía de Chamela 19°33'15" 105°06'45"
35) Puerto Vallarta 20°35'48" 105°15'00"
Nayarit
36) Punta Mita 20°46'38" 105°30'46"
37) San Blás 21°32'00" 105°17'22"
Oaxaca
38) Golfo de Tehuantepec 15°45'26" 96°07'21"
Quintana Roo
39) Blanquizal 18°16'03" 87°54'12"
40) Holbox 21°34'05" 86°14'32"
41) Isla Contoy 20° 48'25" 86° 47'15"
42) Isla Cozumel 20°24'10" 86°55'40"
43) Xcalak 18°19'32" 87°44'49"
Sinaloa
44) Bahía Santa María 25°02'38" 108°05'14"
45) Mazatlán 23°14'03" 106°27'40"
Sonora
46) Bahía de Guaymas 27°54'45" 110°52'41"
47) Bahía de San Carlos 27°56'36" 111°03'44"
48) Laguna de Agiabampo 26°21'54" 109°13'05"
49) Puerto Peñasco 31°18'33" 113°31'30"
50) Puerto Peñasco (Bahía Cholla) 31°20'00" 113°36'45"
Tamaulipas
51) Matamoros 25°52'00" 97°30'00"
Veracruz
52) Isla de Sacrificios 19°10'32" 96°05'50"
53) Playa Chachalacas 19°22'00" 96°22'00"
Yucatán
54) Ría Lagartos 21°36'08" 88°08'51"

Acknowledgements

To Georgina Ortega-Leite for providing important bibliographic references; Yokomi Lozano helped us in the elaboration of the map. This manuscript was edited for proper English language, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and overall style by one or more of the highly qualified native English speaking editors at American Journal Experts (certificate 8DDE-F446-2DF0-94C7-90F2).

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