Data Paper
Print
Data Paper
East Weddell Sea echinoids from the JR275 expedition
expand article infoThomas Saucède, Huw Griffiths§, Camille Moreau§, Jennifer A. Jackson§, Chester Sands§, Rachel Downey|, Adam Reed, Melanie Mackenzie#, Paul Geissler§, Katrin Linse§
‡ Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France
§ British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
| Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
¶ University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
# Museum Victoria, Victoria, Australia
Open Access

Abstract

Information regarding the echinoids in this dataset is based on the Agassiz Trawl (AGT) and epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the British Antarctic Survey cruise JR275 on the RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2012. A total of 56 (1 at the South Orkneys and 55 in the Eastern Weddell Sea) Agassiz Trawl and 18 (2 at the South Orkneys and 16 in the Eastern Weddell Sea) epibenthic sledge deployments were performed at depths ranging from ~280 to ~2060 m. This presents a unique collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment of an important group of benthic invertebrates. In total 487 specimens belonging to six families, 15 genera, and 22 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between one and six. Total species richness represents 27% of the 82 echinoid species ever recorded in the Southern Ocean (David et al. 2005b, Pierrat et al. 2012, Saucède et al. 2014). The Cidaridae (sub-family Ctenocidarinae) and Schizasteridae are the two most speciose families in the dataset. They comprise seven and nine species respectively. This is illustrative of the overall pattern of echinoid diversity in the Southern Ocean where 65% of Antarctic species belong to the families Schizasteridae and Cidaridae (Pierrat et al. 2012).

Keywords

Echinoidea, Southern Ocean, Biodiversity

Project details

Project title: JR 275 RRS James Clark Ross 2012

Personnel: Huw Griffiths, Camille Moreau, Jennifer Jackson, Chester Sands, Rachel Downey, Adam Reed, Melanie Mackenzie, Paul Geissler, Katrin Linse

Funding: This study is part of the British Antarctic Survey Polar Science for Planet Earth Programme funded by the Natural Environment Research Council. Funding for T. Saucède to visit and identify material was provided by the vERSO program (Ecosystem Responses to global change: a multiscale approach in the Southern Ocean). This is contribution no. 3 to the vERSO project (www.versoproject.be), funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO, contract n°BR/132/A1/vERSO). This is a contribution to the SCAR (Scientific Committe on Antarctic Research) AntEco (State of the Antarctic Ecosystem) Programme.

Study extent description: The study area of this dataset was set in the Eastern Weddell Sea and focused on sampling the continental shelf, upper slope and over-deepened shelf basins of the Filchner Trough region of the Weddell Sea (Knust and Schröder 2014). This dataset presents species occurrences and species richness of the individual trawls (Agassiz Trawl and Epibenthic Sledge deployments). Our sampling regime was designed to investigate patterns of biodiversity, and once compared to other sources of material, biogeography and phylogeography in the benthos of this region of the Southern Ocean. The Filchner Trough region is an oceanographically interesting area that includes regions of cold Antarctic Bottom Water (ABW) production. One of the other characteristics of the area is the perennial sea ice cover and the presence of very large icebergs.

Design description: The South-Eastern Weddell Sea is a relatively under sampled area on the Antarctic continental shelf, according to a recent gap analysis carried out by Griffiths et al. (2011). EvolHist (Evolutionary History of the Polar Regions), a core project at the British Antarctic Survey, studied the South-Eastern Weddell Sea to assess the biodiversity at local and regional scales (comparable to the BIOPEARL 2006 cruise to the Scotia Sea and the BIOPEARL II 2008 cruise to the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas) and investigate the phylogenetic relationships of selected marine invertebrate taxa and their biogeography in reference to the climatological, oceanographical and geological history of the Weddell Sea. The results are used to determine of the role of Antarctica and extreme environments in general in evolutionary innovation and generation of global biodiversity. The species presence data are added to SOMBASE (South- ern Ocean Mollusc Database www.antarctica.ac.uk/sombase). SOMBASE generated a significant portion of the initial core data system upon which SCAR’s Antarctic Biodiversity Information Facility (AntaBIF, www.biodiversity.aq) was built. As AntaBIF (and its predecessor, SCAR-MarBIN) is the Antarctic Node of the international OBIS and GBIF networks, the SOMBASE data system was designed to comply with the Darwin Core standards. Regarding the dataset, the existing Data Toolkit from AntaBIF was used (http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/), following the OBIS schema (http://iobis.org/data/schema-and-metadata). The dataset was up- loaded in the ANTOBIS (Antarctic Ocean Biogeographic Information System) database (the geospatial component of SCAR-MarBIN), and the taxonomy was matched against the Register of Antarctic Marine Species, using the Taxon Match tool (http://www.scarmarbin.be/rams.php?p=match). The dataset meets the Darwin Core requirements and was designed around this data schema.

Sampling description: A single test location off the South Orkney Islands and a further six locations in the Eastern Weddell Sea at different depths ranging from 279 to 2058m have been sampled using an Agassiz Trawl (AGT) and an epibenthic sledge (EBS). Most of the Weddell Sea deployments were made along two transects, one running from south to north along the edge of the Filchner Trough and one running from west to east out of the Filchner Trough onto the shallower shelf. Two further localities in overdeepened basins close to the Brunt Ice shelf were sampled (Figure 1, Stations 33-40). At each site, three replicate Agassiz trawls (individual stations) were taken and where the substrate was suitable (not too rocky) a single EBS deployment was conducted. The JR275 cruise report is available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre (www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/10598).

Figure 1.

Sample locations for JR275 echinoid records.

This dataset represents 48 AGT and 8 EBS deployments: consisting of a single deployment at the South Orkneys at 279m; 15 at depths of ~400m; four at ~500m; 21 at ~600m; two at ~700m and four deployments at each of ~1000m, ~1500m and ~2000m deep (Figure 1, Table 1).

Sampling stations containing echinoid samples from JR275. AGT = Agassiz Trawl, EBS = Epibenthic sledge.

Station ID Gear type Start lat End lat Start long End long Min depth Max depth Date
8 AGT -60.6774 -60.6775 -44.01327 -44.0144 279.04 281.57 12/02/2012
20 AGT -77.359 -77.3576 -35.37029 -35.3642 654.34 654.35 19/02/2012
21 AGT -77.3548 -77.3529 -35.35131 -35.3423 648.18 652.8 19/02/2012
23 EBS -77.3569 -77.3579 -35.36059 -35.365 649.74 655.86 19/02/2012
25 AGT -76.3295 -76.327 -32.90046 -32.8956 778.81 781.73 20/02/2012
26 AGT -76.321 -76.3197 -32.88435 -32.8819 780.3 789.24 20/02/2012
29 AGT -76.1991 -76.1982 -31.86015 -31.8556 575.95 578.97 20/02/2012
30 AGT -76.1956 -76.1947 -31.84258 -31.8383 575.99 578.94 20/02/2012
31 AGT -76.1919 -76.191 -31.82427 -31.8197 564.11 573 20/02/2012
33 AGT -76.0231 -76.0222 -26.99542 -26.9909 605.21 610 21/02/2012
34 AGT -76.0196 -76.0187 -26.97793 -26.9735 608 613 21/02/2012
38 AGT -76.1697 -76.1685 -27.79567 -27.799 544.89 561 21/02/2012
39 AGT -76.1694 -76.1689 -27.79659 -27.798 549.28 555.26 21/02/2012
40 EBS -76.1669 -76.1657 -27.8038 -27.8073 533.05 550.82 21/02/2012
42 AGT -75.7612 -75.7621 -30.43723 -30.4413 429.41 433.85 22/02/2012
43 AGT -75.7645 -75.765 -30.45297 -30.4547 427.94 430 22/02/2012
44 AGT -75.767 -75.7674 -30.46317 -30.4648 429.39 436.8 22/02/2012
47 AGT -75.7406 -75.7418 -31.23803 -31.2413 578.94 584.88 22/02/2012
48 AGT -75.7451 -75.7462 -31.25064 -31.2538 584.83 590.75 22/02/2012
49 AGT -75.7496 -75.7508 -31.2636 -31.2668 583.36 584.94 22/02/2012
50 EBS -75.7433 -75.7459 -31.24615 -31.2535 583.34 590.45 22/02/2012
52 AGT -75.2434 -75.2447 -30.24534 -30.2472 418.73 419.21 23/02/2012
53 AGT -75.2478 -75.2491 -30.25152 -30.2533 417.39 417.78 23/02/2012
54 AGT -75.2526 -75.2539 -30.25835 -30.2602 418.7 419.11 23/02/2012
55 AGT -75.2567 -75.258 -30.26436 -30.2662 418.38 418.61 23/02/2012
58 AGT -75.2631 -75.2638 -31.12627 -31.131 604.29 607.13 23/02/2012
59 AGT -75.2658 -75.2665 -31.14481 -31.1504 607.1 610.24 23/02/2012
60 AGT -75.2686 -75.2692 -31.16355 -31.168 614.3 616.52 23/02/2012
63 AGT -75.0852 -75.0866 -32.21766 -32.2177 609.48 612.28 24/02/2012
68 AGT -75.1767 -75.1781 -31.8702 -31.869 655.78 676.11 24/02/2012
69 AGT -75.1754 -75.1768 -31.87114 -31.87 654.87 657.46 24/02/2012
70 AGT -75.1743 -75.1757 -31.87206 -31.8708 654.65 691.31 24/02/2012
75 AGT -74.37 -74.3718 -28.10797 -28.1 2052.26 2053.91 26/02/2012
76 AGT -74.3797 -74.3817 -28.06634 -28.059 2056.14 2058.19 26/02/2012
77 AGT -74.3886 -74.3904 -28.1561 -28.1482 2006.54 2011.16 26/02/2012
78 EBS -74.4047 -74.4065 -28.08486 -28.0769 2019.49 2026.16 26/02/2012
80 AGT -74.5202 -74.5175 -28.75306 -28.7512 1537.72 1545.99 28/02/2012
81 AGT -74.5084 -74.5057 -28.74527 -28.7436 1558.28 1570.08 28/02/2012
82 AGT -74.4962 -74.4931 -28.73726 -28.7352 1580.27 1595.46 28/02/2012
83 EBS -74.4853 -74.4846 -28.77472 -28.7847 1577.88 1588.23 28/02/2012
85 AGT -74.6741 -74.675 -29.42462 -29.4344 586.74 604.49 29/02/2012
86 AGT -74.6769 -74.6766 -29.45447 -29.4507 573.42 580.99 29/02/2012
88 AGT -74.6747 -74.6745 -29.43061 -29.4284 592.71 602.27 29/02/2012
89 EBS -74.6716 -74.6706 -29.39886 -29.3883 639.32 657.44 29/02/2012
91 AGT -74.7067 -74.7054 -29.50822 -29.5066 401.67 410 29/02/2012
92 AGT -74.7013 -74.7009 -29.50091 -29.5002 427.17 428.55 29/02/2012
93 AGT -74.6982 -74.6975 -29.49652 -29.4956 439.76 450.09 29/02/2012
94 EBS -74.6919 -74.6893 -29.48786 -29.4842 476.94 494.03 29/02/2012
96 AGT -74.6252 -74.6268 -29.05155 -29.0429 1018.91 1028.48 01/03/2012
97 AGT -74.6304 -74.6319 -29.0236 -29.0151 985.75 1010.63 01/03/2012
99 EBS -74.6341 -74.6357 -29.00812 -28.9996 958.98 986.19 01/03/2012
101 AGT -75.2427 -75.2437 -29.00356 -29.0072 391.66 398.3 04/03/2012
102 AGT -75.246 -75.2471 -29.01541 -29.019 392.77 396.83 04/03/2012
103 AGT -75.2495 -75.2506 -29.02708 -29.0304 390.17 392.2 04/03/2012
106 AGT -75.2389 -75.2397 -27.84859 -27.853 413.67 415.71 04/03/2012
108 AGT -75.244 -75.2448 -27.87707 -27.8816 417.56 424.41 04/03/2012

The AGT had an inner mesh size of 1 cm and a mouth width of 2 m. The EBS consisted of an epi-(below) and a supra-(above) net. Each of these nets has a mesh size of 500µm and an opening of 100×33cm. The cod end of both nets is equipped with net-buckets containing a 300µm mesh window (Brenke 2005). The AGT and EBS were trawled for 10 minutes (depending on depth, seabed type and the condition of the animals in the initial trawl) on the sea bed at a 1 knot speed. Following Brenke (2005), since the EBS epi- and supra-nets collect the same fauna, they were pooled and treated as a single sample.

Quality control description: A species name was given to each specimen when it was possible. Identifications and taxonomic accuracies are based on David et al. (2005a, 2005b), Pierrat et al. (2012), and Saucède et al. (2014). When identification was inconclusive, e.g. for small specimens at very early stages of development, only family or genus names were assigned. These specimens were referred to as gen. sp. or genus name sp. respectively and might belong to one of the species listed in the dataset (Table 2). Specimens referred to as Abatus sp. 1 belong to none of the species listed in the dataset. The specimen referred to in the dataset as Amphipneustes aff. similis is very similar in morphology to A. similis but it presents distinctive morphological characters that are not diagnostic of the aforementioned species. While included in this dataset as Amphipneustes aff. similis it is likely that this will be described as a new species after further morphological and genetic analyses.

Presence only matrix of echinoid species from JR275.

Station Number
Family Genus Species 8 20 21 23 25 26 29 30 31 33 34 38 39 40 42 43 44 47 48 49 50 52 53 54 55 58 59 60 63 68 69 70 75 76 77 78 80 81 82 83 85 86 88 89 91 92 93 94 96 97 99 101 102 103 106 108
Cidaridae Aporocidaris milleri X
Ctenocidaris gigantea X
perrieri X X
gen. sp. X X X
Notocidaris gaussensis X X X
lanceolata X
mortenseni X X
Rhynchocidaris triplopora X X X X X
Echinidae Sterechinus antarcticus X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
dentifer X X X X X
sp. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Plexechinidae Plexechinus planus X
Pourtalesiidae Pourtalesia hispida X X X
Sp. X
Schizasteridae Abatus sp. 1 X X
Amphipneustes aff. similis X
lorioli X X X X X X X
similis X X X X X
Brachysternaster chesheri X X X X X
Delopatagus brucei X
gen. sp. X X X X
Tripylaster philippii X
Tripylus abatoides X
cordatus X
Urechinidae Antrechinus nordenskjoldi X X X

This dataset presents species occurrences and species richness of the individual AGT and EBS deployments.

Taxonomic coverage

General taxonomic coverage description: The present dataset focuses on the class Echinoidea (Echinodermata). It includes six families, 15 genera, and 22 species:

Class: Echinoidea

Family: Cidaridae, Echinidae, Plexechinidae, Pourtalesiidae, Schizasteridae, Urechinidae

Genus: Aporocidaris, Ctenocidaris, Notocidaris, Rhynchocidaris, Sterechinus, Plexechinus, Pourtalesia, Abatus, Amphipneustes, Brachysternaster, Delopatagus, Tripylaster, Tripylus, Antrechinus, Cystechinus

Species: Aporocidaris milleri, Ctenocidaris gigantea, Ctenocidaris perrieri, Notocidaris gaussensis, Notocidaris lanceolata, Notocidaris mortenseni, Rhynchocidaris triplopora, Sterechinus antarcticus, Sterechinus dentifer, Plexechinus planus, Pourtalesia hispida, Abatus sp. 1, Amphipneustes aff. similis, Amphipneustes lorioli, Amphipneustes similis, Brachysternaster chesheri, Delopatagus brucei, Tripylaster philippii, Tripylus abatoides, Tripylus cordatus, Antrechinus nordenskjoldi, Cystechinus wyvillii

Spatial coverage

General spatial coverage: East Weddell Sea, Antarctica

Coordinates: 60.68°S and 77.36°S; 44.01°W and 26.78°W

Temporal coverage: February 12, 2012–March 4, 2012

Natural collections description

Parent collection identifier: British Antarctic Survey Collection name: EvolHist Weddell Sea Echinoids

Collection identifier: Saucède

Specimen preservation method: Ethanol

Methods

Method step description:

  • Agassiz trawl sampling in the Weddell Sea

  • Once on board, the samples were photographed as total catch and then hand-sorted into groups varying from Phylum to species level collections. Representatives of many taxa were photographed in detail. The wet‐mass (biomass) of the different taxa was assessed by using calibrated scales (with accuracy and resolution of 0.001 kg). Samples were fixed in 96% undenatured and precooled (at -20°C) ethanol (Linse 2008) and kept for a minimum of 48 hours in a -20°C freezer, with rotation of containers to ensure full preservation of material.

  • Epibenthic sledge sampling in the Weddell Sea

  • Once on the deck, the content of the samplers from the first deployment was immediately fixed in 96% undenatured and precooled (at -20°C) ethanol and kept for a minimum of 48 hours in a -20°C freezer.

  • The taxonomic identification was performed in the British Antarctic Survey laboratory using a stereomicroscope.

Datasets

Dataset description

Object name: BAS_JR275_Echinoidea

Character encoding: UTF-8

Format name: Darwin Core Archive format

Format version: 1.0

Distribution: http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=bas_jr275_echinoidea

Publication date of data: 27/10/2014

Language: English

Metadata language: English

Date of metadata creation: 27/10/2014

Hierarchy level: Dataset

References

  • Brenke N (2005) An epibenthic sledge for operations on marine soft bottom and bedrock. Journal of the Marine Technology Society 39(2): 10–19. doi: 10.4031/002533205787444015
  • David B, Choné T, Festeau A, Mooi R, De Ridder C (2005a) Biodiversity of Antarctic echinoids: a comprehensive and interactive database. Scientia Marina 69(2): 201–203.
  • David B, Choné T, Festeau A, Mooi R, De Ridder C (2005b) Antarctic Echinoidea. Synopses of the Antarctic benthos, Vol 10. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.
  • Knust R, Schröder M (2014) The Expedition PS82 of the Research Vessel POLARSTERN to the southern Weddell Sea in 2013/2014. Berichte zur Polar-und Meeresforschung = Reports on polar and marine research, Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 680, 155 pp.
  • Linse K, Walker LJ, Barnes DKA (2008) Biodiversity of echinoids and their epibionts around the Scotia Arc, Antarctica. Antarctic Science 20: 227–244. doi: 10.1017/S0954102008001181
  • Pierrat B, Saucède T, Festeau A, David B (2012) Antarctic, sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database. Zookeys 204: 47–52. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.204.3134
  • Saucède T, Pierrat B, David B (2014) Chapter 5.26. Echinoids. In: De Broyer C, Koubbi P, Griffiths HJ, Raymond B, Udekem d’Acoz C et al. (Eds) Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Cambridge, 213–20.