Checklist
Print
Checklist
An updated checklist of Nepalese ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
expand article infoIndra Prasad Subedi, Prem Bahadur Budha, Himender Bharti§, Leeanne Alonso|
‡ Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
§ Punjabi University, Patiala, India
| Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

The location of Nepal in the Central Himalaya promotes high habitat and species diversity. Ant diversity is likely high, but there have been few studies of the diversity and distribution of ants in Nepal. Here we present an updated checklist list of Nepalese ants that includes 128 named species in 48 genera and eight subfamilies. Among these species, 21 species have a type locality from Nepal, nine species are endemic to Nepal, and three are introduced species. We add six new ant records for Nepal, namely Harpegnathos venator, Monomorium pharaonis, Nylanderia bourbonica, Odontoponera denticulata, Polyrhachis tyrannica and Pseudoneoponera bispinosa. The checklist presents distribution records for Nepalese ant species and provides comparisons with the neighboring countries of China and India.

Keywords

Endemic, Himalaya, Myrmica, Nepal, Strumigenys, type locality

Introduction

Ants (family Formicidae) are one of the most successful groups of organisms on the planet (Hölldobler and Wilson 1990) and together with termites, have been found to make up 30% of animal biomass in the Amazon rain forest (Fittkau and Klinge 1973). Ants are present in almost all terrestrial ecosystems, with the peak of their diversity found within the tropical regions (Guénard 2013). Estimate of global ant species richness exceeds 20,000 species (Hölldobler and Wilson 1990). Seventeen valid subfamilies, 337 genera, and over 13,837 species of ants have been described (Bolton 2020). Over 87% of all described ant species belong to four main subfamilies: Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae, and Dolichoderinae (Guénard 2013). Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics (GABI) is the first comprehensive global database with ant species records in available publications and existing databases (Guénard et al. 2017).

Nepal is a Himalayan country located in the Oriental region at the junction of the Palaearctic and Palaeotropic regions. Nepal covers an area of 147,516 km2 and lies in the center of the Himalayas between latitudes 26°28.986'N to 29°50.4726'N and longitudes 80°19.9998'E to 88°5.6616'E. Its unique geographical and ecological diversity promote a high diversity of flora and fauna, including of ants. However, the study of ants in Nepal is still in its infancy. The diversity and distribution of ants in Nepal is little known and there are few published records of ants of Nepal.

Early compilations of the ants of the Indian region by Bingham (1903) and of Asia by Chapman and Capco (1951) did not include ants from Nepal. The first reports of Nepalese ants were Aphaenogaster pachei and Myrmica pachei by Forel (1906). The next record of Nepalese ants appeared in Menozzi (1939). Collingwood (1970) published the first list of 34 species of ants of Nepal from the collections of the 1954 British Museum expedition to east Nepal and from Professor H Janetshek’s 1961 expedition to the Khumbu Himal region. Summaries of the insects of Nepal by Thapa (2000, 2015) listed 44 species (24 genera) of ants and 52 species (44 named species; 29 genera) of ants, respectively. The number of Nepalese ant species reported in online ant databases ranges from 57 named species (AntWeb 2020) to 86 species/subspecies (AntWiki 2020) to 141 species (antmaps.org 2020) but some of the records need verification of their occurrences in Nepal.

Thus, the information available on the diversity and distribution of Nepalese ants is scattered and incomplete. As a first step towards filling information gaps, this paper presents a thorough review of publications on the ants of Nepal to provide an up-to-date checklist of Nepalese ants. We also add additional species records and distribution information from collections done by the first author. This paper further compares the occurrence of the Nepalese ants in the neighboring countries of China and India. This checklist provides a baseline for Nepalese ant diversity and will hopefully stimulate additional research on the myrmecofauna of Nepal.

Materials and methods

The species list of the ants of Nepal has been synthesized from a literature review of articles, books and reports. Information was also extracted from the online ant databases, AntWeb (2020) and AntWiki (2020) and species distribution information from antmaps.org (Janicki et al. 2016; Guénard et al. 2017). Species described as morphospecies or unidentified species are not included in this checklist. The data presented here are based mainly on existing literature and are thus dependent on the quality of the identification made by the authors at the time the record was published. New records and additional distribution localities of Nepalese ants were provided from the first author’s collection, deposited at Central Department Zoology Museum of Tribhuvan University, Nepa, CDZMTU. Taxonomic changes made to some of the Nepalese ant taxa are also incorporated. The valid name, spelling and authority of ant species were updated from Bolton (2020).

The subfamilies, genera within a subfamily, and species within a genus are arranged alphabetically. For each genus, type species and type locality are also provided. The species list provides the distribution range within Nepal including district, specific locality, altitude, collectors’ names, and depositories of ant specimens based upon the availability of data. Separate lists of the ant species first described from Nepal, endemic species of Nepal, and introduced species are also presented. A comparison of the occurrence of Nepalese ants in the neighboring countries of China and India is also included, which could aid in assessing the patterns of diversity and composition of Nepalese ants. Previously reported species if not substantiated by specimens or literature records, are marked as dubious/unverified. They have been excluded from the main species list and presented in a separate list.

The acronyms of depositories mentioned in this checklist are listed below:

ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia;

AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York City, USA;

CASC California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California;

CDZMTU Central Department Zoology Museum of Tribhuvan University, Nepal;

ELMES Collection of GW Elmes, UK;

JTLC John T Longino personal collection, University of Utah, Utah, USA;

KGAC Kiko Gómez Abal collection, Barcelona. Spain;

MARTENS University of Mainz, Germany (Private Collection of Martens);

MCZC Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA;

MHNG Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland;

MSNG Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria”, Genoa, Italy;

NHMB Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland;

NHMUK The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom;

NHMW The Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria;

PSWC Philip S Ward collection, California, USA;

SCHULZ Ted Schulz private collection, Washington DC, USA;

SIZK Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kiev;

UCDC Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, Davis;

USNM United States National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.

Results and discussion

The checklist of the ants of Nepal includes 128 valid species. These ant species represent ca. 0.9% of the global ant diversity (Bolton 2020). The list includes nine ant species endemic to Nepal and three introduced species. Twenty-one ant species were first described from Nepalese specimens. A comparison of the Nepalese ant species to those of the surrounding countries of China and India is also presented.

Species and generic diversity within subfamily

The presented checklist is comprised of 128 named ant species belonging to 48 genera and eight subfamilies (see checklist below). The eight recorded subfamilies are Amblyoponinae, Dolichoderinae, Dorylinae, Formicinae, Leptanillinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. The ant species and genus level richness for each subfamily is given in Table 1.

Table 1.

Number of named ant species per genus and subfamily from Nepal.

Subfamily Genus Number of species
Amblyoponinae Stigmatomma 1
(1 genus, 1 species)
Dolichoderinae Chronoxenus 1
(4 genera, 6 species) Dolichoderus 2
Iridomyrmex 1
Technomyrmex 2
Dorylinae Aenictus 1
(3 genera, 4 species) Dorylus 2
Ooceraea 1
Formicinae Acropyga 1
(11 genera, 36 species) Camponotus 8
Cataglyphis 1
Formica 3
Lasius 4
Lepisiota 2
Oecophylla 1
Nylanderia 2
Paratrechina 1
Polyrhachis 7
Prenolepis 6
Leptanillinae Leptanilla 1
(1 genus, 1 species)
Myrmicinae Aphaenogaster 3
(19 genera, 63 species) Cardiocondyla 7
Carebara 3
Cataulacus 1
Crematogaster 3
Lophomyrmex 1
Lordomyrma 2
Mayriella 1
Meranoplus 3
Monomorium 3
Myrmica 15
Perissomyrmex 1
Pheidole 5
Pristomyrmex 1
Recurvidris 1
Stenamma 1
Strumigenys 8
Tetramorium 3
Trichomyrmex 1
Ponerinae Brachyponera 2
(8 genera, 13 species) Diacamma 2
Emeryopone 1
Harpegnathos 1
Leptogenys 2
Odontomachus 1
Odontoponera 2
Pseudoneoponera 2
Pseudomyrmecinae Tetraponera 4
(1 genus, 4 species)
8 subfamilies 48 genera 128 species

Myrmicinae is the most diverse subfamily in the region with 19 genera and 63 species, followed by Formicinae (11 genera and 36 species), Ponerinae (8 genera and 13 species), Dolichoderinae (4 genera and 6 species), Dorylinae (3 genera and 4 species), Pseudomyrmecinae (1 genus and 4 species), Leptanillinae (1 genus and 1 species) and Amblyoponinae (1 genus and 1 species). Over 87% of all described ant species of the world are from four main subfamilies, Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae (Guénard 2013). These four subfamilies are also the most speciose subfamilies of ants in Nepal, with over 92% of all described Nepalese species.

In Nepal, the most diverse ant genus is Myrmica with 15 valid species, followed by Camponotus (8), Strumigenys (8), Cardiocondyla (7), Prenolepis (6), Polyrhachis (7), Pheidole (5) and Tetraponera (4), Lasius (4). Eighteen other genera contain two or three species: Formica (3), Nylanderia (2) Lepisiota (2), Tetramorium (3), Aphaenogaster (3), Meranoplus (3), Carebara (3), Dorylus (2), Brachyponera (2), Leptogenys (2), Crematogaster (3), Lordomyrma (2), Technomyrmex (2), Dolichoderus (2), Monomorium (3), Diacamma (2), Odontoponera (2) and Pseudoneoponera (2). Twenty-two genera are represented in Nepal by a single species. The most speciose ant genus in India is Camponotus with 83 species (Bharti et al. 2016a) while that in China is Tetramorium with 52 species (Guénard and Dunn 2012). Myrmica is also a highly speciose genus in India and China with 33 and 49 species respectively but its distribution is restricted to the Himalayan region (Guénard and Dunn 2012; Bharti et al. 2016a, b). About 44% of the ant species known from Nepal are included within the seven most diverse ant genera. Similar faunistic patterns are found in the neighboring countries of India and China. The 15 most diverse genera include nearly 60% of the ant species known from China (Guénard and Dunn 2012) while seven of the most diverse genera constitute above 37% of Indian ant species (Bharti et al. 2016a).

This paper adds 84 named ant species to the list of Nepalese ants since the publication of Thapa’s 2015 “Insect diversity in Nepal” which listed 44 named ant species based upon bibliographic review. Further, this paper adds 79 named ant species to the AntWeb (2020) list and 46 named species to the AntWiki (2020) list. In light of the ant species richness found in neighboring countries (e.g., China: Guénard and Dunn 2012; India: Bharti et al. 2016a) and the ecological diversity of Nepal, many more than the 128 ant species on this checklist can be expected from Nepal. The majority of early ant collections on which the list is mainly based were done by direct hand collecting, which was not extensive. The checklist records show that the entire country is under sampled and that little sampling effort has been made in the western and southern regions in particular. To overcome this sampling bias and to establish a more thorough ant species list, we recommend that future investigations of ant diversity following standard ant sampling techniques (see Agosti and Alonso 2000) in all parts of the country. A more intensive and systematic collection of Nepalese ants would certainly add new species and new distribution records.

New ant records for Nepal

Six ant species, namely Harpegnathos venator, Monomorium pharaonis, Nylanderia bourbonica, Odontoponera denticulata, Polyrhachis tyrannica and Pseudoneoponera bispinosa are new records for Nepal identified from the first author’s collection. The ant genus Harpegnathos is recorded for the first time for Nepal.

Endemic ants of Nepal and the species described from Nepalese specimens

Of the 128 ant species recorded from Nepal, 21 species were described from Nepalese specimens and nine species are considered endemic to Nepal (Table 2). No ant genera are known to be endemic to Nepal. However, voucher specimens from previous records from Nepal were not found to be deposited in the country. Three ant species, namely Paratrechina longicornis, Trichomyrmex destructor and Monomorium pharaonis are globally distributed ant species that have been introduced into Nepal.

Table 2.

Ant species first described from Nepal and species endemic to Nepal (*endemic).

Prenolepis darlena Williams & LaPolla, 2016 Myrmica weberi Elmes & Radchenko, 2009
*Prenolepis nepalensis Williams & LaPolla, 2018 *Stenamma gurkhale DuBois, 1998
*Leptanilla buddhista Baroni Urbani, 1977 *Strumigenys buddhista De Andrade, 2007
Aphaenogaster pachei (Forel, 1906) Strumigenys exilirhina Bolton, 2000
Mayriella transfuga Baroni Urbani, 1977 Strumigenys hemisobek (Bolton, 2000)
*Meranoplus nepalensis Schödl, 1998 *Strumigenys hindu De Andrade, 2007
Myrmica alperti Elmes & Radchenko, 2009 Strumigenys nepalensis De Andrade, 1994
*Myrmica boltoni Radchenko & Elmes, 1998 Strumigenys podarge (Bolton, 2000)
Myrmica brancuccii Radchenko, Elmes & Collingwood, 1999 Tetramorium difficile Bolton, 1977
*Myrmica martensi Radchenko & Elmes, 1998 *Emeryopone franzi (Baroni Urbani, 1975)
Myrmica pachei Forel, 1906

Occurrence of Nepalese ant fauna in neighboring countries

A comparison of occurrence of Nepalese ants (128 species, 48 genera – this list) in the neighboring countries of China (939 species, 103 genera – Guénard and Dunn 2012) and India (828 species, 100 genera – Bharti et al. 2016a) revealed that Nepal shares 94 species with India (ca. 73% of Nepal’s fauna) and 67 species (ca. 52%) with China. Fifty-nine species are found in all three countries and 26 species are unique to Nepal. Almost half of the genera recorded from India (100) and China (103) are also recorded from Nepal (48). In terms of named and recorded species, Nepal harbors approximately 15% of the species from India and nearly 14% of the species from China. Interestingly, 47 ant species recorded from Nepal have India as the type locality while only six species have China as the type locality.

Conclusions

An updated checklist of the ants of Nepal contains 128 valid ant species belonging to 48 genera and eight subfamilies. Six ant species (Harpegnathos venator, Monomorium pharaonis, Nylanderia bourbonica, Odontoponera denticulata, Polyrhachis tyrannica and Pseudoneoponera bispinosa) are new records for Nepal. The ant genus Harpegnathos is recorded for the first time for Nepal. The most speciose subfamily and genus in Nepal are Myrmicinae and Myrmica respectively. Overall, 21 species were first described from Nepalese specimens, nine species are endemic to Nepal, and three ant species are introduced species. No ant genera are known to be endemic to Nepal. Nepal shares over half of the listed ant species with its neighboring countries.

Despite an extensive literature review, the checklist remains incomplete because it is based on limited sampling efforts and on inadequate taxonomic knowledge of the ants of Nepal. Many regions of Nepal are clearly under sampled, such that future exploration should reveal additional species. The insufficient collections and limited published information present challenges to determining and evaluating distribution patterns of Nepalese ants (Subedi and Budha 2020). However, the checklist presented here provides a waypoint for further studies of diversity and distribution of Nepalese ants.

Checklist

AMBLYOPONINAE Forel, 1893

Stigmatomma Roger, 1859: 1 species

Type-species. Stigmatomma denticulatum Roger, 1859: 251, Type locality. Island of Zante, Mount Scapo (Greece).

Stigmatomma pertinax (Baroni Urbani, 1978)

Distribution in Nepal. Taplejung: Maewakhola (= Maiwakhola), Sanghu, KH Hyatt leg., NHMUK (AntWeb 2020).

DOLICHODERINAE Forel, 1878

Chronoxenus Santschi, 1919: 1 species

Type-species. Bothriomyrmex myops Forel, 1895: 471, Type locality. Kolaba, South Konkan, Maharastra, India.

Chronoxenus dalyi (Forel, 1895)

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Tate, 2900 m (Collingwood 1970); Nepal (Saroj et al. 2018).

Dolichoderus Lund, 1831: 2 species

Type-species. Formica attelaboides Fabricius, 1775: 394, Type locality. Brafilia, Brazil.

Dolichoderus affinis Emery, 1889

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown, NHMUK (Dill 2002).

Dolichoderus taprobanae (Smith, 1858)

Distribution in Nepal. Sankhuwasabha: 16 km NE Tumlingtar, 740 m, C Carpenter leg., PSWC (AntWeb 2020).

Iridomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 1 species

Type-species. Formica detecta Smith, 1858: 36, Type locality. Hunter river, Australia.

Iridomyrmex anceps (Roger, 1863)

Distribution in Nepal. Gorkha, AR Sthapit leg. (Thapa 2015).

Technomyrmex Mayr, 1872: 2 species

Type-species. Technomyrmex strenua Mayr, 1872: 147, Type locality. Sarawak, Borneo.

Technomyrmex elatior Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 760 m, PS Ward leg., PSWC (Bolton 2007; AntWeb 2020).

Technomyrmex obscurior Wheeler, 1928

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: 4 km SSW Pokhara, 900 m, PS Ward leg., PSWC (Bolton 2007; AntWeb 2020).

DORYLINAE Leach, 1815

Aenictus Shuckard, 1840: 1 species

Type-species. Aenictus ambiguus Shuckard, 1840: 268, Type locality. Punah, Bombay, India.

Aenictus sagei Forel, 1901

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Jaitrong and Ruangsittichai 2018).

Dorylus Fabricius, 1793: 2 species

Type-species. Vespa helvola Linnaeus, 1764: 412, Type locality. South Africa.

Dorylus labiatus Schuckard, 1840

Distribution in Nepal. Lalitpur: Khumaltar, DR Sharma leg. (Thapa 2000, 2015).

Dorylus orientalis Westwood, 1835

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu, N Kumar leg.; Kavre: near Banepa, 1420 m; Dolakha: Namdu, 1400 m, Sikris, 2250 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Ooceraea Roger, 1862: 1 species

Type-species. Ooceraea fragosa Roger, 1862: 249, Type locality. Sri Lanka (“Ceylon”).

Ooceraea biroi (Forel, 1907)

Distribution in Nepal. Bara: Amlekhgunj, EI Coher leg (Wilson and Taylor 1967 as Syscia sylvestrii); Nepal (Ogata 1983; Wetterer et al. 2012; Bharti and Akbar 2013a).

FORMICINAE Latreille, 1809

Acropyga Roger, 1862: 1 species

Type-species. Acropyga acutiventris Roger, 1862: 243, Type locality. Sri Lanka.

Acropyga yaeyamensis Terayama & Hashimoto, 1996

Distribution in Nepal. Lalitpur: Godavari (= Godawari), C Baroni Urbani leg., MCZC, NHMB (LaPolla 2004).

Camponotus Mayr, 1861: 8 species

Type-species. Formica ligniperda Latreille, 1802: 88, Type locality. Vitrac-sur-Montane, France.

Camponotus angusticollis (Jerdon, 1851)

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Jarsa, 2000 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Camponotus compressus (Fabricius, 1787)

Distribution in Nepal. Kavrepalanchok: Chyaubas, 2000 m; Dolakha: Sikris, 2300 m, J Quinlan leg.; Kaski: Phewa lake, Pokhara, 830 m., J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015); Nepal (Sheikh et al. 2017).

Camponotus dolendus Forel, 1892

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Namdu, 1450 m; Kavrepalanchok: Cha Khola, 900–1000 m, Hoxe valley; Kaski: Phewa lake, Pokhara, 830 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Camponotus himalayanus Forel, 1893

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Thansindu, 3500 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Camponotus lamarckii Forel, 1892

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 1000 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970).

Camponotus rufoglaucus (Jerdon, 1851)

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 1000 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Camponotus singularis (Smith, 1858)

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Phewa lake, Pokhara, 830 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Camponotus wroughtonii Forel, 1893

Distribution in Nepal. Ramechhap: Likhu Khola, 1690 m; Solukhumbu: Yaral, 3900 m, Pangboche, 4000 m, Thangpoche, 3500 m; Kavrepalanchok: Cha Khola, 900–1000 m, Hoxe, 1200 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850: 1 species

Type-species. Cataglyphis fairmairei Foerster, 1850: 93, Type locality. Algeria.

Cataglyphis emeryi (Karavaiev, 1911)

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Latibari et al. 2017).

Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 3 species

Type-species. Formica rufa Linnaeus, 1761: 426, Type locality. Sweden.

Formica candida Smith, 1878

Distribution in Nepal. Ghyaru, 3700 m, M Granados leg., KGAC (AntWeb 2020).

Formica fusca Linnaeus, 1758

Distribution in Nepal. Gurjakhani, 2830 m, KM Hyatt leg. (Collingwood 1970).

Formica picea Nylander, 1846

Distribution in Nepal. Mustag (= Mustang), 4800 m (Mani and Singh 1862).

Lasius Fabricius, 1804: 4 species

Type-species. Formica nigra Linnaeus, 1758: 580, Type locality. Europe.

Lasius alienoflavus Bingham, 1903

Distribution in Nepal. Jumla: Talphi, H Franz leg., NHMB (Collingwood 1982).

Lasius crinitus (Smith, 1858)

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Junbesi, 2700 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015); Arun river valley, Duna, NHMB; Bdota, 3000 m, Lay leg., NHMB (Collingwood 1982).

Lasius magnus Seifert, 1992

Distribution in Nepal. Induwa, Kola valley, 2000 m; Simigau, Dugong Kharka, 2100 m (Seifert 2020).

Lasius niger (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution in Nepal. Myagdi: Bakhri Kharka, 1830 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015); Arun River Valley, Duna, 2400 m, Lay leg. (Collingwood 1982).

Lepisiota Santschi, 1926: 2 species

Type-species. Plagiolepis rothneyi Forel, 1894: 415, Type locality. India.

Lepisiota lunaris (Emery, 1893)

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Jiri Khola valley, 1900 m; Solukhumbu: Ringmo–Junbesi, 2800 m; Ghai, 2700 m; Tate, 2900 m; Nare Ghat, 2700 m; Ramechhap, Likhu Khola, 1690 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Lepisiota watsonii (Forel, 1894)

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Jiri Khola Valley, 1900 m; Solukhumbu: Ringmo–Junbesi, 2800 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Oecophylla Smith, 1860: 1 species

Type-species. Formica virescens Fabricius, 1775: 392, Type locality. Australia.

Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775)

Distribution in Nepal. Kavrepalanchok/Sindhupalanchok: Charnawati/Zharange Khola to Kiratechap, 1160–1800 m, Bhotekoshi, 1150 m; Tamba Kosi, 1150–1450 m, Dhading: Dhunibesi, KC Sharma, J Hanstek and others leg. (Collingwood 1970); Gandaki zone, Turture to Phalenksangu, Marsyangdi Valley, 716 m, J Balderson leg, ANIC (AntWeb 2020); Solukhumbu: Namche bazar, 3800 m, AP Kapoor leg. (Kapoor 1961); Nepal (Wetterer 2017).

Nylanderia Emery, 1906: 2 species

Type-species. Formica vividula Nylander, 1846: 900, Type locality. Finland.

Nylanderia bourbonica (Forel, 1886)

Distribution in Nepal. Nagarjun forest, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, 1660 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Nylanderia indica (Forel, 1894)

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Thaksindhu, 3500 m, Ringmo–Junbesi, 2800 m, Tate, 2900 m; Ramechhap: Likhu khola, 1690 m (Collingwood 1970).

Paratrechina Motschoulsky, 1863: 1 species

Type-species. Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky, 1863: 14, Type locality. Russia.

Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille, 1802)

Distribution in Nepal. Region del Terai: Ratnanagar, 200 m, M Granados leg., KGAC (AntWeb 2020); Bara: Amlekhganj (= Amlekhgunj), EI Coher leg., MCZ (Wetterer 2008).

Polyrhachis Smith, 1857: 6 species

Type-species. Formica bihamata Fabricius, 1775: 394, Type locality. Insula St. Iohannis Indiae.

Polyrhachis dives Smith, 1857

Distribution in Nepal. Arun valley, 2134 m, L Swan leg., CASC (AntWeb 2020).

Polyrhachis illaudata Walker, 1859

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Phewa lake, Pokhara, 830 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970).

Polyrhachis lacteipennis Smith, 1858

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 1000 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970); 16 km NE Baglung, 1620 m, PS Ward leg., PSWC (AntWeb 2020); Kathmandu: Basundhara, 1340 m, IP Subedi leg.; Nagarjun forest, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, 1600 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Polyrhachis rastellata (Latreille, 1802)

Distribution in Nepal. Nagarjun forest, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, 1650 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Polyrhachis thompsoni Bingham, 1903

Distribution in Nepal. Makawanpur: 14.5 km W. Hetauda, 400 m, ES Ross and DQ Cavagnaro leg., CASC (AntWeb 2020).

Polyrhachis tibialis Smith, 1858

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu (Thapa 2015); Nagarjun forest, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, 1400 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Polyrhachis tyrannica Smith, 1858

Distribution in Nepal. Tanahun: Jamune, 530 m, IP Subedi leg., S Yamane det., CDZMTU.

Prenolepis Mayr, 1861: 6 species

Type-species. Tapinoma nitens Mayr, 1853a: 144, Type locality. Siska, Slovenia.

Prenolepis darlena Williams & LaPolla, 2016

Distribution in Nepal. 16 km ENE Baglung, 1100 m, PS Ward leg., USNM (Williams and LaPolla 2016).

Prenolepis fisheri Bharti & Wachkoo, 2012

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: 4 km SSW Pokhara, 900 m, PS Ward leg., PSWC (AntWeb 2020).

Prenolepis fustinoda Williams & LaPolla, 2016

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Williams and LaPolla 2018).

Prenolepis naoroji Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Jiri Khola; Kavrepalanchok: Cha Khola, Hokse valley, 1000 m; Kaski: Pokhara, 830 m, Bakhri Kharka, 1800 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Prenolepis nepalensis Williams & LaPolla, 2018

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: 4 km SSW Pokhara, 900 m, PS Ward leg., USNM (Williams and LaPolla 2018).

Prenolepis shanialena Williams & LaPolla, 2016

Distribution in Nepal. Mustang: Jomsom, 2300 m, PS Ward leg. (Williams and LaPolla 2016).

LEPTANILLINAE Emery, 1910

Leptanilla Emery, 1870: 1 species

Type-species. Leptanilla revelierii Emery, 1870: 196, Type locality. Corsica, France.

Leptanilla buddhista Baroni Urbani, 1977

Distribution in Nepal. Bakhri Kharka, 1676 m, KH Hyatt leg., NHMUK; Lalitpur: Godawari (valle di Kathmandu), 1450 m, C Baroni Urbani, leg., NHMB (Baroni Urbani 1977a), Nepal (Wong and Guénard 2016).

MYRMICINAE Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835

Aphaenogaster Mayr, 1853: 3 species

Type-species. Aphaenogaster sardous Mayr, 1853b: 107, Type locality. Italy.

Aphaenogaster pachei (Forel, 1906)

Distribution in Nepal. Taplejung: Tseram, NE Nepal, 3600 m, Pache leg., MHNG (Forel 1906), Thorung Pedi, 4400 m (AntWeb 2020); Solukhumbu: Pangboche, 3950 m, Yaral and Taboche (Mingbo Valley), 3900–4800 m; Ramechhap: Likhu-Khola, 1690 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Aphaenogaster prudens (Forel, 1902)

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Tate, 2900 m, Sikris, 2333 m, KM Hyatt leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Aphaenogaster smythiesii (Forel, 1902)

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Sikris – Jarsa, 1950–2300 m; Bakhri Kharka, 1833 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Cardiocondyla Emery, 1869: 7 species

Type-species. Cardiocondyla elegans Emery, 1869: 21, Type locality. Italy.

Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel, 1881

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu (Seifert 2003; Wetterer 2012a).

Cardiocondyla itsukii Seifert, Okita & Heinze, 2017

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 27 km NW (Seifert et al. 2017).

Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi Terayama, 1999

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara vic., 27 km NW (Seifert 2003); Nagarjun forest, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, 1400 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel, 1890

Distribution in Nepal. Mustang: Thak, Jomsom (Seifert 2003); Nepal (Wetterer 2012b).

Cardiocondyla minutior Forel, 1899

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu, MG Allen leg., Kathmandu, Sangu (Seifert 2003; Wetterer 2014).

Cardiocondyla obscurior Wheeler, 1929

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara (Seifert 2003).

Cardiocondyla wroughtonii (Forel, 1890)

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Seifert 2003).

Carebara Westwood, 1840: 3 species

Type-species. Carebara lignata Westwood, 1840: 86, Type locality. Java, Indonesia.

Carebara bengalensis (Forel, 1902)

Distribution in Nepal. Bhaktapur (Thapa 2015).

Carebara diversa (Jerdon, 1851)

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Lumle (Thapa 2015).

Carebara lignata Westwood, 1840

Distribution in Nepal. Makawanpur: Hetauda, 330 m, W Peters leg. (Collingwood 1970).

Cataulacus Smith, 1853: 1 species

Type-species. Cataulacus taprobanae Smith, 1853: 225, Type locality. Sri Lanka.

Cataulacus granulatus (Latreille, 1802)

Distribution in Nepal. Baredamar, EI Coher leg (Bolton 1974).

Crematogaster Lund, 1831: 3 species

Type-species. Formica scutellaris Olivier, 1792: 497, Type locality. France.

Crematogaster binghamii Forel, 1904

Distribution in Nepal. Kavrepalanchok: Zharangje Khola, 1800 m (Collingwood 1970); Kathmandu, 1350 m, MG Allen leg. (Hosoishi and Ogata 2016).

Crematogaster flava Forel, 1886

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Tiwari et al. 1999, 2003).

Crematogaster himalayana Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Tiwari et al. 1999, 2003).

Lophomyrmex Emery, 1892: 1 species

Type-species. Oecodoma quadrispinosa Jerdon, 1851: 111, Type locality. India.

Lophomyrmex ambiguus Rigato, 1994

Distribution in Nepal. 16 km ENE Baglung, 1100 m, PS Ward leg. (Rigato 1994; Bharti and Kumar 2012).

Lordomyrma Emery, 1897: 2 species

Type-species. Lordomyrma furcifera Emery, 1897: 591, Type locality. New Guinea.

Lordomyrma bhutanensis (Baroni Urbani, 1977)

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown, MCZC (Branstetter 2009).

Lordomyrma sinensis (Ma, Xu, Makio & DuBois, 2007)

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown, MCZC (Branstetter 2009).

Mayriella Forel, 1902: 1 species

Type-species. Mayriella abstinens Forel, 1902: 402, Type locality. Australia.

Mayriella transfuga Baroni Urbani, 1977

Distribution in Nepal. Nawalparasi: 6 km NW Narainghat (= Narayanghat), 250 m, C Baroni Urbani leg., NHMB, NHMUK (Baroni Urbani 1977b; Shattuck and Barnett 2007; Bharti et al. 2017).

Meranoplus Smith, 1853: 3 species

Type-species. Cryptocerus bicolor Guérin-Méneville, 1844: 425, Type locality. Pondichery, India.

Meranoplus bicolor (Guérin-Méneville, 1844)

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu, 1350 m, Allen leg., NHMUK; Makawanpur: Hetaura (= Hetauda), Franz leg., NHMB; 9 miles (= 14.5 km) W Hitaura (= Hetauda), 400 m, Ross and Cavagnaro leg., CASC, Bara: Amlekhgunj, Franz leg.; Goropani, W Pokhara, NHMB (Schödl 1998); Kabre (= Kavrepalanchok), 1750 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Meranoplus nepalensis Schödl, 1998

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu: Gokarnaban, Gokarna Forest Reserve, 1350 m, W Wittmer and C Baroni Urbani leg., NHMB, NHMB, NHMW, MHNG, NHMUK, MCZ, Lalitpur: Godawari, 1450 m, W Wittmer and C Baroni Urbani leg., NHMB; Sankhuwasabha: Tumlingtar, 950 m, I Lobi and A Smetana leg., CASC, NHMW (Schödl 1998).

Meranoplus rothneyi Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Sankhuwasabha: NE Kuwapani, 2250 m, Lobi and Smetana leg.; Arun Valley, 3500 m, Swan leg. (Schödl 1998).

Monomorium Mayr, 1855: 2 species

Type-species. Monomorium monomorium Bolton, 1987: 287 (replacement name for Monomorium minutum Mayr, 1855).

Monomorium dichroum Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Makawanpur: 9 miles (= 14.5 km) W Hitaura (= Hetauda), 400 m, ES Ross and DQ Cavagnaro leg., CASC (AntWeb 2020).

Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Distribution in Nepal. Tanahun: Jamune, 530 m, IP Subedi leg., S Yamane det., CDZMTU.

Monomorium sahlbergi Emery, 1898

Distribution in Nepal. Makawanpur: 9 mi (= 14.5 km) W Hitaura (= Hetauda), 400 m, ES Ross and DQ Canvagnaro leg., CASC (AntWeb 2020).

Myrmica Latreille, 1804: 15 species

Type-species. Formica rubra Linnaeus, 1758: 580, Type locality. Europe.

Myrmica aimonissabaudiae Menozzi, 1939

Distribution in Nepal. Mustang: Lumleek, Ghasa-Tukhe, 16 km SW Jomsom, 2550 m (Bharti et al. 2016b).

Myrmica alperti Elmes & Radchenko, 2009

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Thodung, 3200 m, J Martens leg., NHMB, Jiri–Thodung, W Wittmer and C Baroni Urbani leg; Shiralaybis, Jiri ghat, 2200 m, J Martens leg., NHMB, SIZK, ELMES (Elmes and Radchenko 2009; Bharti et al. 2016b).

Myrmica bactriana Ruzsky, 1915

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Ringmo–Junbesi, 2800 m, Yaral (Pangboche), 3900 m, Tate, 2900 m; Sindhupalchok: Hoxe (= Hokse), 1000–2000 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Myrmica boltoni Radchenko & Elmes, 1998

Distribution in Nepal. Baglung: Dhorpatan, 3000 m, T Martens leg., Goropani, W Pokhara, H Franz leg.; 18 km NNE Baglung, 2540 m, PS Ward leg., PSWC; Sankhuwasabha: vallee d’Induwa Koa, 2000 m, Lobl and Smetana leg.; Manang: Marsyangdi, 2550 m, Mustang: Lethe, 2450–2600 m, J Martens and Ausobsky leg.; Gorkha: Chuing Khola, Meme Kharka, 3300–3400 m, J Martens and W Schwaller leg.; NHMUK, SIZK, ELMES, WARD, MARTENS, SCHULZ (Radchenko and Elmes 1998; Bharti et al. 2016b), 2 miles (= 3.2 km) SE Sikha, 2286 m, J Quinlan leg., NHMUK (AntWeb 2020).

Myrmica brancuccii Radchenko, Elmes & Collingwood, 1999

Distribution in Nepal. Utrot, M Brancucci leg., NHMUK; Lawarai, M Brancucci leg.; Kaski: Lumle, Collingwood leg., NHMUK, NHMB, CASC, SIZK (Radchenko and Elmes 1999; Bharti et al. 2016b).

Myrmica hecate Weber, 1947

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Lumle, Baira Bali von Kathmandu, Makwanpur: Daman, 2400 m (Bharti et al. 2016b).

Myrmica indica Weber, 1950

Distribution in Nepal. Lalitpur: Phulchoki, 2600 m, W Wittmer and C Baroni Urbani leg.; Dolakha: Chordung, Jiri, 2900 m, J Martens leg.; Taplejung: Simbua Khola, vic. Lassetham, 3000–3150 m, J Martens and W Schawaller leg.; Dorhar Kharka, 2700 m, J Martens and W Schawaller leg.; Rasuwa: Thare (= Tare) Pati, Gosaikunda, H Franz leg.; Sankhuwasabha: Maghang Kharka, Makalu Barun Conservation Area, 2548 m, D Emmett and Subedi leg. Sankhuwasabha: Maghang Kharka, Makalu Barun Conservation Area, 2634 m, Alpert, Alonso and Subedi leg., NHMB, SIZK, ELMES (Elmes and Radchenko 2009; Bharti et al. 2016b); Taplejung: Maiwakhola, Sanghu, PS Ward leg., NHMUK; Sankhuwasabha: vic. Pahakhola, 2700 m, J Martens and Schwaller leg., PSAS (AntWeb 2020).

Myrmica kozlovi Ruzsky, 1915

Distribution in Nepal. Solukhumbu: Mingbo, Mandusuwa, 4000 m (Collingwood 1970); Taplejung: Sikha, 2660 m; Sindhupalchok: Phedikhola, 1500 m; Kavrepalanchok: near Banepa, 1420 m, Resangu, 1900 m (Thapa 2015); Nepal (Radchenko and Elmes 2003).

Myrmica martensi Radchenko & Elmes, 1998

Distribution in Nepal. Rasuwa: Gosainkunda, Sing Gyang, 3200 m, J Martens leg., NHMB (Radchenko and Elmes 1998).

Myrmica pachei Forel, 1906

Distribution in Nepal. Taplejung: Tseram, NE Nepal, 3600 m, M Pache leg., NHMG, MCZ, Himalaya, 3600 m, MSNG, Taplejung: upper Simbu Khola valley, vic. Tseram, 3250–3350 m; Dhara und Alm Lasea, 3000–3300 m, MSNG, MHNG (Forel 1906; Bharti et al. 2016b).

Myrmica ritae Emery, 1889

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Ulleri, 2000 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Myrmica rugosa Mayr, 1865

Distribution in Nepal. Mustang: Thakkhola, Alt-Marsa, 3100–3200 m (Bharti et al. 2016b).

Myrmica rupestris Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Sikris, 2330 m, Myagdi: Gurjakhani, 2833 m, KM Hyatt leg.; Kaski: Ulleri, 2650 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015); Thodung via Those, 3100 m, Lalitpur: Phulchoki, 2600 m, Makawanpur: Daman, 2400 m, W Wittmer and Baroni Urbani leg.; Taplejung: Omje Kharka, NW Yamputh, 2300–2500 m, Martens and Schawaller leg., PSWC (Radchenko and Elmes 2002); Mustang: 16 km SW Jomsom, 2550 m, PS Ward leg., PSWC; Timang, 2400 m, Thanchok, 2500 m, M Granados leg., KGAC (AntWeb 2020).

Myrmica smythiesii Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Gompa, bei Tarahot, 3400 m (Bharti et al. 2016b).

Myrmica weberi Elmes & Radchenko, 2009

Distribution in Nepal. Sankhuwasabha: Maghang Kharka, Makalu Barun Conservation Area, 2634 m, Alpert, Alonso and Subedi leg., 2548 m, D Emmett and Subedi leg., SIZK, NHMB, ELMES; Sankhuwasabha: Chauki, 2000–3000 m, NHMB (Elmes and Radchenko 2009).

Perissomyrmex Smith, 1947: 1 species

Type-species. Perissomyrmex snyderi Smith, 1947: 282, Type locality. Guatemala (specific locality unknown).

Perissomyrmex monticola Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1993

Distribution in Nepal. Kosi, Chauki, 2600–3000 m, NHMB (Radchenko 2003), Nepal (Zhou and Huang 2006; Ogata and Okido 2007; Zheng-Hui and Cheng-Lin 2012).

Pheidole Westwood, 1839: 5 species

Type-species. Atta providens Sykes, 1835: 103, Type locality. Orientali circa Poona, India.

Pheidole indica Mayr, 1879

Distribution in Nepal. Tamba Koshi, 1150 m; Zarangje Khola, 1800 m; Rishengu (Collingwood 1970); Dolakha: Jiri Khola valley, 1900 m, Jiri, 1950 m, Sikris, 2000 m; Ramechhap: Likhu Khola, 1690 m; Kathmandu (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Pheidole jucunda Forel, 1885

Distribution in Nepal. Taplejung: Sangu, 1890 m, RL Coe leg., NHMUK (AntWeb 2020).

Pheidole parva Mayr, 1865

Distribution in Nepal. Sankhuwasabha: 16 km NE Tumlingtar, 670 m, C Carpenter leg. (Eguchi 2008).

Pheidole sagei Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Jiri, 1900 m; Solukhumbu: Taboche, 4550 m, Kavrepalanchok: Cha Khola, 900–1000 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Pheidole smythiesii Forel, 1902

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 1000 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970).

Pristomyrmex Mayr, 1866: 1 species

Type-species. Pristomyrmex pungens Mayr, 1866: 904 (junior synonym of Myrmica punctata Smith, F. 1860), Type locality. Malakka, West Malaysia.

Pristomyrmex sulcatus Emery, 1895

Distribution in Nepal. Likhu Khola, 1700 m; Tate, 2900 m (Collingwood 1970); Sankhuwasabha: Khandbari, Arun river, 1500–1600 m, A and Z Smetana leg. (Wang 2003).

Recurvidris Bolton, 1992: 1 species

Type-species. Trigonogaster recurvispinosus Forel 1890: cix.

Recurvidris recurvispinosa (Forel, 1890)

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu, MG Allen leg. (Bolton 1992; Jaitrong and Wiwatwitaya 2015).

Stenamma Westwood, 1839: 1 species

Type-species. Stenamma westwoodii Westwood, 1839: 219, Type locality. Great Britain.

Stenamma gurkhale DuBois, 1998

Distribution in Nepal. Lalitpur: Phulchoki, 2743 m, M Brendell leg., MCZ (Dubois 1998; Bharti et al. 2012).

Strumigenys Smith, 1860: 8 species

Type-species. Strumigenys mandibularis Smith, 1860a: 72, Type locality. St. Paul, Brazil.

Strumigenys buddhista De Andrade, 2007

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 820 m, Wittmer and Baroni Urbani leg., NHMB (De Andrade 2007; Baroni Urbani and De Andrade 2007).

Strumigenys caniophanoides De Andrade, 2007

Distribution in Nepal. Sankhuwasabha: vallee d’Arun, vic. Num, 1100 m, L Lobi and A Smetana leg., MHNG (Baroni Urbani and De Andrade 2007).

Strumigenys exilirhina Bolton, 2000

Distribution in Nepal. Taplejung: Sanghu, KH Hyatt leg., NHMUK, MCZ, MHNG, OMNH (Bolton 2000; Bharti et al. 2017; AntWeb 2020); Kathmandu, M Brendell leg., PSWC (AntWeb 2020).

Strumigenys hemisobek (Bolton, 2000)

Distribution in Nepal. Taplejung: Maiwa Khola, Sanghu, 1981 m, KH Hyatt leg., NHMUK (Bolton 2000); Nepal (Bharti and Akbar 2013b).

Strumigenys hindu De Andrade, 2007

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 820 m, W Wittmer and C Baroni Urbani leg., NHMB (Baroni Urbani and De Andrade 2007).

Strumigenys membranifera Emery, 1869

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Wetterer 2011; Bolton 2020).

Strumigenys nepalensis Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 1994

Distribution in Nepal. Chitwan: 6 km NW of Narainghat (= Narayanghat), 250 m, 5 km E of Manhari, 350 m, NHMB Nepal Exped., NHMB (De Andrade 1994; Baroni Urbani and De Andrade 1994; Bharti et al. 2017).

Strumigenys podarge (Bolton, 2000)

Distribution in Nepal. Lalitpur: Godawari, 1700 m, M Brendell, NHMUK, MCZ (AntWeb 2020).

Tetramorium Mayr, 1855: 3 species

Type-species. Formica caespitum Linnaeus, 1758: 581, Type locality. Europe.

Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander, 1846)

Distribution in Nepal. Kathmandu, MG Allen leg., NHMUK (Wetterer 2009b).

Tetramorium difficile Bolton, 1977

Distribution in Nepal. Tamur River, Dobhan, K Hyatt leg., NHMUK, MCZ (Bolton 1977).

Tetramorium lanuginosum Mayr, 1870

Distribution in Nepal. Bara: Amlekhgunj, EI Coher leg., MCZ (Wetterer 2010).

Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865: 1 species

Type-species. Trichomyrmex rogeri Mayr, 1865: 19, Type locality. Sri Lanka.

Trichomyrmex destructor (Jerdon, 1851)

Distribution in Nepal. Taplejung, RL Coe leg., NHMUK (Wetterer 2009a); Chitwan: Ratnanagar, 200 m, M Granados leg., KGAC (AntWeb 2020).

PONERINAE Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835

Brachyponera Emery, 1900: 2 species

Type-species. Euponera (Brachyponera) luteipes croceicornis Emery, 1900: 315, Type locality. New Guinea.

Brachyponera chinensis (Emery, 1895)

Distribution in Nepal. Sankhuwasabha: Makalu Barun National Park, 2400 m, G Alpert et al. leg., MCZ (Guénard et al. 2018); Nepal (Nelder et al. 2006; Ying 2013); Nagarjun forest, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, 1400–1900 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Brachyponera nigrita (Emery, 1895)

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Jiri Khola, 1900 m; Kavrepalanchok, 1750 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015).

Diacamma Mayr, 1862: 1 species

Type-species. Ponera rugosa Le Guillou, 1842: 318, Type locality. Borneo.

Diacamma rugosum (Le Guillou, 1842)

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Tiwari et al. 2003).

Diacamma vagans (Smith, 1860)

Distribution in Nepal. Specific locality unknown (Tiwari et al. 1999).

Emeryopone Forel, 1912: 1 species

Type-species. Emeryopone buttelreepeni Forel, 1912: 318, Type species: Borneo.

Emeryopone franzi (Baroni Urbani, 1975)

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara e Goropani, H Franz leg., NHMB (Baroni Urbani 1975).

Harpegnathos Jerdon, 1851: 1 species

Type-species. Harpegnathus saltator Smith, 1858: 117, Type locality. Tellicherry, India.

Harpegnathos venator (Smith, 1858)

Distribution in Nepal. Tanahun: Jamune, 530 m, IP Subedi leg., S Yamane det., CDZMTU.

Leptogenys Roger, 1861: 2 species

Type-species. Leptogenys falcigera Roger, 1861: 42, Type locality. Sri Lanka.

Leptogenys diminuta (Smith, 1857)

Distribution in Nepal. Locality unknown, 830–1900 m (Thapa 2015); Tanahun: Jamune, 530 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Leptogenys sarasinorum Forel, 1900

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Tamba Koshi (Namdu), 1400 m; Kaski: Phewa lake (Pokhara), 830 m, J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970); Sindhupalchok: Bhotekoshi, 1900 m (Thapa 2015).

Odontomachus Latreille, 1804: 1 species

Type-species. Formica haematoda Linnaeus, 1758: 582, Type locality. America Meridionali.

Odontomachus monticola Emery, 1892

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: 4 km SSW Pokhara, 900 m, PS Ward leg. (AntWeb 2020); Kathmandu: Basundhara, 1340 m; Nagarjun forest, Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park, 1450 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Odontoponera Mayr, 1862: 2 species

Type-species. Ponera denticulata Smith, 1858: 90, Type locality. Singapore.

Odontoponera denticulata (Smith, 1858)

Distribution in Nepal. Tanahun: Jamune, 530 m, IP Subedi leg., S Yamane det., CDZMTU.

Odontoponera transversa (Smith, 1857)

Distribution in Nepal. Kaski: Pokhara, 800 m, D Little leg. (AntWeb 2020).

Pseudoneoponera Donisthorpe, 1943: 1 species

Type-species. Pseudoneoponera verecundae Donisthorpe, 1943: 439, Type species: Waigeu, Camp Nok, 2500 ft (= 762 m), New Guinea.

Pseudoneoponera bispinosa (Smith, 1858)

Distribution in Nepal. Tanahun: Jamune, 530 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Pseudoneoponera rufipes (Jerdon, 1851)

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Namdu, 1450 m, Jarsa, 2000 m, Kavrepalanchok, 1750 m (Collingwood 1970; Thapa 2015); Kaski: Pokhara, 840 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

PSEUDOMYRMECINAE Smith, 1952

Tetraponera Smith, 1852: 4 species

Type-species. Tetraponera atrata Smith, 1852: 44 (junior synonym of Eciton nigrum Jerdon, 1851), Type locality. Maharashtra, India.

Tetraponera allaborans (Walker, 1859)

Distribution in Nepal. Dolakha: Namdu, 1450 m (Collingwood 1970), Baglung: 18 km N Baglung, 1020 m, PS Ward leg., Kathmandu: Gokarnaban, Kathmandu, W Wittmer and C Baroni Urbani leg., PSWC (AntWeb 2020); Lalitpur: Godawari, 1450 m, Bajra Barahi, Kaski: Pokhara, 820 m, W Wittmer and C Baroni Urbani leg.; Iwa Khola u. Sablako Pass, near Taplejung, 940–1200 m, Martens and Schawaller leg. (Ward 2001).

Tetraponera binghami (Forel, 1902)

Distribution in Nepal. Bara: Amlekhgunj, 520 m, EI Coher leg., PSWC (Ward 2001, Zheng-Hui and Zheng-Qun 2004, AntWeb 2020).

Tetraponera nigra (Jerdon, 1851)

Distribution in Nepal. Bara: Amlekhgunj, 520 m, EI Coher leg. (Ward 2001).

Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon, 1851)

Distribution in Nepal. Kavrepalanchok: Cha Khola valley, 1000 m; Kaski: Pokhara, 1000 m; J Quinlan leg. (Collingwood 1970), Bagmati, Jyamira; Chitwan: Chumlingtar, JK Wetterer leg., UCDC, Janakpur, Sunkoshi river, near Khurko, L Morrison leg., PSWC, Kosi, 12 km ENE Tumlingtar, 1150 m, C Carpenter leg., Chitwan National Park, 600 m, A Hacklander leg., PSWC, Kosi, Arun valley, 610 m, L Swan leg, CASC (AntWeb 2020). Tanahun: Jamune, 530 m, IP Subedi leg., CDZMTU.

Dubious and unverified records of ants in Nepal

Thirty-seven ant species reported in AntWiki (2020) and/or AntWeb (2020) and/or antmaps.org are not substantiated by specimens, or literature records and/or are with references unverified. These species are marked as dubious and have been excluded from the main species list. We present them below with explanation of their exclusion (Table 3).

Table 3.

Dubious and unverified records of ants in Nepal.

Species Reference Explanation
Formicinae
Camponotus aethiops cachmiriensis Emery, 1925 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Camponotus buddhae Forel, 1892 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Camponotus siemsseni Forel, 1901 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Camponotus socrates Forel, 1904 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Camponotus sylvaticus basalis Smith, 1878 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Camponotus sylvaticus paradichrous Emery, 1925 AntWeb (2020) No specimen or literature records
Cataglyphis cugiai Menozzi, 1939 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Formica sentschuensis Ruzsky, 1915 AntWeb (2020) No specimen or literature records
Formica sanguinea Latreille, 1798 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Formica truncorum Fabricius, 1804 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Lepisiota rothneyi wroughtonii (Forel, 1902) AntWiki (2020) No literature records
Lepisiota sericea (Forel, 1892) antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Plagiolepis balestrierii Menozzi, 1939 AntWeb (2020) No specimen or literature records
Plagiolepis moelleri Bingham, 1903 AntWeb (2020) No specimen or literature records
Plagiolepis pontii Menozzi, 1939 AntWeb (2020) No specimen or literature records
Polyrhachis menelas Forel, 1904 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Polyrhachis striata Mayr, 1862 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Myrmicinae
Aphaenogaster cristata (Forel, 1902) antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Aphaenogaster sagei (Forel, 1902) antmaps.org (2020) Specimen record unverified
Aphaenogaster rothneyi (Forel, 1902) antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Crematogaster afghanica Pisarski, 1967 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Crematogaster buddhae Forel, 1902 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Crematogaster sagei Forel, 1903 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Crematogaster subdentata kaschgariensis Forel, 1901 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Myrmica cachmiriensis Forel, 1904 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Myrmica urbanii Radchenko & Elmes, 1998 AntWiki (2020) Reference unverified
Pheidole rogersi Forel, 1902 AntWeb (2020) Reference unverified
Pheidole templaria Forel, 1902 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Pheidole woodmasoni Forel, 1885 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Temnothorax desioi (Menozzi, 1939) antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Temnothorax pamiricus (Ruzsky, 1902) antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Temnothorax wroughtonii (Forel, 1904) antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Trichomyrmex criniceps (Mayr, 1879) antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Tetramorium elisabethae Forel, 1904 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Tetramorium nursei Bingham, 1903 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Tetramorium salvatum Forel, 1902 antmaps.org (2020) Reference unverified
Ponerinae
Diacamma rugosum sculptum (Jerdon, 1851) AntWiki (2020), AntWeb (2020) No specimen or literature records

Acknowledgements

We thank Seiki Yamane for species level identification of some specimens and Gary Alpert for constructive advice for initiating the work. We also appreciate the AntWeb (www.antweb.org), AntWiki (www.antwiki.org), AntCat (www.antcat.org), and antmaps (www.antmaps.org) teams for their valuable work. We are thankful to anonymous reviewers and the subject editor for providing insightful comments.

References

  • Agosti D, Alonso LE (2000) The ALL protocol: A standard protocol for the collection of ground-dwelling ants. In: Agosti D, Majer JD, Alonso LE, Schultz T (Eds) Ants: Standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 204–206.
  • Baroni Urbani C (1975) Contributo alla conoscenza dei generi Belonopelta Mayr e Leiopelta gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 48: 295–310.
  • Baroni Urbani C (1977a) Materiali per una revision della sottofamigli Leptanillinae Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologica Basiliensia 2: 427–488.
  • Baroni Urbani C (1977b) Ergebnisse der Bhutan-Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen Museums in Basel. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae Genus Mayriella. Entomologica Basiliensia 2: 411–414.
  • Baroni Urbani C, De Andrade ML (1994) First description of fossil Dacetini ants with a critical analysis of the current classification of the tribe (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. VI: Dacetini). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 198: 1–65.
  • Baroni Urbani C, De Andrade ML (2007) The ant tribe Dacetini: limits and constituent genera, with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 99: 1–191.
  • Bharti H, Akbar SA (2013b) Taxonomic studies on the ant genus Strumigenys Smith, 1860 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with report of two new species and five new records including a tramp species from India. Sociobiology 60(4): 387–396. https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v60i4.387-396
  • Bharti H, Guénard B, Bharti M, Ecomono EP (2016a) An updated checklist of the ants of India with their specific distributions in Indian states (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). ZooKeys 551: 1–83. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.551.6767
  • Bharti H, Gul I, Sharma YP (2012) Two new species of Stenamma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Indian Himalaya with a revised key to the Palaearctic and Oriental species. Sociobiology 59(2): 317–330. https://doi.org/10.13102/sociobiology.v59i2.593
  • Bharti H, Kumar R (2012) Lophomyrmex terraceensis, a new ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the bedoti group with a revised key. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 15: 265–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aspen.2012.01.003
  • Bharti H, Wachkoo AA, Kumar R (2017) First inventory of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Northwestern Shivalik, India. Halteres 8: 33–68.
  • Bingham CT (1903) The fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma, Hymenoptera Vol II, ants and cuckoo wasps. Taylor and Francis, London, 508 pp.
  • Bolton B (1974) A revision of the Palaeotropical arboreal ant genus Cataulacus F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 30: 1–105. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.24939
  • Bolton B (1977) The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Oriental and Indo-Australian regions, and in Australia. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology series 36(2): 67–151.
  • Bolton B (1987) A review of the Solenopsis genus-group and revision of Afrotropical Monomorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 54: 263–452.
  • Bolton B (1992) A review of the ant genus Recurvidris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a new name for Trigonogaster Forel. Psyche (Cambridge) 99: 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1155/1992/58186
  • Bolton B (2000) The ant tribe Dacetini. Memoire of the American Entomological Institute 65: 1–1028.
  • Bolton B (2007) Taxonomy of the dolichoderine ant genus Technomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) based on the worker caste. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 35(1): 1–150.
  • Bolton B (2020) An online catalog of the ants of the world. https://www.antcat.org [accessed 11 September 2020]
  • Branstetter MG (2009) The ant genus Stenamma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) redefined, with a description of a new genus Propodilobus. Zootaxa 2221: 41–57. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2221.1.3
  • Chapman JW, Capco SR (1951) Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Institute of Science and Technology, Manila, 327 pp.
  • Collingwood CA (1970) Formicidae (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) from Nepal. Khumbu Himal 3(3): 371–387.
  • De Andrade ML (1994) Untitled. Descriptions of new taxa: Rhopalothrix inopinata de Andrade n. sp.; Strumigenys nepalensis de Andrade n. sp.; Strumigenys assamensis de Andrade n. sp. In: Baroni Urbani C, De Andrade ML (Eds) First description of fossil Dacetini ants with a critical analysis of the current classification of the tribe (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. VI: Dacetini). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 198: 54–64.
  • De Andrade ML (2007) [Untitled. Strumigenys buddhista de Andrade n. sp.]. In: Baroni Urbani C, De Andrade ML (Eds) The ant tribe Dacetini: limits and constituent genera, with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 99: 159–162.
  • Dill M (2002) Taxonomy of the migrating herdsman species of the genus Dolichoderus Lund, 1831, with remarks on the systematics of other Southeast Asian Dolichoderus. In: Dill M, Williams DJ, Maschwitz U (Eds) Herdsmen ants and their mealybug partners. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main 557: 17–113.
  • DuBois MB (1998) A revision of the ant genus Stenamma in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Sociobiology 32: 193–403.
  • Emery C (1869) Enumerazione dei formicidi che rinvengonsi nei contorni di Napoli con descrizioni di specie nuove o meno conosciute. Annali dell’Accademia degli Aspiranti Naturalisti. Secunda Era 2: 1–26.
  • Emery C (1870) Studi mirmecologici. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 2: 193–201.
  • Emery C (1897) Formicidarum species novae vel minus cognitae in collectione Musaei Nationalis Hungarici quas in Nova-Guinea, colonia germanica, collegit L. Biró. Természetrajzi Füzetek 20: 571–599.
  • Emery C (1900) Formicidarum species novae vel minus cognitae in collectione Musaei Nationalis Hungarici quas in Nova-Guinea, colonia germanica, collegit L. Biró. Publicatio secunda. Természetrajzi Füzetek 23: 310–338.
  • Fabricius JC (1775) Systema entomologiae, sistens insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. Korte, Flensburgi et Lipsiae [= Flensburg and Leipzig], 832 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.36510
  • Fabricius JC (1793) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis observationibus, descriptionibus. Tome 2. CG Proft, Hafniae [= Copenhagen], 519 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.122153
  • Fittkau EJ, Klinge H (1973) On biomass and trophic structure of the Central Amazonian rain forest ecosystem. Biotropica 5(1): 2–14. https://doi.org/10.2307/2989676
  • Foerster A (1850) Eine Centurie neuer Hymenopteren. Zweite Dekade. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 7: 485–500. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.66967
  • Forel A (1890) Aenictus-Typhlatta découverte de M. Wroughton. Nouveaux genres de Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34: cii–cxiv.
  • Forel A (1894) Les Formicides de l’Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part IV. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 8: 396–420.
  • Forel A (1895) Les Formicides de l’Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part V. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 9: 453–472.
  • Forel A (1906) Les fourmis de l’Himalaya. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 42: 79–94.
  • Forel A (1912) Descriptions provisoires de genres, sous-genres, et espèces de Formicides des Indes orientales. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 20: 761–774. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.19251
  • Guénard B, Weiser MD, Gomez K, Narula N, Economo EP (2017) The Global Ant Biodiversity Informatics (GABI) database: synthesizing data on the geographic distribution of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 24: 83–89. https://doi.org/10.25849/myrmecol.news_024:083
  • Guénard B, Wetterer JK, MacGown JA (2018) Global and temporal spread of a taxonomically challenging invasive ant, Brachyponera chinensis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Florida Entomologist 101(4): 649–656. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.101.0402
  • Guérin-Méneville FE (1844) Iconographie du règne animal de G. Cuvier, ou représentation d’après nature de l’une des espèces les plus remarquables, et souvent non encore figurées, de chaque genre d’animaux. Insectes. JB Baillière, Paris, 576 pp.
  • Hölldobler B, Wilson EO (1990) The ant. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, [xii +] 732 pp.
  • Hosoishi S, Ogata K (2016) Systematics and biogeography of the ant genus Crematogaster Lund subgenus Orthocrema Santschi in Asia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 176: 547–606. https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12330
  • Jaitrong W, Ruangsittichai J (2018) Two new species of the Aenictus wroughtonii species group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Dorylinae) from Thailand. ZooKeys 775: 103–115. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.775.26893
  • Jaitrong W, Wiwatwitaya D (2015) The species of the ant genus Recurvidris Bolton, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in Thailand. Halteres 6: 104–112. https://doi.org/10.1155/1992/58186
  • Janicki J, Narula N, Ziegler M, Guénard B, Ecomono EP (2016) Visualizing and interacting with large-volume biodiversity data using client-server web-mapping applications: The design and implementation of antmaps.org. Ecological Informatics 32: 185–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2016.02.006
  • Kapoor AP (1961) Zoological results of the Indian Cho-oyu Expedition (1958) in Nepal. Records of the Indian Museum 59: 269–303.
  • LaPolla JS (2004) Acropyga of the world. Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 33(3): 1–130.
  • Latibari MH, Khormizi MZ, Moravvej G, Namaghi SH (2017) Survey on ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and their aphid partners (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Northeast and Center of Iran. Band 38, Heft 17: 369–376.
  • Latreille PA (1802) Histoire naturelle des fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Impr. Crapelet (chez T. Barrois), Paris, [xvi +] 445 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11138
  • Le Guillou EJF (1842) [“1841”] Catalogue raisonné des insectes hyménoptères recueillis dans le voyage de circumnavigation des corvettes l’Astrolabe et la Zélée. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 10: 311–324.
  • Linnaeus C (1758) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I Editio decima, reformata. L. Salvii, Holmiae [= Stockholm], 824 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542
  • Linnaeus C (1764) Museum S:ae R:ae M:tis Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Svecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque, &c. In quo animalia rariora, exotica, imprimis. Insecta & Conchilia describuntur & determinantur Prodromi instar. Salvius Holmiae [= Stockholm], 8 + 720 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.119811
  • Mani MS, Singh S (1962) Entomological survey of Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 59(1): 84–85.
  • Mayr G (1865) Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition (1865) Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte “Novara” um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. K. Gerold’s Sohn, Wien, 119 pp.
  • Mayr G (1853a) Einige neue Ameisen. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 2: 143–150.
  • Mayr G (1853b) Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Ameisen. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 3: 101–114.
  • Mayr G (1866) Diagnosen neuer und wenig gekannter Formiciden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 16: 885–908.
  • Mayr G (1872) Formicidae Borneenses collectae a J. Doria et O. Beccari in territorio Sarawak annis 1865–1867. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 2: 133–155.
  • Menozzi C (1939) Formiche dell’Himalaya e del Karakorum raccolte dalla Spedizione italiana comandata da S. A. R. il Duca di Spoleto (1929). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 78: 285–345.
  • Motschoulsky V de (1863) Essai d’un catalogue des insectes de l’île Ceylan (suite). Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 36(3): 1–153.
  • Nelder MP, Paysen ES, Zungoli PA, Benson EP (2006) Emergence of the introduced ant Pachycondyla chinensis (Formicidae: Ponerinae) as a public health threat in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology 43(5): 1094–1098. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/43.5.1094
  • Ogata K (1983) The ant genus Cerapachys F Smith of Japan, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Esakir 20: 131–137.
  • Ogata K, Okido H (2007) Revision of the ant genus Perissomyrmex with notes on the phylogeny of the tribe Myrmecinini. In: Snelling RR, Fisher BL, Ward PS (Eds) Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): homage to EO Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 352–369.
  • Olivier AG (1792) Encyclopédie méthodique. Histoire naturelle. Insectes. Tome 6. (pt. 2). Panckoucke, Paris, 369–704.
  • Radchenko AG (2003) Perissomyrmex nepalensis sp. nov. – new evidence of Old-World origins for the genus. Entomologica Basiliensia 25: 13–22.
  • Radchenko AG, Elmes GW (1998) Taxonomic revision of the ritae species-group of the genus Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Vestnik Zoologii 32(4): 3–27.
  • Radchenko AG, Elmes GW (1999) Ten new species of Myrmica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Himalaya. Vestnik Zoologii 33(3): 27–46.
  • Radchenko AG, Elmes GW (2002) First descriptions of the sexual forms of seven Himalayan Myrmica species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Vestnik Zoologii 36(5): 35–46.
  • Roger J (1861) Die Ponera-artigen Ameisen (Schluss). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 5: 1–54.
  • Saroj S, Ghosh D, Hegde V (2018) First record of Mesomorphus latiusculus Chatanay (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from India and its association with the ant Chronoxenus dalyi Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 6(3): 236–238.
  • Schödl S (1998) Taxonomic revision of Oriental Meranoplus F Smith, 1853 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 100 B: 361–394. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41767115
  • Seifert B (2003) The ant genus Cardiocondyla (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) – a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 104 B: 203–338. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41767253
  • Seifert B (2020) A taxonomic revision of the Palearctic members of the subgenus Lasius s. str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Soil Organisms 92(1): 15–86. https://doi.org/10.25674/so92iss1pp15
  • Shattuck SO, Barnett NJ (2007) Revision of the ant genus Mayriella. In: Snelling RR, Fisher BL, Ward PS (Eds) Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): homage to EO Wilson – 50 years of contributions. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80: 437–458.
  • Sheikh AH, Iqbal J, Azad Z (2017) Study of ant (Formicidae: Formicinae: Camponotus) fauna of Medical Hills Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. National Journal of Advanced Research 3(3): 44–46.
  • Smith F (1852) Descriptions of some hymenopterous insects captured in India, with notes on their economy, by Ezra T Downes, Esq., who presented them to the Honourable the East India Company. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (2)9: 44–50.
  • Smith F (1853) [“1854”] Monograph of the genus Cryptocerus, belonging to the group Cryptoceridae – family Myrmicidae – division Hymenoptera, Heterogyna. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (2)2: 213–228. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1854.tb02221.x
  • Smith F (1857) Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by AR Wallace. [part]. Journal and Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 2: 42–88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1857.tb01759.x
  • Smith F (1858) Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. British Museum, London, 216 pp.
  • Smith MR (1947) A new genus and species of ant from Guatemala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 55: 281–284. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25005235
  • Thapa VK (2000) An inventory of Nepal’s insects (Vol. III). IUCN Nepal, Kathmandu, [xi +] 475 pp.
  • Thapa VK (2015) Insect diversity in Nepal. Kathmandu, 1097 pp.
  • Tiwari RN, Kundu BG, Roychowdhary S, Ghosh SN (1999) Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. In: (Ed.) Fauna of West Bengal, Part 8. Insecta (Trichoptera, Thysanoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera and Anopleura). Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta [iv + 442 pp.], 211–294.
  • Tiwari RN, Kundu BG, Roychowdhary S, Ghosh SN (2003) Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae. In: Editor-Director (2003) State Fauna Series 9, Fauna of Sikkim (Part 4), [512 pp.], 467–506.
  • Wang M (2003) A monographic revision of the ant genus Pristomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 157: 383–542.
  • Ward PS (2001) Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of the ant genus Tetraponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Oriental and Australian regions. Invertebrate Taxonomy 15: 589–665. https://doi.org/10.1071/IT01001
  • Westwood JO (1839) An introduction to the modern classification of insects; founded on the natural habits and corresponding organisation of the different families. Volume 2. Part XI. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans, London, 193–224. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.12455
  • Wetterer JK (2008) Worldwide spread of the longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 11: 137–149.
  • Wetterer JK (2009a) Worldwide spread of the destroyer ant, Monomorium destructor (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12: 97–108.
  • Wetterer JK (2009b) Worldwide spread of the Penny Ant, Tetramorium bicarinatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 54(3): 1–20.
  • Wetterer JK (2010) Worldwide spread of the wooly ant, Tetramorium lanuginosum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 13: 81–88.
  • Wetterer JK (2011) Worldwide spread of the membraniferous dacetine ant, Strumigenys membranifera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 14: 129–135.
  • Wetterer JK (2012a) Worldwide spread of Emery’s sneaking ant, Cardiocondyla emeryi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 17: 13–20.
  • Wetterer JK (2012b) Worldwide spread of the Moorish sneaking Ant, Cardiocondyla mauritanica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 59(3): 985–997.
  • Wetterer JK (2014) Worldwide spread of the Lesser sneaking ant, Cardiocondyla minutior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The Florida Entomologist 97(2): 567–574. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.097.0231
  • Wetterer JK, Kronauer DJC, Borowiec ML (2012) Worldwide spread of Cerapachys biroi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Cerapachyinae). Myrmecological News 17: 1–4.
  • Williams JL, Lapolla JS (2018) Two new Prenolepis species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Indomalaya and Australasia, with a redescription of P. dugasi from Vietnam. Zootaxa 4441(1): 171–180. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4441.1.10
  • Wilson EO, Taylor RW (1967) Ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14: 1–109.
  • Wong MKL, Guénard B (2016) Leptanilla hypodracos sp. n., a new species of the cryptic ant genus Leptanilla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Singapore, with new distribution data and an updated key to Oriental Leptanilla species. ZooKeys 551: 129–144. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.551.6686
  • Zheng-Hui X, Cheng-Lin Z (2012) Review of the Myrmicine ant genus Perissomyrmex MR Smith, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with description of a new species from Tibet, China. Myrmecological News 17: 147–154.
  • Zheng-Hui X, Zheng-Qun C (2004) Systematic study on the ant genus Tetraponera F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 29(1): 63–76.