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Contributions to Chinese fauna of Torrenticolidae Piersig, 1902 (Acari, Hydrachnidia), with the description of three new species
expand article infoXin-Yao Gu, Lan Jia, Dao-Chao Jin, Jian-Jun Guo
‡ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
Open Access

Abstract

Five species of torrenticolid mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia), collected in the Anzihe and Qingliangfeng national nature reserves, R. P. China, are identified. Three species are described as new to science: Torrenticola pseudosiamis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., T. anziensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., and Monatractides sichuanensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov. The other two species, M. macrocorpis Gu & Guo, 2019, M. xiaoxiensis Gu & Guo, 2019, are newly reported from Zhejiang Province. Descriptions and illustrations of these species are included.

Keywords

China, morphology, running waters, taxonomy, torrenticolid mites, water mites

Introduction

China is rich in ecological diversity and types of water bodies, which suggests that a rich species diversity of water mites is expected in the Chinese fauna. In the number of species, the family Torrenticolidae is one of the largest groups of water mites. Until now, the total number of torrenticolid mites is about 600 worldwide, but only 38 species are known from China, including the three new species added in this paper (Gu et al. 2019a, 2020a, b, c; Gu and Guo 2019). This means that the Chinese torrenticolid mites fauna is largely unknown, and the identification of Chinese torrenticolid species will be a focus in the near future.

In this paper, five species of Torrenticolidae are identified from two national nature reserves in China, Anzihe National Nature Reserve in Sichuan Province and Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve in Zhejiang Province. Three of these species are new to science: Torrenticola pseudosiamis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., T. anziensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., and Monatractides sichuanensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov. The other two are newly reported from Zhejiang Province: M. macrocorpis Gu & Guo, 2019 and M. xiaoxiensis Gu & Guo, 2019. These five species are described and illustrated here.

Material and methods

Water mites were collected, preserved, cleaned, and mounted following the usual methods (Jin 1997; Ding et al. 2019).

The following abbreviations are used (Jin 1997; Wiles 1997; Goldschmidt 2007; Zhang 2018): aL = apical length; Ap = anal pore; bs = basal segment of chelicera; Cx-I–Cx-IV = coxae I–IV; dL = dorsal length; I-L-1–6, etc. = first leg’s segment 1–6, etc.; L = length; mL = medial length; Gf = genital field; GUGC = Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China; P-1–5 = palp segment 1–5; vL = ventral length; W = width. The chaetotaxy used follows Jin (1997): A2 = postantennal glandularia; D1D4 = dorsoglandularia 1–4; E2, E4 = epimeroglandularia 2, 4; L1L4 = lateroglandularia 1–4; O2 = postocularia; V1V4 = ventroglandularia 1–4; 4+1 = five plates: four anterior platelets and a single large dorsal plate.

All measurements of palp and legs are of the dorsal margin, given in micrometers (μm) and following Goldschmidt (2007). All the specimens examined are kept in GUGC (no. ZJ-TO-20180701–ZJ-TO-20180709, SC-TO-20160701–SC-TO-20160704).

Taxonomy

Class Arachnida Lamarck, 1801

Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909

Family Torrenticolidae Piersig, 1902

Subfamily Torrenticolinae Piersig, 1902

Genus Torrenticola Piersig, 1896

Torrenticola pseudosiamis Gu & Guo, sp. nov.

Figures 1, 2

Material examined

Holotype : ♀ (ZJ-TO-20180701), Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Lin’an, Zhejiang Province, P. R. China (30°6'44"N, 118°53'36"E, 940 m a.s.l.), collected by Xinyao Gu, 31-VII-2018. Paratype: 2 ♀♀ (ZJ-TO-20180702, ZJ-TO-20180703), same data as holotype.

Diagnosis

Idiosoma elliptical; dorsal plate 4+1; infracapitular bay U-shaped; E4 at the same level as the 6th pair of acetabula; gnathosoma with a short rostrum, the lateral view of gnathosoma regular triangle-like.

Description

Female (n = 3): Idiosoma elliptical, L 847 (774–887), W 586 (586–648), L/W ratio 1.4 (1.3–1.4). Dorsal plate 4+1 (Fig. 1A), dorsal shield L 755 (682–770), W 530 (530–585), dorsal plate L 694 (620–709), frontal platelets L 158 (152–170), W 83 (69–90), shoulder platelets L 169 (169–196), W 99 (81–99). Infracapitular bay U-shaped, depth 126 (126–150); only the tip of Cx-I exceeding to the anterior margin of idiosoma; Cx-I L 270 (230–273), mL 123 (102–123), Cx-II+III mL 33 (19–33); Gf pentagonal, L 220 (180–220), W 168 (168–192), L/W ratio 1.3 (1.1–1.3), distance between Gf and Ap 220 (156–220); E4 at the same level as the 6th pair of acetabula; Ap away from the line of primary sclerotization, on the same level of V1 and anterior to V2 (Fig. 1B). Gnathosoma (Fig. 1D): the lateral view of gnathosoma regular triangle-like; vL 231 (200–242), dL 151 (128–159), chelicera bs L 214 (202–251), claw L 41 (41–43). P-1 with one dorsal seta; P-2 with one dorsal and one ventral setae at the base of the ventral extension; P-3 with three dorsal setae and one long seta at the base of the ventral extension; P-4 with one dorsal seta in proximal half, two mediodistal setae and two ventral setae at the slight ventral extension (Fig. 1C). dL of palp segments: P-1, 27 (26–30); P-2, 68 (65–68); P-3, 41 (37–48); P-4, 62 (59–72); P-5, 20 (19–25). Legs (Fig. 2): dL of leg segments: I-L-1–6: 64 (64–74), 86 (86–87), 84 (82–92), 109 (105–123), 124 (116–124), 125 (115–125); II-L-1–6: 51 (44–51), 92 (89–116), 78 (76–86), 110 (110–132), 129 (129–149), 132 (127–142); III-L-1–6: 73 (54–73), 80 (80–108), 82 (72–86), 123 (105–123), 139 (107–139), 146 (121–146); IV-L-1–6: 126 (115–134), 119 (111–123), 118 (112–133), 169 (157–185), 169 (165–192), 167 (148–174).

Figure 1. 

Torrenticola pseudosiamis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., female A dorsal view B ventral view C palp, lateral view D infracapitulum and chelicera. Scale bars: 100 μm.

Male. Unknown.

Habitat

Streamlet.

Remarks

Due to the characteristic shape of gnathosoma and dorsal shield (i.e., gnathosoma with a short rostrum, the lateral view of gnathosoma regular triangle-like), this new species is similar to Torrenticola siamis Pešić & Smit, 2009 (Pešić and Smit 2009). However, there are obvious differences between them: (1) only the tip of Cx-I exceeding to the anterior margin of idiosoma in this new species, but the tip of Cx-I and Cx-II exceeding in T. siamis; (2) E4 at the same level as the 6th pair of acetabula in the new species, but the 4th pair in T. siamis; (3) D2 on the same level with muscle scars in the new species, but D2 anterior to muscle scars in T. siamis.

Figure 2. 

Torrenticola pseudosiamis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., female A leg-I B leg-II C leg-III D leg-IV-1–4 E leg-IV-5–6. Scale bar: 100 μm.

Etymology

The specific name is from Latin affix: “pseudo-”, which means fake or simulated; this new species is named after its similar species, T. siamis.

Distribution

China (Zhejiang).

Torrenticola anziensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov.

Figures 3, 4

Material examined

Holotype : ♀ (SC-TO-20160701), Anzihe, Chongzhou, Sichuan Province, P. R. China (30°47'43"N, 103°12'36"E, 1690 m a.s.l.), collected by Zhuhui Ding, 29-VII-2016. Paratype: 1 ♀ (SC-TO-20160702), same data as holotype.

Diagnosis

Dorsal plate 4+1; infracapitular bay U-shaped and wide; genital flaps with six pairs of setae at the margins; E4 at the same level as the 3rd pair of acetabula; V1 fused with the line of primary sclerotization; gnathosoma: rostrum long, dorsal apodemes short and sharp, ventral apodemes slender and sharp, claw short.

Description

Female (n = 2): Idiosoma elliptical, L 840 (836), W 583 (576), L/W ratio 1.4 (1.5). Dorsal plate 4+1 (Fig. 3A), dorsal shield L 680 (668), W 520 (505), dorsal plate L 617 (602), frontal platelets L 162 (158), W 78 (76), shoulder platelets L 220 (218), W 87 (89). Infracapitular bay U-shaped and wide, depth 175 (162); Cx-I L 317 (315), mL 83 (81), Cx-II+III mL 99 (89); Gf L 200 (208), W 140 (144), L/W ratio 1.4 (1.4), genital flaps with six pairs of setae at the margins; distance between Gf and Ap 123 (134); E4 at the same level as the 3rd pair of acetabula; Ap on the same line with V2, V1 fused with the line of primary sclerotization, and V1 anterior to V2 (Fig. 3B). Gnathosoma (Fig. 3D): rostrum long, dorsal apodemes short and sharp, ventral apodemes slender and sharp, claw short; vL 355 (336), dL 256 (242); chelicera bs L 378 (369), claw L 63 (58). P-1 with one long dorsal seta; P-2 with three dorsal setae and one ventral seta at the base of the ventral extension; P-3 with two dorsal setae and one long seta at the base of the ventral extension; P-4 with one mediodistal seta and two ventral setae at two ventral extensions (Fig. 3C). dL of palp segments: P-1, 42 (39); P-2, 113 (109); P-3, 67 (66); P-4, 93 (95); P-5, 18 (16). Legs (Fig. 4): dL of leg segments: I-L-1–6: 44 (39), 95 (102), 88 (85), 102 (108), 110 (116), 96 (101); II-L-1–6: 43 (45), 98 (102), 93 (94), 121 (118), 136 (129), 149 (139); III-L-1–6: 43 (45), 98 (102), 81 (85), 101 (108), 117 (115), 114 (121); IV-L-1–6: 107 (102), 118 (115), 125 (119), 161 (158), 179 (183), 166 (171).

Figure 3. 

Torrenticola anziensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., female A dorsal view B ventral view C palp, lateral view D infracapitulum and chelicera. Scale bars: 100 μm.

Male. Unknown.

Habitat

Streamlet.

Remarks

Due to the characteristic shape of gnathosoma and dorsal shield (i.e., gnathosoma with a long rostrum, dorsal and ventral apodemes sharp), this new species is similar to Torrenticola haliki Pešić & Smit, 2010 (Pešić and Smit 2010). However, there are obvious differences between them: (1) ventral projection of P-2 nose-shaped in T. haliki, but normally shaped in this new species; (2) P-4 with one long and three short setae at the base of ventral extensions and one thick mediodistal seta in T. haliki, but only with two ventral setae and one fine mediodistal seta in this new species; (3) ratio Cx-I mL/Cx-II+III mL 1.2 (male), 1.7–2.3 (female) in T. haliki, but 0.8 (female) in this new species.

Figure 4. 

Torrenticola anziensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., female A leg-I B leg-II C leg-III D leg-IV-1–4 E leg-IV-5, 6. Scale bar: 100 μm.

Etymology

This new species is named after Anzi (Anzi River), where the new species was collected.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Genus Monatractides (K. Viets, 1926)

Monatractides sichuanensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov.

Figures 5, 6

Material examined

Holotype : ♀ (SC-TO-20160703), Anzihe National Nature Reserve, Chongzhou, Sichuan Province, P. R. China (30°47'43"N, 103°12'36"E, 1690 m a.s.l.), collected by Zhuhui Ding, 29-VII-2016. Paratype: 1 ♀ (SC-TO-20160704), same data as holotype.

Diagnosis

Infracapitular bay U-shaped and wide; the tip of Cx-I with a papillary cuticular extension, E4 at the same level as the posterior margins of Gf; V1 fused with the line of primary sclerotization; D2 on the same level with muscle scars; dorsal and ventral apodemes of gnathosoma slender and sharp; dorsal seta on P-1 long.

Description

Female (n = 2): Idiosoma elliptical, L 749 (715), W 497 (469), L/W ratio 1.5 (1.5). Dorsal plate 4+1 (Fig. 5A), dorsal shield L 628 (586), W 438 (536), dorsal plate L 584 (423), frontal platelets L 118 (120), W 57 (68), shoulder platelets L 174 (157), W 80 (75). Infracapitular bay U-shaped and wide, depth 171 (163); the margins of Cx-II and Cx-III blunt and flat, the tip of Cx-I with a papillary cuticular extension, Cx-I L 292 (266), mL 123 (102), Cx-II+III mL 46 (31); Gf pentagonal, L 156 (159), W 122 (109), L/W ratio 1.3 (1.5), genital flaps with six pairs of setae at the margins; distance between Gf and Ap 222 (181); E4 at the same level as the posterior margins of Gf; V1 fused with the line of primary sclerotization, Ap at the same line with V2 (Fig. 5B). Gnathosoma (Fig. 5D) vL 182 (177), dL 177 (116); dorsal and ventral apodemes slender and sharp; claw short, chelicera bs L 159 (162), claw L 27 (22). P-1 with one long dorsal seta; P-2 with three dorsal and one ventral setae; P-3 with two long dorsal setae and one short ventral seta; P-4 with one short dorsal seta and two mediodistal setae (Fig. 5C). dL of palp segments: P-1, 21 (25); P-2, 52 (48); P-3, 34 (32); P-4, 34 (39); P-5, 17 (14). Legs (Fig. 6): dL of leg segments: I-L-1–6: 57 (46), 70 (71), 59 (62), 67 (80), 58 (72), 79 (83); II-L-1–6: 55 (61), 92 (85), 56 (60), 86 (75), 84 (92), 108 (96); III-L-1–6: 63 (51), 99 (92), 71 (69), 94 (95), 118 (112), 120 (115); IV-L-1–6: 113 (115), 97 (87), 115 (111), 138 (140), 151 (126), 144 (142).

Figure 5. 

Monatractides sichuanensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., female A dorsal view B ventral view C palp, lateral view D infracapitulum and chelicera. Scale bars: 100 μm.

Male. Unknown.

Habitat

Streamlet.

Remarks

This new species is similar to Monatractides harveyi Pešić & Smit, 2012 (Pešić and Smit 2012) in the general shape of gnathosoma, but differs in: (1) P-4 with small denticles near the insertion of the ventral setae in M. harveyi, but smooth in the new species; (2) the margins of Cx-II and Cx-III sharp in M. harveyi, but blunt and flat in the new species; (3) D2 anterior to muscle scars in M. harveyi, but D2 on the same level with muscle scars in the new species.

Figure 6. 

Monatractides sichuanensis Gu & Guo, sp. nov., female A leg-I B leg-II C leg-III D leg-IV-1–4 E leg-IV-5, 6. Scale bar: 100 μm.

Etymology

This new species is named after Sichuan Province, where it was collected.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Monatractides macrocorpis Gu & Guo, 2019

Figures 7, 8

Material examined

Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Lin’an, Zhejiang Province, P. R. China (30°6'44"N, 118°53'36"E, 940 m a.s.l.), collected by Xinyao Gu, 31-VII-2018, 1 ♀(ZJ-TO-20180704), 2 ♂♂ (ZJ-TO-20180705, ZJ-TO-20180706).

Morphology

Male (n = 1): Idiosoma L 1083, W 833, L/W ratio 1.3. Dorsal plate 4+1 (Fig. 7A) with a red colour patterns, dorsal shield L 898, W 749, dorsal plate L 804, frontal platelets L 181, W 103, shoulder platelets L 254, W 115. Infracapitular bay U-shaped, depth 206; Cx-I L 376, mL 177, Cx-II+III mL 65; Gf elongated and oval, L 246, W 188, L/W ratio 1.3; distance between Gf and Ap 206. Gnathosoma (Fig. 7D) vL 231, dL 158; dorsal apodeme blunted and ventral apodeme sharp; chelicera bs L 284, claw L 27. P-1 with one dorsal seta; P-2 with three dorsal and one ventral setae; P-3 with two dorsal and one long ventral setae; P-4 with one ventral seta on the slight ventral extension (Fig. 7C). dL of palp segments: P-1, 34; P-2, 80; P-3, 54; P-4, 74; P-5, 30. Legs: dL of leg segments: I-L-1–6: 70, 129, 114, 147, 144, 125; II-L-1–6: 70, 116, 107, 151, 188, 164; III-L-1–6: 86, 146, 108, 169, 216, 192; IV-L-1–6: 152, 159, 176, 220, 241, 224. Ejaculatory complex: L 326, aL 221.

Figure 7. 

Monatractides macrocorpis Gu & Guo, 2019, male A dorsal view B ventral view C palp, lateral view D infracapitulum and chelicera. Scale bars: 100 μm.

Female (n = 2). Body features same as the male except: Idiosoma L 1212 (1213), W 945 (949), L/W ratio 1.2 (1.3). Dorsal plate (Fig. 8A), dorsal shield L 959 (989), W 871 (845), dorsal plate L 918 (928), frontal platelets L 195 (173), W 109 (96), shoulder platelets L 269 (295), W 123 (117). Infracapitular bay depth 220 (222); Cx-I L 369 (402), mL 145 (176), Cx-II+III mL 68 (38); Gf L 256 (267), W 253 (236), L/W ratio 1.0 (1.1); distance between Gf and Ap 292 (248). Gnathosoma (Fig. 8B) vL 257 (259), dL 246 (262), claw short L 32 (29), chelicera bs L 246 (262). dL of palp segments: P-1, 32 (34); P-2, 90 (91); P-3, 51 (58); P-4, 77 (83); P-5, 21 (32). Legs: dL of leg segments: I-L-1–6: 100 (77), 114 (137), 121 (120), 153 (157), 147 (149), 127 (123); II-L-1–6: 90 (78), 134 (148), 99 (98), 154 (175), 195 (203), 168 (176); III-L-1–6: 101 (-), 161 (170), 119 (120), 177 (193), 214 (228), 217 (203); IV-L-1–6: 144 (159), 181 (160), 188 (192), 235 (243), 245 (261), 230 (220).

Figure 8. 

Monatractides macrocorpis Gu & Guo, 2019, female A dorsal view B infracapitulum and chelicera. Scale bars: 100 μm.

Habitat

Streamlet.

Remarks

The populations from Zhejiang Province fit the definition of Monatractides macrocorpis Gu & Guo, 2019 (Gu et al. 2019b). Differences with the original description are: (1) the ventral apodeme of gnathosoma, sharp in Zhejiang specimens, but blunt in Hunan specimens; (2) with a red colour pattern in Zhejiang specimens, but purple in Hunan specimens.

Distribution

China (Hunan, Zhejiang).

Monatractides xiaoxiensis Gu & Guo, 2019

Figure 9

Material examined

Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Lin’an, Zhejiang Province, P. R. China (30°6'12"N, 118°55'12"E, 440 m a.s.l.), female, collected by Xinyao Gu, 31-VII-2018, 3 ♀♀ (ZJ-TO-20180707 – ZJ-TO-20180709).

Morphology

Female (n = 3): Idiosoma elliptical, L 741 (722–762), W 473 (472–491), L/W ratio 1.6 (1.5–1.6). Dorsal plate 4+1 (Fig. 9A), dorsal shield L 631 (595–656), W 428 (413–441), dorsal plate L 567 (541–579), frontal platelets trapezoidal, L 131 (120–138), W 62 (62–74), shoulder platelets triangular, L 155 (142–155), W 76 (72–79). Infracapitular bay depth 134 (134–150); Cx-I L 269 (244–269), mL 133 (92–133), Cx-II+III mL 37 (37–42); Gf L 132 (132–151), W 116 (115–118), L/W ratio 1.1 (1.1–1.3), distance between Gf and Ap 197 (197–217); Ap away from the line of primary sclerotization, on the same line with V1 and anterior to V2 (Fig. 9B). Gnathosoma (Fig. 9C) vL 152 (152–173), dL 117 (113–121); claw short L 23 (19–23), chelicera bs L 159 (159–172). dL of palp segments: P-1, 23 (20–23); P-2, 52 (43–52); P-3, 34 (34–38); P-4, 44 (43–44); P-5, 15 (15–19). dL of leg segments: I-L-1–6: 66 (60–66), 71 (71–81), 76 (67–76), 97 (90–98), 97 (94–97), 92 (88–94); II-L-1–6: 63 (58–63), 80 (72–85), 68 (60–76), 93 (88–93), 107 (96–107), 109 (107–115); III-L-1–6: 54 (54–58), 93 (87–93), 71 (71–74), 99 (97–109), 127 (114–127), 117 (112–127); IV-L-1–6: 102 (99–114), 94 (88–108), 115 (109–118), 145 (133–154), 154 (151–156), 147 (135–149).

Figure 9. 

Monatractides xiaoxiensis Gu & Guo, 2019, female A dorsal view B ventral view C infracapitulum and chelicera. Scale bars: 100 μm.

Male. Unknown.

Habitat

Streamlet.

Remarks

The specimens match the general morphology of Monatractides xiaoxiensis Gu & Guo, 2019, a species from China (Gu et al. 2019b). Monatractides xiaoxiensis is characterized by: frontal platelets trapezoidal, shoulder platelets triangular; only the tip of Cx-I and Cx-II exceeding to the anterior margin of idiosoma; tips of Cx-I with an elongated cuticle extension; gnathosoma dorsal apodeme long with a blunt end, ventral apodeme pointed and bent towards dorsum; bs curved heavily towards ventrum (Gu et al. 2019b). According to these characters, we believe our specimens from Zhejiang Province are M. xiaoxiensis. The only differences are found in V4, which is away from the line of primary sclerotization in Zhejiang specimens, but close to the line in Hunan specimens.

Distribution

China (Hunan, Zhejiang).

Acknowledgements

Special thanks are given to Zhuhui Ding (Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, P. R. China) for the collection of the specimens. This research was supported by Guizhou Science and Guizhou Graduate Research Fund Project No. Qianjiaohe YJSCXJH [2019]105, National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 31772421, 31750002, Technology Project No. Qiankehe Pingtai Rencai [2017]5788, Xinyao Gu is supported by a scholarship from the China Scholarship Council (CSC201906670003).

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