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A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the State of Mexico, Mexico with comparisons with adjoining states
expand article infoJulio A. Lemos-Espinal, Geoffrey R. Smith§
‡ Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Tlalnepantla, Mexico
§ Denison University, Granville, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

The State of Mexico has a unique combination of geographic characteristics and topography that promotes a high biodiversity. Unfortunately, continued human population growth of the metropolitan areas of Mexico City and Toluca have degraded the environment of the State of Mexico, which threatened its wildlife. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the State of Mexico is provided and their conservation status summarized. The State of Mexico has 49 species of amphibians and 101 species of reptiles. The majority of the amphibians (73.5%) and reptiles (70.3%) found in the State of Mexico are endemic to Mexico. Of the amphibian and reptile species in the State of Mexico, 20.1% are IUCN listed (i.e., Vulnerable, Near Threatened, or Endangered), 18.4% are placed in a protected category by SEMARNAT (excluding NL and Pr, this last category is equivalent to the LC category of IUCN), and 34.9% are categorized as high risk by the EVS. The importance of forested habitats for the protected amphibians and reptiles in the State of Mexico suggest that management of these habitats to maintain or expand them needs to be considered.

Keywords

checklist, crocodilians, frogs, herpetofauna, lizards, salamanders, snakes, turtles

Introduction

Although relatively small, the State of Mexico bears unique geographic characteristics that combined with its topography create conditions that promote a high level of biodiversity. Unfortunately, these same conditions along with the continued human population growth of the metropolitan area of Mexico City and the city of Toluca have created high water and air pollution levels, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, and low water availability, which threaten the wildlife of this state (Rodríguez Romero et al. 2008; Flores-Villela et al. 2010). For example, atmospheric water in the Valley of Mexico contains heavy metals that are detectable and exceed regulatory limits when condensed (Bautista-Olivas et al. 2014). This is especially important for amphibians and reptiles, which are represented in the State of Mexico by a unique assortment of species. Central Mexico, including the State of Mexico, contains several areas of high endemicity for the herpetofauna of Mexico and as such is very important to the conservation of the Mexican herpetofauna (Flores-Villela et al. 2010).

Here, we provide an updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles documented in the State of Mexico. We also summarize the conservation status of these species with the goal of determining if there are particular taxa of conservative concern in the State of Mexico. In addition, we consider the overlap in species between the State of Mexico and its neighboring states.

Physiographic characteristics of the state

The State of Mexico is the most populous, as well as the most densely populated state in Mexico. It is located in south-central Mexico, in the highest part of the Mexican Altiplano, between 18°22'0.84"N and 20°17'9.24"N, and 100°36'46.8"W and 98°35'48.84"W (Fig. 1). It is bordered by the states of Querétaro and Hidalgo to the north, Morelos and Guerrero to the south, Michoacán to the west, Tlaxcala and Puebla to the east, and surrounds Mexico City on three sides (west, north, and east). The state is relatively small (22,351 km2) and is the seventh smallest Mexican state, representing 1% of the total surface territory of Mexico (modified from Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_Mexico – accessed 21 November 2019).

Figure 1. 

Map of Mexico with the State of Mexico shown in red (modified from INEGI, 2018a).

The topography of the state is highly variable, with the highest mountains in the extreme eastern part of the state along the border with Puebla (Popocatépetl 5,380 m altitude, Iztaccíhuatl 5,203 m, Monte Tláloc 4,120 m), and in the central part of the state (Nevado de Toluca 4,643 m), as well as rugged intermontane valleys, hills and plains, with altitudes ranging from 300 m near the border with Guerrero to 5,380 m on the top of the Popocatépetl Volcano (Fig. 2). The State of Mexico contains two physiographic provinces: a) Eje Neovolcánico, and b) Sierra Madre del Sur (Fig. 3; modified from INEGI 2017). The Eje Neovolcánico comprises most of the state, occupying the central, northern and eastern portions of the state. This province is divided into three sub-provinces: a) Lagos y Volcanes de Anáhuac, which occupies most of the central, north, and east portions of the state, and includes the northern part of the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico and the city of Toluca. b) Mil Cumbres, a thin strip running from north to south and lying between the sub-provinces of Lagos y Volcanes de Anáhuac and Depresión del Balsas, and eastern Michoacán. c) Planicies y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo, a small portion at the northern end of the state that borders Querétaro and Hidalgo. The Sierra Madre del Sur comprises the southwestern corner of the state along its border with Guerrero and western-northwestern Morelos, and is divided into two sub-provinces: a) Depresión del Balsas, which is bordered by northern Guerrero, and b) Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, which is a small area bordering northern Guerrero and western-northwestern Morelos (Fig. 3).

Figure 2. 

Topographical map of the State of Mexico, Mexico (CONABIO, 1997).

Figure 3. 

Physiographic provinces of the State of Mexico, Mexico (modified from Cervantes-Zamora et al. 1990).

The State of Mexico has a variety of vegetation types (Fig. 4; modified from INEGI 2017). Agricultural Areas that occupy 54.61% of the state’s surface area, and are found mainly in the central, northern, and eastern parts of the state, occupying most of the province of the Eje Neovolcánico. Woodlands cover 27.22% of the state’s surface area, and are scattered at the higher elevations of the Eje Neovolcánico province, especially the western foothills of the Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes, the Sierra de las Cruces – Sierra del Ajusco complex, the area surrounding the Nevado de Toluca Volcano, and most of the Mil Cumbres Subprovince. Woodlands include Oak Forests which are distributed between 1,600 and 2,400 meters above sea level; Pine-Oak Forest, which develops above 2,400 meters altitude; and Pine Forest, which develops in the highest elevations of the state’s mountains. At the highest elevations, this forest is surrounded by padded grasses including Mülhenbergia rigida, Stipa ichu, and Bouteloa gracilis among others. Grasslands, covering 12.15% of state’s surface area, occur in isolated areas in the northern, central, and southwestern parts of the state and they intermingle with Tropical Forests, which are limited to some scattered spots in the Subprovinces of the Sierra Madre del Sur. Tropical Forest, comprising 5.34% of the state’s surface area, is represented by Tropical Deciduous Forest, also called Tropical Dry Forest, that develops between 1,500 and 1,600 m altitude. These forests, although lush, lose their leaves during the dry season (winter-spring), and have dense foliage during the rainy season (summer). Scrubland covers only 0.2% of the state’s surface area. The remaining 0.41% is represented by scattered areas lacking vegetation (Fig. 4).

Figure 4. 

Vegetation map of the State of Mexico, Mexico (modified from Dirección General de Geografía – INEGI 2016).

Given the geographical location and diversity of the natural regions in the state, there are several climates in the State of Mexico (Fig. 5; modified from López-Cano et al. 2009; INEGI 2017). A warm sub-humid climate with summer rains and semi-humid with summer rains is found in the Balsas Basin in the extreme southwestern part of the state, covering 20.8% of the state area. The temperate sub-humid with summer rains is found over most of the Lerma Basin and Valley of Mexico, covering most of the state (61.7% of the state). The wet semi-cold climate with abundant rains in summer and sub-humid semi-cold with summer rains is present in the highest mountains of the state (Nevado de Toluca, Sierra Nevada, Sierra las Cruces, Sierra del Ajusco, etc.), covering 11.6% of the state surface. The temperate semi-dry climate is found in the northeast corner of the state, in a strip that runs from the central eastern part of the state, on the northeastern limit of Mexico City to northeastern State of Mexico on the border with Hidalgo, covering 5.7% of the state surface. A Cold climate present on the summits of the Nevado de Toluca, Popocatépetl, and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes, covering 0.2% of the state’s area.

Figure 5. 

Climate map of the State of Mexico, Mexico (modified from García – Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad 1998).

Materials and methods

We compiled our list of amphibians and reptiles of the State of Mexico from our field work over several years, especially within the past 5–10 years, a thorough examination of available literature on amphibians and reptiles in the state, amphibian and reptile records for the State of Mexico in VertNet.org, and amphibian and reptile records for the State of Mexico in Servicio de Descarga de Ejemplares del Sistema Nacional de Información sobre Biodiversidad (SNIB-CONABIO), data bases Amphibians State of Mexico and Reptiles State of Mexico. Amphibian names follow Frost (2019) and AmphibiaWeb (2019) (http://amphibiaweb.org) and reptile names follow Uetz and Hošek (2019). We included species in the list only if we could confirm records by either direct observation or documented museum records or vouchers.

We made species accumulation curves for the total herpetofauna, and amphibians and reptiles separately using the year of the first recorded observation for each species. These curves can estimate the potential species richness of amphibians and reptiles (see Raxworthy et al. 2012). For each species, we recorded conservation status based on the IUCN Red List 2019-2, listing in SEMARNAT (2019), and Environmental Vulnerability Scores (Wilson et al. 2013a, b; Johnson et al. 2015). We determined the number of species found in the State of Mexico that overlapped with neighboring states and Mexico City using recent state lists (Michoacán, Alvarado-Díaz et al. 2013; Hidalgo, Lemos-Espinal and Smith 2015; Puebla, Woolrich-Piña et al. 2017; Guerrero, Palacios-Aguilar and Flores-Villela 2018; Mexico City, Lemos-Espinal and Smith in press; Morelos, Lemos-Espinal and Smith 2020; and Querétaro, Cruz-Elizalde et al. 2019). We did not include the state of Tlaxcala since no comprehensive check list of the amphibians and reptiles of this state currently exists. We generated border lengths with the INEGI state division map for the year 2018 using ArcMap 10.7.1 neighboring polygon tool (June 2019).

Results and discussion

The State of Mexico is home to 150 species of amphibians and reptiles representing 31 families (two introduced: Gekkonidae and Typhlopidae) and 65 genera (two introduced: Hemidactylus and Indotyphlops) (Table 1; Fig. 6). The herpetofauna of the State of Mexico includes 49 species of amphibians (33 anurans [one introduced], and 16 salamanders), and 101 reptiles (40 lizards [one introduced], 57 snakes [one introduced], and four turtles). The three introduced species are the American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), the Common House Gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus), and the Brahminy Blindsnake (Indotyphlops braminus). Five of the 147 native species of the State of Mexico are endemic to the state: the Delicate-skinned Salamander (Ambystoma bombypellum), the Granular Salamander (Ambystoma granulosum), the Lake Lerma Salamander (Ambystoma lermaense), Roberts’ False Brook Salamander (Pseudoeurycea robertsi), and the Herrera Alligator Lizard (Barisia herrerae). The most species rich families of amphibians in the State of Mexico are Hylidae, Ambystomatidae, and Plethodontidae, whereas the most species rich families of reptiles are Phrynosomatidae and Colubridae (Table 1).

Figure 6. 

A Ambystoma lermaense B Chiropterotriton orculus C Abronia deppii D juvenile Sceloporus sugillatus E Crotalus transversus. Photos by Eric Centenero-Alcalá

The species accumulation curves for the total herpetofauna, reptiles, and amphibians all show a steep increase in the number of species documented in the State of Mexico in the second half of the 20th century, and that trend appears to be continuing, albeit at a somewhat slower rate in the 21st century (Fig. 7). This suggests that the overall number of amphibians and reptiles in the State of Mexico is likely to increase over time. Indeed, we compiled a list of 21 species (two amphibians, 19 reptiles: Table 2) that potentially occur in the State of Mexico (Table 2). These potential species are distributed mainly along the border with Guerrero (extreme southwestern State of Mexico), Hidalgo and Querétaro (northern State of Mexico), Morelos (southern State of Mexico), and Puebla (eastern State of Mexico), and are based on distributional records appearing in Vertnet.org, the Sistema Nacional de Información sobre Biodiversidad (SNIB-CONABIO) for all six neighboring states and Mexico City, Dixon and Lemos-Espinal (2010) for Querétaro; and Lemos-Espinal and Dixon (2016) for Hidalgo. We are convinced that as more herpetological work is done in the areas near the borders between the State of Mexico and its neighboring states, these potential species will likely be documented in the State of Mexico.

Figure 7. 

Species accumulation curves for total herpetofauna, amphibians, and reptiles of the State of Mexico, Mexico.

General distribution

Thirty-six of the 49 species of amphibians found in the State of Mexico are endemic to Mexico, four of them to the State of Mexico (Ambystoma bombypellum, A. granulosum, A. lermaense, and Pseudoeurycea robertsi); twelve are species found mainly along the Eje Neovolcánico of central Mexico; seven are species typical of the Pacific Coast, including the Balsas Depression; three are species characteristics of the Mexican Plateau; seven more are species with a widely distributional patterns in the Mexican Plateau, the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre del Sur, and Eje Neovolcánico; and the remaining three are represented by scattered populations in the Mexican Plateau, Sierras Madres, and Eje Neovolcánico (Table 1). Of the 13 amphibian species not endemic to Mexico, four are found in the United States and Mexico, five range from Mexico to Central or even South America, three more are found from southern United States to Central or South America, and one is introduced (Table 1). Thirty-three of the 40 species of lizards that occur in the state are endemic to Mexico; one is endemic to the State of Mexico (Barisia herrerae); six are restricted to localities in central Mexico in the State of Mexico, Morelos, Puebla, and Mexico City; ten are typical of the Mexican Pacific Coast; two are limited to the Eje Neovolcánico of central Mexico; six are limited to the central-south part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcánico and Sierra Madre del Sur; two are typical of the Mexican Plateau, occurring also in the Eje Neovolcánico or the Sierra Madre del Sur; and six occur in both the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental, and in the Eje Neovolcánico. Of the seven species of lizards found in the State of Mexico but that are not endemic to Mexico, one is found in the United States and Mexico, four are distributed from Mexico to Central America, one is distributed from the United States to Central America, and one is introduced (Table 1). Thirty-six of the 57 species of snakes that inhabit the State of Mexico are endemic to Mexico. Of the 21 snake species not endemic to Mexico that are found in the State of Mexico, six are found in the United States and Mexico, ten range from Mexico to Central or even South America, four are found from central or southern United States to Central or South America, and one is introduced (Table 1). Two of the four species of turtles found in the State of Mexico are endemic to Mexico, one is a species found in the United States and Mexico, and one is distributed from Mexico to Central America (Table 1).

Table 1.

Amphibians and reptiles of the State of Mexico with distributional and conservation status. Vegetation Type: (1 = Oak Forest; 2 = Pine-oak Forest; 3 = Pine Forest; 4 = Tropical Deciduous Forest; 5 = Grassland; 6 = Scrubland); IUCN Status: (DD = Data Deficient; LC = Least Concern, VU = Vulnerable, NT = Near Threatened; EN = Endangered; CR = Critically Endangered; NE = not Evaluated) according to the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2019); Environmental Vulnerability Score: (EVS – the higher the score the greater the vulnerability: low (L) vulnerability species (EVS of 3–9); medium (M) vulnerability species (EVS of 10–13); and high (H) vulnerability species (EVS of 14–20) (Wilson et al. 2013a,b; Johnson et al. 2015); conservation status in Mexico according to SEMARNAT (2019): (P = in danger of extinction, A = threatened, Pr = subject to special protection, NL – not listed). Global Distribution: 0 = Endemic to the State of Mexico; 1 = Endemic to Mexico; 2 = Shared between the US and Mexico; 3 = widely distributed from Mexico to Central or South America; 4 = widely distributed from the US to Central or South America; IN = Introduced to State of Mexico. Date in which the first record appeared; and Source of the first record.

Vegetation type IUCN status SEMARNAT EVS Global distribution Year of first record Source
CLASS AMPHIBIA
ORDER ANURA
FAMILY BUFONIDAE (5)
Anaxyrus compactilis (Wiegmann, 1833) 1,2,5,6 LC NL H (14) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Incilius marmoreus (Wiegmann, 1833) 4 LC NL M (13) 1 1930 MCZ-A 17755
Incilius occidentalis (Camerano, 1879) 1,2,3,6 LC NL M (11) 1 1941 TCWC 6365
Incilius perplexus (Taylor, 1943) 4 EN NL M (11) 1 1983 Camarillo-Rangel 1983
Rhinella horribilis (Wiegmann, 1833) 4 LC NL L (3) 4 1941 UIMNH 25155
FAMILY CRAUGASTORIDAE (4)
Craugastor augusti (Dugès, 1879) 2,6 LC NL L (8) 2 1942 Taylor 1942
Craugastor hobartsmithi (Taylor, 1937) 2 EN NL H (15) 1 1936 UIMNH 18301
Craugastor pygmaeus (Taylor, 1937) 1,2,3 VU NL L (9) 3 1992 Camarillo-Rangel and Smith 1992
Craugastor rugulosus (Cope, 1870) 3 LC NL M (13) 3 1968 UTEP Herp:7475
FAMILY ELEUTHERODACTYLIDAE (4)
Eleutherodactylus angustidigitorum (Taylor, 1940) 1,2,3,6 VU Pr H (17) 1 1954 TCWC 11158
Eleutherodactylus maurus Hedges, 1989 1,2,3 DD Pr H (17) 1 1954 TCWC 11259
Eleutherodactylus nitidus (Peters, 1870) 1,2,3 LC NL M(12) 1 1951 AMNH A-55227
Eleutherodactylus pipilans (Taylor, 1940) 4 LC NL M (11) 3 1979 MZFC 3764
FAMILY HYLIDAE (9)
Dryophytes arenicolor (Cope, 1886) 1,2,3,4,5,6 LC NL L (7) 2 1921 MCZ A-8367
Dryophytes eximius (Baird, 1854) 1,2,3,6 LC NL M (10) 1 1919 AMNH A 13256
Dryophytes plicatus (Brocchi, 1877) 1,2,3,6 LC A M (11) 1 1912 MCZ-A 25699
Exerodonta smaragdina (Taylor, 1940) 4 LC Pr M (12) 1 1992 Camarillo-Rangel and Smith 1992
Sarcohyla bistincta (Cope, 1877) 1,2,3 LC Pr L (9) 1 1938 UIMNH 17903
Sarcohyla pentheter (Adler, 1965) 4 EN NL M (13) 1 2009 Aguilar-Miguel et al. 2009
Smilisca baudinii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) 1,2,4,6 LC NL L (3) 4 1982 CNAR 3912
Smilisca fodiens (Boulenger, 1882) 4 LC NL L (8) 2 1968 UTEP H 8448
Tlalocohyla smithii (Boulenger, 1902) 4 LC NL M (11) 1 1968 UTEP H 7713
FAMILY LEPTODACTYLIDAE (1)
Leptodactylus melanonotus (Hallowell, 1861) 4 LC NL L (6) 3 1965 ENCB 7687
FAMILY MICROHYLIDAE (1)
Hypopachus variolosus (Cope, 1866) 4 LC NL L (4) 4 1941 ENCB 2905
FAMILY PHYLLOMEDUSIDAE (1)
Agalychnis dacnicolor (Cope, 1864) 4 LC NL M (13) 1 1983 Camarillo-Rangel 1983
FAMILY RANIDAE (7)
Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 IN IN IN IN IN 1982 CNAR 17313
Rana forreri Boulenger, 1883 4 LC Pr L (3) 3 1940 CNAR 620
Rana montezumae Baird, 1854 1,2,3,5,6 LC Pr M (13) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Rana neovolcanica Hillis & Frost, 1985 1,2,3 NT A M (13) 1 2009 MZFC 23392
Rana spectabilis Hillis & Frost, 1985 1,2,3,5,6 LC NL M (12) 1 1936 FMNH 110654
Rana tlaloci Hillis & Frost, 1985 1,2,5,6 CR P H (15) 1 1979 ENCB 10567
Rana zweifeli Hillis, Frost & Webb, 1984 1,2,3,4,5 LC NL M (11) 1 1982 ENCB 11912
FAMILY SCAPHIOPODIDAE (1)
Spea multiplicata (Cope, 1863) 1,5 LC NL L (3) 2 1940 UIMNH 27893
ORDER CAUDATA
FAMILY AMBYSTOMATIDAE (8)
Ambystoma altamirani Dugès, 1895 1,2,3,5 EN A M (13) 1 1895 Dugès 1895
Ambystoma bombypellum Taylor, 1940 2,5 CR Pr H (15) 0 1940 Taylor 1940a
Ambystoma granulosum Taylor, 1944 1,2,3,5 CR Pr H (14) 0 1944 Taylor 1944
Ambystoma leorae (Taylor, 1943) 2,3,5 CR A H (15) 1 1943 Taylor 1943
Ambystoma lermaense (Taylor, 1940) 5 EN Pr H (15) 0 1940 Taylor 1940a
Ambystoma ordinarium Taylor, 1940 ? EN Pr M (13) 1 22004 Matias-Ferrer and Murillo 2004a
Ambystoma rivulare (Taylor, 1940) 1,2,3,5 DD A M (13) 1 1940 Taylor 1940b
Ambystoma velasci Duges, 1888 1,2,3,5,6 LC Pr M (10) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
FAMILY PLETHODONTIDAE (8)
Aquiloeurycea cephalica (Cope, 1865) 1,2,3,5 NT A H (14) 1 1938 UIMNH 30898
Chiropterotriton orculus (cope, 1865) 1,2,3,5 VU NL H (18) 1 1951 MVZ 54646
Isthmura belli (Gray, 1850) 1,2,3,5 VU A M (12) 1 1938 UIMNH 30881
Pseudoeurycea altamontana (Taylor, 1939) 1,2,3,5 EN Pr H (17) 1 1956 UCM 8117
Pseudoeurycea leprosa (Cope, 1869) 1,2,3,5 LC A H (16) 1 1921 UMMZ 56989
Pseudoeurycea longicauda Lynch, Wake, & Yang, 1983 1,2,3,5 EN Pr H (17) 1 1983 Lynch et al. 1983
Pseudoeurycea robertsi (Taylor, 1939) 1,2,3,5 CR A H (18) 1 1939 Taylor 1939
Pseudoeurycea tlilicxitl Lara-Góngora, 2003 1,2,3,5 EN NL H (17) 1 2003 Lara-Góngora 2003
CLASS REPTILIA
SUBORDER LACERTILIA
FAMILY ANGUIDAE (5)
Abronia deppii (Wiegmann, 1828) 2 EN A H (16) 1 1979 MZFC 6294
Barisia herrerae Zaldivar-Riverón & Nieto Montes de Oca, 2002 2,3 EN NL H (15) 0 2002 Zaldivar-Riverón and Nieto Montes de Oca 2002
Barisia imbricata (Wiegmann, 1828) 1,2,3,5,6 LC Pr H (14) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Barisia rudicollis (Wiegmann, 1828) 1,2,3,5 EN P H (15) 1 1828 Wiegmann 1828
Gerrhonotus liocephalus Wiegmann, 1828 1,2,3,5 LC Pr L (6) 1 1938 FMNH 112024
FAMILY DACTYLOIDAE (1)
Anolis nebulosus (Wiegmann, 1834) 1,2,4 LC NL M (13) 1 1940 UCM 46440
FAMILY GECKONIDAE (1)
Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril & Bribon, 1836 IN IN IN IN IN 1998 Casas-Andreu et al. 1998
FAMILY HELODERMATIDAE (1)
Heloderma horridum (Wiegmann, 1829) 4 LC A M (11) 3 1933 MVZ Herp 16434
FAMILY IGUANIDAE (1)
Ctenosaura pectinata (Wiegmann, 1834) 4 NE A H (15) 1 1982 CNAR 3910
FAMILIY PHRYNOSOMATIDAE (19)
Phrynosoma orbiculare (Linnaeus, 1758) 1,2,5,6 LC A M (12) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Sceloporus aeneus Wiegmann, 1828 5,6 LC NL M (13) 1 1921 MCZ R-16069
Sceloporus anahuacus Lara-Góngora, 1983 1,2,3 LC NL H (15) 1 1979 UCM 52300
Sceloporus bicanthalis Smith, 1937 5 LC NL M (13) 1 1937 MCZ R-170033
Sceloporus dugesii Bocourt, 1874 2,5 LC NL M (13) 1 1983 CNAR 5006
Sceloporus gadoviae Boulenger, 1905 4 LC NL M (11) 1 1996 CNAR 12304
Sceloporus grammicus Wiegmann, 1828 1,2,3,6 LC Pr L (9) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Sceloporus horridus Wiegmann, 1834 4 LC NL M (11) 1 1951 AMNH R-71351
Sceloporus megalepidurus Smith, 1934 4 VU Pr H (14) 1 1971 MCZ R-133166
Sceloporus melanorhinus Bocourt, 1876 4 LC NL L (9) 3 1977 MZFC 6312
Sceloporus mucronatus Cope, 1885 2,3,5 LC NL M (13) 1 1939 USNM 112207
Sceloporus ochoterenae Smith, 1934 4 LC NL M (12) 1 1992 Camarillo-Rangel and Smith 1992
Sceloporus palaciosi Lara-Góngora, 1983 1,2,3 LC NL H (15) 1 1976 USNM 245337
Sceloporus pyrocephalus Cope, 1864 4 LC NL M (12) 1 1982 CNAR 3900
Scelopours scalaris Wiegmann, 1828 5,6 LC NL M (12) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Sceloporus spinosus Wiegmann, 1828 1,2,5,6 LC NL M (12) 1 1922 MVZ 8851
Sceloporus sugillatus Smith, 1942 1,2,3 LC NL H (16) 1 1939 UIMNH 10753
Sceloporus torquatus Wiegmann, 1828 1,2,3,5,6 LC NL M (11) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Urosaurus bicarinatus (Duméril, 1856) 4 LC NL M (12) 1 1930 MCZ R-33686
FAMILY PHYLLODACTYLIDAE (1)
Phyllodactylus lanei Smith, 1935 4 LC NL H (15) 1 1981 CNAR 3550
FAMILY SCINCIDAE (6)
Marisora brachypoda (Taylor, 1956) 4 LC NL L (6) 3 1882 USNM 12718
Plestiodon brevirostris (Günther, 1860) 1,2,3 LC NL M (11) 1 1942 KUNHM 25937
Plestiodon copei (Taylor, 1933) 1,2,3 LC Pr H (14) 1 1932 USNM 92547
Plestiodon dugesii (Thominot, 1883) 1,2,3 VU Pr H (16) 1 1954 KUNHM 38080
Plestiodon indubitus (Taylor, 1933) 1,2,3 NE NL H (15) 1 1932 UIMNH 22701
Plestiodon lynxe (Wiegmann, 1834) 1,2,3 LC Pr M (10) 1 1974 UTA 4182
FAMILY TEIIDAE (5)
Aspidoscelis communis (Cope, 1878) 4 LC Pr H (14) 1 2009 Aguilar-Miguel et al. 2009
Aspidoscelis costatus (Cope, 1878) 4 LC Pr M (11) 1 1941 ENCB 6757
Aspidoscelis deppii (Wiegmann, 1834) 4 LC NL L (8) 3 1977 MZFC 5884
Aspidoscelis gularis (Baird & Girard, 1852) 4 LC NL L (9) 4 1930 MCZ Herp R-33685
Aspidoscelis sackii (Wiegmann, 1834) 4 LC NL H (14) 1 1966 ENCB 4285
SUBORDER SERPENTES
FAMILY BOIDAE (1)
Boa sigma Smith, 1943 4 NE NL H (15) 1 1985 Camarillo-Rangel et al. 1985
FAMILY COLUBRIDAE (21)
Conopsis biserialis (Taylor & Smith, 1942) 1,2,3,6 LC A M (13) 1 1932 Taylor and Smith 1942
Conopsis lineata (Kennicott, 1859) 1,2,3,6 LC NL M (13) 1 1859 Kennicott 1859
Conopsis nasus (Günther, 1858) 1,2,3 ,6 LC NL M (11) 1 1921 MCZ R-16128
Drymarchon melanurus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) 4 LC NL L (6) 3 1975 ENCB 9028
Drymobius margaritiferus (Schlegel, 1837) 4 LC NL L (6) 3 1939 MCZ R-45575
Lampropeltis polyzona Cope, 1860 1,2,3,4,5 LC NL L (7) 1 1943 ENCB 2205
Leptophis diplotropis (Günther, 1872) 4 LC A H (14) 1 1978 CNAR 3264
Masticophis mentovarius (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) 4 LC A L (6) 3 1960 KUNHM 67691
Oxybelis aeneus (Wagler, 1824) 4 LC NL L (5) 4 1985 Camarillo-Rangel et al. 1985
Pituophis deppei (Dumeril, 1853) 1,2,3,4,6 LC A H (14) 1 1853 Dumeril 1853
Pituophis lineaticollis (Cope, 1861) 1,2,3,4,5 LC NL L (8) 3 1940 UIMNH 36223 reported by Duellman 1960
Pseudoficimia frontalis (Cope, 1864) 4 LC NL M (13) 1 1951 AMNH R-71359
Salvadora bairdi Jan & Sordelli, 1860 1,2,3,4,5,6 LC Pr H (15) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Salvadora mexicana (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) 4 LC Pr H (15) 1 1982 CNAR 3908
Senticolis triaspis (Cope, 1866) 1,2,4,5 LC NL L (6) 3 1943 ENCB 2207
Tantilla bocourti (Günther, 1895) 1,2,5 LC NL L (9) 1 1960 KUNHM 67723
Tantilla calamarina Cope, 1866 4 LC Pr M (12) 1 1981 UTEP H-13999
Tantilla deppei (Bocourt, 1883) 4 LC A M (13) 1 1977 CNAR 1751
Tantilla rubra Cope, 1875 1,2,3,5 LC Pr L (5) 3 2009 Aguilar-Miguel et al. 2009
Trimorphodon biscutatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) 4 NE NL L (7) 3 1983 Camarillo-Rangel 1983
Trimorphodon tau Cope, 1870 4 LC NL M (13) 1 1943 ENCB 2206
FAMILY DIPSADIDAE (12)
Conophis vittatus Peters, 1860 4 LC NL M (11) 3 2004 Matias-Ferrer and Murillo 2004c
Diadophis punctatus (Linnaeus, 1766) 1,2,3,6 LC NL L (4) 2 1937 MZFC 2307
Enulius flavitorques (Cope, 1868) 4 LC NL L (5) 3 1951 AMNH R-71357
Geophis bicolor Günther, 1868 4 DD Pr H (15) 1 1992 Camarillo-Rangel and Smith 1992
Geophis sieboldi (Jan, 1862) 4 DD Pr M (13) 1 1991 MZFC 36
Imantodes gemmistratus (Cope, 1861) 4 LC Pr L (6) 3 1951 AMNH R-71361
Leptodeira maculata (Hallowell, 1861) 4,6 LC Pr L (7) 1 1965 CNAR 1102
Leptodeira septentrionalis (Kennicott, 1859) 4 LC NL L (8) 4 1992 Camarillo-Rangel and Smith 1992
Leptodeira splendida Günther, 1895 4 LC NL H (14) 1 1976 CNAR 3770
Rhadinaea hesperia Bailey, 1940 4 LC Pr M (10) 1 1973 ENCB 7829
Rhadinaea laureata (Günther, 1868) 1,2,3 LC NL M (12) 1 1952 KUNHM 39966
Rhadinaea taeniata (Peters, 1863) 1,2 LC NL M (13) 1 1979 CNAR 3543
FAMILY ELAPIDAE (3)
Micrurus browni Schmidt & Smith, 1943 1,2 LC Pr L (8) 3 1954 KUNHM 50701
Micrurus laticollaris Peters, 1870 4 LC Pr H (14) 1 1986 ENCB 12924
Micrurus tener Baird & Girard, 1953 1,4 LC NL M (11) 2 1943 ENCB 2204
FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE (2)
Epictia bakewelli (Oliver, 1937) 4 NE NL NE 1 1985 Camarillo-Rangel et al. 1985
Rena maxima (Loveridge, 1932) 4 LC NL M (11) 1 1960 KUNHM 67639
FAMILY NATRICIDAE (7)
Storeria storerioides (Cope, 1866) 1,2,3 LC NL M (11) 1 1938 UIMNH 18771
Thamnophis cyrtopsis (Kennicott, 1860) 1,2,3,4,6 LC A L (7) 4 1892 USNM 19003
Thamnophis eques (Reuss, 1834) 1,2,3,4,6 LC A L (8) 2 1904 USNM 46599
Thamnophis melanogaster (Wiegmann, 1830) 1,2,3,6 EN A H (15) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Thamnophis pulchrilatus (Cope, 1885) 1,2,3,4 LC NL H (15) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Thamnophis scalaris Cope, 1861 1,2,3,5 LC A H (14) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Thamnohis scaliger (Jan, 1863) 1,2,3,5,6 VU A H (15) 1 1939 UMMZ 85367
FAMILY TYPHLOPIDAE (1)
Indotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803) IN IN IN IN IN 1997 CNAR 11307
FAMILY VIPERIDAE (10)
Crotalus aquilus Klauber, 1952 1,2,3,4,6 LC Pr H (16) 1 1982 CNAR 4246
Crotalus atrox Baird & Girard, 1853 5 LC Pr L (9) 2 2004 Matias-Ferrer and Murillo 2004b
Crotalus culminatus Klauber, 1952 4 NE NL H (15) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Crotalus molossus Baird & Girard, 1853 1,2,3,6 LC Pr L (8) 2 1888 Dugès 1888
Crotalus polystictus (Cope, 1865) 1,2,3,4 LC Pr H (16) 1 1888 Dugès 1888
Crotalus ravus Cope, 1865 1,2,3,4,6 LC A H (14) 1 1938 UIMNH 19186
Crotalus scutulatus (Kennicott, 1861) 5 LC Pr M (11) 2 1967 ENCB 3853
Crotalus tlaloci Bryson, Linkem, Dorcas, Lathrop, Jones, Alvarado-Días, Grünwald & Murphy, 2014 1,2,3,4 NE NL H (16) 1 2014 Bryson et al. 2014
Crotalus transversus Taylor, 1944 2,3 LC P H (17) 1 1973 KUNHM 159362
Crotalus triseriatus (Wagler, 1830) 1,2,3,4,6 LC NL H (16) 1 1940 MVZ 36745
ORDER TESTUDINES
EMYDIDAE (1)
Trachemys venusta (Gray, 1855) 4 NE NL M (13) 3 1939 MCZ R-45542
FAMILY GEOEMYDIDAE (1)
Rhinoclemmys rubida (Cope, 1870) 4 NT Pr H (14) 1 1983 Camarillo-Rangel 1983
FAMILY KINOSTERNIDAE (2)
Kinosternon hirtipes (Wagler, 1830) 1,4,5,6 LC Pr M (10) 2 1888 Dugès 1888
Kinosternon integrum LeConte, 1854 4 LC Pr M (11) 1 1888 Dugès 1888

Habitat types

In the State of Mexico, the percentage of herpetofaunal species found in the Oak (51.7%), Pine-oak (55.8%), Pine (44.9%), and Tropical Deciduous Forest (51.7%) vegetation types are relatively equal (Table 1). However, the Grassland (29.9%) and Scrubland (23.8%) vegetation types have relatively fewer species. This pattern of the observed percentage of species in each habitat type is the same for amphibians and reptiles individually in the Oak, Pine-oak, and Pine Forests; and in the Scrubland. However, the Tropical Deciduous Forest contains a higher percentage of reptiles (80.3%) than for amphibians (19.7%), which might be due to the dry conditions of this vegetation type. The percentage of species found in the Grassland is the same for amphibians as for reptiles (50.0% for both), perhaps due to the high altitude grasslands that intermingle with Pine Forest in the State of Mexico, and these grasslands often traverse streams which host important populations of hylids, ranids, ambystomatids, anguids, phrynosomatids, colubrids, and vipers in the State of Mexico.

Table 2.

List of amphibian and reptile species that potentially occur in the State of Mexico.

Region in the State of Mexico where it likely occurs
CLASS AMPHIBIA
ORDER ANURA
Family Craugastoridae
Craugastor rhodopis (Cope, 1867) southern
Family Hylidae
Scinax staufferi (Cope, 1865) southern
CLASS REPTILIA
ORDER SQUAMATA
SUBORDER AMPHISBAENIA
Family Bipedidae
Bipes canaliculatus Latreille, 1801 extreme southwestern
SUBORDER LACERTILIA
Family Anguidae
Gerrhonotus ophiourus Cope, 1867 eastern and southern
Family Eublepharidae
Coleonyx elegans Gray, 1845 extreme southwestern
Family Phrynosomatidae
Phrynosoma asio Cope, 1864 extreme southwestern
Sceloporus minor Cope, 1885 northern
Sceloporus siniferus Cope, 1870 extreme southwestern
Sceloporus utiformis Cope, 1864 extreme southwestern
Family Phyllodactylidae
Phyllodactylus bordai Taylor, 1942 extreme southwestern
Phyllodactylus tuberculosus Wiegmann, 1834 extreme southwestern
Family Teiidae
Holcosus sinister (Wiegmann, 1834) extreme southwestern
SUBORDER SERPENTES
Family Colubridae
Ficimia publia (Cope, 1866) extreme southwestern
Lampropeltis ruthveni Blanchard, 1920 northern
Mastigodryas melanolomus (Cope, 1868) extreme southwestern
Sonora michoacanensi (Dugès, 1884) western and southwestern
Family Dipsadidae
Pseudoleptodeira latifasciata (Günther, 1894) extreme southwestern
Tropidodipsas zweifeli (Liner & Wilson, 1970) extreme southwestern
Family Loxocemidae
Loxocemus bicolor Cope, 1861 extreme southwestern
Family Viperidae
Agkistrodon bilineatus Günther, 1863 extreme southwestern
ORDER TESTUDINES
Family Kinosternidae
Kinosternon scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766) western and southwestern

Conservation status

Of the amphibian and reptile species in the State of Mexico, 20.1% are IUCN listed (i.e., Vulnerable, Near Threatened, or Endangered), 18.4% are placed in a protected category by SEMARNAT (excluding NL and Pr, this last category is equivalent to the LC category of IUCN), and 34.9% are categorized as high risk by the EVS (Table 3; Fig. 8). For amphibians, 41.7% are IUCN listed, 20.8% are protected by SEMARNAT, and 33.3% are at high risk according to the EVS (Table 3; Fig. 8). For reptiles, 8.8% are listed by the IUCN, 17.2% are protected by SEMARNAT, and 35.7% are at high risk according to the EVS (Table 3; Fig. 8). These results suggest that many amphibians found in the State of Mexico are at risk and of relatively high conservation concern at both the global and national scale. However, the reptiles found in the State of Mexico are less at risk according to the global and national assessments of the IUCN and SEMARNAT, respectively; but the EVS suggests they may be at higher risk than the IUCN and SEMARNAT assessments suggest. Based on our review of the conservation statuses of the herpetofauna found in the State of Mexico, we have identified several families that include species of particular conservation concern. These families include Craugastoridae, Eleutherodactylidae, Ambystomatidae, Plethodontidae, Helodermatidae, Iguanidae, Phrynosomatidae, Colubridae, Natricidae, and Viperidae (Table 3). Because the conservation statuses we reviewed are developed and applied at a species wide level, we believe that the conservation status of specific taxa in the State of Mexico may not be accurately reflected by these measures. Additional state level assessments are needed, especially for species in the families we have identified as being at a particularly high level of risk.

Figure 8. 

Proportion of A) amphibians and B) reptiles listed in protected categories on the IUCN Red List, SEMARNAT, and high EVS for the State of Mexico. Green is proportion in Data Deficient and Least Concern (IUCN); Not Listed and Subject to Special Protection (we regarded the category of Subject to Special Protection in SEMARNAT equivalent to Least Concern in IUCN) (SEMARNAT); or low or medium EVS. Red is percentage in protected categories or high EVS. N is the number of species assessed.

Table 3.

Summary of native species present in the State of Mexico by family, order or suborder, and class. Status summary indicates the number of species found in each IUCN conservation status in the order DD, LC, VU, NT, EN, CR (see Table 1 for abbreviations; in some cases species have not been assigned a status by the IUCN and therefore these may not add up to the total number of species in a taxon). Mean EVS is the mean Environmental Vulnerability Score; scores ≥ 14 are considered high vulnerability (Wilson et al. 2013a, b) and conservation status in Mexico according to SEMARNAT (2019) in the order NL, Pr, A, P (see Table 1 for abbreviations).

Scientific name Genera Species IUCN EVS SEMARNAT
DD, LC, VU, NT, EN, CR NL, Pr, A, P
CLASS AMPHIBIA
ORDER ANURA 15 32 1,24,2,1,3,1 10.3 20,9,2,1
Bufonidae 3 5 0,4,0,0,1,0 10.4 5,0,0,0
Craugastoridae 1 4 0,2,1,0,1,0 11.25 4,0,0,0
Eleutherodactylidae 1 4 1,2,1,0,0,0 14.3 2,2,0,0
Hylidae 5 9 0,8,0,0,1,0 9.3 6,2,1,0
Leptodactylidae 1 1 0,1,0,0,0,0 6 0,1,0,0
Microhylidae 1 1 0,1,0,0,0,0 4 0,1,0,0
Phyllomedusidae 1 1 0,1,0,0,0,0 13 0,1,0,0
Ranidae 1 6 0,4,0,1,0,1 11.2 2,2,1,1
Scaphiopodidae 1 1 0,1,0,0,0,0 3 1,0,0,0
ORDER CAUDATA 5 16 1,2,2,1,5,5 14.8 2,7,7,0
Ambystomatidae 1 8 1,1,0,0,2,4 13.5 0,5,3,0
Plethodontidae 4 8 0,1,2,1,3,1 16.1 2,2,4,0
SUBTOTAL 20 48 2,26,4,2,8,6 11.8 22,16,9,1
CLASS REPTILIA
ORDER SQUAMATA 40 95 2,79,3,0,4,0 11.5 53,25,15,2
SUBORDER LACERTILIA 13 39 0,32,2,0,3,0 12.4 25,9,4,1
Anguidae 3 5 0,2,0,0,3,0 13.2 1,2,1,1
Dactyloidae 1 1 0,1,0,0,0,0 13 1,0,0,0
Helodermatidae 1 1 0,1,0,0,0,0 11 0,0,1,0
Iguanidae 1 1 0,0,0,0,0,0 15 0,0,1,0
Phrynosomatidae 3 19 0,18,1,0,0,0 12.4 16,2,1,0
Phyllodactylidae 1 1 0,1,0,0,0,0 15 1,0,0,0
Scincidae 2 6 0,4,1,0,0,0 12 3,3,0,0
Teiidae 1 5 0,5,0,0,0,0 11.2 3,2,0,0
SUBORDER SERPENTES 27 56 2,47,1,0,1,0 11 28,16,11,1
Boidae 1 1 0,0,0,0,0,0 15 1,0,0,0
Colubridae 13 21 0,20,0,0,0,0 10 12,4,5,0
Dipsadidae 7 12 2,10,0,0,0,0 9.8 7,5,0,0
Elapidae 1 3 0,3,0,0,0,0 11 1,2,0,0
Leptotyphlopidae 2 2 0,1,0,0,0,0 11 2,0,0,0
Natricidae 2 7 0,5,1,0,1,0 11.5 2,0,5,0
Viperidae 1 10 0,8,0,0,0,0 13.8 3,5,1,1
ORDER TESTUDINES 3 4 0,2,0,1,0,0 12 1,3,0,0
Emydidae 1 1 0,0,0,0,0,0 13 1,0,0,0
Geoemydidae 1 1 0,0,0,1,0,0 14 0,1,0,0
Kinosternidae 1 2 0,2,0,0,0,0 10.5 0,2,0,0
SUBTOTAL 43 99 2,81,3,1,4,0 11.6 54,28,15,2
TOTAL 63 147 4107,7,3,12,6 11.7 76,44,24,3

We summarized the conservation status of amphibian and reptile taxa in each vegetation type found in the State of Mexico to determine the vegetation types that support species of particular conservation concern (Table 1). For IUCN listings, 43.3% of amphibian species in the Oak Forest are listed in a protected category; 48.5% in the Pine-oak Forest; 50.0% in the Pine Forest; 13.3% in the Tropical Deciduous Forest; 59.1% in the Grassland; and 16.7% in the Scrubland. For SEMARNAT listings of amphibian species, 30.0% in the Oak Forest are listed in a protected category; 30.3% in the Pine-oak Forest; 34.6% in the Pine Forest; 0% in the Tropical Deciduous Forest; 36.4% in the Grassland; and 16.7% in the Scrubland. For EVS, 40.0% of amphibian species in the Oak Forest of the State of Mexico were in the high category, 45.5% in the Pine-oak Forest, 42.3% in the Pine Forest, 0% in the Tropical Deciduous Forest, 54.5% in the Grassland, and 25.0% in the Scrubland. For IUCN listings, 8.9% of reptile species in the Oak Forest are listed in a protected category; 12.5% in the Pine-oak Forest; 12.5% in the Pine Forest; 3.8% in the Tropical Deciduous Forest; 9.1% in the Grassland; and 8.7% in the Scrubland. For SEMARNAT listings of reptile species, 22.2% in the Oak Forest are listed in a protected category; 25.0% in the Pine-oak Forest; 25.6% in the Pine Forest; 15.0% in the Tropical Deciduous Forest; 18.2% in the Grassland; and 34.8% in the Scrubland. For EVS, 42.2% of reptile species in the Oak Forest of the State of Mexico were in the high category, 45.8% in the Pine-oak Forest, 53.8% in the Pine Forest, 35.0% in the Tropical Deciduous Forest, 22.7% in the Grassland, and 34.8% in the Scrubland. Given the apparent importance of forested habitats in terms of protected amphibian and reptile species in the State of Mexico, efforts to maintain or expand such habitats, perhaps by reforestation, is a management strategy that needs to be considered. Indeed, Sánchez-Jasso et al. (2013) found that reforested woodlands in the State of Mexico supported a relatively high richness of vertebrates.

Comparison with neighboring states

Overall, the State of Mexico shares the most species (76.9%) with Michoacán (Table 4). The State of Mexico also shares the most amphibian species with Michoacán (72.9%), including 87.5% of its anuran species, and 43.8% of its salamander species. These two states are especially important for salamanders in the family Ambystomatidae and contribute 11 of the 14 species of the regional pool, only lacking A. mexicanum (endemic to Mexico City), A. taylori (endemic to Puebla), and A. subsalsum. For reptiles, the State of Mexico shares 78.8% of its reptile species with Michoacán. The similarity between these two states is due to the long border between them (241 km, INEGI 2018) and the fact that the larger Michoacán contains essentially all of the vegetation types present in the State of Mexico. In contrast, the state that shares the second highest number of species with the State of Mexico is the small state of Morelos. Morelos, along with the State of Mexico and Mexico City, share parts of the Corredor Biológico Chichinautzin, which includes the Lagunas de Zempoala National Park, that hosts a unique assortment of amphibians and reptiles. Moreover, Morelos shares part of the Tropical Deciduous Forest with the southern part of the State of Mexico. Puebla and Guerrero also share a large number of species with the State of Mexico. Hidalgo, Querétaro, and Mexico City share fewer amphibian and reptile species with the State of Mexico. Hidalgo and Querétaro are states whose dominant species are from the Mexican Altiplano and the Sierra Madre Oriental, whereas the dominant species for the State of Mexico are a combination of species of the Eje Neovolcánico and the Sierra Madre del Sur. The lower number of shared species among these states may also reflect the inherent species richness of the shared habitat types. In addition, the border of Querétaro with the State of Mexico is quite short (95.3 km, INEGI 2018), and although the border of Hidalgo with the State of Mexico is the longest of the other neighboring states (422.3 km, INEGI 2018), most of this border is confined to the subprovince of Llanuras and Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo, with a sole contribution of species typical of the Mexican Altiplano. On the other hand, although Mexico City is nearly surrounded by the State of Mexico, its small size (1,485 km2) along with its large urbanized area, results in a small number of species of amphibians and reptiles (63: Lemos-Espinal and Smith, in press), which also results in an equally small number of species shared between Mexico City and the State of Mexico (59). However, 93.7% of the total number of species recorded for Mexico City is shared with the State of Mexico.

Table 4.

Summary of the numbers of species shared between the State of Mexico and neighboring Mexican states (not including introduced species). The percent of the State of Mexico species shared by a neighboring state are given in parentheses. – indicates either the State of Mexico or the neighboring state has no species in the taxonomic group, or none of that specific taxon is shared between the states, thus no value for shared species is provided.

Taxon State of Mexico Michoacán Morelos Puebla Guerrero Hidalgo Querétaro Mexico City
CLASS AMPHIBIA 48 35 (72.9) 33 (68.8) 27 (56.3) 26 (55.3) 20 (41.7) 16 (33.3) 16 (33.3)
ORDER ANURA 32 28 (87.5) 26 (81.3) 23 (71.9) 23 (71.9) 16 (50.0) 13 (40.6) 8 (25.0)
Bufonidae 5 5 (100) 5 (100) 5 (100) 4 (80.0) 3 (60.0) 3 (60.0) 1 (20.0)
Craugastoridae 4 3 (75.0) 4 (100) 3 (75.0) 4 (100) 1 (25.0) 1 (25.0) 1 (25.0)
Eleutherodactylidae 4 3 (75.0) 3 (75.0) 1 (25.0) 2 (50.0) 1 (25.0) 1 (25.0)
Hylidae 9 8 (88.9) 7 (77.8) 7 (77.8) 7 (77.8) 5 (55.6) 3 (33.3) 3 (33.3)
Leptodactylidae 1 1 (100) 0 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
Microhylidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
Phyllomedusidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
Ranidae 6 5 (83.3) 4 (66.7) 3 (50.0) 2 (33.3) 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 2 (33.3)
Scaphiopodidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
ORDER CAUDATA 16 7 (43.8) 7 (43.8) 4 (25.0) 3 (18.8) 4 (25.0) 3 (18.8)) 8 (50.0)
Ambystomatidae 8 4 (50.0) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 2 (25.0)
Plethodontidae 8 3 (37.5) 6 (75.0) 3 (37.5) 2 (25.0) 3 (37.5) 2 (25.0) 6 (75.0)
CLASS REPTILIA 99 78 (78.8) 73 (71.8) 71 (71.7) 65 (65.7) 47 (47.5) 45 (45.5) 43 (43.4)
ORDER SQUAMATA 95 75 (78.9) 71 (74.7) 69 (72.6) 63 (66.3) 44 (46.3) 43 (45.3) 41 (43.2)
SUBORDER LACERTILIA 39 28 (71.8) 29 (74.4) 26 (66.7) 26 (66.7) 12 (30.8) 10 (25.6) 14 (35.9)
Anguidae 5 3 (60.0) 4 (80.0) 2 (40.0) 3 (60.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0)
Dactyloidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
Helodermatidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
Iguanidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
Phrynosomatidae 19 12 (63.2) 14 (73.7) 15 (78.9) 12 (63.2) 9 (47.4) 7 (36.8) 10 (52.6)
Phyllodactylidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100)
Scincidae 6 4 (66.7) 4 (66.7) 4 (66.7) 3 (50.0) 1 (16.7) 1 (16.7) 2 (33.3)
Teiidae 5 5 (100) 4 (80.0) 3 (60.0) 4 (80.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0) 1 (20.0)
SUBORDER SERPENTES 56 47 (83.9) 42 (75.0) 43 (76.8) 37 (66.1) 32 (57.1) 33 (58.9) 27 (48.2)
Boidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100) 1 (100)
Colubridae 21 19 (90.5) 19 (90.5) 20 (95.2) 18 (85.7) 13 (61.9) 14 (66.7) 9 (42.9)
Dipsadidae 12 11 (91.7) 8 (66.7) 7 (58.3) 8 (66.6) 5 (41.7) 4 (33.3) 4 (33.3)
Elapidae 3 2 (66.7) 2 (66.7) 2 (66.7) 2 (66.6) 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3)
Leptotyphlopidae 2 2 (100) 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 2 (100) 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0)
Natricidae 7 7 (100) 4 (57.1) 6 (85.7) 3 (42.9) 6 (85.7) 6 (85.7) 7 (100)
Viperidae 10 5 (50.0) 7 (70.0) 6 (60.0) 3 (30.0) 6 (60.0) 7 (70.0) 6 (60.0)
ORDER TESTUDINES 4 3 (75.0) 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0) 3 (75.0) 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0)
Emydidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100)
Geoemydidae 1 1 (100) 1 (100)
Kinosternidae 2 2 (100) 2 (100) 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0) 2 (100) 2 (100) 2 (100)
TOTAL 147 113 (76.9) 106 (72.1) 98 (66.7) 91 (61.9) 67 (45.6) 61 (41.5) 59 (40.1)

Acknowledgments

We thank Jesús Sigala and John Murphy for very helpful comments that greatly improved the manuscript. Support for this study was provided by Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico, Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (DGAPA-PAPIIT) through the Project IN215418. We are grateful to Alejandra Núñez Merchand from the National Commission for the Understanding and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) for kindly creating and providing the municipality, topographic, physiographic, climate, and vegetation maps used in this publication and for generating the state border lengths of the State of Mexico’s neighboring states, and to Isabel Cruz, also from CONABIO, for providing the satellite images of the State of Mexico. We are grateful to Alan Resetar and Joshua Mata from the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois; Emily M. Braker from the University of Colorado Museum, University of Colorado at Boulder; Jimmy McGuire, Carol Spencer, and David Wake from the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at Berkeley, University of California at Berkeley; and D. Dickey and D.A. Kizirian from the American Museum of Natural History, New York. Eric Centenero-Alcalá kindly allowed us to use his photographs in Figure 6.

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Appendix 1

Museum collections included in the VertNet.org database records of the State of Mexico amphibians and reptiles that house specimens of the first record of a species in the State of Mexico.

AMNH Collection of Herpetology, Herpetology Department, American Museum of Natural History;

CNAR Colección Nacional de Anfibios y Reptiles, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México;

ENCB Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional;

FMNH Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Field Museum of Natural History;

MCZ Collection of Herpetology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University Cambridge;

KUNHM Museum of Natural History, Division of Herpetology, University of Kansas;

MVZ Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at Berkeley, Herpetological Collection;

MZFC Museo de Zoología Alfonso L. Herrera, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. Colección Herpetológica;

NHM Natural History Museum, London, Zoological Collection;

TCWC Collection of Herpetology, Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection, Texas A&M University;

UCM Collection of Herpetology, University of Colorado Museum;

UIMNH University of Illinois Museum of Natural History Amphibian and Reptile Collection;

UMMZ Collection of Herpetology, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan Ann Arbor;

USNM Collection of Herpetology, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution;

UTAMM Merriam Museum, University of Texas Arlington;

UTEP Collection of Herpetology, Laboratory of Environmental Biology, Biological Science Department, University of Texas – El Paso.