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Research Article
Two new cyclophoroid species from Hubei, China, with proposal of a new genus (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae and Alycaeidae)
expand article infoZhe-Yu Chen§, Min Wu|
‡ Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, China
§ Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
| Nanjing University, Xianlindadao, Nanjing, China
Open Access

Abstract

Two new species, Sinoarinia feii Chen, gen. et sp. nov. and Pincerna vallis Chen & Wu, sp. nov., are described from western Hubei, China. The new genus Sinoarinia Chen & Wu, gen. nov. is established based on the strongly constricted penultimate whorl and the ascending last whorl. The Vietnamese species Pincerna costulosa (Bavay & Dautzenberg) is newly reported from Yunnan, China. For comparison, photographs of the shells of closely related species are provided. A key to the known species of Sinoarinia gen. nov. is included.

Keywords

new genus, new species, Pincerna, Sinoarinia

Introduction

The malacofauna of western Hubei has usually been studied at some well-known localities along the Yangtze River, for example in Badong and Changyang (Heude 1882, 1885, 1890; Yen 1939). In the region farther south, which encompasses vast areas of limestone mountains, the land snail fauna is still poorly known. During a short faunal survey in Wufeng (Tujiazu Autonomous County) in summer 2019, we found two cyclophoroid species new to science, namely Sinoarinia feii Chen gen. et sp. nov. (Diplommatinidae) and Pincerna vallis Chen & Wu, sp. nov. (Alycaeidae).

Arinia H. Adams & A. Adams, 1856 (Diplommatinidae) is a speciose genus widely distributed in Southeast Asia (Zilch 1953; Vermeulen 1996; Vermeulen et al. 2007; Páll-Gergely and Hunyadi 2018). Only three species of this genus were reported from China so far, namely Arinia cathaicola Pilsbry, 1934, Arinia mirifica Li, Zhuo & Luo, 2005, and Arinia maolanensis Zhang, Chen & Zhuo, 2013 (Pilsbry 1934; Li et al. 2005; Zhang et al. 2013). Based on our morphological studies of shells, we believed that A. mirifica and A. maolanensis, Diplommatina aesopus Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904 from Vietnam, and S. feii sp. nov. belong to a distinct, undescribed genus.

Methods

Photographs of the shells and the habitats were taken using a Canon 5D Mark IV camera. The shells were measured with digital vernier calipers to the nearest 0.1 mm. Whorls were counted as described by Kerney and Cameron (1979). The terminology to describe alycaeid shells (Regions 1–3) follows Páll-Gergely et al. (2017).

Abbreviations: a.s.l. – above sea level; D – shell breadth; H – shell height; HBUMM – mollusc collection of the Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, China; MNHNMuséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; R1 (Region 1) – from the beginning of the teleoconch to the beginning of the differently ribbed region along the suture; R2 (Region 2) – the differently ribbed area before the constriction; R3 (Region 3) – from the constriction to the peristome.

Systematics

Diplommatinidae Benson, 1849

Sinoarinia Chen & Wu, gen. nov.

Type species

Sinoarinia feii Chen, sp. nov.

Diagnosis

Shell minute, dextral, thin, translucent, cylindrical. Penultimate whorl strongly constricted. Last whorl strongly ascending, covering part of penultimate whorl. Protoconch oblique. Apical whorls depressed, with strong or weak ribs. Aperture rounded; peristome double, expanded but not reflected. Columellar lamella not visible from aperture but internally present; one parietal lamella and one palatal plica extending inwards from last whorl to penultimate whorl (in type species). Palatal plica visible through semitransparent parietal wall. Constriction absent or very weak where lamellae and plica terminate. Umbilicus closed, forming a chink.

Etymology

Combination of the Latin prefix sino- (= China) with Arinia.

Distribution

Southern China (Hubei, Guizhou), northern Vietnam.

Remarks

The new genus can be distinguished from the sympatric diplommatinid genera (Arinia, Diplommatina Benson, 1849 and Gastroptychia Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1900) by its constricted penultimate whorl and the ascending last whorl (Kobelt 1902; Zilch 1953; Vermeulen 1996; Vermeulen et al. 2007; Páll-Gergely and Hunyadi 2018). In general, Sinoarinia gen. nov. has a cylindrical shell, depressed apex, and deeply incised lamellae and plica, which differs from the conical shell with an exposed columellar lamella in Diplommatina and Gastroptychia. Arinia usually lacks internal apertural barriers (Kobelt 1902; Vermeulen 1996; Vermeulen et al. 2007), which are well developed in Sinoarinia gen. nov. The constricted structure of the new genus is similar to that found in the non-sympatric diplommatinid genus Diancta E. von Martens, 1864, which differs from the new genus by its mostly sinistral coiling and conical whorls as showed in Diancta (s. str.) (Neubert and Bouchet 2015), or by the constricted penultimate whorl which is not partially covered by the last whorl, as showed in Diancta (Paradiancta) Möllendorff, 1895 (Egorov 2013).

Three species, Arinia mirifica Li, Zhuo & Luo, 2005, A. maolanensis Zhang, Chen & Zhuo, 2013, and Diplommatina aesopus Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904, which some authors currently assign to Arinia (Li et al. 2005; Zhang et al. 2013) and Diplommatina (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904), are here transferred to Sinoarinia gen. nov.

Included species

Sinoarinia aesopus (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904) comb. nov., Sinoarinia feii Chen sp. nov., Sinoarinia maolanensis (Zhang et al., 2013) comb. nov., and Sinoarinia mirifica (Li et al., 2005) comb. nov.

Vernacular name

华阿勇螺属

Sinoarinia feii Chen, gen. et, sp. nov.

Figures 1, 2A, 3, 5B

Type material

Holotype (HBUMM 10016-spec. 1), China, Hubei, Wufeng Tujiazu Autonomous County, Chaibuxi National Forest Park, 30.216N, 110.199E, 1220 m a.s.l., leg. Zhe-Yu Chen and Qiao-Zhen Hu, 27 June 2019 (Fig. 5B). Paratypes: 4 ex. (HBUMM 10016-spec. 2–5), same data as holotype.

Measurements

Shell width = 1.6–1.7 mm, shell height = 2.4–2.7 mm (n = 4).

Diagnosis

Shell minute, cylindrical and apically flat. Penultimate whorl strongly constricted. Columellar lamella, one parietal lamella and one palatal plica present.

Description

Shell minute, dextral, cylindrical, translucent, with 5½ whorls. Shell suture depressed. Protoconch oblique, with no obvious sculpture. Upper whorls depressed. Penultimate whorl so strongly constricted that ½ whorl is invisible. Last whorl strongly ascending, dorsally covering part of penultimate whorl. Ribs strong and sharp, concentrated around umbilical region. Aperture rounded. Peristome double, expanded but not reflected. Angular protrusion weakly present near basal columella. Columellar lamella invisible from aperture, but stronger at penultimate whorl. One parietal lamella and one palatal plica extending from last whorl to penultimate whorl (Fig. 3). Palatal plica visible through semi-transparent parietal wall; obvious constriction absent or very weakly bulged at dorsal side of penultimate whorl. Umbilicus closed, chink-shaped. Operculum unknown.

Figure 1. 

Map of sampling sites and type localities 1 type locality of Sinoarinia feii Chen, gen. et sp. nov. and Pincerna vallis Chen & Wu, sp. nov. 2 type locality of Sinoarinia maolanensis (Zhang, Chen & Zhuo, 2013) comb. nov. 3 type locality of Sinoarinia mirifica (Li, Zhuo & Luo, 2005) comb. nov. 4 type locality of Pincerna costulosa (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1912) and Sinoarinia aesopus (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904) comb. nov., Vietnam 5 Sampling site of Pincerna costulosa in Yunnan.

Etymology

This name honors the herpetologist, Prof. Liang Fei, who encouraged the first author to carry out the research work.

Type locality

China, Hubei, Wufeng Tujiazu Autonomous County, Chaibuxi National Forest Park, 30.216N, 110.199E, 1220 m a.s.l.

Distribution

This species is known only from the type locality.

Remarks

Sinoarinia maolanensis (Zhang et al. 2013) is morphologically similar, but differs in having a larger shell with stronger ribs (Fig. 2B). Sinoarinia mirifica (Li et al. 2005) can be distinguished by its stout shape of shell, sparser ribs, shorter and fewer whorls, and in that the last whorl covers the penultimate whorl dorso-laterally (Fig. 2C) (in S. feii gen. et sp. nov. the last whorl covers penultimate whorl dorsally).

Figure 2. 

A Sinoarinia feii Chen, gen. et sp. nov. (HBUMM 10016-spec. 1, holotype) (Photos: Zhe-Yu Chen) B Sinoarinia maolanensis (Zhang et al., 2013) comb. nov. (after Zhang et al. 2013) C Sinoarinia mirifica (Li et al., 2005) comb. nov. (after Li et al. 2005) D Sinoarinia aesopus (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904) comb. nov. (after Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904). Scale bar: 1 mm, refers to A and B only.

Figure 3. 

Inner structure of Sinoarinia feii Chen, gen. et sp. nov. (HBUMM 10016-spec. 5, paratype) (Photos: Zhe-Yu Chen). Abbreviations: par-parietal lamella, pal-palatal plica, cl-columellar lamella, green dotted line-constriction.

Vernacular name

费氏华阿勇螺

Key to the species of Sinoarinia gen. nov

1 Shell height greater than 3 mm S. aesopus (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1904) (Fig. 2D)
Shell height less than 3 mm 2
2 Whorls fewer than 5. Shell width / shell height approximately 0.9 S. mirifica (Li et al. 2005) (Fig. 2C)
Whorls more than 5. Shell width / shell height approximately 0.5–0.7 3
3 Shell height greater than 2 mm. Shell ribs strong S. feii Chen sp. nov. (Fig. 2A)
Shell height less than 2 mm. Shell ribs weak S. maolanensis (Zhang et al. 2013) (Fig. 2B)

Alycaeidae Blanford, 1864

Pincerna Preston, 1907

Type species

Alycaeus (Pincerna) liratula Preston, 1907, by monotypy (Páll-Gergely 2017).

Vernacular name

平沟螺属

Pincerna vallis Chen & Wu, sp. nov.

Figures 1, 4A, B, 5A

Type material

Holotype (HBUMM10017-spec. 1, fully mature animal), China, Hubei, Wufeng Tujiazu Autonomous County, Chaibuxi National Forest Park, 30.216N, 110.199E, 1220 m a.s.l., leg. Zhe-Yu Chen and Qiao-Zhen Hu, 27 June 2019 (Fig. 5A). Paratype: 1 ex. (HBUMM 10017-spec. 2, an empty shell), same data as holotype.

Measurements. Shell width = 3.3 mm, shell height = 3.5 mm.

Diagnosis. R3 with some ribs. Ribs on R2 more intensive than those in P. costulosa.

Description. Shell conical ovoid, orangish when fresh, with 3¼–3½ convex whorls. Suture deep. Protoconch finely granulate, 1–1¾ whorls. R1 ca 2½ whorls, with regularly spaced strong ribs. R2 very short (ca 0.5 mm), consisting of ca 15 lighter stripes (= breathing tunnels); constriction between R2 and R3 rather shallow. R3 slightly less than ¼ whorl, smooth near R2 side, with about 5 weak but distinct ribs near aperture. Aperture rounded, nearly vertical, not descending. Peristome expanded but not reflected, internally thickened, protruding; boundary between inner and outer peristomes visible. Umbilicus open, narrow. Operculum (Fig. 4A, arrowed) corneous, translucent, thin, concave.

Figure 4. 

A, B Pincerna vallis Chen & Wu, sp. nov. A HBUMM 10017-spec. 1, holotype, red arrow shows the operculum B HBUMM 10017-spec. 2, paratype C, D Pincerna costulosa (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1912) C HBUMM10018 D syntype, MNHN-IM-2000-31786. Scale bar: 5 mm. Photos: Zhe-Yu Chen (A–C) and M. Caballer Gutierrez (D).

Etymology. The name vallis (Latin: valley) refers to the type locality inside the Chaibuxi Grand Canyon.

Type locality. China, Hubei, Wufeng Tujiazu Autonomous County, Chaibuxi National Forest Park, 30.216N, 110.199E, 1220 m a.s.l.

Distribution. This species is known only from the type locality.

Remarks. Two Pincerna species have been recorded in adjacent areas, P. costulosa (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1912) from Vietnam (Holotype: MNHN-IM-2000-31786, Tonkin, Phong Tho) (Fig. 4D) and Yunnan, China (HBUMM10018, see below) (Fig. 4C) and Pincerna maolanensis Luo, Zhang & Zhuo, 2009 from Guizhou. Pincerna vallis sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. maolanensis by its smaller and more fragile shell, relatively short R2 (ca 0.5 mm, whereas it is 0.83–1.00 mm in P. maolanensis). Pincerna costulosa is most similar to the new species in size and shape. However, P. vallis sp. nov. has a more convex body whorl. Pincerna costulosa has a smooth/ribless R3 while the new species has some ribs near the aperture. In addition, the ribs of P. vallis sp. nov. on R2 are stronger than those in P. costulosa.

Figure 5. 

A Habitat of Pincerna vallis Chen & Wu, sp. nov. (HBUMM 10017-spec. 1, holotype) B habitat of Sinoarinia feii Chen, gen. et sp. nov. Photos: Zhe-Yu Chen.

Vernacular name

峡谷平沟螺

Pincerna costulosa (Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1912)

Figures 1, 4C, D

Alycaeus costulosus Bavay & Dautzenberg, 1912: 49–50, pl. 4, figs 1–4.

Pincerna costulosa -Páll-Gergely et al. 2017: 10, fig. 3F.

Materials examined

HBUMM10018 (Fig. 4C), Yunnan, Xishuangbanna, Menglun Botanical Garden, Lvshilin (21.911N, 101.283E), leg. Xiao-Ran Zhu, 6 August 2018.

Type locality

“Phong-Tho, Tonkin”.

Distribution in China

Yunnan.

Vernacular name

弱肋平沟螺

Acknowledgements

We thank Mr Xiao-Ran Zhu for collecting Pincerna specimen from Yunnan. Dr Barna Páll-Gergely is appreciated for sending necessary literature. Thanks go to Dr Eike Neubert and Dr. Páll-Gergely for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 31872196).

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