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Research Article
A faunistic study on the leafhoppers of northwestern Iran (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae)
expand article infoTandis Abdollahi, Ali Reza Jalalizand, Fariba Mozaffarian§, Mike Wilson|
‡ Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran
§ Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran
| National Museum Wales, Cardiff, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

The leafhopper fauna of northwestern Iran: Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi and Ardabil provinces is listed from previously published records and from our current work. Sixty-nine species are included with four species (Mogangella straminea Dlabola, 1957, Doratura stylata (Boheman, 1847), Macrosteles sordidipennis (Stål, 1858) and Psammotettix seriphidii Emeljanov, 1962) listed as new for Iran and Balclutha punctata (Fabricius, 1775), as a new record for the region. A distribution map of the species in northwestern Iran is given.

Keywords

Cicadellidae, leafhoppers, fauna, Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi, Ardabil

Introduction

The Auchenorrhyncha consists of approximately 42000 described worldwide species which have adopted varied life habits (Larivière et al. 2010). Moreover, they play an important role in the food chains due to their high biomass in the herb layer and provide a food source for other insects and animals (Nickel 2003).

The family Cicadellidae (leafhoppers), is the largest family within the Hemiptera, with approximately 19,500 described species in more than 40 subfamilies (Oman et al. 1990). Metcalf (1962–1968) considered the leafhoppers to represent a superfamily (the Cicadelloidea) and divided them into a number of families, currently subfamilies or tribes. Following Dietrich (2005), Cicadellidae are included in the superfamily Membracoidea with the Membracidae (treehoppers). Most Cicadellidae species tend to feed from phloem fluid (except some Cicadellinae and most Typhlocybinae) (Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009). Moreover, some species may cause both direct and indirect damage during their feeding activity, which is sometimes economically important. The most important form of indirect damage is caused by phytoplasmas and viruses, vectored mostly by Cicadellidae (Weintraub and Beanland 2006).

The earliest available record of Auchenorrhyncha from Iran is Gardenhire (1959) who recorded some species as agricultural pests. Jiri Dlabola, from the Czech Republic, studied considerable numbers of Auchenorrhyncha species from Iran in the 1970s, which led to the discovery of more than 100 new Cicadellidae species in a long series of papers (Dlabola 1974, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985). More recently other authors have published on the fauna: Karimzadeh et al. (1998); Haghshenas and Khajeali (2000); Lashkari et al. (2009); Taghizadeh et al. (2010); Mozaffarian and Taghizadeh (2010); Mozaffarian and Emeljanov (2010); Mozaffarian et al. (2010); Mozaffarian and Sanborn (2010, 2012, 2013); Mozaffarian and Gnezdilov (2011); Gnezdilov and Mozaffarian (2011); Moazaffarian and Wilson (2011); Moosavi and Sadeghi Namaghi (2012); Mozaffarian (2012a, b); Taghizadeh (2012); Zohdi et al. (2012); Aghagoli-Marzijarani et al. (2013), Mozaffarian (2013) and Abdollahi et al. (2013, 2014). There have been a wide range of researchers who mainly focused on the Auchenorrhyncha as pests in both agricultural and forest ecosystems in Iran such as: Gharib (1966); Kheyri and Alimoradi (1969); Kheyri (1989, 1992); Rajabi and Mirzayans (1989); Behdad (1992, 1993); Khajehali et al. (2001); Nematollahi and Khajehali (2000); Yarmand et al. (2006); Aghagoli-Marzjarani et al. (2010); Taghizadeh et al. (2010) amongst others.

Northwestern Iran (the study area) covers nearly 100,503 square kilometers and consists of three provinces: Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi and Ardabil. It is located in Irano-Turanian zoogeographical region (Firouz 2005) and in the northwest plateau of Iran. It is limited between the Caspian Sea and Caspian district in the east, Caucasus mountains in the north, Anatolian Plateau and Mesopotamian region in the west and a part of Zagros, called Humid Zagros, in the south. Hence, it is expected that the fauna of this area will be influenced by the faunal elements of all mentioned regions rather than just the Iranian Plateau. The area is considered to be the crossroads of the two main mountains of Iran (Alborz and Zagros), a part of Alpine Himalayan orogenic belt (Dewey et al. 1986) with deep valleys and has a variety of altitudes from 256 m to 2896 m. It is differentiated from other parts of Iran by the highest latitude (39°40'N) and the coldest recorded temperature (-35 °C) (Hedge and Wendelbo 1978). Zarudny (1911) considered this part of Iran as a zoogeographic zone, with a fauna similar to the Caucasus. This area was also considered as a different area from other parts of Zagros by Emeljanov (1974). Hedge and Wendelbo (1978) recognized part of Iran as an endemic zone named Armeno-Kurdic due to the distribution patterns of endemic phanerogamic plants.

The aim of this research was to collect and identify the leafhoppers in northwestern Iran and to prepare a checklist as a starting point for gathering the sporadic publications and studying the fauna for the whole of Iran. A total number of 69 species belonging to 11 subfamilies are recorded.

Material and methods

The present study was carried out in three northwestern provinces including, Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi and Ardabil provinces (Figure 1). During 2007 (August, September and January) and 2008 (January) field trips were made and leafhopper specimens were collected using a sweep net. A total of 2340 specimens consists of newly collected specimens along with other specimens located in the Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum (Tehran, Iran, which had been collected since 1968) were studied and identified. The identifications were made using the works of Le Quesne (1965, 1969), Ribaut (1952), Biedermann and Niedringhaus (2009) and Emeljanov (1997). Vouchers of all species are deposited in the Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum. In addition to the identification, literature records were also taken into consideration and a distribution map for the leafhoppers of northwestern Iran was prepared by ARCMAP version 9.3.0.1770.

Figure 1.

Distribution map of leafhoppers in northwestern Iran (For codes see Table 1).

List of the localities, their coordinates and the codes

Locality names Coordinates Locality names Coordinates
Ajabshir 37° 35'N, 46°11'E (ASh11) Moghan 39°37'N, 47°47'E (A1)
Bonab 37°26'N, 45°57'E (ASh9) Eskanlu 39°12'N, 47°04'E (ASh1)
Bostanabad-Siah chaman 37°41'N, 46°59'E (ASh14) Parsabad 39°36'N, 47°49'E (A2)
Heiran 37°41'N, 48°24'E (A4) Sarein 38°11'N, 48°05'E (A3)
Kaleibar, Arabshahi 38°51'N, 47°08'E (ASh4) Siah chaman-Basmenj 37°52'N, 46°46'E (ASh13)
Kaleibar, 1863m 38°52'N, 46°58'E (ASh3) Sufian 38°16'N, 45°58'E (ASh7)
Kaleibar, 1732m 38°54'N, 47°09'E (ASh2) Tabriz 37°58'N, 46°03'E (ASh8)
Kandovan 37°46'N, 46°17'E (ASh10) Tabriz-Shabestar 38°15'N, 45°58'E (ASh7)
Khalkhal 37°35'N, 48°38'E (A5) Tabriz-Bostanabad 37°58'N, 46°35'E (ASh12)
Mahabad 36°27'N, 45°42'E (AG5) Uromieh 37°25'N, 47°42'E (AG3)
Maku 39°17'N, 44°31'E (AG1) Uromieh, Mirzabad 37°32'N, 45°04'E (AG4)
Marand 38°25'N, 45°45'E (ASh6) Uromieh-Sarv 37°38'N, 44°50'E (AG2)
Miyaneh-Siah chaman 37°30'N, 47°23'E (ASh15) Zonuschay 38°29'N, 45°31'E (ASh5)
Miyaneh-Zanjan 37°17'N, 47°48'E (ASh16)

List of taxa

The genera and species from northwestern Iran recorded through the present study and other publications are as follows (* indicates species not found in the present study). For those species with specimens examined, a reference to the authority used for the identification is included in parenthesis following the taxon heading. The classification used follows mainly Oman et al. (1990) with changes based on more recent literature e.g., Zahniser and Dietrich (2013) for Deltocephalinae.

Subfamily: Agalliinae

Tribe: Agalliini

Agallia firdausica Dlabola, 1981*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

Iran; Saudi Arabia (Dlabola 1980).

Anaceratagallia laevis (Ribaut, 1935)

Anaceratagallia laevis: Le Quesne 1965: 52, figs 267–268.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂, 2♀, Ajabshir, Yaichi village, 1922 m, 37°35'27.2"N, 46°11'03.7"E, 15.January.2008, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh11).

Dlabola (1981) reported this species from Sufian (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Britain I., Bulgaria, Canary Is., Channel Is., Cyprus, French mainland, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Moldova, Portuguese mainland, Romania, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Spanish mainland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Austroagallia sinuata (Mulsant & Rey, 1835)

Austroagallia sinuata: Le Quesne 1965: 50, figs 253–255, 257.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂, 1♀, Kaleibar, Arabshahi, 1391 m, 38°51'42.7"N, 47°08'01.1"E, 3.September.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh4).

Dlabola (1971, 1981) reported this species from Sufian, Maku and Miyaneh-Siah chaman (Fig. 1, Ash7, AG1, ASh15)

Worldwide distribution

Afro-tropical region, East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Balearic Is., Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Canary Is., Crete, Cyprus, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Moldova, Portuguese mainland, Romania, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Subfamily: Aphrodinae

Tribe: Aphrodini

Aphrodes bicinctus (Schrank, 1776)*

Localities

Sufian, Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Corsica, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Madeira, Republic of Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia) (De Jong 2013).

Subfamily: Cicadellinae

Tribe: Cicadellini

Cicadella viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cicadella viridis: Le Quesne 1965: 24, fig. 115.

Material examined

Ardabil: 8 ♂♀, Heiran, 1527 m, 37°41'07.4"N, 48°23'57.4"E, 18.January.2007, leg. Mozaffarian, Light trap (Fig. 1, A4).

Ardabil: 1♂, 7♀, 10 km to Parsabad, 39°36'8.3"N, 47°48'45.5"E, 18.January. 2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, A2).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 25 ♂♀, Eskanlu, Aras river, 290 m, 39° 12'13.4"N, 47° 04'23.2"E, 3.Sebtember.2007, leg. Mozaffarian & Nematian (Fig. 1, ASh1).

Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi: 1♂, Maku, Cheshme Soraya, 900 m, 22.August.1994, leg. Ebrahimi & Sarafrazi (Fig. 1, AG1).

Dlabola (1981) reported this species from Zonuschay (Fig. 1, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region, Oriental region (De Jong 2013).

Comment

Behdad (1993) reported this species as a rice pest.

Subfamily: Deltocephalinae

Tribe: Athysanini

Conosanus obsoletus (Kirschbaum, 1858)

Conosanus obsoletus: Ribaut 1952: 95, 99, figs 137–138; Le Quesne 1969: 109, figs 593, 596.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi: 15♂♀, Mahabad, KoushkDareh, 1499 m, 36°27'08.6"N, 045°42'32.9"E, 28.August.2007, leg. Mozaffarian & Nematian (Fig. 1, AG5).

Dlabola, 1981 reported this species from Sufian and Marand. (Fig. 1, ASh7, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Eohardya miyaneha Dlabola, 1971*

Localities

Miyaneh- Siah chaman (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh15).

Worldwide distribution

Iran (Dlabola 1971).

Euscelis alsius Ribaut, 1952

Euscelis alsius: Ribaut 1952: 95, fig. 130.

Material examined

Ardabil: 2♂♀, Moghan, 65 m, 39°37'30.7"N, 47°46'57.5"E, 19.January.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, A1).

Ardabil: 21♂♀, Parsabad, 80 m, 39°36'8.3"N, 47°48'45.5"E, 18.January.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, A2).

Ardabil: 1♂, 1♀, 12 km to Khalkhal, 1998 m, 37°35'41.8"N, 48°37'54.3"E, 17.Janaury.2007, leg. Mozaffarian, Light trap (Fig. 1, A5).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 74♂♀, Tabriz, Khosroshahr, 1346 m, 37°58'28"N, 46°02'55"E, 21-30.August.2007, leg. Lotfalizadeh, Malaise trap (Fig. 1, ASh8).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂, Sahand mountain, Kandovan, 2661 m, 37°45'47.7"N, 46°17'39.8"E, 1.September.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh10).

Dlabola (1981) reported this species from Zonuschay and Sufian (Fig. 1, ASh5, ASh 7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Bulgaria, French mainland, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, Portuguese mainland, Sicily, Spanish mainland, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Handianus bejbienkoi Dlabola, 1959

Handianus bejbienkoi: Emeljanov 1964: 523, fig. 188: 26–27.

Material examined

Ardabil: 1♂, 10 km to Parsabad, 39°36'8.3"N, 47°48'45.5"E, 18.January.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, A2).

Dlabola 1981 reported this species from Zonuschay and Maku (Fig. 1, ASh5, AG1).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Ukraine), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Hardya anatolica Zachvatkin, 1946*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Bulgaria, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, Romania, Yugoslavia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Hardya iranicola Zachvatkin, 1946*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

Iran (Nast 1972).

Platymetopius chloroticus Puton, 1877*

Localities

Sufian, Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (South Russia, Ukraine), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Platymetopius safavii Dlabola, 1971*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

Iran (Dlabola 1981).

Platymetopius shirazicus Dlabola, 1974*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Iran (Dlabola 1981).

Tribe: Chiasmini

Aconura jakowlefi Lethierry, 1876*

Localities

Sufian, Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (South Russia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Chiasmus conspurcatus (Perris, 1857)*

Localities

Miyaneh-Siah chaman (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh15).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria (doubtful), Bulgaria, Canary Is., French mainland, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, Yugoslavia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Doratura marandica Dlabola, 1981*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Iran (Dlabola 1981).

Doratura stylata (Boheman, 1847)

Doratura stylata: Le Quesne 1969: 67, figs 329–331; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 298.

Material examined

Aradebil: 11♂♀, Sarein. Ardestan, 1700 m, 2.July.1997, leg. Barari & Mofidi (Fig. 1, A3).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂, Bonab, 13.6 m, 37° 26'14.4"N, 045° 57'56.7"E, 27.August, 2007, leg. Mozaffarian & Nematian (Fig. 1, ASh9).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 9♂♀, Kandovan, 2645 m, 37° 45'45.8"N, 46° 17'40.5"E, 18.January.2008, leg. Mozaffarian. (Fig. 1, ASh10).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

This species is newly recorded from Iran.

Doraturopsis heros (Melichar, 1902)*

Localities

Zonuschay, Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (South Russia, Ukraine) (De Jong 2013).

Tribe: Cicadulini

Stenometopiellus iranicus Zachvatkin, 1946*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Iran (Dlabola 1981); Uzbekistan (Nast 1972).

Tribe: Goniagnathini

Goniagnathus brevis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835)

Goniagnathus brevis: Emeljanov 1964: 501, fig. 180: 7, 8; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 283.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂, Kaleibar, 1863 m, 38°52'13.5"N, 46°58'14.5"E, 2.September.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh3).

Abdollahi et al. (2013) reported this species from the above locality.

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Moldova, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, South Russia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Goniagnathus guttulinervis (Kirschbaum, 1868)*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

Afro-tropical region, East Palaearctic, Europe (Balearic Is., Canary Is., French mainland, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Portuguese mainland, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Spanish mainland, The Netherlands (doubtful), Ukraine), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Goniagnathus minor Kusnezov, 1928*

Localities

Miyaneh- Siah chaman (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh15).

Worldwide distribution

Ukraine (Nast 1972).

Tribe: Hecalini

Hecalus glaucescens (Fieber, 1866)*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, South Russia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Tribe: Limotettigini

Limotettix striola (Fallén, 1806)

Limotettix striola: Emeljanov 1964: 529, fig. 190: 2–5; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 322.

Material examined

Ardabil: 1♀, Moghan, Parsabad, 9.May.1969, leg. Abaii. (Fig. 1, A1)

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♀, Tabriz, Gharachaman, 1600 m, 16.January.1976, leg. Boroumand & Pazouki (Fig. 1, ASh8).

Dlabola (1981) reported this species from Sufian (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Azores, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Tribe: Macrostelini

Balclutha flavella Linnavuori, 1962*

Localities

Zonuschay, Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Israel (Nast 1972).

Balclutha punctata (Fabricius, 1775)

Balclutha punctata: Emeljanov 1964: 507, fig. 182: 3; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 286.

Material examined

Ardabil: 32♂♀, Heiran, 1527 m, 37°41'07.4"N, 48°23'57.4"E, 18.January.2007, Light trap, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, A4).

Worldwide distribution

Australian region, East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Britain I., Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region, North Africa, Oriental region (De Jong 2013).

This species is newly recorded from northwestern Iran.

Balclutha rhenana Wagner, 1939*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greek mainland (doubtful), Slovakia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Yugoslavia) (De Jong 2013).

Macrosteles chobauti Ribaut, 1952

Macrosteles chobauti: Ribaut 1952: 48, figs 26–28.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 51♂♀, Kandovan, 2645 m, 37°45'45.8"N, 46°17'40.5"E, 18.January.2008, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh10).

Abdollahi et al. (2014) also reported this species from the above locality.

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Bulgaria, French mainland, Greek mainland) (De Jong 2013), France, Israel (Nast 1972).

Macrosteles fieberi (Edwards, 1889)*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Britain I., Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland (doubtful), Ireland, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, South Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region (De Jong 2013).

Macrosteles laevis (Ribaut, 1927)*

Localities

Zonuschay, Maku (Dlabola 1981); Miynaeh-Zanjan, Miyaneh-Siah chaman, Tabriz-Shabestar (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh5, AG1, ASh16, ASh15, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Iceland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region (De Jong 2013).

Comment

Kheyri (1989) reported this species as a sugar beet pest in most sugar beet growing areas in Iran.

Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén, 1806)

Macrosteles sexnotatus: Emeljanov 1964: 507, fig. 182: 26, 27; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 288.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 30♂♀, Sahand mountain, Kandovan, 2661 m, 37°45'47.7"N, 46°17'39.8"E, 1.September.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh10).

Abdollahi et al. (2013) reported this species from the above locality.

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Azores, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Madeira, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Macrosteles sordidipennis (Stål, 1858)

Macrosteles sordidipennis: Emeljanov 1964: 507, fig. 182: 36, 37; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 290.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂, Sahand Mountain, Kandovan, 2661 m, 37°45'47.7"N, 46°17'39.8"E, 1.September.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh10).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Britain I., Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia North, Sweden, The Netherlands) (De Jong 2013).

This species is newly recorded from Iran.

Tribe: Opsiini

Concavifer marmoratus Dlabola, 1960*

Localities

Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Tadzhikistan (Nast 1972).

Neoaliturus fenestratus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1834)*

Localities

Tabriz (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh8).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Balearic Is., Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, European Turkey, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland (doubtful), Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Neoaliturus haematoceps (Mulsant Rey, 1855)*

Localities

Marand, Zonuschay, Sufian, Maku (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6, ASh5, ASh7, AG1).

Worldwide distribution

Afghanistan, Algeria, Austria, Canary Is., Cyprus, Czechoslovakia (Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia), Egypt, France, German FR., Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy (also Sardinia and Sicily), Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Madeira Archipelago, Mongolia, Morocco, Poland, Romania, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey (Anatolia), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Moldavia, s.Russia, Turkmenia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (Nast 1972).

Comment

Kheyri (1989) reported this species as an economic pest on sugar beet from Isfahan, Kerman, Fars, Khorasan, Azarbaijan and Karaj.

Neoaliturus opacipennis (Lethierry, 1876)*

Localities

Miyaneh-Zanjan, Bostanabad-Siah chaman, Siah chaman-Basmenj (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh16, ASh14, ASh13).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Cyprus, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Spanish mainland, Switzerland, Ukraine), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Comment

Kheyri and Alimoradi (1969) reported this species as a vector of curly top virus in Khorasan, Fars, Isfehan, Kerman, Ahvaz and Karaj.

Neoaliturus pulcher (Haupt, 1927)*

Localities

Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

Iran, Israel, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Tadzhikistan (Nast 1972).

Opsius cypriacus Lindberg, 1958*

Localities

Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Cyprus, Greek mainland, Ukraine), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Opsius discessus (Horváth, 1911)*

Localities

Zonuschay, Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (South Russia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Opsius pallasi (Lethierry, 1874)*

Localities

Zonuschay, Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (South Russia) (De Jong 2013).

Opsius scutellaris (Lethierry, 1874)*

Localities

Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

Afro-tropical region, East Palaearctic, Europe (Canary Is.), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Pseudophlepsius binotatus (Signoret, 1880)*

Localities

Zonuschay, Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (South Russia) (De Jong 2013).

Tribe: Paralimnini

Mogangella straminea Dlabola, 1957

Mogangella straminea: Emeljanov 1964: 541, fig. 194: 13, 14.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂ 1♀, Marand, 12.July.2007, Light trap, leg. Lotfalizadeh (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Moldova, Ukraine), Near East (De Jong 2013).

This species is newly recorded from Iran.

Paramesus major Haupt, 1927*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany (doubtful), Greek mainland, Hungary, Poland, South Russia, Yugoslavia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Paramesus paludosus Ribaut, 1952*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

France, Italy, Kazakhstan, Moldavia, Ukraine (Nast 1972).

Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom, 1850)

Psammotettix alienus: Ribaut 1952: 243, figs 579–580; Emeljanov 1964: 541, fig. 194: 8, 9; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 337.

Material examined

Ardabil: 4♂♀, Moghan, 18.May.1978, leg. Abaii (Fig. 1, A1).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 3♂♀, Marand, 1610 m, 28.July.1976, leg. Broumand & Pazouki (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♀, Tabriz, Gharachaman, 1600 m, 16.July.1976, leg. Broumand & Pazouki (Fig. 1, ASh8).

Dlabola (1981) reported this species from Marand, Sufian and Zonuschay, Maku and in 1971 from Tabriz-Bostanabad, Miyaneh-Zanjan, Miyaneh-Siah chaman, Siah chaman-Basmenj (Fig. 1, ASh6, ASh7, ASh5, AG1, ASh12, ASh16, ASh15, ASh13).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Madeira, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Comment

Nematollahi and Khajehali (2000) reported this species as a vector for wheat dwarf virus on Zea (maize) in Isfahan.

Psammotettix pictipennis (Kirschbaum, 1868)*

Localities

Miyaneh-Zanjan (Dlabola 1971); Marand, Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh16, ASh6, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Greek mainland, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, South Russia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Psammotettix seriphidii Emeljanov, 1962

Psammotettix seriphidii: Emeljanov 1964: 539, fig. 193: 1, 2.

Material examined

Ardabil: 87♂♀, 12 km to Khalkhal, 1998 m, 37°35'41.8"N, 48°37'54.3"E, 17.Janaury.2007, leg. Mozaffarian, light trap (Fig. 1, A5).

Ardabil: 1♂, 10 km to Parsabad, 80 m, 39°36'8.3"N, 47°48'45.5"E, 18.January.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, A2).

Ardabil: 3♂♀, Moghan, 65 m, 39°37'30.7"N, 47°46'57.5"E, 19.January.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, A1).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 6♂♀, AjabShir, Yaichi village, 1922 m, 37°35'27.2"N, 46°11'03.7"E, 15.January.2008, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh11).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 2♂♀, Kaleibar, 1732 m, 38°54'25.2"N, 47°09'11.5"E, 3.September.2007, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh2).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 1♂, Kandovan, 2645 m, 37°45'45.8"N, 46°17'40.5"E, 18.January.2008, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh10).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 20♂♀, Kandovan, 1978 m, 37°44'15.8"N, 46°19'55.1"E, 18.January.2008, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh10).

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 4♂♀, Eskanlu, Aras river, 290 m, 39°12'13.4"N, 47°04'23.2"E, 3.September.2007, leg. Mozaffarian & Nematian (Fig. 1, ASh1).

Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi: 11♂♀, Uromieh, MirzaAbad, 1450 m, 21.July.1976, leg. Boroumand & Pazouki (Fig. 1, AG4).

Worldwide distribution

Kazakhstan (Nast 1972).

This species is newly recorded from Iran.

Sorhoanus medius (Mulsant Rey, 1855)*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7)

Worldwide distribution

Bulgaria, France, Italy, Switzerland, Altai Mts., Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Russia, Siberia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (Nast 1972).

Tribe: Phlepsiini

Phlepsius intricatus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)

Phlepsius intricatus: Emeljanov 1964: 516, fig. 185: 5, 6; Biedermann and Niedringhaus 2009: 305.

Material examined

Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi: 2♂, Tabriz, Khosroshahr, 1346 m, 37°58'28"N, 46°02'55"E, 21-30.August.2007, leg. Lotfalizadeh, Malaise trap (Fig. 1, ASh8).

Dlabola (1981) reported this species from Zonuschay and in 1974 from Uromieh (Fig. 1, ASh5, AG3).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Albania, Austria, Balearic Is., Bulgaria, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Moldova, Portuguese mainland, Romania, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Tribe: Scaphoideini

Anoplotettix magnificus Emeljanov, 1962*

Localities

Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

Azarbaijan, Georgia (Nast 1972).

Subfamily: Dorycephalinae

Tribe: Eupelicini

Eupelix cuspidata (Fabricius, 1775)

Eupelix cuspidata: Ribaut 1952: 325, figs 868–871.

Material examined

Azaibaijan-e-Sharghi: 4♂♀, Ajabshir, Yaichi village, 1922 m, 37°35'27.2"N, 46°11'03.7"E, 15.January.2008, leg. Mozaffarian (Fig. 1, ASh11).

Dlabola (1981) reported this species from Zonuschay, Marand and Sufian (Fig. 1, ASh5, ASh6, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Balearic Is., Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corsica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Paradorydium aristidae (Zachvatkin, 1953)*

Localities

Zonuschay, Maku (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5, AG1).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (South Russia, Ukraine), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Subfamily: Iassinae

Tribe: Iassini

Batracomorphus irroratus Lewis, 1834*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, South Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Subfamily: Idiocerinae

Tribe: Idiocerini

Rhytidodus resaicus Dlabola, 1974*

Localities

Uromieh (Dlabola 1974) (Fig. 1, AG3)

Subfamily: Macropsinae

Tribe: Macropsini

Hephathus unicolor (Lindberg, 1926)*

Localities

Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Romania (doubtful), South Russia (doubtful), Ukraine (doubtful), Yugoslavia (doubtful)), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Hephathus freyi (Fieber, 1868)*

Localities

Siah chaman-Miyaneh (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh15).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Balearic Is., Bulgaria, French mainland, Greek mainland (doubtful), Italian mainland, Portuguese mainland, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Yugoslavia), Near East, North Africa (De Jong 2013).

Subfamily: Typhlocybinae

Tribe: Empoascini

Empoasca punjabensis Singh-Pruthi, 1940*

Localities

Zonuschay, Maku (Dlabola 1981); Siah chaman-Miyaneh, Miyaneh-Zanjan, Tabriz-Shabestar, Uromieh-Sarv (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh5, AG1, ASh15, ASh16, ASh7, AG2).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Bulgaria, French mainland, Greek mainland, South Russia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Oriental region (De Jong 2013).

Comment

Kheyri (1989) reported this species as an economic pest on sugar beet from Isfahan, Kerman, Fars and Karaj.

Kyboasca bipunctata (Oshanim, 1871)*

Localities

Miyaneh- Siah chaman, Tabriz-Shabestar, Miyaneh-Zanjan (Dlabola 1971); Sufian (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh15, ASh7, ASh16, ASh7).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Moldova, Poland, Romania, South Russia, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region (De Jong 2013).

Tribe: Erythroneurini

Tamaricella ribauti (Zachvatkin, 1947)*

Localities

Zonuschay (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh5).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Crete, South Russia, Ukraine) (De Jong 2013).

Tamaricella tamaricis (Puton, 1872)*

Localities

Miyaneh-Zanjan, Miyaneh-Siah chaman (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh16, ASh15).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Bulgaria, Crete, Cyclades Is., Cyprus, French mainland, Greek mainland, Italian mainland, Romania, South Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Spanish mainland, Ukraine) (De Jong 2013).

Zyginidia pullula (Boheman, 1845)*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Corsica (doubtful), Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Romania, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Zyginidia sohrab Zachvatkin, 1947*

Localities

Miyaneh-Zanjan, Siah chaman-Miyaneh, Uromieh-Sarv (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh16, ASh15, AG2).

Worldwide distribution

Europe (Cyprus, Greek mainland, South Russia, Ukraine), Near East (De Jong 2013).

Tribe: Typhlocybini

Edwardsiana rosae (Linné, 1758)*

Localities

Siah chaman-Miyaneh (Dlabola 1971) (Fig. 1, ASh15).

Worldwide distribution

East Palaearctic, Europe (Austria, Belgium, Britain I., Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Latvia, Moldova, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia North, South Russia, Sicily, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia), Near East, Nearctic region, Oriental region (De Jong 2013).

Subfamily: Ulopinae

Tribe: Ulopini

Ulopa trivia Germar, 1821*

Localities

Marand (Dlabola 1981) (Fig. 1, ASh6).

Worldwide distribution

Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia (Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia), Denmark, France, German DR, German FR, Great Britain (England), Greece, Hungary, Italy, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey (Anatolia), Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Moldavia, Russia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia (Nast 1972).

Acknowledgements

The research was performed in the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection using the facilities and specimens in the Insect Taxonomy Research Department and Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum. We would like to acknowledge the assistance given by Prof. Hani Abdul-Nour, who passed away in October 2014 and Dr Paul H. Freytag (University of Kentucky, USA) for correcting and confirming some of the identifications.

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