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Research Article
New distribution records for Canadian Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), and new synonymies for Trichiusa
expand article infoJan Klimaszewski, Benoit Godin§, David Langor|, Caroline Bourdon, Seung-Il Lee#, Denise Horwood ¤
‡ Natural Resources Canada, Québec, Canada
§ unaffiliated, Whitehorse, Canada
| Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Canada
¶ Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Quebec, Canada
# University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
¤ unaffulated, Whitehorse, Canada
Open Access

Abstract

Fifty-four new Canadian provincial records of aleocharine beetles (Staphylinidae), including three new Canadian records and one new North American record, are presented. Of these, 33 are new provincial records for Saskatchewan, 14 for Alberta, two for British Columbia, three for Manitoba, two for the Northwest Territories and one for the Yukon Territory. The following are new Canadian records: Trichiusa pilosa Casey [formerly reported from Nova Scotia and Ontario as T. postica Casey], Acrotona recondita (Erichson) and the adventive Palaearctic Atheta nigra (Kraatz), which is also a new North American record. Bionomics information and new locality records are provided. The following new synonyms of Trichiusa pilosa Casey are established: T. atra Casey, T. monticola Casey, T. parviceps Casey, and T. postica Casey. The numbers of Aleocharinae remaining to be discovered in Canadian provinces and territories are discussed.

Keywords

Coleoptera, rove beetles, Staphylinidae, new distribution records, new synonymy, species richness, Canada, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory

Introduction

Staphylinidae (the rove beetles) are the most species-rich family of beetles in Canada with 1652 species and subspecies recorded, 510 of which are in the Aleocharinae (Bousquet et al. 2013). Aleocharinae are one of the poorest known subfamilies of rove beetles in Canada, although enormous strides have been made in understanding the taxonomy of this group in the last 20 years, especially in eastern Canada. Western and northern Canada (Manitoba to British Columbia, and the three territories), however, remain poorly studied except for a few localities in coastal British Columbia (Klimaszewski and Winchester 2002, McLean et al. 2009a, b) and in the Yukon (Klimaszewski et al. 2008, 2012). Thus the full distribution of many species recorded for Canada is not known because of the large gaps in sampling intensity. Nonetheless, the fauna of these provincial and territorial jurisdictions is starting to receive more attention as many studies in recent years have sampled aleocharines in a large number of habitats, particularly in Alberta. Improved sampling of Staphylinidae and especially Aleocharinae are needed to establish baseline biodiversity composition in areas of the country where ecosystems are undergoing rapid change due to resource extraction and climate change. As well, this family and subfamily are known to be exceptionally good ecological indicators and are increasingly being used to assess ecosystem resistance and resilience in the wake of development and environmental changes (Pohl et al. 2007, 2008, Langor, unpublished data). This paper contributes to improved baseline knowledge of the Aleocharinae in the Canadian west and north by providing 54 new provincial and territorial records for 51 species.

Materials and methods

All specimens in this study were dissected to examine the genital structures. Extracted genital structures were dehydrated in absolute alcohol, mounted in Canada balsam on celluloid micro-slides, and pinned with the specimens from which they originated. Images of the entire body and the genital structures were taken using an image processing system (Nikon SMZ 1500 stereoscopic microscope; Nikon Digital Camera DXM 1200F, and Adobe Photoshop software).

Morphological terminology mainly follows that used by Seevers (1978) and Klimaszewski et al. (2011). The ventral side of the median lobe of the aedeagus is considered to be the side of the bulbus containing the foramen mediale, the entrance of the ductus ejaculatorius, and the adjacent ventral side of the tubus of the median lobe with the internal sac and its structures (this part is referred to as the parameral side in some recent publications); the opposite side is referred to as the dorsal part. In the species descriptions, microsculpture refers to the surface of the upper forebody (head, pronotum and elytra).

Depository/institutional abbreviations

BGC Benoit Godin Collection, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada.

LFC Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, R. Martineau Insectarium, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

NoFC Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Arthropod Museum, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Abbreviations of Canadian provinces and territories

AB – Alberta;

BC – British Columbia;

LB – Labrador;

MB – Manitoba;

NB – New Brunswick;

NF – Newfoundland;

NS – Nova Scotia;

NT – Northwest Territories;

NU – Nunavut;

ON – Ontario;

PE – Prince Edward Island;

QC – Quebec;

SK – Saskatchewan;

YT – Yukon Territory.

USA state abbreviations follow those of the US Postal Service.

Discussion

Our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Aleocharinae in Canada has increased rapidly over the last ~25 years, faster than for other subfamilies of rove beetles and for most (perhaps all) families of beetles. This increase in knowledge is attributed to a surge in sampling of this subfamily, particularly in eastern Canada, and to a large amount of taxonomic activity (e.g., by Gusarov, Lohse, Klimaszewski, Webster). Of the 463 native species of Aleocharinae recorded in Canada by Bousquet et al. (2013), 32.8% (152 species) were described in the last 25 years. Many other previously described native species were first recorded in Canada over the last 25 years. Of the 47 non-native species in Canada, 10 (21.3%) were detected in the last 25 years (Klimaszewski et al. 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007a, 2010, 2011, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, McLean et al. 2009a). Furthermore, recent reviews or revisions have resulted in species keys for no less than 35 genera with Canadian representatives.

Despite the great improvements in taxonomic knowledge and availability of diagnostic resources (keys, illustrations, expertly identified reference material), sampling of most of the microhabitats and regions of the country is still woefully incomplete. In recent years, thanks to very active sampling in the Atlantic provinces (especially New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador) and in the Yukon Territory, coupled with large efforts to identify material and publish findings (Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2007b, 2008, 2009a, b, 2010, 2011, 2012, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Webster et al. 2009, 2012), those are undoubtedly the best-studied regions of the country in terms of the aleocharine fauna. Some small areas of Quebec, Ontario, and coastal British Columbia have also received intensive sampling coupled with expert identification of material in recent years (Klimaszewski and Winchester 2002, Brunke et al. 2012). However, the large majority of central, western and northern Canada remains poorly studied. Large numbers of aleocharines (and other staphylinids) have been collected over the last 25 years as a result of numerous trapping studies in forests, native grasslands, agricultural lands, and wetlands, especially in Alberta. This has resulted in the collection of an estimated 50,000–70,000 specimens of Aleocharinae, especially in epigaeic and saproxylic habitats of forests, throughout much of the province. The vast majority of these specimens have not been prepared or identified. The identification of a few specimens from one small study in northwestern Alberta resulted in the 14 new provincial records reported herein. Similarly, dozens of other sites have been subjected to intensive insect trapping, especially in British Columbia, Quebec and northern Canada, resulting in collection of tens of thousands of aleocharine specimens, the vast majority of which remain undetermined. Virtually every insect collection in the country, and many in other countries, have hundreds to many thousands of undetermined aleocharine specimens. Thus, even modest efforts at determination are sure to reveal new provincial, territorial, national and North American records, and undescribed species. Thus it is not surprising nor unusual that examination of a relatively small number of specimens from a few sites in Saskatchewan resulted in 33 new provincial records, including two new Canadian records and one new North American record. This sampling effort more than doubled the previously known species for the province, now numbering 53 species (Table 1).

Species of Aleocharinae recorded from SK and their provincial and territorial distribution within Canada and new records of species from AB, BC, MB and YT. Provinces and territories in bold denote new records given in the present publication. Species marked with (†) indicate adventive species and species marked with (*) are Holarctic.

Tribe ALEOCHARINI
Aleochara assiniboin Klimaszewski BC, MB, ON, SK, YT
Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal† AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC,SK
Aleochara bimaculata Gravenhorst AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK, NT
Aleochara gracilicornis Bernhauer BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK
Aleochara lacertina Sharp AB, BC, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK
Aleochara lata Gravenhorst† BC, MB, ON, QC, SK, YT
Aleochara sekanai Klimaszewski AB, LB, MB, NB, NT, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK
Aleochara tahoensis Casey AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, SK, YT
Aleochara verna Say AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK
Tinotus morion (Gravenhorst) † AB, BC, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK; USA: CT, NV
Tribe ATHETINI
Acrotona recondita (Erichson) new country record SK; USA: AR, CA, NH, NV, PA
Aloconota sulcifrons (Stephens) † MB, NB, NF, ON, QC; USA: AL, IL, IN, KY, MO, NH, NY, TN, VA, WV
Atheta celata (Erichson) * BC, NB, NF, NS, QC, SK; USA: AK
Atheta cryptica (Lohse, 1990) BC, NF, QC, YT
Atheta dadopora C.G. Thomson * AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, SK, YT; USA: AK, NY, PA, RI
Atheta fanatica Casey AB, BC, LB, NB, NS, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, NV
Atheta graminicola (Gravenhorst) * AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, OR
Atheta klagesi Bernhauer AB, BC, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT; USA: IA, ME, MN, NJ, NY, PA
Atheta longicornis (Gravenhorst) † BC, NB, NF, NS, QC, SK; USA: CA, MN
Atheta nigra (Kraatz) † new North American record SK
Atheta platonoffi Brundin* AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK
Atheta prudhoensis (Lohse) BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, VT
Atheta pseudosubtilis Klimaszewski & Langor AB, LB, NB, NF, QC
Atheta ventricosa Bernhauer AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, DC, NC, NJ, NY, PA, VT
Boreophilia davidgei Klimaszewski & Godin AB, YT
Boreophilia islandica (Kraatz)* AB, NF, NT, NU, YT; USA: AK; Palaearctic: Europe, Asia (Holarctic species)
Boreostiba parvipennis (Bernhauer) AB, LB, NF, NT, QC, YT; USA: AK, NH
Dinaraea pacei Klimaszewski & Langor AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, QC, YT; USA: AK
Dinaraea worki Klimaszewski & Jacobs AB, QC
Liogluta aloconoides Lohse AB, LB, NF, NS, YT
Lypoglossa franclemonti Hoebeke AB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: NY, VT
Philhygra botanicarum (Muona) * BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, SK, YT
Philhygra clemens (Casey) MB, NB, NS, ON, QC, YT; USA: WI
Philhygra jarmilae Klimaszewski & Langor NB, NF, ON, SK, YT
Philhygra ripicoloides Lohse NF, NT, SK, YT
Philhygra rostrifera Lohse LB, NT, SK, YT; USA: AK
Philhygra sinuipennis Klimaszewski & Langor NB, LB, NF, SK, YT
Philhygra terrestris Klimaszewski & Godin SK, YT
Schistoglossa campbelli Klimaszewski AB, BC
Schistoglossa carexiana Klimaszewski BC, SK?
Schistoglossa hampshirensis Klimaszewski AB, NB, QC; USA: NH
Seeversiella globicollis (Bernhauer) AB, BC, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK; USA: AZ, CO, ID, MN, MT, NH, SD, WI; Mexico; Guatemala
Trichiusa pilosa Casey new country record under this name AB, BC, NS, ON; USA: ID, IN, KS, OH, RI
Tribe FALAGRINI
Falagria dissecta Erichson AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, ON, QC; across USA
Tribe GYMNUSINI
Gymnusa campbelli Klimaszewski MB, NB, NF, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK
Tribe HOMALOTINI
Gyrophaena criddlei Casey LB, MB, NB, ON, SK, YT
Gyrophaena insolens Casey BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, ON, SK; USA: MI
Gyrophaena uteana Casey AB, BC, NB, ON, QC, SK; USA: CA, CO, UT
Homalota plana (Gyllenhal) † AB, NB, NF, NS; USA: AK; Palaearctic: Europe, Asia
Tribe LOMECHUSINI
Xenodusa reflexa (Walker) AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, QC, ON, SK
Tribe MYLLAENINI
Myllaena arcana Casey AB, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK; USA: AL, FL, IA, IL, MA, NH, NJ; Mexico
Mylaena insomnis Casey AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, ID, MA, MN, WI
Tribe OXYPODINI
Cratarea suturalis (Mannerheim) † BC, LB, NB, NS, ON, SK; USA: IL, MA, MO, PA, SC, VA, VT; Palaearctic region
Devia prospera (Erichson) * AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NT, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK, CO, MI, MN, NM, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY; Palaearctic: Europe, Asia
Gnypeta caerula (C.R. Sahlberg) * AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK
Gnypeta carbonaria (Mannerheim) AB, MB, NB, NF, NT, ON, QC, SK; USA: AK
Gnypeta sellmani Brundin LB, MB, NF, NT, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK
Ocyusa canadensis Lohse NB, NF, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK
Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey) AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, NH
Oxypoda hiemalis Casey AB, LB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, QC; USA: AK
Oxypoda lacustris Casey AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK
Oxypoda orbicollis Casey AB, LB, NB, NS, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: WI
Oxypoda pseudolacustris Klimaszewski AB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK
Tachyusa obsoleta Casey BC, NB, SK
Tribe PLACUSINI
Placusa incompleta Sjöberg † AB, BC, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC; USA: WA; Palaearctic: Europe
Placusa pseudosuecica Klimaszewski AB, BC, ON, QC
Placusa tachyporoides (Waltl) AB, BC, NB, NS, ON, QC; Palaearctic: Europe
Number of species: 67 (33 new records for SK, 14 for AB, 2 for BC, 3 for MB, 2 for NT, 1 for YT). 51 species representing 54 new provincial records. 7 adventive and 4 Holarctic species

Estimating the expected number of species of aleocharines in Canada is challenging. One way to do this is to extrapolate based on the species richness patterns for the family Carabidae (ground beetles) that is very well known and surveyed throughout most of Canada. This family frequently co-occurs with aleocharines, especially in epigaeic and saproxylic habitats. The jurisdictions where the aleocharine fauna is best known are Yukon Territory, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador. For Carabidae, the fauna of these three jurisdictions represent 20.5%, 34.3%, and 19.5% of the total number (972) of carabid species/subspecies in Canada (Bousquet et al. 2013). If it is assumed that the known aleocharine fauna of each of these jurisdictions represents a similar percent of the total Canadian fauna, then an extrapolation based on the currently known fauna of Yukon, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador estimates 630, 601 and 890 species in the Canadian fauna, respectively. It is likely that the actual number falls somewhere in the middle of this range. Thus, it is reasonable to use the average of these three estimates, 707, as the expected species richness for the Canadian fauna, meaning that at least 200 more aleocharine species are expected to be found in Canada. Likely a large proportion of these will be found in British Columbia and southern Ontario and Quebec.

The expected species richness of aleocharines for each jurisdiction can also be estimated using the proportion of the total Canadian carabid fauna in each territory and province and multiplying that against the expected total Canadian aleocharine species richness (707) (Table 2). By comparing this estimated species richness to the actual one (Bousquet et al. 2013), the percent of each jurisdictional fauna documented to date can be calculated. In terms of the percent of fauna documented at the time Bousquet et al. (2013) was published, the most poorly known jurisdictions were Saskatchewan (11%) and Prince Edward Island (19%), followed by Manitoba, Alberta, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia (Table 2). With the 33 new records provided for Saskatchewan in this paper, the percent of expected fauna documented has now risen to 24%. In terms of the expected number of species remaining to be documented, the three prairie provinces and British Columbia each have about 200 species that are yet to be documented, and Ontario and Quebec each have about 150 species to be discovered. Despite the enormous advances in documenting Aleocharinae diversity in Canada over the last 2-3 decades, clearly much remains to be done.

Number of aleocharine species in Canada and projection of yet undiscovered species per province and territory.

Provinces and territories
YK NT NU BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL Total
Aleocharinae species richness (Bousquet et al. 2013) 129 55 14 175 89 27 73 228 192 206 124 24 174 510
Proportion of total fauna in each jurisdiction based on carabid data (Bousquet et al. 2013) 0.205 0.223 0.035 0.519 0.428 0.359 0.387 0.547 0.493 0.343 0.300 0.179 0.195
Expected aleocharine species richness extrapolated from carabid diversity data 145 158 25 367 303 254 274 387 348 242 212 126 174 707
Percent of fauna so far documented 89% 35% 56% 48% 29% 11% 27% 59% 55% 85% 58% 19% <100% 72%
Number of species awaiting discovery 16 103 11 192 214 227 201 159 156 36 88 102 >0 197

New records

ALEOCHARINI Fleming

Aleochara (s. str.) sekanai Klimaszewski

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Aleochara (s. str.) sekanai

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: LB, MB, NB, NT, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013(LFC)1 female
References Klimaszewski 1984, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one female was captured on a sandy beach. In Labrador, adults were collected in carrion traps and flight intercept traps in spruce-moss forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were captured from animal carcasses and some from Carex and moss near a lake (Klimaszewski 1984). The adults were collected from May to August.

Tinotus morion Gravenhorst

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Tinotus morion

Origin Palaearctic, adventive in North America
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, NB, NF, ON, QC, SK; USA: CT, NV
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Maple Creek, horse manure, 49.9037°, -109.5909°, 764 m, 2.IX.2012(BGC)1 male
References Klimaszewski et al. 2002, 2005, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured in horse manure. Elsewhere, adults were collected from decaying organic matter, fungi, animal droppings, human feces, and carrion (Klimaszewski et al. 2002). Larvae are parasitic on fly pupae (Klimaszewski et al. 2002). The adults were collected from June to September.

ATHETINI Casey

Acrotona recondita (Erichson)

Figs 1–8

LECTOTYPE (male): Homalota recondita Erichson; USA: Pennsylv[ania], Zimm[erman] [on green rectangular card]; # 5472; Typus; recondita Er.; Lectotypus, male, Homalota recondita Erichson, V.I. Gusarov des. (not published); our lectotype designation label as H. recondita; Acrotona recondita (Er.) V.I. Gusarov 2002 (ZMB) studied. PARALECTOTYPES: labelled as the lectotype, our paralectotype designation label (ZMB) 1 male, 2 females, 1 sex undetermined, specimen partially damaged, studied.

Arisota apacheella Casey 1910: 135. Synonymized by Moore and Legner 1975: 371.

Arisota insueta Casey 1910: 134. Synonymized by Moore and Legner 1975: 371.

Arisota pomonensis Casey 1910: 135. Synonymized by Moore and Legner 1975: 371.

Arisota speculifer Casey 1910: 135. Synonymized by Moore and Legner 1975: 371.

Arisota tetricula Casey 1910: 134. Synonymized by Moore and Legner 1975: 371.

Arisota umbrina Casey 1910: 136. Synonymized by Moore and Legner 1975: 371.

Diagnosis

Body narrowly subparallel (Fig. 1), length 1.7–1.8 mm, dark brown with two large reddish-brown spots on posterior sutural part of elytra and lighter colour tarsi (Fig. 1); head, pronotum and elytra coarsely and sparsely punctate, punctures large; pubescence sparse; integument strongly glossy; pronotum transverse, slightly narrower than elytra, pubescence directed laterad from median line; elytra at suture about as long as pronotum; abdomen subparallel. MALE. Median lobe of aedeagus with oval bulbus and narrowly elongate and rounded tubus in dorsal view (Fig. 3), in lateral view tubus slightly arcuate basally and straight apically (Fig. 2); internal sac structures not pronounced; tergite VIII truncate apically (Fig. 4); sternite VIII slightly emarginated at apex and with broad distance between base of disc and antecostal suture (Fig. 5). FEMALE. Tergite VIII truncate apically (Fig. 7); sternite VIII broadly arcuate apically (Fig. 8); spermatheca with narrowly elongate club-shaped capsule angularly connected to narrow and long stem, together forming L-shaped structure (Fig. 6).

Figures 1–8.

Acrotona recondita (Casey): 1 habitus in dorsal view 2 median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view, and 3 in dorsal view 4 male tergite VIII 5 male sternite VIII 6 spermatheca in lateral view 7 female tergite VIII 8 female sternite VIII; 1, 6–8 based on female from Saskatchewan 2–5 based on male from Pennsylvania.

Distribution

Distribution of Acrotona recondita

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: first record for Canada and SK; USA: AR, CA, NH, NV, NY, PA
New records New provincial record; Saskatchewan: Maple Creek, horse manure, 49.9037°, -109.5909°, 764 m, 2.IX.2012(BGC)1 female
References Erichson 1839, Bland 1865, Casey 1910, Moore and Legner 1975

Natural history

The single female in Saskatchewan was captured in horse manure.

Remarks

This species was originally described by Erichson (1839) as Homalota recondita, from Pennsylvania. It clearly does not belong to Homalota and was subsequently listed by Moore and Legner (1975) as belonging to the subgenus Dimetrota of Atheta. Gusarov, V.I. identified types of H. recondita as Acrotona. The inclusion of this species in Acrotona needs confirmation because it has scarcly visible minute part of pronotal hypomeron visible in lateral view.

Aloconota sulcifrons (Stephens)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Aloconota sulcifrons

Origin Palaearctic, adventive in North America
Distribution Canada: MB, NB, NF, ON, QC,; USA: AL, IL, IN, KY, MO, NH, NY, TN, VA, WV
New records New provincial record: Manitoba, Winnipeg, Whittier Park, Red River bank dry litter, 49.8968, -97.1155, 226 m, 21.X.2009(BGC)1 female
References Klimaszewski and Peck 1986 [under A. insecta], Gusarov 2003a, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one female was captured in dry litter on the banks of the Red River. In Newfoundland, adults were collected in mixedwood forest litter, in litter in riparian zones along forested streams, a sandy lakeshore and a marsh. Elsewhere, adults were recorded from organic debris, fungi and carrion, and often found in caves in the USA (Klimaszewski and Peck 1986, Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected from June to October.

Atheta (Datomicra) celata (Erichson)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Datomicra) celata

Origin Probably Holarctic
Distribution Canada: BC, NB, NL, NS, QC, SK; USA: AK (as D. wrangleri Casey)
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 2 males, 1 female: Meadow Lake, wet spruce litter, 54.4144°, -108.8897°, 486 m, 7.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 1 male, 1 female
References Casey 1910, Benick and Lohse 1974, Majka et al. 2006, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were captured on a sandy beach and in wet spruce litter. In Newfoundland, one specimen was collected in a carrion-baited pitfall trap in a forest (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In Nova Scotia, adults were collected in nests of boreal and saw-whet owls (Klimaszewski and Majka 2007). The adults were collected in July and August.

Atheta (Datomicra) dadopora Thomson

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011; for synonyms, see Gusarov 2003a)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Datomicra) dadopora

Origin Probably Holarctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT,; USA: AK, NY, PA, RI
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: Meadow Lake, wet spruce litter, 54.4144°, -108.8897°, 486 m, 7.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 1 male, 1 female; Prince Albert, poplar/spruce litter, 53.9665°, -106.0652°, 538 m, 4.VI.2013(BGC)1 male; British Columbia: Liard River, bison scats, 59.4288°, -126.1157°, 468 m, 10.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 1 female, 1 male
References Gusarov 2003a, Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

This species is strongly associated with forests. The habitats of adults include bison faeces in British Columbia and wet spruce litter and poplar-spruce litter in Saskatchewan. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using carrion traps and flight intercept traps in various mixedwood and coniferous forest types (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Some specimens were found in rotting mushrooms in forests and under the bark of decaying spruce logs (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere in North America it was collected from fungi and in pitfall traps in forests. The adults were collected from June to August.

Atheta (Datomicra) nigra (Kraatz)

Figs 9–15

Diagnosis

Body narrowly elongate (Fig. 9), length 1.8–2.3 mm, dark brown to black, legs with at least tarsi reddish-brown; head, pronotum and elytra finely and densely punctate, punctures small; pubescence dense; integument strongly glossy; pronotum transverse, slightly narrower than elytra, with median line of disc well defined, pubescence directed laterad from median line; elytra at suture slightly longer than pronotum; abdomen subparallel. MALE. Median lobe of aedeagus with oval bulbus and narrowly elongate and pointed tubus in ventral view (Fig. 11), in lateral view tubus slightly sinuate and slightly pointed ventrally at apex (Fig. 10); internal sac structures not pronounced; tergite VIII with four small dents apically (Fig. 12); sternite VIII broadly rounded apically. FEMALE. Tergite VIII truncate and slightly concave apically (Fig. 14); sternite VIII broadly arcuate apically with shallow apical emargination (Fig. 15); spermatheca with narrowly elongate and angularly bent capsule bearing large and long apical invagination, stem narrow, and with a single posterior coil bearing swollen apical part (Fig. 13).

Figures 9–15.

Atheta (Datomicra) nigra (Kraatz): 9 habitus in dorsal view 10 median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view, and 11 in ventral view 12 apical part of male abdomen with visible 4 dents on apical margin of male tergite VIII 13 spermatheca 14 female tergite VIII 15 female sternite VIII; 9, 13–15 based on a female from Saskatchewan 10, 11 after Benick and Lohse (1974) 12 based on a male from Germany.

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Datomicra) nigra

Origin Palaearctic, adventive in North America
Distribution First record for North America, Canada and SK; USA unrecorded
New records New country and provincial record: Saskatchewan: Maple Creek, horse manure, 49.9037°, -109.5909°, 764 m, 2.IX.2012(LFC)1 female
References Kraatz 1856, Benick and Lohse 1974, Smetana 2004, Klimaszewski and Majka 2007

Natural history

The single female in Saskatchewan was captured in horse manure in September.

Remarks

This species is similar to our native Atheta (D.) acadiensis Klimaszewski & Majka (2007) described from Nova Scotia but it is readily distinguishable by the morphology of genital structures. For illustrations of A. acadiensis, see Klimaszewski and Majka (2007).

Atheta (Bessobia) cryptica (Lohse)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Bessobia) cryptica

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: BC, NF, QC, YT
New records New provincial record: British Columbia, Summit Lake, willow/aspen litter, 58.6616°, -124.5215°, 1238 m, 10.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 2 males, 2 females
References Lohse et al. 1990, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2008, 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In British Columbia, adults were captured in willow-aspen litter. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using pitfall traps in fir forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In Yukon Territory, adults were collected from sifted willow litter (Salix sp.) (Klimaszewski et al. 2008). The adults were collected from May to July.

Atheta (Dimetrota) fanatica Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Dimetrota) fanatica

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC [as A. fanatica], LB, NB, NS, QC [as A. irrita], SK; USA: AK, NV [as A. irrita]; likely transcontinental in Canada
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: La Ronge, wet spruce litter, 55.118°, -105.2457°, 366 m, 6.VI.2013(BGC)1 female; Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, 56.68°, -118.63°, EMEND compartment 908, white spruce log in early decay stage, 12.VI.2012 (NoFC) 1 male
References Casey 1910, 1911, Moore and Legner 1975, Campbell and Davies 1991, Majka et al. 2006, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, a female was captured in wet spruce litter, and one Newfoundland specimen was captured using a carrion-baited pitfall trap in a spruce/moss forest (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In Alberta, one male was captured in an early decay stage of a white spruce log in spruce-aspen mixed forest. Elsewhere, adults were collected in the nests of several owl species, in maple forest, in oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.), and in organic material on standing trees (Majka et al. 2006, Webster et al. 2009). The adults were collected from June to August.

Atheta (Atheta) graminicola (Gravenhorst)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Atheta) graminicola

Origin Holarctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AL, OR; Palaearctic: Europe, Asia
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 1 male, 1 female
References Lohse and Smetana 1985, Lohse et al. 1990 [as A. granulata Mannerheim], Gusarov 2003a, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were captured on a sandy beach. In Newfoundland, some adults were collected using a flight intercept trap in a mixed forest (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults occur in forest leaf litter, at edges of streams and pools, in moss and in drift material (Lohse et al. 1990, Webster et al. 2009). The adults were collected from April to June.

Atheta (Pseudota) klagesi Bernhauer

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Pseudota) klagesi

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, NB, NF, NS, PE, QC, ON, SK, YT; USA: IA, ME, MN, NJ, NY, PA
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, near pond, riparian, 49.6704°, -109.5005°, 1189 m, 2.IX.2012(BGC)1 male
References Gusarov 2003a, Klimaszewski et al. 2007b, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, 2010, Webster et al. 2009, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured from the riparian zone of a pond. In Newfoundland, most adults were collected in forests of various types (deciduous, coniferous, mixedwood, riparian) using carrion-baited pitfall traps and flight intercept traps, as well as on coastal barrens using pitfall traps and on rotting mushrooms (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected on gilled, polypore and coral fungi, in compost and other organic debris, and in rotten logs, and the usual habitat is forest, e.g., hardwoods, eastern white cedar swamps, red spruce/yellow birch, hemlock, mixedwood (Klimaszewski and Peck 1986, Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2007b, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010). The adults were collected from April to August.

Atheta (Chaetida) longicornis (Gravenhorst)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Chaetida) longicornis

Origin Palaearctic; adventive in North America
Distribution Canada: NB, NF, NS, QC, SK; USA: CA, MN; Palaearctic: Europe, North Africa, Asia, and Oriental region
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Maple Creek, horse manure, 49.9037°, -109.5909°, 764 m, 2.IX.2012 (BGC, LFC) 2 males, 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2007a, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Michaud et al. 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, specimens were captured in horse manure. Elsewhere, adults are usually associated with cow dung, carrion, compost, rotting mushrooms, and other rotting organic substrates (Klimaszewski et al. 2007a, Webster et al. 2009, Michaud et al. 2010). The adults were collected from May to October.

Atheta (Microdota) platonoffi Brundin

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Microdota) platonoffi

Origin Holarctic
Distribution Canada: AB, LB, NB, NF, NS, SK; USA: AK; Palaearctic: northern Europe.
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, ferns and scat, 53.987, -106.2802, 532 m (BGC) 1 female; Meadow Lake, wet spruce litter, 54.4144, -108.8897, 486 m, 7.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 2 males, 2 females
References Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were found on ferns and scat, and in wet spruce litter. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using carrion-baited pitfall traps and flight intercept traps in various mixedwood and coniferous forest types (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In New Brunswick, adults were captured from litter in a red spruce forest (Klimaszewski et al. 2005). The adults were collected from June to August.

Atheta (Dimetrota) prudhoensis (Lohse)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Dimetrota) prudhoensis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: LB, NB, NF, NS, QC, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK, VT
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Maple Creek, horse manure, 49.9037°, -109.5909°, 764 m, 2.IX.2012(BGC)1 female
References Lohse et al. 1990, Gusarov 2003a, Klimaszewski et al. 2007a, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, 2010, Webster et al. 2009, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were found in horse manure. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using carrion-baited pitfall traps and flight intercept traps in conifer-dominated forests, including upland and riparian habitats (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected from gilled mushrooms, compost, and leaf litter in various forest types, e.g., birch, maple, oak, hemlock mixed forests and spruce forest (Lohse et al. 1990, Klimaszewski et al. 2007a, Webster et al. 2009). The adults were collected from June to September.

Atheta (Microdota) pseudosubtilis Klimaszewski & Langor

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Microdota) pseudosubtilis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, LB, NB, NF, QC
New records New provincial record: Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, Blk C31, 5.93 ha aggregated retention of white spruce, 56.68°, -118.64°, 21.VI.2011 (NoFC) 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, one female was found in a white spruce dominated aggregated retention patch (5.93 ha) surrounded by 10-year-old regenerating coniferous trees using a window trap attached to the trunk of white spruce snag. Elsewhere, adults were collected from unbaited and baited pitfall traps and flight intercept traps in various coniferous and mixedwood forest types (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected from June to August.

Atheta (Alaobia) ventricosa Bernhauer

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Atheta (Alaobia) ventricosa

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK, DC, NC, NJ, NY, PA, VT
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, near pond, riparian, 49.6704°, -109.5005°, 1189 m, 2.IX.2012(BGC)1 male
References Gusarov 2003a, Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2008, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured in the riparian zone of a pond. In Newfoundland, adults were collected in unbaited and carrion-baited pitfall traps and flight intercept traps in various coniferous and mixedwood forest types (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were found in coniferous forests and in organic litter in mixed forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2005, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008).The adults were collected from May to October.

Boreophilia davidgei Klimaszewski & Godin

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2012)

Distribution

Distribution of Boreophilia davidgei

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, YT
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, Blk C14, 2.93 ha aggregated retention, white spruce girdled in 2010, 56.712°, -118.779°, 13.IX.2011 (NoFC) 1 female; Block C14, 1.43 ha aggregated retention, white spruce snag, 56.7103°, -118.7786°, 21.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; Block C31, 1.71 ha aggregated retention, white spruce snag, 56.688°, -118.645°, 20.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; Block C31, white spruce intact forest, white spruce snag, 56.682°, -118.636°, 15.VIII.2010 (NoFC) 1 male; EMEND compartment 896, white spruce snag, 56.7571°, -118.3981°, 810.9 m, 10.VII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 919, regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux), 56.7964°, -118.3607°, 715 m, 18.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, adults were collected using window traps installed on the trunk of a recently girdled white spruce tree and on snags. The adults were found in white spruce dominated aggregated retention patches (> 1.43 ha) surrounded by 10-year-old coniferous regenerating matrix, small aggregated retention patch (0.20 ha) surrounded by 20% dispersed retention, 10-year-old regenerating aspen stand, and intact white spuce forest. In Yukon Territory, adults were collected using pitfall traps and sifting organic litters in various coniferous and mixedwood forest types (Klimaszewski et al. 2012). The adults were collected from May to September.

Boreophilia islandica (Kraatz)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Boreophilia islandica

Origin Holarctic
Distribution Canada: AB, NF, NT, NU, YT; USA: AK; Palaearctic: Europe, Asia
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 90 km NW of Peace River, EMEND compartment 919, white spruce log in intermediate decay stage, 56.7968°, -118.3603°, 715 m, 18.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 892, regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux), 56.7506°, -118.3994°, 781.1 m, 18.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female
References Lohse et al. 1990, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, one female was collected in June in an aggregated retention patch (0.46 ha) surrounded by 20% dispersed retention of a white spruce dominated stand, using an emergence trap attached to the trunk of intermediate decay stage of white spruce log. The other female was captured in 10-year-old regenerating trembling aspen, using a window trap. This is the first habitat record of the species.

Boreostiba parvipennis (Bernhauer)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Boreostiba parvipennis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, LB, NF, NT, QC, YT; USA: AK, NH
New records New provincial records: Northwest Territories: 27 km west of Yellowknife, aspen, 62.522°, -114.8859°, 171 m, 1.V.2009 (BGC, LFC) 1 male 1 female; 32 km west of Yellowknife, birch/spruce, 62.531°, -114.9581°, 168 m, 3.VI.2009(LFC)1 female
References Lohse et al. 1990 [as B. hudsonica], Gusarov 2003a, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2008, 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In the Northwest Territories, adults were found in aspen and birch-spruce litter. In Newfoundland, adults were collected mostly using pitfall traps in fir and spruce forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). One specimen was found in a rotting mushroom and another under detritus on a sandy beach (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected from May to August.

Dinaraea pacei Klimaszewski & Langor

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Dinaraea pacei

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, QC, YT; USA: AK
New records New provincial record: Yukon Territory, EMAN, Fireweed Dr., Lindgren 2 weeks; white spruce, 60.6014°, -134.9387°, 772 m, 12.VI.2013(BGC)1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2011, 2013, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

One female was captured in the Yukon using a Lindgren funnel trap in a white spruce stand. Adults in Newfoundland and Labrador were collected using pitfall traps and flight intercept traps in various coniferous forest types, and one specimen was collected under the bark of a dead red pine (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In British Columbia, adults were caught in emergence traps attached to the trunks of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. latifolia Engelm.) infested by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (Langor, unpublished). In New Brunswick, adults were found: under the bark of large fallen spruce in an old-growth eastern white cedar swamp; under tight bark of American elm; in a silver maple forest; in fleshy polypore fungi at the base of a dead standing Populus sp. in a wet alder swamp; in a group of Pholiota sp. at the base of a dead Populus sp. in a mixed forest. In Quebec, adults were found in dead black spruce in a black spruce forest. Adults were also captured in Lindgren funnel traps deployed in an old-growth white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and balsam fir forest, an old mixed forest with red and white spruce, red and white pine (Pinus strobus L.), and a rich Appalachian hardwood forest with some conifers (Klimaszewski et al. 2013). The adults were collected from March to September.

Dinaraea worki Klimaszewski & Jacobs

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2013)

Distribution

Distribution of Dinaraea worki

Origin Holarctic
Distribution Canada: AB, QC
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 90 km NW of Peace River, EMEND compartment 922, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.7971°, -118.3750°, 17.IX.2009 (NoFC) female; EMEND compartment 918, white spruce log in intermediate decay stage, 56.792°, -118.364°, 757.8 m, 18.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 932, white spruce snag, 56.8068°, -118.3290°, 17.VII.2009 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 911, white spruce log in early decay stage, 4.VIII.2011 (NoFC) 1 female
Reference Klimaszewski et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, adults were collected using window traps attached to a girdled white spruce tree and a snag, and were reared from white spruce logs in early and intermediate decay stages. In Quebec, adults were found in dead and dying black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. (BSP)) in black spruce dominated stands. The adults were collected from June to September.

Liogluta aloconotoides Lohse

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Liogluta aloconotoides

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, LB, NB, NF, NS, YT
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 90 km NW of Peace River, EMEND compartment 918, white spruce log in advanced decay stage, 56.792°, -118.364°, 757.8 m, 27.VIII.2009 and 9.VII.2010 (NoFC) 2 males
References Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Webster et al. 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, adults were reared from well-decayed white spruce logs. Elsewhere, adults were captured in various forest types including a recently burned forest. The adults were collected from July to October.

Lypoglossa franclemonti Hoebeke

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Lypoglossa franclemonti

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, QC, ON, SK, YT; USA: NY, VT
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 2013.VI.3(BGC)1 male
References Hoebeke 1992, Gusarov 2004, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured on a sandy beach. In Newfoundland, a single specimen was collected in a pitfall trap in a balsam fir stand (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were captured in litter in spruce bogs, birch bogs, in moss and lichens, and in coniferous and deciduous forests (Gusarov 2004). The adults were collected from May to September.

Philhygra botanicarum (Muona)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Philhygra botanicarum

Origin Holarctic
Distribution Canada: BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, SK, YT; Palaearctic: northern Europe
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, wet willow stand, 49.5978°, -109.9231°, 1134 m, 2.IX.2012(BGC)1 male
References Muona 1983, 1984, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2008, 2011, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured in wet willow stand. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using flight intercept traps in mixedwood and coniferous forests, and along the margins of streams (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In New Brunswick, adults were found on muddy soil, near margins of water in alder swamps, in mixed forests, in drift material on a lakeshore, and in moist leaves under a sap flow from a yellow birch (Webster et al. 2009). The adults were collected from May to August.

Philhygra clemens (Casey)

(for details and body image, see Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2007b, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008)

Distribution

Distribution of Philhygra clemens

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: MB, NB, NS, QC, ON, YT; USA: WI
New records New provincial record: Manitoba: Winnipeg, Whittier Park, Red River bank litter, 49.8996, -97.1250, 228 m, 18.X.2009(BGC)1 male
References Casey 1910, Moore and Legner 1975, Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2007b, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

The Manitoba male was captured in litter on the bank of the Red River. In New Brunswick, it was found in red spruce (P. rubens) forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2005), whereas in Quebec it was found in yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis) forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2007b). The adults were collected from June to October.

Philhygra jarmilae Klimaszewski & Langor

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Philhygra jarmilae

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: NB, NF, ON, SK, YT
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: Meadow Lake, birch/alder litter, 54.4188°, -108.944°, 482 m, 7.VI.2013, 1 male (BGC) 1 female; Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 1 male, 3 females; Cypress Hills, near pond, riparian, 49.5978°, -109.9231°, 1189 m, 2.IX.2012(LFC)1 male
References Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

The holotype was captured in a flight intercept trap in a mixedwood forest in Newfoundland (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In Saskatchewan, adults were found in birch-alder litter, on a sandy beach, and in the riparian zone of a pond. The adults were collected from June to September.

Philhygra ripicoloides Lohse

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Philhygra ripicoloides

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: NF, NT, SK, YT
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013(BGC)1 male
References Lohse et al. 1990, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured on a sandy beach. Adults were collected from May to August (Klimaszewski et al 2011).

Philhygra rostrifera Lohse

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Philhygra rostrifera

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: NF, NT, SK, YT
New records New provincial records: Northwest Territories: 32 km west of Yellowknife, birch/spruce, 62.531°, -114.9581°, 168 m, 3.VI.2009(BGC)1 male; Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, wet willow stand, 49.5978°, -109.923°1, 1134 m, 2.IX.2012(LFC)1 male; Lug Creek, spruce/alder litter, 55.1776°, -106.6885°, 406 m, 6.VI.2013(BGC)1 female; Prince Albert, ferns and scat, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 3.VI.2013(BGC)1 female; La Ronge, ditch litter in deciduous forest, 55.118°, -105.2457°, 366 m, 6.VI.2013(LFC)1 female
References Lohse et al. 1990, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Northwest Territories, one male was captured in birch/spruce forest. In Saskatchewan, adults were found in wet willow thicket, spruce-alder litter, ditch litter in a deciduous forest, and on ferns and in scat. In Newfoundland, a single adult was collected from treading vegetation and sphagnum moss in a boggy area (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). In Yukon Territory, the species was found in moss in a meadow (Klimaszewski et al. 2012). The adults were collected from June to September.

Philhygra sinuipennis Klimaszewski & Langor

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Philhygra sinuipennis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: LB, NB, NF, SK, YT
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013(LFC)1 male
References Klimaszewski et al. 2011, 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured on a sandy beach. In Newfoundland, one specimen was collected amongst litter and stones on the sandy shore of a lake (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected in June and July.

Philhygra terrestris Klimaszewski & Godin

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2012)

Distribution

Distribution of Philhygra terrestris

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: SK, YT
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, wet willow stand, 49.5978°, -109.9231°, 1134 m, 2.IX.2012 (BGC, LFC) 2 males; Meadow Lake, birch/alder litter, 54.4188°, -108.944°, 482 m, 7-VI-2013, 2 females; La Ronge, alder/spruce litter, 55.118°, -105.2457°, 366 m, 6.VI.2013(BGC)1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were captured in a wet willow stand and in birch-alder and birch-spruce litter. The Yukon specimen was collected from ground litter (Klimaszewski et al. 2012). The adults were collected from June to September.

Schistoglossa campbelli Klimaszewski

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2009a)

Distribution

Distribution of Schistoglossa campbelli

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC
New records New provincial record: Alberta: c. 90 km NW of Peace River, EMEND compartment 932, white spruce snag, 56.8071°, -118.3276°, 6.VIII.2009 (NoFC) 1 female; same except, EMEND compartment 933, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.8056°, -118.3328°, 19.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2009a, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, adults were captured in window traps attached to a recent white spruce snag. In British Columbia, adults were captured by treading Sphagnum and Carex at the edge of a marsh (Klimaszewski et al. 2009a). The adults were collected in July and August.

Schistoglossa carexiana Klimaszewski

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2009a)

Distribution

Distribution of Schistoglossa carexiana

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: BC, SK
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013(LFC)1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2009a, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one female was captured on a sandy beach. In British Columbia, adults were captured by treading Sphagnum and Carex at the edge of a marsh (Klimaszewski et al. 2009a). The adults were collected from June to August.

Schistoglossa hampshirensis Klimaszewski

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2009a)

Distribution

Distribution of Schistoglossa hampshirensis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, NB, QC; USA: NH
New records New provincial record: Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, Block C14, 1.43 ha aggregated retention, white spruce girdled in 2010, 56.7103°, -118.7786°, 22.VI.2011 (NoFC) 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2009a, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, one female was captured in a window trap attached to a recently girdled white spruce tree. Elsewhere, adults were captured in Salix, Vaccinium and Chamaedaphne leaf litter (Klimaszewski et al. 2009a). The adults were collected from June to September.

Seeversiella globicollis (Bernhauer)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Seeversiella globicollis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK; USA: AZ, CO, ID, MN, MT, NH, SD, WI; Mexico; Guatemala
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, aspen stand, 54.7217°, -105.689°6, 484 m, 5.VI.2013(BGC)1 male
References Ashe 1986, Gusarov 2003a,b, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2008, 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one male was captured in an aspen stand. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using pitfall traps in fir and riparian forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were found in leaf litter near a body of water, in litter near the sea and in mountain forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected from March to September.

Trichiusa pilosa Casey

Figs 16–23

Trichiusa pilosa Casey 1894: 341, 343; Moore and Legner 1975: 504.

LECTOTYPE (female): USA: RI [Rhode Island; in orig. descrip. Boston Neck]; Casey determ. pilosa-3; Casey bequest 1925; Trichiusa pilosa Casey, Gusarov V.I. det. 2010; our lectotype designation label, present designation (USNM). PARALECTOTYPES: labelled as the lectotype except: Casey determ. pilosa-4(USNM)1 male; Casey determ. pilosa-5(USNM)1 female; Type USNM 39424(USNM)1 male.

Trichiusa atra Casey 1906: 330; Moore and Legner 1975: 504. New Synonymy.

LECTOTYPE (male): USA: McPherson, W. Kansas; atra Casey; Type USNM 39426; Casey bequest 1925; Lectotypus Trichiusa atra Casey, Gusarov V.I. det. 2011 [unpublished designation]; our lectotype designation label, present designation (USNM).

Trichiusa monticola Casey 1906: 328; Moore and Legner 1975: 504. New Synonymy.

LECTOTYPE (male): USA: Coeur d’Alene, Idaho [in orig. descrip. H.F. Wickham]; monticola Casey; Type USNM 39421; Lectotypus Trichiusa monticola Casey, Gusarov, V.I. des. 2011[unpublished designation]; our lectotype designation label, present designation (USNM).

Trichiusa parviceps Casey 1906: 328; Moore and Legner 1975: 504. New Synonymy.

LECTOTYPE (female): USA: Cin. [in orig. descript.: Ohio, Cincinnati, Chas. Dury]; parviceps Casey; Casey bequest 1925; Lectotypus Trichiusa parviceps, Gusarov V.I. des. 2011 [unpublished designation]; our lectotype designation label, present designation (USNM).

Trichiusa postica Casey 1906: 330; Moore and Legner 1975: 504. New synonymy.

LECTOTYPE (male): W.H.H. [W.H. Harrington], Ottawa, Canada; Type USNM 39427; Casey bequest 1925; Trichiusa pilosa Casey, Gusarov, V.I. det. 2010; our lectotype designation label, present designation (USNM).

Diagnosis

Body broadly oval (Fig. 16), length 1.5–1.8 mm, dark brown with reddish tinge and slightly paler base of abdomen or uniformly black, appendages usually lighter than rest of body (Fig. 16); sparsely punctate and pubescent; setae straight and erect, particularly on pronotum; integument strongly glossy; head slightly narrower than pronotum; pronotum moderately transverse, rounded laterally and basally, distinctly narrower than elytra; elytra broad at suture about as long as pronotum; abdomen arcuate laterally and broadest at middle of its length. MALE. Median lobe of aedeagus with oval bulbus and triangularly shaped tubus in dorsal view (Fig. 18), in lateral view tubus slightly sinuate and narrow apically with apex narrowly rounded (Fig. 17); internal sac structures not pronounced; tergite VIII short and truncate apically (Fig. 19); sternite VIII slightly produced apically and rounded at apex and with narrow distance between base of disc and antecostal suture (Fig. 20). FEMALE. Tergite VIII short and truncate apically (Fig. 22); sternite VIII broadly arcuate apically (Fig. 23); spermatheca with broad and sac-shaped capsule with minute apical invagination, stem narrow, sinuate and narrowly twisted apically (Fig. 21).

Figures 16–23.

Trichiusa pilosa Casey: 16 habitus in dorsal view 17 median lobe of aedeagus in lateral view, and 18 in dorsal view 19 male tergite VIII 20 male sternite VIII 21 spermatheca in lateral view 22 female tergite VIII 23 female sternite VIII 17–23 based on type material from Rhode Island, USA.

Distribution

Distribution of Trichiusa pilosa

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, NS, ON (as T. postica); USA: ID, IN, KS, OH, RI
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, Block C14, white spruce regenerating stand, 56.7079°, -118.7775°, 14.IX.2011 (NoFC) 1 female; British Columbia: Liard River, bison scats, 59.4288°, -126.1157°, 468 m, 10.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 1 male, 1 female
References Casey 1894, 1906, Moore and Legner 1975, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010 (as T. postica), Brunke et al. 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013 (as T. postica)

Natural history

In Alberta, one female was collected using a window trap deployed in a 10-year-old regenerating white spruce stand. The British Columbia specimens were found on bison scat. The adults were collected from June to September.

Comments

The two specimens from British Columbia agree with the type series in external morphology and shape of genitalia except for the entirely black body. It is well known that many aleocharine species exhibit darker colour at higher latitudes compared with more southern populations.

GYMNUSINI Heer

Gymnusa campbelli Klimaszewski

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski 1979, Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Gymnusa campbelli

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: NB, NF, NT, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, 4.VI.2013(BGC)1 female
References Klimaszewski 1979, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, one female was captured on a sandy beach. In Newfoundland, adults were collected in riparian areas (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected by treading wet moss on muddy shores of shallow lakes (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected from June to August.

HOMALOTINI Heer

Gyrophaena criddlei Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Gyrophaena criddlei

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: LB, MB, NB, ON, SK, YT
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, mushroom, pine forest, 49.669°, -109.4998°, 1196 m, 2.IX.2012 (BGC, LFC) 2 males
References Seevers 1951, Klimaszewski et al. 2009b, 2011, 2012, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Brunke et al. 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were captured on a mushroom in pine forest. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using flight intercept traps in spruce-poplar forest (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected from gilled mushrooms in pine, hardwood and mixedwood forests (Seevers 1951, Klimaszewski et al. 2009b). The adults were collected in August and September.

Gyrophaena insolens Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Seevers 1951, Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Gyrophaena insolens

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, ON, SK; USA: MI
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, mushroom, pine forest, 49.669°, -109.4998°, 1196 m, 2.IX.2012 (BGC, LFC) 2 males, 2 females
References Seevers 1951, Klimaszewski et al. 2009b, 2011, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Brunke et al. 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were collected from mushrooms in a pine forest. In Labrador, adults were collected using flight intercept traps in spruce-birch and spruce-poplar forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected from gilled mushrooms (Russula sp.) in mixed forests, white and red spruce forests, white cedar swamps, yellow birch and spruce forests, and oak and maple forests (Seevers 1951, Klimaszewski et al. 2009b, 2011). The adults were collected in August and September.

Gyrophaena uteana Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Seevers 1951, Brunke et al. 2012, Webster et al. 2012)

Distribution

Distribution of Gyrophaena uteana

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, NB, ON, QC, SK; USA: CA, CO, UT
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, aspen stand, 54.7217°, -105.6896°, 484 m, 5.VI.2013(LFC)1 male; La Ronge, alder/spruce litter, 55.118°, -105.2457°, 366 m, 6.VI.2013(BGC)1 male
References Casey 1906, Seevers 1951, genitalia in Klimaszewski et al. 2009b (as G. gaudens), Brunke et al. 2012, Webster et al. 2012, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

The Saskatchewan specimens were found in June in an aspen stand and in alder/spruce litter in a forest.

Homalota plana (Gyllenhal)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Homalota plana

Origin Palaearctic; adventive in North America
Distribution Canada: AB, NB, NF, NS; USA: AK; Palaearctic: Europe, North Africa, Asia
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, Blk C31, 10-year-old regenerating coniferous stands, 56.6833°, -118.6336°, 8.IX.2011 (NoFC) 1 female; Blk C31, intact white spruce forest, white spruce girdled in 2010, 56.7114°, -118.6470°, 20.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 male and 1 female; EMEND compartment 892, white spruce snag, 56.7506°, -118.4001°, 781.1 m, 15.IX.2009 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 896, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.7572°, -118.3962°, 802.7 m, 6.IX.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 898, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.7598°, -118.3990°, 826.3 m, 13.VIII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female
References Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, most adults were collected using window traps attached to boles of recently girdled trees and snags of white spruce in white spruce dominated stands. Elsewhere, adults were found under bark of coniferous trees (Klimaszewski et al. 2007a, 2011). The adults were collected from June to September.

MYLLAENINI Ganglbauer

Myllaena arcana Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Myllaena arcana

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK; USA: AL, FL, IA, IL, MA, NH, NJ; Mexico
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Meadow Lake, birch/alder litter, 54.4188°, -108.944°, 482 m, 7.VI.2013(BGC)1 female
References Klimaszewski 1982, Campbell and Davies 1991, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Bishop et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Klimaszewski et al. 2008, 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were captured in birch and alder litter in a forest. Elsewhere, the species appears to be riparian. Adults were collected from February to November from debris near streams and lakes, and from a beaver lodge (Klimaszewski et al. 2008, 2011).

OXYPODINI C.G. Thomson

Devia prospera (Erichson)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Devia prospera

Origin Holarctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NT, ON, SK; USA: AK, CO, MI, MN, NM, OR, SD, UT, WA, WY; Palaearctic: Europe, Asia
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: La Ronge, alder/spruce litter, 55.118°, -105.2457°, 366 m, 6.VI.2013(BGC)1 male; Meadow Lake, wet spruce litter, 54.4144°, -108.8897°, 486 m, 7.VI.2013 (BGC, LFC) 1 male, 2 females
References Gusarov 2003a, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Klimaszewski et al. 2007a, 2011, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were collected from alder/spruce and wet spruce litter in forests. In Newfoundland, adults were collected in abundance using pitfall traps in a patch of mixedwood forest in an urban area but were uncommon in a disturbed field with forbs and grasses (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected in human settlements from stables, barns, heaps of straw, haystacks, rotting organic debris, mushrooms, and forest litter (Klimaszewski et al. 2007a). The adults were collected from June to August.

Ocyusa canadensis Lohse

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Lohse et al. 1990, Klimaszewski et al. 2014)

Distribution

Distribution of Ocyusa canadensis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: NB, NF, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, wet willow stand, 49.5978°, -109.9231°, 1134 m, 2.IX.2012 (BGC, LFC) 3 males, 2 females
References Lohse et al. 1990, Klimaszewski et al. 2014

Natural history

The Saskatchewan specimens were captured in a wet willow stand. Elsewhere, adults were collected at lake margins, on moist soil/gravel among sedges and by treading Carex and grasses (Klimaszewski et al. 2014). The adults were collected from June to September.

Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2006, 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Oxypoda grandipennis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, LB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: AK, NH
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, 49.669°, -109.4998°, 1196 m, 2.IX.2012(BGC)1 male
References Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2006, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Newfoundland, adults were collected using pitfall traps, carrion traps and flight intercept traps in various forest types (coniferous, deciduous, mixedwood and riparian) and on coastal limestone barrens of Labrador (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Some specimens were collected from rotting mushrooms in forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected from leaf litter, moss, fungi, in natural and harvested deciduous and coniferous forests (Klimaszewski et al. 2006). It is a very adaptable and common Oxypoda species in Canada. The adults were collected from May to October.

Oxypoda hiemalis Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Oxypoda hiemalis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, LB, NB, NF, NS, NT, ON QC; USA: AK
New records New provincial record: Alberta: c. 90 km NW of Peace River, EMEND compartment 918, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.7923°, -118.3634°, 7.VIII.2009 (NoFC) 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, a single female was collected in a white spruce dominated stand using a window trap installed on the trunk of a recently girdled white spruce. Elsewhere, adults were captured in various forest types, agricultural fields, a disturbed meadow with Salix shrubs, and vegetation on coastal sand dunes (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected from March to October.

Oxypoda lacustris Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2006, 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Oxypoda lacustris

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, QC, ON, SK, YT; USA: AK
New records New provincial records: Saskatchewan: Lug Creek, spruce/alder litter, 55.1776°, -106.6885°, 406 m, 6.VI.2013(BGC)1 female; La Ronge, alder/spruce litter, 55.118°, -105.2457°, 366 m, 6.VI.2013(BGC)1 female; Prince Albert, sandy beach, 53.9804°, -106.28°, 532 m, (LFC) 1 male; Manitoba: Winnipeg, Whittier Park, river bank litter, 49.8996, -97.1250, 228 m, 18.X.2009(BGC)4 males, 6 females
References Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2006, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Webster et al. 2009, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010

Natural history

In Saskatchewan and Manitoba, specimens were found in alder/spruce litter in a forest stand and in litter on river banks. In Newfoundland, adults were collected using pitfall traps in birch forests, burned forest, fir forest, coastal sand dunes and coastal barrens (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected in forest litter, moss, gopher burrows, and muskrat nests (Klimaszewski et al. 2006, Webster et al. 2009). The adults were collected from June to September.

Oxypoda orbicollis Casey

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2006, 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Oxypoda orbicollis

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK, YT; USA: WI
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Cypress Hills, mushroom, pine forest, 49.669°, -109.4998°, 1196 m, 2.IX.2012 (BGC, LFC) 2 males
References Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2006, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, specimens were found on a mushroom in a pine forest. In Labrador, specimens were collected using pitfall traps in various coniferous, deciduous and mixedwood forest types (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected in forest litter in deciduous-dominated stands and in balsam fir forest, as well as in sphagnum moss (Klimaszewski et al. 2006). The adults were collected from June to September.

Oxypoda pseudolacustris Klimaszewski

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2006, 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Oxypoda pseudolacustris

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, NB, NF, NS, ON, QC, SK
New records New provincial record: Saskatchewan: Prince Albert, aspen stand, 54.7217°, -105.6896°, 484 m, 5.VI.2013(BGC)1 female.
References Klimaszewski et al. 2005, 2006, 2011, Gouix and Klimaszewski 2007, Majka and Klimaszewski 2010, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Saskatchewan, adults were captured in an aspen stand. In Newfoundland, adults were reared from the boles of dead balsam fir, collected with pitfall traps in fir forests and collected from coastal sand dunes (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). Elsewhere, adults were collected mostly from sphagnum moss near small bodies of water, other moss, forest litter in coniferous and deciduous forests and organic litter in alpine and subalpine habitats. Most adults were collected from May through October, with some records from November and December (details in Klimaszewski et al. 2006).

PLACUSINI Mulsant & Rey

Placusa incompleta Sjöberg

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2001, 2011)

Distribution

Distribution of Placusa incompleta

Origin Palaearctic, adventive in North America; possibly introduced separately in eastern Canada and western WA
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, NB, NF, NS, QC; USA: WA; Palaearctic: Europe
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, Blk C14, white spruce gridled in 2010, 56.707°, -118.778°, 24.VIII.2011 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 898, white spruce log in early decay stage, 56.759°, -118.399°, 826.3 m, 10.VII.2010 (NoFC) 2 females; EMEND compartment 889, white spruce snag, 56.7498°, -118.4188°, 27.VII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 892, white spruce snag, 56.7506°, -118.4001°, 781.1 m, 10.VII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 919, white spruce snag, 56.7954°, -118.3610°, 714.3 m, 18.VI.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 920, white spruce snag, 56.7906°, -118.3740°, 10.VII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 920, white spruce gridled in 2009, 56.7921°, -118.3737°, 17.IX.2009 (NoFC) 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2001, 2011, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, adults were collected from dead or dying white spruce in aggregated retention patches surrounded by different levels of dispersed retention, using emergence traps and window traps. Elsewhere, adults were found in various deciduous and coniferous forests, using a pit-light trap and ethanol-baited Lindgren funnel traps (Klimaszewski et al. 2001, 2011). The adults in northwestern Alberta were collected from June to September.

Placusa pseudosuecica Klimaszewski

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2001)

Distribution

Distribution of Placusa pseudosuecica

Origin Nearctic
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, QC, ON
New records New provincial records: Alberta: c. 100 km NW of Peace River, Blk C31, white spruce snag, 56.697°, -118.652°, 13.VII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; Blk C14, white spruce gridled in 2010, 56.686°, -118.643°, 5.VIII.2011 (NoFC) 1 female; Blk C14, white spruce girdled in 2010, 56.712°, -118.779°, 16.VIII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; Blk 79A, white spruce girdled in 2010, 56.688°, -118.605°, 14.VII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 920, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.7908°, -118.3738°, 18.VII.2009 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 929, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.8024°, -118.3226°, 29.VII.2010 (NoFC) 1 female; EMEND compartment 933, white spruce girdled in 2009, 56.8058°, -118.3324°, 17.VII.2009 (NoFC) 1 female
References Klimaszewski et al. 2001, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, adults were collected from dead or dying white spruce in aggregated retention patches surrounded by different levels of dispersed retention, using window traps. Elsewhere, adults were found in mature coniferous forests, using pit-light traps and ethanol-baited Lindgren funnel traps (Klimaszewski et al. 2011). The adults were collected in July and August.

Placusa tachyporoides (Waltl)

(for diagnosis and illustrations, see Klimaszewski et al. 2001)

Distribution

Distribution of Placusa tachyporoides

Origin Palaearctic, adventive in North America
Distribution Canada: AB, BC, NB, NS, QC, ON; Palaearctic: Europe, the Mediterranean, Caucasus, Siberia, Japan
New records New provincial record: Alberta: c. 90 km NW of Peace River, EMEND compartment 918, white spruce logs, 56.792°, -118.364°, 757.8 m, 14.VI.2010 (NoFC) 2 males and 1 female in early decay stage and 1 female in intermediate decay stage
References Klimaszewski et al. 2001, Bousquet et al. 2013

Natural history

In Alberta, adults were reared from white spruce logs in early and intermediate decay stages in white spruce dominated stands. Elsewhere, adults were found in various deciduous and coniferous forests, using a flight intercept trap, ethanol-baited Lindgren funnel traps, pit-light traps, and pitfall traps.

Acknowledgements

We thank Pamela Cheers, English Editor (LFC), who edited the first draft of the manuscript, and Diane Paquet (LFC) for formatting it. This research was supported by Natural Resources Canada. The second author thanks Ron Chambers for his support in the collection of the Northwest Territories samples.

References

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