Catalogue
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Catalogue
An annotated catalogue of the types of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, with brief historical notes
expand article infoPaolo Rosa, Hege Vårdal§
‡ Unaffiliated, Bernareggio, Italy
§ Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
Open Access

Abstract

A critical and annotated catalogue of 72 types of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) belonging to 53 species and subspecies housed in the Swedish Museum of Natural History is given. The lectotypes of Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845, C. soror Dahlbom, 1854, Chrysura sulcata Dahlbom, 1845 and Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom, 1845 are designated. The previous lectotype of Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845 is set aside. Five new synonymies are proposed: Chrysis elegans var. smaragdula Trautmann, 1926 (currently C. elegans ssp. interrogata Linsenmaier, 1959 repl. name for smaragdula Trautmann, nec Fabricius, 1775), syn. n. of C. confluens (Dahlbom, 1845); C. eximia Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of C. poecila Mocsáry, 1889; C. pyrrhina Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of C. erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845; C. separata Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of C. lateralis Dahlbom, 1845; C. sicula Abeille de Perrin, 1877, syn. n. of C. erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845. Chrysis serena Radoszkowski, 1891 is the first available name for C. pyrrhina sensu auctorum. C. erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845 is revaluated as valid species. The neotype of Chrysis inaequalis Dahlbom, 1845 is designated in the Linsenmaier collection (NMLS). Illustrations of 34 types are given.

Keywords

Chrysididae, catalogue, neotype designation, lectotype designation

Introduction

The Chrysididae collection in the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NHRS) is an important historical collection in Europe that includes several types described by Dahlbom and other authors. It is divided in three parts: the general collection, the Swedish collection and the type collection. A few specimens (294 specimens) of Chrysididae can be found in separate historical collections (Boheman’s collection).

The general collection consists of 15 drawers that were reorganized by the first author in 2012 in taxonomical and alphabetical order sensu Kimsey and Bohart (1991) and it includes about 1700 specimens. The Swedish collection consists of 19 drawers and 1762 specimens belonging to about 50 taxa. All the type specimens were labelled with red type labels and transferred to the type collection, which currently includes 72 types belonging to 53 species and subspecies: 30 holotypes, 20 paratypes, 7 syntypes, 6 lectotypes and 9 paralectotypes. Unfortunately, the original identification labels by Dahlbom are lost, probably removed after a subsequent reorganization of the collection in the nineteenth century. For this reason we encountered some difficulties in identifying some original types (e.g. Platycelia ehrenbergi and Stilbum wesmaeli).

Dahlbom (1845) did not list all the examined specimens, but he used different Latin words related to the frequency at which he encountered the examined species: vulgatissima (very common), vulgar (common), freq. (= frequentes, frequent), pl. min. freq. (plus or minus frequentes, more or less frequent), pass. (= passim, literally ‘here and there’), rar. (= rarus, used when he examined few specimens) and rariss. (= rarissima, when he examined only one specimen). These characterisations were taken into consideration when studying the type material. At that time, the Code of Zoological Nomenclature was not yet published, and Dahlbom (1845, 1854) did not follow the “Principle of Priority”. In some cases, he changed the priority of species previously described. These changes led to confusion among the following authors, as shown in the remarks (e.g. Chrysis mediocris, Hedychridium cupreum, Holopyga amoenula). In other cases he changed the original description, after the examination of further material (e.g. Chrysis sulcata).

The present paper is mainly focused on the type material described by Dahlbom, but also includes other Chrysidid types described by authors after Dahlbom and housed at the Swedish Museum of Natural History (NHRS). Cameron (1910) and Hammer (1950) described some species and dedicated two new species to Yngve Sjöstedt, the professor and curator of the entomology department of the NHRS: Chrysis sjostedti Cameron and Cleptes sjostedti Hammer. Some paratypes were donated by Linsenmaier (1959a), who was in contact and exchanged several specimens with Stellan Erlandsson and the Gaunitz family. In the 1960s the museum loaned some exotic specimens to the Swiss entomologist Walter Linsenmaier, who described a new species (Chrysis tenuimediata Linsenmaier, 1968). A great part of that loan remained unidentified and was sent back to the Museum after Linsenmaier’s death. The Finnish entomologist Erikki Valkeila (1971) deposited the holotype of Chrysis corusca and the paratype of C. scintillans here. Valkeila was very active and identified many specimens in the NHRS Chrysididae collection. In the 1980s Bohart borrowed some African types, and kindly deposited some paratypes of Nearctic species. It is unclear how two types by Balthasar (1957) arrived in the collection.

Anders Gustaf Dahlbom was born in Herrberga parish in Östergötland County on March 3, 1806. From his father, the surgeon Anders Dahlbom, he inherited a strong interest in insects (Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon 2013). He matriculated at Lund University in 1825, studied natural history, medicine and pharmacology and completed his master’s degree (Dahlbom 1829), with a thesis on Chrysididae (Monographia Chrysidum Sveciæ). He became a docent of natural history in 1830 in Lund and from 1843 lecturer in entomology as well as curator of the entomological collections at the Museum of Zoology at Lund University. In 1857, two years before he died, Dahlbom was appointed professor (Dal 1996). Dahlbom was a pioneer in applied entomology and wrote a handbook for farmers and naturalists about common benefits and potential problems with the Scandinavian insects that can be found in and around a house or farm (Dahlbom 1838). However, most of his works are on systematic entomology and are characterized by careful descriptions and sharp-eyed observations (Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon 2013). He took part in several entomological research journeys with his teacher Johan Wilhelm Zetterstedt in northern Sweden and abroad.

Dahlbom had the opportunity to visit some of the museums that were the most important in Europe at that time: Berlin (MNHU), Copenhagen (ZMUC), London (BMNH), Paris (MNHN), and his types are currently found in Berlin (MNHU), Copenhagen (ZMUC), Lund (MZLU), Stockholm (NHRS), Turin (MRSN) and Vienna (MHNW). He published his observations and studies on Chrysididae in four publications: Exercitationes Hymenopterologicae, Monographia Chrysididum Sveciae (Dahlbom 1831), Dispositio Methodica Specierum Hymenopterorum. Particula II – Chrysis in sensu Linnæano (Dahlbom 1845), Syd-Africanska Chrysides (Dahlbom 1850), Hymenoptera europaea praecipue borealia (Dahlbom 1854). The latter is considered a landmark in the study of Chrysididae. For the first time he provided keys to genera and species and an attempt to organize all the known information on Chrysidids at that time. In total he described 213 new species (Dahlbom 1854) of which more than 150 are still valid (Kimsey and Bohart 1991), and his descriptions were used as models for that time. Dahlbom examined Fabricius’ types deposited at Kiel (ZMUC) and in Vienna (MHNW), Klug’s types in Berlin (MNHU) and Spinola’s types from his private collection (MRSN, Rosa and Xu 2015). Dahlbom passed away on May 3, 1859, in Lund. Most of his large collection, his library, a rich archive of correspondence with international and national researchers, and a catalogue of the collections and their history were donated to the entomological collections in Lund (MZLU) (Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon 2013).

Material and methods

Terminology and classification of the genera follows Kimsey and Bohart (1991). Classification of species follows Fauna Europaea (Rosa and Soon 2012), Linsenmaier (1959, 1968, 1987, 1997a, 1997b, 1999), Rosa (2006), Van der Smissen (2010) and Móczár (1998a, b), for the genus Cleptes. These works have been taken in consideration also for the reorganization of the general collection. The 4th edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), in effect since 1st January 2000, has been applied to the present work.

The type list is arranged alphabetically and the following data are given: name of the species and of the author, the complete reference of the description, type locality, current systematic placement, category of the type, number and sex of specimens, complete label, in which handwritten text is given in italics; labels are separated from each other by square brackets; a stroke marks the end of a line. The state of preservation is given only in case of damaged types.

Only selected types were illustrated, such as the newly designated neotype and lectotypes. Pictures of the types were taken with Nikon D-80 connected to the stereomicroscope Togal SCZ and stacked with the software Combine ZP (by Paolo Rosa); the white calibration of the photocamera was applied to reduce the blue effect of the neon light of the Togal microscope. Two pictures were taken with Canon EOS 7D combined with the software Zerene Stacker (“HV” photos = by Hege Vårdal).

All the chrysidid types housed at the NHRS were labelled with NHRS-HEVA catalogue numbers and databased in the DINA-system used by several Swedish natural history collections. This data is presented on Naturarv which is the Search Portal for Natural History Collections in Sweden (www.naturarv.se). GBIF harvest data from this system on a regular basis. High resolution photographs of the types presented in this paper will be uploaded on the database of biological images Morphbank (www.morphbank.net).

Other specimens examined or discussed are deposited in the following institutions:

BME Bohart Museum of Entomology, University of California, Davis, USA.

BMNH The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom.

HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary.

ISEA–PAS Invertebrate collections of the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow, Poland.

MNHN National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France.

MNHU Museum of Natural History of the Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany.

MRSN Regional Museum of Natural Science, Turin, Italy.

MZH Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki; Helsinki, Finland.

MZLU Lund Zoological Museum, University of Lund, Sweden.

NHMW Natural History Museum, Vienna, Austria.

NHRS Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.

NMLS Natur-Museum, Luzern, Switzerland.

NMPC National Museum of Natural History, Prague, Czech Republic.

ZMUC Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

ZMUK Zoological Museum, University of Kiel, Germany.

Catalogue of the types in NHRS

Argochrysis albicornis Bohart, 1982

Argochrysis albicornis: Bohart (in Bohart & Kimsey) 1982: 189.

Type locality

U.S.A. (holotype from Borrego Valley, San Diego Co., California; paratypes: 44 ♂♂ and 58 ♀♀ form California and Nevada).

Paratype 1 ♂

[1,000 Palms Cyn., Cal. Riverside Co. IV-9-1964] [R.M. Bohart collector] [Paratype Argochrysis albicornisR. M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001057].

Paratype 1 ♀

[Calif 2 mi E Lone Pine Inyo Co. V-19-1970] [E.E. Grissell Colr] [Paratype Argochrysis albicornis ♀ R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001058].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited at the BME.

Current status

Argochrysis albicornis Bohart, 1982.

Argochrysis armilla Bohart, 1982

Argochrysis armilla: Bohart (in Bohart & Kimsey) 1982: 189.

Type locality

U.S.A. (holotype from Sagehen Creek, Nevada Co., California; paratypes 42 ♂♂ and 41 ♀♀ from the same locality).

Paratype 1 ♂

[Sahegen Crk Cal. Nevada Co. VI 25 1966] [ R.L. Brumley Coll.] [Paratype Argochrysis armilla ♂ R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001063].

Paratype 1 ♀

[Sahegen Crk Nevada Co. Cal. VII 13 68] [ RM Bohart Colr.] [Paratype Argochrysis armilla ♀ R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001064].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited at the BME.

Current status

Argochrysis armilla Bohart, 1982.

Argochrysis litura Bohart, 1982

Argochrysis litura: Bohart (in Bohart & Kimsey) 1982: 193.

Type locality

U.S.A. (holotype from Tanbark Flat, Los Angeles Co., California; paratypes 34 ♂♂ and 99 ♀♀ from Arizona, California and Idaho).

Paratype 1 ♀

[Arroyo Seco Camp Calif. Monterey Co. V-15-1973] [C. Goodpasture Colr] [Paratype Argochrysis ♀ litura R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001096].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited at the BME.

Current status

Argochrysis litura Bohart, 1982.

Ceratochrysis concava Bohart, 1982

Ceratochrysis concava: Bohart (in Bohart & Kimsey) 1982: 172.

Type locality

U.S.A. (holotype from Whitewater, Riverside Co., California; paratypes 20 ♂♂ and 32 ♀♀ from Arizona, California, Nevada).

Paratype 1 ♂

[Mt. Diablo Cal. V-12-39] [G.E. Bohart Collector] [Paratype Ceratochrysis concava ♂ R. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001068].

Paratype 1 ♀

[Mt. Diablo, Cal. V-16-40] [J.W. MacSwain Collector] [Paratype Ceratochrysis concava ♀ R. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001069].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited at the BME.

Current status

Ceratochrysis concava Bohart, 1982.

Ceratochrysis minata Bohart, 1982

Ceratochrysis minata: Bohart (in Bohart & Kimsey) 1982: 177.

Type locality

U.S.A. (holotype from Davis, California; paratypes 34 ♂♂ and 30 ♀♀ from Alberta, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas and Wyoming).

Paratype ♂

[Tracy, Calif. San Joaquin Co. V-26 1949] [J.W. MacSwain Collector] [Paratype Ceratochrysis minata ♂ R. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA 000001109].

Paratype ♀

[Tracy, Calif. San Joaquin Co. VI-3 1949] [J.W. MacSwain Collector] [Paratype Ceratochrysis minata ♀ R. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001110].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited at the BME.

Current status

Ceratochrysis minata Bohart, 1982.

Chrysis bohemanni Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 1

Chrysis Bohemanni: Dahlbom 1845: 12.

Type locality

South Africa: “Port Natal”.

Holotype ♀

(not ♂): [Caffraria] [J. Wahlb.] [Type] [Bohemani (sic) Dahlb.] [275 82] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001065].

Plate 1.

Chrysis bohemanni Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Metasoma, dorsal view B head, frontal view.

Remarks

The type is a female, with the tip of the ovipositor visible. The species is dedicated to Carl Henrik Boheman (1796–1868) a Swedish entomologist. Therefore the correct name should be bohemani and not bohemanni. However, according to the Code (ICZN 1999: Article 32.5.1) in the original publication there is no clear evidence of an inadvertent error; moreover (ICZN 1999: Article 32.5.1.1), at the end of the same publication (Dahlbom 1845), a corrigendum is given including the correction of the name Scönherri in Schönherri, but not the correction of the name bohemanni. Furthermore, in the following volume (Dahlbom 1854), Carl Henrik Boheman is cited in the introduction and in the text, but Dahlbom went on using the name Chrysis bohemanni, fixing the wrong spelling, which is in current use (Bohart 1988; Madl and Rosa 2012; Strumia 2009).

Current status

Trichrysis bohemanni (Dahlbom, 1845) (transferred by Bohart 1988: 349).

Chrysis ciscirtana Linsenmaier, 1959

Chrysis ciscirtana: Linsenmaier 1959: 97.

Type locality

Palestine.

Paratype 1 ♂

[Jerusalem 5.V.43 Palestina Houska lgt.] [Paratype Chrysis L. ciscirtana Lins.♂ Linsenmaier det. 59] <handwritten in red> [NHRS-HEVA000001067].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited in the Linsenmaier collection at the NMLS.

Current status

Chrysura ciscirtana (Linsenmaier, 1959) (transferred by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 487).

Chrysis corusca Valkeila, 1971

Plate 2

Chrysis corusca: Valkeila 1971: 84.

Type locality

Sweden: “Nrk. Åsbro Lerbäck”.

Holotype ♀

[Sweden Närke Lerbäck, Åsbro 1968 G. Hallin] [390 81] <red label> [Chrysiscorusca n.sp. det. E. Valkeila – 69 Holotypus] [NRM Sthlm Loan 2571/08] [Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet Stockholm Loan no 1483/96] [Chrysisschencki Lins. det. O. Niehuis 1997] [NHRS-HEVA000001070].

Plate 2.

Chrysis corusca Valkeila, 1971, holotype. A Head and mesosoma, lateral view B head, frontal view C metasoma, lateral view D third metasomal tergite, dorso-lateral view.

Remarks

For a very long time Chrysis corusca remained an enigmatic species. Linsenmaier (1987, 1997a) did not even cite it in his revisional works on the European species. Also the most important European revisions or checklists published in the 1990s (Kunz 1994; Mingo 1994; Strumia 1995) did not include C. corusca. Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 400) were the first authors to include C. corusca in a catalogue with the status of valid species. Diagnostic characteristics were cited in the original description, Niehuis (2000: 184) found other better and usable characteristics, and later listed C. corusca as a valid species widely distributed in Germany (Niehuis 2001: 120). A detailed morphological analysis of this species was finally provided by van der Smissen (2010: 69) in her monographical work on the Chrysis ignita group. Soon and Saarma (2011) included C. corusca in their molecular analysis. The distribution of this species is still poorly known and related to central and north European countries (Paukkunen et al. 2014). However we do believe that C. corusca could have a wide distributional range and that data are missing because of misidentifications with other species within the C. ignita species group (Rosa et al. 2013).

In the original description Valkeila listed 3 females (holotype and 2 paratypes) from Närke Lerbäck, Åsbro (leg. G. Hallin). At the moment only the holotype is present in the general collection. The two paratypes are in Gunnar Hallin’s private collection, which is scheduled for donation to the NHRS (H. Vårdal, pers. comm.).

Current status

Chrysis corusca Valkeila, 1971.

Chrysis dalmanni Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 3

Chrysis Dalmanni: Dahlbom 1845: 12.

Type locality

unknown.

Holotype ♀

[Mus. Payk.] [Type] [NHRS-HEVA000001071].

Plate 3.

Chrysis dalmanni Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, dorso-lateral view B second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view C head, frontal view.

Remarks

Chrysis dalmanni is an Afrotropical species, known from South Africa (Mocsáry 1902b: 543; Edney 1952: 432; Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 402); Lesotho is also mentioned, but without precise locality (Madl and Rosa 2012: 29). The species is dedicated to Johan Wilhelm Dalman (1787–1828), a Swedish physician and a naturalist interested in entomology and botany. Similarly to the case of C. bohemanni, the correct spelling should be dalmani and not dalmanni. However, also in this case (Dahlbom 1845, 1854) it is clear Dahlbom’s intention to double the final “n”, making the original surname with a German appearance.

Current status

Chrysis dalmanni Dahlbom, 1845.

Chrysis delicatula Dahlbom, 1850

Plate 4

Chrysis delicatula: Dahlbom 1850: 138.

Type locality

South Africa, Natal province.

Holotype ♀

[Caffraria] [J. Wahlb] [Type] [Chrysis delicatula Dahlb.] [Typus] <red label> [268 82] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001072].

Plate 4.

Chrysis delicatula Dahlbom, 1850, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B metasoma, dorsal view.

Remarks

The type is damaged, the head is missing.

Current status

Chrysis delicatula Dahlbom, 1850.

Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 5

Chrysis diversa: Dahlbom 1845: 13.

Type locality

Egypt.

Lectotype

(here designated) ♀: [Egypt] [Hedb.] [47 86] <red label> [Riksmuseum Stockholm] <green label> <red label> [Paralectotypus Chrysis diversaDahlbom 1845 des. by Bohart P. Rosa vidit 2010] <red label> [Chrysis palliditarsis Spinola P. Rosa det. 2010] [NHRS-HEVA000001073] (Plate 5).

Plate 5.

Chrysis diversa Dahlbom, 1845, lectotype (photo HV). A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view.

Paralectotype 1 ♀

[Egypt] [Hedb.] [48 86] <red label> [Riksmuseum Stockholm] <green label> <red label> [Paralectotypus Chrysis diversaDahlbom 1845 des. by Bohart P. Rosa vidit 2010] <red label> [Chrysis palliditarsis Spinola P. Rosa det. 2010] [NHRS-HEVA000001074].

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845: 13) described Chrysis diversa without any information on the type-series. Later Dahlbom (1854: 226) listed that he examined only two specimens: “Habitat in Aegypto, a D. Hedenborg detecta. Specimina duo e Museo R. Acad. Scient. Stockholm. communicavit D. Boheman.” In the collection three female specimens are found. They bear red labels with the numbers 47, 48, 49 and they were all collected by Hedenborg in Egypt. Two specimens are equal and belong to the species C. palliditarsis Spinola, 1838; whereas the third specimen, although with similar colouration and habitus, is different and belongs to the species C. viridissima Klug, 1845. The latter specimen is not part of the original type-series and cannot be considered as syntype. The other two specimens, found in the collection with catalogue numbers 47 (NHRS-HEVA000001073) and 48 (NHRS-HEVA000001074) can be considered as syntypes. Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 446) designated the lectotype of Chrysis diversa and placed it in synonymy with Chrysis palliditarsis. Unfortunately, Bohart selected the specimen not syntypic and not belonging to C. palliditarsis (n° 49), but the specimen belonging to C. viridissima. It bears the labels: [Egypt] [Hedb.] [49 86] <red label> [Riksmuseum Stockholm] <green label> [Chrysis diversaDahlbom Lectotype R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001131]. This specimen must be excluded from the type-series because the anal margin is quite different from the anal margin of C. diversa as found in the original description: “Abdominis segmenti 3:tii series ante-apicalis e punctis modicis non confluentibus constituta; dentes apicales breves obtusi. Corpus 2 ½ lin. long”. All three specimens share the same shape of the pit row of the third tergite, but only two specimens have apical teeth short and more or less obtuse and their body lenght is “2 ½ lin.”. The female of C. viridissima has different anal teeth: the median ones are rounded and the lateral ones are spiniform; moreover it is longer than the other two specimens. More differences are found between the two species (e.g. the length of the malar space (Plate 5B)) but without relation to the original description. According to the ICZN (Art. 74.2) if it is demonstrated that a specimen designated as a lectotype was not a syntype, it loses its lectotype status.

We here designate one of the two female syntypes as the lectotype of C. diversa Dahlbom, 1845 to fix the synonym C. diversa Dahlbom = C. palliditarsis Spinola. If we would consider Bohart’s lectotype designation as valid, then the synonym C. diversa Dahlbom = C. viridissima Dahlbom would generate confusion, since C. diversa has the priority over C. viridissima, which is currently in prevailing use.

Current status

Chrysis palliditarsis Spinola, 1838 (synonymised by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 446).

Chrysis elvira Balthasar, 1957

Plate 6

Chrysis elvira: Balthasar 1957: 151.

Type locality

Afghanistan: “Umgebung von Sarekanda (4100m) in Badakschan-gebirge (28.VII.1953)”.

Holotype ♀

[J. Klapperich Sarekanda, 4100m 28.7.53, Gebirge Badakschan NO – Afghanistan] [Chrysis elvira n.sp. Balth. ♀ Holotypus] <red label handwritten by Balthasar] [NHRS-HEVA000001080].

Plate 6.

Chrysis elvira Balthasar, 1957, holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B metasoma, dorsal view C head, frontal view.

Remarks

One paratype found in the Linsenmaier Collection at the NMLS.

Current status

Chrysis elvira Balthasar, 1957.

Chrysis equestris Dahlbom, 1854

Plate 7

Chrysis equestris: Dahlbom 1854: 307.

Type locality

unknown.

Holotype ♀

[Mus. Payk.] [Type] [Typus] <red label> [374 58] <red label> [Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet Stockholm Loan no 993/98] <green label> [NHRS-HEVA000000008].

Plate 7.

Chrysis equestris Dahlbom, 1854, holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B head, frontal view C head and mesosoma, lateral view D third metasomal tergite, dorso-lateral view E metasoma, dorsal view F metasomal sternites, ventral view.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845: 11) described Chrysis zetterstedti based on a type series including male and female from Sweden and another specimen from Norway. Later Dahlbom (1854: 307) described the female as a separate species ‘Specimen unicum e Collectione Paykulli Mus. R. Acad. Scient. Stockholm, communicavit D. Boheman’. This specimen is both syntype of C. zetterstedti Dahlbom, 1845 and holotype of C. equestris Dahlbom, 1854. Both types of C. zetterstedti and C. equestris have been examined by Linsenmaier (1959: 163); the other two males (not syntypes) of C. zetterstedti listed by Dahlbom (1854: 305) are housed in MZLU (Paukkunen et al. 2014).

Current status

Chrysis equestris Dahlbom, 1854.

Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 8

Chrysis erythromelas: Dahlbom 1845: 11.

Type locality

unknown [not Italy, Sicily].

Holotype ♀

[Mus. Payk.] [Type] [NHRS-HEVA000001081].

Plate 8.

Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorso-lateral view.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845: 11 [not 1854: 155]) described Chrysis erythromelas on a single specimen without any type locality, as written later more clearly by Dahlbom himself (1854: 155): “Specimen e Collectione Pajkulliana Musei Reg. Acad. Scient. Stockholm. communicavit D. Boheman, patria non indicata”. In the NHRS collection there are two specimens with the same label [Mus. Payk.] and belonging to the same species; but only one is labelled as [Type] and we consider it as the holotype. It is damaged after an old dermestid attack; it lacks the right flagellum, both right fore- and hindwing, left hindwing and right hindleg.

For a long time, C. erythromelas has been considered as a variety of C. viridula Linnaeus, 1761 by the most important authors (Mocsáry 1889: 444; Dalla Torre 1892: 108; Trautmann 1927: 165; Berland and Bernard 1938: 107). Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 424) synonymised it with C. integra Fabricius, 1787. Without following the Principle of Priority, Linsenmaier (1951: 101) considered C. erythromelas as a variety of C. cylindrica Eversmann, 1857. Later Linsenmaier (1959: 132) placed C. erythromelas in relation with C. integra ssp. sicula Abeille de Perrin, 1877, but he was not sure about the correct relationship: “Der Name erythromelas Dahlbom 1845 bezieht sich auf diese Spezies, doch kann ich nicht beurteilen, ob er als Synonym zu integra Nominatform aufzufassen ist, oder ob er an Stelle von ssp. sicula zu treten hätte (er wurde nach einemohne Patria aufgestellt, auch ohne sichere Geschlechts-Bestimmung)”. Finally Linsenmaier (1997a: 277) synonymised C. sicula with C. ornata Smith, 1851; but this synonym is in error, since C. ornata is described from England and it is related to C. viridula Linnaeus s. str.. C. integra and related forms are distributed only in the Mediterranean area. The name C. erythromelas was even used to identify other species belonging to the C. viridula group. For example Invrea (1920: 417; 1921: 344) identified the females of C. pulcherrima Lepeletier, 1806 as C. bidentata var. erythromelas. The examination of the holotype confirms that C. erythromelas is the first available name for the species named C. sicula Abeille de Perrin, 1877 or C. integra ssp. ornata Smith, 1851 sensu Linsenmaier (1997a) and widely distributed in northern Africa (see the material housed in the Linsenmaier collection) and in Sicily. The species is easily identifiable from C. integra Fabricius by the deep and long frontal sulcus elongated between the fore ocellus and the facial scapal basin, halving the transversal frontal carina (TFC); punctation on metasoma with shining intervals between the punctures, with smaller dots between the larger punctures; last tergite with pit row deeply elongated (Plate 8).

Current status

Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845, status revived.

Chrysis imperialis Dahlbom, 1845

Chrysis imperialis: Dahlbom 1845: 11.

Type locality

Algeria.

Holotype ♂

[Paykull] [Algier] [NHRS-HEVA000001089].

Remarks

Chrysis imperialis Dahlbom, 1845 nec Westwood, 1842 is unavailable and the oldest available name from among its synonyms is C. tricolor Lucas, 1849. However the validity of this species is not clear and currently it is considered a north African subspecies of C. semicincta Lepeletier, 1806.

Current status

Chrysis semicinta ssp. tricolor Lucas, 1849 (Linsenmaier 1959: 124).

Chrysis jugum Dahlbom, 1850

Plate 9

Chrysis Jugum: Dahlbom 1850: 136.

Type locality

South Africa: “Natal”.

Holotype ♀

[Caffraria] [J. Wahlb.] [jugum] [269 82] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001090].

Plate 9.

Chrysis jugum Dahlbom, 1850, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C head and mesosoma, dorsal view D metasoma, dorso-lateral view.

Current status

Chrysis jugum Dahlbom, 1850.

Chrysis klapperichi Balthasar, 1957

Chrysis klapperichi: Balthasar 1957: 148.

Type locality

Afghanistan: “Umgebung von Schau (2000m) im Kokscha-Tal in Badakschan-Gebirge (19.VII.1953)”.

Holotype ♀

[J. Klapperich Schau, 2000 m 19.7.53, Kokschatal, Badakschan NO – Afghanistan] [Chrysis klapperichin.sp. Balth. Holotypus] [NHRS-HEVA000001092].

Remarks

In Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 436) the type repository is reported as the NMPC.

Current status

Chrysis martinella ssp. solox Semenov, 1954 (synonymised by Linsenmaier 1968: 74).

Chrysis grohmanni ssp. krkiana Linsenmaier, 1959

Chrysis grohmanni ssp. krkiana: Linsenmaier 1959: 109.

Type locality

Croatia: Krk island.

Paratype 1 ♂

[Insel Krk leg. Mader Coll. Linsenmaier] [Chrysisgrohmanni krkiana Lins. Linsenmaier det. 59] [NHRS-HEVA000001093].

Paratype 1 ♀

[Insel Krk leg. Mader Coll. Linsenmaier] [Chrysisgrohmanni krkiana Lins. Linsenmaier det. 59] [NHRS-HEVA000001094].

Remarks

The two specimens do not bear the typical handwritten note ‚paratype‘ by Linsenmaier; but after the study of his collection in NMLS we can state that they are paratypes. Often Linsenmaier labelled only the holotype and the allotype, especially when describing subspecies with long series. These two specimens were donated by Linsenmaier and have the same handwritten locality and year of identification as the other specimens belonging to the type-series in the Linsenmaier collection. This subspecies is clearly separated from the nominal form (Rosa 2003: 307).

Current status

Chrysis grohmanni ssp. krkiana Linsenmaier, 1959.

Chrysis lateralis Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 10

Chrysis lateralis: Dahlbom 1845: 10.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Syntype 1 ♀

[Rhodus] [Hedenb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001095].

Plate 10.

Chrysis lateralis Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorso-lateral view.

Remarks

This species belongs to the Chrysis elegans group and is conspecific with C. separata Trautmann, 1926. None of the most important authors (Dahlbom 1854; Mocsáry 1889; du Buysson (in André) 1891–1896; Trautmann 1927; Berland and Bernard 1938; Linsenmaier 1951, 1959, 1968) mentioned this species. Only Dalla Torre (1892: 74) and later Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 431) listed it as a valid species in the comparata-scutellaris group, without type examination. The female syntype has all the typical characteristics of C. separata, species widespread from Zante (typical locality) to Middle East. A second syntype is housed in the Dahlbom collection in MZLU. We here propose Chrysis separata Trautmann, 1926, as a new synonym of Chrysis lateralis Dahlbom, 1845.

A similar case was found studying Dahlbom’s type of Chrysis confluens (Dahlbom, 1845). C. confluens was described from Rhodes and belongs to the C. elegans group. C. confluens was synonymised by Dahlbom himself (1854: 159, var. h) with Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 and remained in synonymy with C. elegans in all the most important works. However, nobody noticed that the description was perfectly matching the description of C. elegans var. smaragdula Trautmann, 1926 nec Fabricius, 1775, also described from Rhodes. Linsenmaier (1959: 137) replaced the name C. elegans smaragdula Trautmann with C. interrogata Linsenmaier, 1959 without taking care of the possible synonymy with C. confluens (Dahlbom). There is no doubt about C. elegans var. smaragdula Trautmann, 1926 (currently C. elegans ssp. interrogata Linsenmaier) as a new synonym of Chrysis confluens (Dahlbom, 1845), because C. confluens is one of the most common species on the island and its peculiar colour is unique in this species group: “Corpus æneo- aut subaurato-viride” and “Caput et thorax cyaneo- et viridi-variegata. Abdom. segmenti 3:tii series punctorum ante apicalis numerosorum orbiculatorum subconfluentium. Corpus 2 ½ lin. long.”. This peculiar green or golden-green colouration is well emphasized by the name smaragdula, which in Latin means emerald green.

Both names C. separata and C. interrogata have been used mainly by Linsenmaier and a few other authors (i.e. Rosa 2005b; Strumia and Yildirim 2009), and according to the ICZN there is no reason for applying the Reversal of Precedence. The type of C. confluens is housed in the Dahlbom collection in MZLU.

Current status

Chrysis lateralis Dahlbom, 1845.

Chrysis lucifera Bohart, 1982

Chrysis lucifera: Bohart (in Bohart & Kimsey) 1982: 123.

Type locality

U.S.A. (holotype from Tanbark Flat, Los Angeles Co., California; paratypes: 11 ♂♂ and 41 ♀♀ from California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming).

Paratype 1 ♂

[Mt. Diablo, Cal. V-12-1937] [R.M. Bohart Colr] [Paratype Chrysislucifera R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001097].

Paratype 1♀

[Hopland Grade Lake Co. Cal. V-19-1961] [S.M. Fidel Collector] [Paratype Chrysislucifera R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001098].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited at the BME.

Current status

Chrysis lucifera Bohart, 1982.

Chrysis manicata Dahlbom, 1854

Plate 11

Chrysis manicata: Dahlbom 1854: 276.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Syntype 1 ♂

[Rhodus] [Hedenb.] [det. W. Trautmann] [Tetrachrysis pallidicornis var. chloris Mocsáry] <handritten by Trautmann> [NHRS-HEVA000001099].

Syntype 1 ♂

[Rhodus] [Hedenb.] [det. W. Trautmann] [NHRS-HEVA000001100].

Plate 11.

Chrysis manicata Dahlbom, 1854, syntype. A Habitus, lateral view B second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view C head, lateral view.

Remarks

In MNHU there are two other syntypes, male and female, labelled: [Rhodus, Mai, Loew S.] [manicata Dahlb. ♂] [Bischoff det.] [Syntypus Chrysis manicataDahlbom P. Rosa vidit 2010] <in red>.

Current status

Chrysis manicata Dahlbom, 1854.

Chrysis modica Dahlbom, 1850

Plate 12

Chrysis modica: Dahlbom 1850: 140.

Type locality

South Africa: “Natal”.

Lectotype ♀

[Caffraria] [J. Wahlb.] [Typus] <red label> [Chrysis modica Dahlb.] [270 82] <red label> [Chrysis modica Dahlbom LectotypeR.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001111].

Plate 12.

Chrysis modica Dahlbom, 1850, lectotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845: 14) described Chrysis mediocris on a single specimen from Guinea, received by Westermann and currently housed in his collection at the MZLU. Later Dahlbom (1850: 140) described the same species under a new name, C. modica, adding one specimen from Port Natal collected by J. Wahlberg and deposited at the NHRS, and another specimen from Promontorium Bonae Spei [= Cape of Good Hope] found in Spinola’s collection (MRSN). In his last work Dahlbom (1854: 326) gave a detailed description in Latin of C. modica, and described a new European species with the name C. mediocris Dahlbom, 1854. The latter is a junior homonym of C. mediocris Dahlbom, 1845 (currently C. subsinuata Marquet, 1879). The first available name for C. modica Dahlbom, 1850 is therefore C. mediocris Dahlbom, 1845. Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 437) designated the lectotype.

Current status

Chrysis mediocris Dahlbom, 1845 (synonymised by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 437).

Chrysis nisseri Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 13

Chrysis Nisseri: Dahlbom 1845: 14.

Type locality

Columbia: “Remedios”.

Holotype ♀

[Remedios] [Nisser] [Type] [NHRS-HEVA000001113].

Plate 13.

Chrysis nisseri Dahlbom, 1845, holoype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, dorsal view D metasoma, dorsal view.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845) described Chrysis nisseri based on a female collected by Nisser at Remedios. Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 443) examined a male holotype in MZLU. This specimen was not located at the MZLU.

Current status

Chrysis nisseri Dahlbom, 1845.

Chrysis obsoleta Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 14

Chrysis obsoleta: Dahlbom 1845: 8.

Type locality

unknown.

Holotype ♂

[Mus. Payk.] [Chrysis ignita var. obsoleta Dahlb. Dispos. 1845] [NHRS-HEVA000000856].

Plate 14.

Chrysis obsoleta Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A head and mesosoma, dorsal view B second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view C head, frontal view.

Remarks

The specimen is badly conserved. The metasoma was broken and glued using large quantity of glue, which now includes also part of the legs. All the European authors and Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 420) considered this small and slender specimen as synonym of Chrysis ignita (Linnaeus). The specimen clearly belongs to another species, probably C. angustula Schenck, 1856. Villu Soon (pers. comm.) confirmed that it possibly belongs to C. angustula but perhaps even C. solida Haupt, 1956. Since the name C. obsoleta Dahlbom has the priority on almost all the other names in the ignita group, we suggest considering it as a nomen oblitum, to maintain the prevailing usage of the names within this complicated species-group (Art. 23.9 of the Code).

Current status

Chrysis ignita (Linnaeus, 1758) (synonymised by Mocsáry 1889: 488).

Chrysis prominula Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 15

Chrysis prominula: Dahlbom 1845: 14.

Type locality

unknown.

Holotype ♀

[Mus. Payk.] [prominula] [NHRS-HEVA000001114].

Plate 15.

Chrysis prominula Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B head, frontal view C mesopleuron, lateral view D third metasomal tergite, dorsal view.

Remarks

The type is partially damaged after an old dermestid attack. It lacks the right antenna, the left mid- and hindlegs, partially the right forewing and part of the metanotum.

Current status

Chrysis prominula Dahlbom, 1845.

Chrysis purpureifrons ssp. helleniensis Linsenmaier, 1968

Chrysis (Chrysogona) purpureifrons ssp. helleniensis: Linsenmaier 1968: 48.

Type locality

Greece (holotype from Athen; allotype from Corinth; paratype localities not listed).

Paratypes 2 ♂♂ and 1 ♀

[Graecia, Pelop. 18 km Südlich Tripolis 15.V.62 leg. Linsenmaier] [Paratypen Chrysis L. purpureifrons helleniensis Lins. Linsenmaier det. 63] <handwritten in red> [NHRS-HEVA000001087].

Remarks

The holotype is housed in the Linsenmaier Collection at NMLS.

Current status

Chrysura purpureifrons ssp. helleniensis (Linsenmaier, 1968) (transferred by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 494).

Chrysis pyrrhina Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 16

Chrysis pyrrhina: Dahlbom 1845: 9.

Type locality

unknown.

Holotype ♂

[Mus. Payk.] [Type] [pyrrhina Dahlbom 143] [NHRS-HEVA000001115].

Plate 16.

Chrysis pyrrhina Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C hed and mesosoma, dorsal view D metasoma, dorsal view.

Remarks

The species was described with the name “Chrysis pyrrhinia Dalm. ♂ Mus. Paykull” and emendated in the same work (Dahlbom 1845: corrigenda at pag. 21). The type locality reported by Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 454 “Yugoslavia, Dalmatia”) is in error. Possibly they confused Dalm. [= Dalman] with Dalmatia. The type locality is unknown, as confirmed in Dahlbom (1854: 259): “Chrysis pyrrhina Dalman Mus. Paykulli; teste D. Boheman, qui specimen unicum, patria non notata, e Museo R. Acad. Scient. Stockholm. amice communicavit”.

Very likely Paykull received the male (described as pyrrhina) and the female (described as erythromelas) together, from the same locality, probably in north Africa. They both belong to the same species, C. erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845, even if the male shows some peculiar characteristics which are not found in other northern African or Sicilian specimens: short pronotum, lateral angles on T-III more acute. The metasoma is entirely reddish, but this unusual colour was found also in other specimens in the Linsenmaier collection.

After Linsenmaier (1959) the name C. pyrrhina was used to identify a common Mediterranean species (Mingo 1994; Mingo and Gayubo 1985, 1986a, 1986b; Mingo et al. 1988, 1990; Rosa 2004, 2005a, 2005b; Strumia 1995, 1996, 2005, 2007a, 2007b; Strumia and Pagliano 2010; Strumia et al. 2010). The type of C. pyrrhina does not match Linsenmaier’s interpretation of the species and a new name must be given to this species.

The first available name from among its synonyms is Chrysis serena Radoszkowski, 1891. The type of C. serena was checked and it is currently housed in the Radoszkowski collection in ISEA-PAS (Rosa et al. 2015). Linsenmaier (1968: 82) considered C. serena as a subspecies of C. pyrrhina, with coarser and denser punctation on the metasoma, with micro-punctated intervals between the punctures and mesosoma greener in colour. The distribution given by Linsenmaier for C. serena is: Persia, S Russia, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor and Manchuria. It is well known that in the Euro-Asiatic chrysidids, patterns in punctation have a gradient, becoming coarser from west to east. Similarly many common Chrysis are greener in the eastern area of their distribution in Europe. C. serena simply represents the eastern form with coarser punctation.

Current status

Chrysis erythromelas Dahlbom, 1845.

Chrysis rufiventris Dahlbom, 1854

Plate 17

Chrysis rufiventris: Dahlbom 1854: 119.

Type locality

unknown.

Holotype ♂

[Mus. Payk.] [Type] [NHRS-HEVA000001116].

Plate 17.

Chrysis rufiventris Dahlbom, 1854, holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B head, frontal view C head and mesosoma, dorsal view D metasoma, lateral view.

Current status

Chrysura rufiventris (Dahlbom, 1854) (tranferred by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 495).

Chrysis schoenherri Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 18

Chrysis Scönherri: Dahlbom 1845: 10.

Type locality

South Africa.

Holotype ♀

[Caffraria] [J. Wahlb.] [Typus] <red label> [Chrysis schoenherri Dahlb.] [271 82] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001118].

Plate 18.

Chrysis schoenherri Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, lateral view D third metasomal tergite, lateral view.

Remarks

The type lacks the left forewing. The emendated name C. schönherri was introduced by Dahlbom (1850: 139). Carl Johan Schönherr was a Swedish entomologist born in Stockholm from a German family.

Current status

Chrysis schoenherri Dahlbom, 1845.

Chrysis scintillans Valkeila, 1971

Plate 19

Chrysis scintillans: Valkeila 1971: 85.

Type locality

Finland: “Vanaja”.

Paratype 1 ♀

[Jmt. Undersåker [unreadeable] 16.7.48 [Valliste 1000m C.B. Gaunitz] [Chrysis L. mediata ssp. fenniensis Lins. Linsenmaier det. 59] [Chrysis scintillans n.sp. det. E. Valkeila – 69] [Typus] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001117].

Plate 19.

Chrysis scintillans Valkeila, 1971, paratype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C head and mesosoma, dorsal view D metasoma, dorsal view.

Remarks

The paratype lacks both right wings. The correct name for the locality of this paratype is found in the original description. The holotype is deposited at the MZH. Chrysis scintillans was described based on seventy-six specimens from Finland, Russia and Sweden. Paukkunen et al. (2014: 41) synonymised it with C. solida Haupt, 1956, and found that the paratypes belong to different species: C. schencki Linsenmaier, 1968 (36 exx.), C. solida Haupt, 1956 (33 exx.), C. ignita group (2 exx.), C. impressa Schenck, 1856 (2 exx.), C. angustula Schenck, 1856 (1 ex.) and C. subcoriacea Linsenmaier, 1959 (1 ex.). The paratype preserved in NHRS belongs to C. schencki (V. Soon and J. Paukkunen, in litt.). Valkeila considered the punctation of the terga as a more important character in species identification rather than other characteristics, such as the width of the ovipositor.

Current status

Chrysis solida Haupt, 1956 (synonymised by Paukkunen et al. 2014: 41).

Chrysis sinuata Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 20

Chrysis sinuata: Dahlbom 1845: 12.

Type locality

South Africa: “Capitis Bonae Spei”.

Syntype 1 ♀

[Cap. B. Spei] [Mus. Payk.] [NHRS-HEVA000001119].

Plate 20.

Chrysis sinuata Dahlbom, 1845, syntype. Syntype. A Habitus, dorso-lateral view B head, frontal view C head and mesosoma, dorsal view D metasoma, dorsal view.

Remarks

The name Chrysis sinuata Dahlbom, 1845, nec Brullé, 1833 is not available and was replaced by Mocsáry (1889) with the name C. poecila. See the other notes under C. sinuosa Dahlbom.

Current status

Chrysis poecila Mocsáry, 1889, a replacement name for C. sinuata Dahlbom, 1845 nec Brullé, 1833.

Chrysis sinuosa Dahlbom, 1854

Plate 21

Chrysis sinuosa: Dahlbom 1854: 153.

Type locality

South Africa: “Capitis Bonae Spei”.

Holotype ♂

[Cap. B. Spei] [Mus. Payk.] [Type] [sinuosa Dahlbom 84] [NHRS-HEVA000001120].

Plate 21.

Chrysis sinuosa Dahlbom, 1854, holotype. Syntype. A Habitus, dorso-lateral view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view.

Remarks

The type of C. sinuosa lacks the right flagellum and the right foreleg. Dahlbom (1845: 11-12) described Chrysis sinuata based on two syntypes, a male and a female, with the same colour “Divis IV. Thorax variegatus. Abdomen cyaneo-. viridi- et aureo-fasciatum”. He described the female with four teeth on the anal margin (“Subdivis. 2. Abdominis segmentum 3:tium apice 4-dentatum”) (Plate 20D) and the male without teeth on the anal margin, but with a simple undulation (“Subdiv. 3. Abdominis segmentum 3:tium apice undulatum”) (Plate 21D). These two specimens clearly belong to two different species-groups. Later, Dahlbom (1854: 153) recognised the male as belonging to a different species and described it with the name C. sinuosa. He left the female under the name C. sinuata Dahlbom, 1845, without noticing that this name was already used by Brullé (1833).

Mocsáry (1889: 296), without type examination, considered C. sinuosa Dahlbom, 1845 and C. sinuata Dahlbom, 1854 (“ex parte, solum ♂” [the male only]) as synonyms of C. bellula Guérin-Méneville, 1842. Mocsáry (1889: 440) also replaced the name C. sinuata Dahlbom, 1845, nec Brullé, 1833 (“ex parte, solum ♀”) with C. poecila Mocsáry, 1889. C. bellula is now considered endemic to Madagascar, absent from South Africa (Azevedo et al. 2010: 858). Since Mocsáry (1889: 428) did not examine Dahlbom’s types, he described again C. sinuata Dahlbom, 1845 as a new species from South Africa with the name C. eximia Mocsáry, 1889. We examined the type of C. eximia, which is deposited at the NHMW.

In this case, the replacement name C. poecila Mocsáry has priority over C. eximia Mocsáry and therefore we propose the new synonym C. eximia Mocsáry, 1889 = C. poecila Mocsáry, 1889. Edney (1952: 423) followed Mocsáry in the interpretation of C. (Holochrysis) bellula Brullé, but without reporting any differences between the sexes. He also described C. ceres Edney, 1952, which resulted synonym of C. sinuosa Dahlbom. Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 463), without the examination of Dahlbom’s types, synonymised C. sinuata Dahlbom, C. poecila Mocsáry and C. ceres Edney with C. sinuosa and used eximia Mocsáry, 1889 as the valid name. Madl and Rosa (2012) followed the interpretation given by Kimsey and Bohart (1991).

According to the types, the two valid species and their synonymies are:

  1. Chrysis poecila Mocsáry, 1889 replacement name for C. sinuata Dahlbom, 1845 nec Brullé, 1833 (synonyms: C. eximia Mocsáry, 1889; C. westwoodi Mocsáry, 1912) (C. splendidula-senegalensis group);

  2. Chrysis sinuosa Dahlbom, 1845 (synonym: Chrysis ceres Edney, 1954) (C. capitalis group).

Current status

Chrysis sinuosa Dahlbom, 1854.

Chrysis soror Dahlbom, 1854

Plate 22

Chrysis soror: Dahlbom 1854: 240.

Type locality

Greece: “Habitat in insula Rhodo, a D. Hedenborg detecta; Mus. D. Loew”.

Lectotype

(here designated) ♂: [Rhodus] [Hedenb.] [det. W. Trautmann] [Tetrachrysis abbreviaticornis Buyss. ??] <handritten by Trautmann> [NHRS-HEVA000001121].

Plate 22.

Chrysis soror Dahlbom, 1855, lectotype. A Habitus, lateral view B second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view C head, frontal view.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1854) described Chrysis soror based on more male specimens collected at Rhodes by Hedenborg and Loew. Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 464) listed the holotype in MNHU, but we could not find it with the help of the curator Frank Koch; Loew’s Chrysididae are not conserved in MNHU, as well as in BMNH or NHRS. Since it is possible that one or more syntypes could be found in another collection, we select the male specimen housed at the NHRS as lectotype, which matches perfectly the current interpretation of the species.

The lectotype is partially damaged; it lacks the left flagellum, tarsi of the right midleg and the left hindleg except for the coxa. The metasoma is glued to the mesosoma.

Current status

Chrysis soror Dahlbom, 1854.

Chrysis tenuimediata Linsenmaier, 1968

Chrysis (Papuachrysis) tenuimediata: Linsenmaier 1968: 53.

Type locality

Burma: “N.O. Burma, Kambaiti, 2000m”.

Holotype ♀

[N. E. Burma Kambaiti; 2000 m 23/4.1934 Malaise] [Riksmuseum Stockholm] <green label> [♀ Type Chrysis L. Papuachrysis tenuimediata Lins. Linsenmaier det. 64] <handwritten in red> [Chrysis L. subgen. Adscitis det. Linsenmaier 1994] [NHRS-HEVA000001126].

Remarks

Linsenmaier (1997a: 284) disagreed with the placement of C. tenuimediata proposed by Kimsey and Bohart (1991) and described the subgenus Chrysis (Adscitis) based on C. tenuimediata.

Current status

Primeuchroeus tenuimediatus (Linsenmaier, 1968) (transferred by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 543).

Chrysis violacuna Bohart, 1982

Chrysis violacuna: Bohart (in Bohart & Kimsey) 1982: 134.

Type locality

U.S.A. (holotype, 59 ♂♂ and 56 ♀♀ paratypes from Utah).

Paratype 1♂

[UTAH Rich Co. S.W. Shore Bear Lake Reared, FD Parker] [16605F Rearing No.] [Paratype Chrysis violacuna ♂ R.M. Bohart] <red label> <pinned with cocoon> [NHRS-HEVA000000858].

Paratype 1♀

[UTAH Rich Co. S.W. Shore Bear Lake Reared, FD Parker] [16674C Rearing No.] [Paratype Chrysis violacuna ♀ R.M. Bohart] <red label> <pinned with cocoon> [NHRS-HEVA000000859].

Remarks

The holotype is deposited at the BME.

Current status

Chrysis violacuna Bohart, 1982.

Chrysis wahlbergi Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 23

Chrysis Wahlbergi: Dahlbom 1845: 14.

Type locality

South Africa: “Natal”.

Lectotype ♂

[Caffraria] [J. Wahlb.] [272 82] <red label> [wahlbergi] [Lectotype Chrysis wahlbergiDahlbom R.M. Bohart] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001127].

Plate 23.

Chrysis wahlbergi Dahlbom, 1845, lectotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, lateral view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view.

Paralectoype ♀

[Caffraria] [J. Wahlb.] [273 82] <red label> [wahlbergi] [NHRS-HEVA000001128].

Remarks

Lectotype designation by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 478).

Current status

Chrysis wahlbergi Dahlbom, 1845.

Chrysura candens Dahlbom, 1845

Chrysura candens: Dahlbom 1845: 7.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Holotype ♀

[Mus. Payk.] [NHRS-HEVA000001066].

Remarks

Chrysura candens Dahlbom is a secondary junior homonym of C. candens Germar, 1817. Dalla Torre (1892: 49, 58) placed C. candens in synonym of C. candens Klug (!) Germar, 1817 (partim) and C. elegans Lepeletier (partim). The type is surely related to large species (3 ½ lin. long.), not comparable with C. candens Germar. The type is partially damaged; it lacks the left fore wing, femura, tibiae and tarsi of left mid- and hindlegs, and tarsi of the left foreleg.

Current status

Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (synonymized by Mocsáry 1889: 301).

Chrysura foveata Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 24

Chrysura foveata: Dahlbom 1845: 6.

Type locality

Egypt.

Syntype ♀

[Egypt] [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001083].

Syntype ♂

[Egypt] [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001084].

Plate 24.

Chrysura foveata Dahlbom, 1845, syntype male. A Habitus, dorso-lateral view B head, frontal view C head and mesosoma, dorsal view D metasoma, dorsal view E third metasomal tergite, dorsal view F metasomal sternites, ventral view.

Remarks

Ch. foveata was described based on few specimens (rar.) considered as females, but in the collection one female and one male are found. Dahlbom (1854: 172) gave a subsequent description of the species, which is not very precise, especially with respect to the colour. Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 497) placed Chrysura foveata in synonym with Chrysura trimaculata (Förster, 1853), without type examination. This synonym is in error; Ch. foveata was described from Egypt, whereas Ch. trimaculata is a Euro-Sibiric species, not distributed in northern Africa and belonging to a different genus. Ch. foveata belongs to the Chrysis hydropica group.

Current status

Chrysis foveata (Dahlbom, 1845) (transferred by Mocsáry 1889: 292).

Chrysura humboldti Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 25

Chrysura Humboldti: Dahlbom 1845: 6.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Holotype ♂

[Rhodus] [Hedb.] [Type] [NHRS-HEVA000001088].

Plate 25.

Chrysura humboldti Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C mesosoma, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view.

Current status

Pseudospinolia humboldti Dahlbom, 1845 (transferred by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 547).

Chrysura sulcata Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 26

Chrysura sulcata: Dahlbom 1845: 7.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Lectotype

(here designated) ♀: [Rhodus] [Hedb.] [Type] [NHRS-HEVA000001125].

Plate 26.

Chrysura sulcata Dahlbom, 1845, lectotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C habitus, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorso-lateral view.

Notes

Dahlbom (1845) described Ch. sulcata based few specimens from Rhodes “Ch. sulcata nob. Rhodus rar. Hedenborg.”. Since Dahlbom wrote “rar.” and not “rariss.” he examined at least two specimens. The original diagnosis (Dahlbom 1845) is quite different from the description given in 1854 and the current interpretation of the species. Dahlbom (1845) described sulcata as a species with red sternites “Divis. 2. Abdominis dorsum totum aureum. Venter igneus”, whereas the species today identified as Ch. sulcata has blue or blue-green sternites, which is a useful characteristic to separate it from Ch. rufiventris Dahlbom, 1854 in south Europe. Moreover, he described Ch. sulcata with green mesosoma (“Thorax viridis”), whereas all the specimens studied have blue mesosoma, with green reflections on the lateral sides of the mesonotum.

In the general collection, under the name Ch. sulcata, two specimens were found. These are a specimen of Ch. sulcata and a second specimen (without head), which belongs to Chrysis aestiva Dahlbom, 1845, also described from Rhodes. It bears the same labels: [Rhodes] [Hedb.]. This specimen is obviously different, since it has two small teeth along the anal margin; but we noticed that the position of the ovipositor somehow hides the two small teeth. Perhaps it is possible that Dahlbom did not see these two small teeth and considered this specimen as a syntype. The latter has red sternites and green mesosoma.

Later Dahlbom (1854: 116), after the examination of a Sicilian specimen housed at the NHMW, gave a better and detailed description of the species, which was accepted by all the following authors and is currently recognised. The specimen examined at the NHMW is lost and was considered as a syntype by Kimsey and Bohart (1991). Since the original description is ambiguous and the species could be described from several specimens, in accordance with the ICZN (Art. 73) we hereby designate the lectotype of Ch. sulcata on the male specimen bearing the label [Type] and characterised by the broken last tergite (Plate 26D). The designated lectotype matches the current interpretation of the species given by Dahlbom (1854) and Linsenmaier (1959).

Current status

Chrysura sulcata Dahlbom, 1845.

Cleptes fasciata Dalman, 1823

Plate 27

Cleptes fasciata: Dalman 1823: 90.

Type locality

Brazil.

Lectotype ♀

[Brasilia Freyreiss] [Schh.] <Schönherr> [Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet Stockholm Loan no 333/96] <green label> [Cleptideafasciata Dalm. det. L. Móczár, 1996] [Lectotypus Cleptes fasciata Dalman des. Móczár 996] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001082].

Plate 27.

Cleptes fasciata Dalman, 1823, holotype. Habitus, dorsal view.

Remarks

Lectotype designated by Móczár (1996: 136); a paralectotype is deposited at the HNHM.

Current status

Cleptidea fasciata (Dalman, 1823) (transferred by Mocsáry 1904: 569).

Cleptes sjostedti Hammer, 1950

Cleptes Sjöstedti: Hammer 1950: 2.

Type locality

China: “Provinz Kiansu, leg. Kolthoff, Oktober”.

Holotype ♀

[Provins Kiangsu] [China Kolthoff] [Type] <red label> [Cleptes sjöstedti mihi ♀ det. Hammer] <handwritten by Hammer> [NHRS-HEVA000001124].

Remarks

Hammer described Cleptes sjostedti based on two females, a holotype and a paratype. Móczár (1998a: 341) searched for the holotype in NHRS, but the senior curator, Fredrik Ronquist, could not find it. Consequently Móczár (1998a), according to the ICZN (Art. 75), designated the neotype based on the paratype housed in Hammer’s collection in NHMW. The discovery of the original holotype automatically sets aside Móczár’s neotype designation (Art. 75.8, status of rediscovered former name-bearing types). Pictures of the holotype are provided by Rosa et al. (2014).

The correct spelling of the name should be sjostedti and not sjoestedti as reported by Móczár (1998a: 325) and Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 435) in the following case of Chrysis sjostedti Cameron. These two species were dedicated to Yngve Sjöstedt, professor and curator of the NHRS; according to the ICZN (Art. 32.5.2.1); only in case of a German name the correct writing would be sjoestedti.

Current status

Cleptes sjostedti Hammer, 1950.

Cymura splendida Dahlbom, 1845

Cymura splendida: Dahlbom 1845: 4.

Type locality

Turkey: “Bosfor”.

Holotype ♂

[Bosfor Hed. 32] [NHRS-HEVA000001122].

Current status

Hedychrum coelestinum Spinola, 1838 (synonymised by Dahlbom 1854: 60).

Hedychrum massaicum Cameron, 1910

Plate 28

Hedychrum massaicum: Cameron 1910: 299.

Type locality

Tanzania: “Kilimandjaro. 2nd November”.

Holotype ♂

[Kilimandj. Sjöstedt] [2 Nov] [Typus] [Hedychrum massaicum] <handwritten by Cameron> [173 85] <red label> [Riksmuseum Stockholm] <green label> [Holotype Hedychrum massaicumCameron det L D French] <red label> [NHRS-HEVA000001101].

Plate 28.

Hedychrum massaicum Cameron, 1910, holotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B head, frontal view C metasoma, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorso-lateral view.

Remarks

The type is badly damaged by dermestids. It lacks the antennae, the right part of the head, including mouthparts and occipitum and the right foreleg. Together with this type there are two other specimens ([NHRS-HEVA000001134] and [NHRS-HEVA000001135]) collected in the same locality by Sjöstedt and on Mount Meru, but to be excluded from the type-series because they were collected on different days. Cameron (1910) described H. massaicum based only on the specimen collected on the 2nd of November. The other two specimens have been collected the 6th of September and in January. French identified all of them as H. massaicum but one of the specimens [175 85] collected in January belongs to a different species. Bohart (Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 216) examined the “holotype” deposited at the MZLU, but this specimen was not found, and all the material collected by Sjöstedt is deposited at the NHRS.

Current status

Hedychrum massaicum Cameron, 1910.

Hexachrysis sjostedti Cameron, 1910

Hexachrysis Sjöstedti: Cameron 1910: 297.

Type locality

Tanzania: “Kilimandjaro: Kiboto, cultivated zone, 1,300-1,900 m. 7th May”.

Holotype ♀

[Kilimandj. Sjöstedt] [Kibonoto 1300 – 1900 m] [Typus] [Chrysis sjöstedti] <handwritten by Cameron> [177 85] <red label> [Riksmuseum Stockholm] <green label> [Chrysis malachiticaDahlbom R.M. Bohart det.] [NHRS-HEVA000001123].

Remarks

The type is seriously damaged. It lacks great parts of the head; a small part is still connected to the mesosoma and includes TFC, ocelli, right part of the face, including mandibles and part of the antenna; all the legs, sternites and internal tergites and sternites are lost. We compared this specimen with the type of Chrysis malachitica Dahlbom, 1854 (deposited at the ZMUC). Small differences exist in colour, punctation and shape of the pronotum, probably due to the distances between the two populations.

Current status

Chrysis malachitica Dahlbom, 1854 (synonymised by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 435).

Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 29

Holopyga amoenula: Dahlbom 1845: 4.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Lectotype

(here designated) ♂: [Rhodus] [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001059].

Plate 29.

Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom, 1845, lectotype (photo HV). A Habitus, lateral view B head, frontal view C metasoma, lateral view.

Paralectotype 2 ♂♂

[Rhodus] [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001060] and [NHRS-HEVA000001061].

Paralectotype 1 ♂

[Rhodus] [Hedb.] [Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet Stockholm Loan no 188/96] [NHRS-HEVA000001062].

Paralectotype 1 ♂

[Rhodus] [Hedb.] [det. dr. W. Trautmann] [Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet Stockholm Loan no 188/96] <green label> [NHRS-HEVA000000857].

Remarks

Holopyga amoenula is the type species of Holopyga Dahlbom, 1845. In the general collection at the NHRS we found more similar specimens under the name “Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom” with the same labels: “Rhodus” and “Hedenborg”. They belong to different species. Dahlbom (1845: 4) wrote: ”Holopyga amoenula nob. ♂ Rhodus rar. Hedenborg”. It is not possible to know how many specimens he examined, but we guess few specimens (rar.), as written in the introduction. Later Dahlbom (1854: 53) wrote: “Duo specimina ex Insula Rhodo vidi, unum a D. Hedenborg alterum a D. Loew lecta.” The second specimen is not a type, because the material collected by Loew was not included in the original description.

The history of the name Ho. amoenula is rather confused, since it was used by many authors to identify almost all the European species of Holopyga. The synthesis of this confused situation can be found in Kimsey and Bohart (1991: 225), where many species belonging to different species groups are placed in synonym with Ho. amoenula (Rosa 2006: 136). More generally, the most common European species, currently known as Ho. generosa (Förster, 1853) (= ovata Dahlbom, 1854) is found in synonym with Ho. amoenula after Mocsáry’s monograph (1889: 127). The same taxonomical overview was proposed by Mingo (1994: 73, 204) whereas in the other most important monographs (i.e. Trautmann 1927: 50, and Berland and Bernard 1938: 42), Ho. amoenula was considered as variety of Ho. gloriosa. The name gloriosa Fabricius has been suppressed by the ICZN Commission (ICZN 1998, Opinion 1906) and the species previously identified with this name sensu Linsenmaier are related with a different species-group, which includes Ho. lucida (Lepeletier), Ho. inflammata (Förster), Ho. caucasica Mocsáry, etc.

Only after Linsenmaier’s revision (1959) of the European species, Ho. amoenula was correctly identified and recognized as a distinct, valid species endemic to Rhodes. The discussion on the name amoenula originates in Dahlbom’s monograph (1854: 53). Dahlbom considered Ho. amoenula as variety (var. d) of the new described species Ho. ovata, contrary to the Principle of Priority that was not yet applied at that time. Two subspecies of Ho. amoenula are present in southern Europe: Ho. amoenula ssp. oriensa Linsenmaier and ssp. occidenta Linsenmaier. The possibility that they could be valid species should be taken in consideration.

Since there are different specimens in the collection, and species collected by Hedenborg on Rhodes under the name Ho. amoenula, we hereby designate as the lectotype the specimen which match the current interpretation of the species. It is pinned, in perfect condition and we dissected the genitalia, glued with the specimen (Plate 29).

Current status

Holopyga amoenula Dahlbom, 1845.

Holopyga dohrni Dahlbom, 1854

Plate 30

Holopyga dohrni: Dahlbom 1854: 48.

Type locality

Cuba and U.S.A.: “Habitat in Cuba Cel. Dohrn, in New York Cel. Kriechbaumer, qui mihi specimina amice donarunt.”.

Paralectotype 1 ♂

[Cuba] [Dohrn] [NHRS-HEVA000001075].

Paralectotype 1 ♂

[Cuba] [Dohrn] [NHRS-HEVA000001076].

Plate 30.

Holopyga dohrni Dahlbom, 1854, lectotype. A Habitus, lateral view B head, in frontal view C mesosoma, dorsal view D second and third metasomal tergites, dorsal view.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1854) described Holopyga dohrni based on a type-series including specimens from Cuba, received from Dohrn, and New York, received from Kriechbaumer. Mocsáry (1889: 122) without type examination placed Ho. dohrni Dahlbom in synonymy with of Ho. ventralis (Say). This synonym was accepted by several authors (Dalla Torre 1892: 30, Bodenstein 1951: 720; Krombein 1979: 1225). Bohart and Kimsey (1982: 28) listed type “unknown” and placed Ho. dohrni in synonymy with Ho. ventralis, with restricted distribution to New York; later Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 236) examined the syntype collected in New York and considered it as a holotype. With this assumption (locality restricted to N.Y.) and term (holotype), Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991) explicitly indicated that he was selecting from the type series that particular specimen to serve as the name-bearing type (Art. 74.5). Therefore the syntype deposited at the MZLU must be considered as the lectotype.

The two Cuban paralectotypes collected by Dohrn are deposited at the NHRS and belong to a different species, probably to Ho. cyaniventris (Cresson, 1865).

Current status

Holopyga ventralis (Say, 1824).

Omalus coriaceus Dahlbom, 1850

Plate 31

Omalus coriaceus: Dahlbom 1850: 135.

Type locality

South Africa.

Holotype ♀

[Caffraria] [J. Wahlb.] [Type] [NHRS-HEVA000000860].

Plate 31.

Omalus coriaceus Dahlbom, 1850, holotype. Habitus, lateral view.

Current status

Holophris coriaceus (Dahlbom, 1850) (transferred by Mantero 1910: 548).

Pentachrysis kibonotoensis Cameron, 1910

Pentachrysis kibonotoensis: Cameron 1910: 298.

Type locality

Tanzania.

Holotype

♂ [not ♀]: [Kilimandj. Sjöstedt] [Kibonoto 1800-1900 m] [Pentachrysis kibonotoensis ns ♂] [Riksmuseum Stockholm] <green label> [176 85] <red label> [Praestochrysis spina(Brullé) R M Bohart det] [NHRS-HEVA000001091].

Remarks

The type is seriously damaged by an old dermestid attack. It lacks the antennae (except scapus), the compound eyes, part of the scapal basin, tibia and tarsi of the left foreleg, both hindlegs and the sternites and internal urites. Also the first metasomal tergite is partially damaged.

Current status

Praestochrysis spina (Brullé, 1846) (synonymised and transferred by Kimsey and Bohart 1991: 535).

Platycelia ehrenbergi Dahlbom, 1845

Platycelia Ehrenbergi: Dahlbom 1845: 8.

Type locality

Egypt.

Holotypus

(?) 1 ♀. [Egypt] [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001077- NHRS-HEVA000001079].

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845: 8) described ”Platycelia Ehrenbergi nob. Ægypt. rariss. Hedenborg.”. The use of “rariss.” suggests that Dahlbom examined only one specimen. Confirmation is given by Dahlbom himself (1854: 220) “Habitat in Aegypto, a D. Hedenborg detecta. Unicum specimen vidi, e Museo Reg. Acad. Scient. Stockholm. a D. Boheman communicatum.”. In the collection three specimens belonging to the same species were located bearing the same labels. Boheman sent only one specimen of this series to Dahlbom, who described the species. Later the specimen was reintroduced in the original series and the label handwritten by Dahlbom was destroyed. Currently the holotype is “lost” within the series, and a neotype could be designated by the first revisor. We do not select a neotype, because all the three specimens correspond to the current interpretation of the species and therefore the neotype designation seems to be unnecessary.

A revision of the C. ehrenbergi species-group is needed, because many subspecific names were proposed and their relation is not clear. Trautmann (1926: 7) described Cephalochrysis ehrenbergi var. vogti; Linsenmaier (1968: 106, 107) described three different subspecies: Chrysis (Platycelia) ehrenbergi ssp. vinaria, C. ehrenbergi ssp. hylae, C. ehrenbergi ssp. chrysodorsa (= C. ehrenbergi vogti Trautmann). Linsenmaier (1968: 106) wrote that C. ehrenbergi exists with different ecological and geographical forms: “ehrenbergi Dhlb. existiert in, mindestens imGeschlecht, durch die Färbung deutlich getrennten, ökologischen und geographischen Formen. Die Nominatform scheint auf Ägypten beschränkl zu sein.grün, K und Th obern bronzefarben oder mit weniger intensiven kupfernen Reflexen, Abd oben rosa-kupfern.”. However, some ecological or geographical forms could be valid species, as in the case of Chrysis ignita (Linnaeus).

Linsenmaier always considered Platycelia Dahlbom as a valid and well-characterized subgenus; Linsenmaier (1997a: 285) observed that Kimsey and Bohart (1991) elevated some subgenera to generic level (e.g. Spintharina Semenow), whereas other subgenera equally or even more characteristic (e.g. Platycelia Dahlbom, Pyria Lepeletier, etc.) were downgraded to species-group even if clearly separated from the heterogeneous genus Chrysis Linnaeus. The generic status and placement of Platycelia should be checked in the future, with the help of molecular analysis.

Current status

Chrysis ehrenbergi (Dahlbom, 1845) (transferred by Dalla Torre 1892: 58).

Stilbum hedenborgi Dahlbom, 1845

Stilbum Hedenborgi: Dahlbom 1845: 16.

Type locality

Sudan: “Bahr el Abiad”.

Syntypes

2 ♀♀. [Bahr el Abiad] [Hedenborg] [NHRS-HEVA000001085] and [NHRS-HEVA000001086].

Current status

Chrysis stilboides Spinola, 1838 (synonymised and transferred by Mocsáry 1889: 590).

Stilbum wesmaeli Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 32

Stilbum Wesmaëli: Dahlbom 1845: 16.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Holotype ♂

[Rhodus] [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001129].

Plate 32.

Stilbum wesmaeli Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B mesonotum and metanotum, dorsal view C head, frontal view.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845) described S. wesmaeli without any note on the type series. More information can be found in his monographical work (Dahlbom 1854: 359): “Habitat in insula Rhodo; specimen unicum e Mus. Reg. Acad. Scient. Stockholm. communicavit Dom. Boheman.”. Currently there are three specimens in the collection collected on Rhodes by Hedenborg. Only one has a different printed label [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001129] instead of [Hedenb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001137-1138]. Hedenborg visited Rhodes more than once, and these three specimens should have been collected in two different journeys. We consider as holotype the one with a different label (NHRS-HEVA000001129).

After Dahlbom (1854), all the most important authors considered S. wesmaeli as synonym of S. cyanurum (Forster, 1771) (Mocsáry 1889: 190; Dalla Torre 1892: 38; Bishoff 1913: 26; Trautmann 1927: 80; Linsenmaier 1951: 107). However, it was not even mentioned by Mader (1933) and Zimmermann (1937) in their revisions of the genus Stilbum. In his major revisions, Linsenmaier (1959: 181 and 1968: 123) used the name S. calens ssp. subcalens Mader, 1933 (invalid name because described as aberratio) in place of S. wesmaeli for the corresponding subspecies distributed in the Mediterranean basin (Dalmatia, Balcan Contries, Rhodes, Persia, southern Switzerland (Misox), southern France, Spanien, northern Africa (Linsenmaier 1959) and Lebanon (Linsenmaier 1968)).

In the last publications, Linsenmaier (1997a: 287, 1997b: 134, 1999: 254) used S. calens ssp. wesmaeli Dahlbom as the oldest name for this species, synonymizing S. subcalens and S. macedonicum Trautmann, 1926 with S. calens ssp. wesmaeli. Linsenmaier (1959) treated the invalid name subcalens as subspecies of S. calens, and thus made this name available as species-group name (ICZN 1999, article 45.6.3.). As Linsenmaier was the first author to make the name available, he should be considered as the author of S. subcalens (ICZN 1999, article 50.3.1.).

The type and the other specimens of S. wesmaeli in NHRS are not related to S. calens (Fabricius), but belong to a different population of S. cyanurum (Forster) probably endemic to the island. Dahlbom (1845, 1854) descriptions are clear and this species is easily identifiable by the typical shape of the metanotal protrusion, which is deeply bilobed (“postscutelli processus emarginatus”). All the specimens from Rhodes show this special feature, and for this reason we consider this isolated population as a possible valid subspecies.

Current status

Stilbum cyanurum ssp. wesmaeli (Dahlbom, 1845).

Stilbum westermanni Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 33

Stilbum Westermanni: Dahlbom 1845: 16.

Type locality

Greece: Rhodes.

Holotype ♂

[Rhodus] [Hedb.] [NHRS-HEVA000001130].

Plate 33.

Stilbum westermanni Dahlbom, 1845, holotype. A Habitus, lateral view B mesonotum and metanotum, dorsal view C head, frontal view.

Remarks

Stilbum westermanni is related to S. calens Fabricius. Linsenmaier (1997a: 287, 1997b: 134, 1999: 254) confused the two species described by Dahlbom from Rhodes (wesmaeli and westermanni), and proposed the wrong combination S. calens ssp. wesmaeli instead of S. calens ssp. westermanni. According to Linsenmaier (1997b), this subspecies is more distributed along the coast of the Mediterranean basin.

Current status

Stilbum calens ssp. westermanni Dahlbom, 1845.

Missing types

During the revisional work in the general collection, the following types were not found, which should be deposited at the NHRS according to the literature.

Chrysis gloriosa Dahlbom, 1845

Chrysis gloriosa: Dahlbom 1845: 10, nec Fabricius, 1793

Type locality

unknown.

Remarks

Dahlbom (1845) based the description of C. gloriosa on a specimen related to C. grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854, as written by the same author (Dahlbom 1854: 271). Since the locality is unknown and many subspecies of C. grohmanni have been described in the Mediterranean countries, it is impossible to comment this name.

Chrysis inaequalis Dahlbom, 1845

Plate 34

Chrysis inaequalis: Dahlbom 1845: 8.

Type locality

Turkey: “Bosfor”.

Neotype

(here designated) ♂: [Helvetia] [Roveredo 28.8.46] [♂ Chrysis L. inaequalis D. det. Lins.] [NML_ENT GBIF_Chr 00038702] deposited at NMLS.

Plate 34.

Chrysis inaequalis Dahlbom, neotype. A Habitus, dorsal view B head, frontal view C head and mesosoma, dorsal view D mesosoma, lateral view E metasoma, dorsal view F second and third metasomal tergites, dorso-lateral view.

Remarks

Chrysis inaequalis is one of the most common species in Europe. It was described from Turkey (Bosfor), but the type is lost. In the general collection we could only find two females of C. inaequalis collected at Rhodes by Hedenborg. According to Linsenmaier the “typical” C. inaequalis is present only in central-, southern Europe and in northern Africa; in the rest of the distributional range, from Greece to central Asia, the subspecies C. inaequalis sapphirina Semenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1912 is present. C. sapphirina is the eastern form with green-coloured males and both sexes coarsely punctuated. Linsenmaier (1959) cited C. inaequalis s. str. in North China and Manchuria, but later, in his collection, he identifed all the eastern specimens as C. inaequalis ssp. sapphirina. Linsenmaier (1959) did not notice that the typical locality of C. inaequalis correspond with the distribution given for C. inaequalis ssp. sapphirina sensu auctorum.

For this reason a neotype designation of C. inaequalis is needed. We could not find any other specimen from Bosphor (Istanbul and adjacent areas), but in Linsenmaier’s collection we found many specimens collected in western Turkey, both on the European and the Asiatic side. The closest localities are Edirne (on the European side) and Ayvalik (on the Asiatic side). Even if it is not required for a neotype designation, Ayvalik is a seaside town on the northwestern Aegean coast of Turkey, it is possible that Hedenborg visited this town moving from Rhodes or Egypt to Istanbul. In fact Hedenborg was the medical doctor of the Swedish Embassy at Istanbul, and not only a famous naturalist who published different papers on his journeys in Rhodes and Egypt.

However, since the name C. inaequalis is in prevailing use for the identification of the western European specimens for the last 100 years, we prefer to designate a neotype based on one specimen collected in central Europe, rather than on a specimen collected nearby the typical locality. If we designate a neotype on an eastern Mediterranean species, the name C. sapphirina would fall in synonymy with C. inaequalis and the western subspecies would be named: C. inaequalis ssp. taeniophrys Förster, 1853, which is the first available name. Moreover, if future examinations made with the help of molecular techniques will demonstrate that western and the eastern subspecies (sensu Linsenmaier) are separated and valid species, the valid name for C. inaequalis in Europe would become C. taeniophrys Förster, a name never used after the description given by Förster. In addition, the type of C. taeniophrys Förster is lost, and we could not check that it is truly the first available name for the western form of C. inaequalis. By designating a western European specimen, we keep the stability of name use. Therefore, the male specimen collected in Swtizerland at Roveredo on the 28th of August 1948 by Linsenmaier (NML_ENT GBIF_Chr 00038702) is selected, housed in the Linsenmaier collection at the NMLS.

Current status

Chrysis inaequalis Dahlbom, 1845.

Cleptes aurata Dahlbom, 1845

Cleptes aurata: Dahlbom 1845: 2, nec Panzer, 1798.

Type locality

Bosfor, Hedenborg”.

Remarks

Móczár (1998b: 511) designated the neotype of Cleptes aurata Dahlbom on a female specimen collected by Houska in Palestina and deposited at the HNHM.

Current status

Cleptes dahlbomi Semenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1909 (replacement name for Cleptes aurata Dahlbom, 1845).

Specimens labelled as types but never described

In the general collection at the NHRS there is a specimen labelled: [J. Klapperich Sarekanda, 4100m 28.7.53, Gebirge Badakschan NO – Afghanistan] [Chrysis badakschensis n.sp ♀ Holotypus] <red label handwritten by Balthasar>. This species was never described by Balthasar and it belongs to the Chrysis comparata group, analis subgroup.

Conclusions

The study of the type material by Dahlbom is fundamental to further knowledge on the European and western Palaearctic fauna. While studying his works, some interesting observations on types were found that were overlooked in recent revisions, probably because they were written in Latin. After reading Dahlbom’s main works (1845, 1854), we concluded that there is no correspondence between many descriptions and the current interpretation of the species. For this reason and in preparation of the volume on the Italian Fauna, a revisional work on the European types at the most important museums has been initiated by the first author (Rosa 2009; Paukkunen et al. 2014; Rosa and Xu 2015; Rosa et al. 2015), with multiple discoveries at different museums.

During the study of the type specimens housed in the NHRS, 72 types belonging to 53 taxa were examined. Some nomenclatural and taxonomic changes are proposed. Moreover, in contrast to the catalogue of the Chrysididae of the world (Kimsey and Bohart 1991), we found that two additional holotypes are deposited at the NHRS (Chrysis equestris Dahlbom, 1854 and Omalus coriaceus Dahlbom, 1850); three syntypes belonging to two species are deposited at the NHRS (Chrysis manicata Dahlbom, 1854 and Chrysis soror Dahlbom, 1854); and four holotypes and two syntypes are deposited at the NHRS and not at the MZLU or at the NMPC (Chrysis elvira Balthasar, 1957, Chrysis klapperichi Balthasar, 1957, Chrysis nisseri Dahlbom, 1845, Hedychrum massaicum Cameron, 1910, Holopyga dohrni Dahlbom, 1854).

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to the late Bert Viklund and Mattias Forshage (NHRS) for helpful historical information on Dahlbom, Hedenborg, and the Gaunitz families; Roy Danielsson (MZLU), Lars Bjørn Vilhelmsen (ZMUC), Marco Bernasconi (NMLS), Dominique Zimmermann (NHMW), and Zoltán Vas (HNHM, Hungary); for access to collections and loan of some types; Alexander Berg (Lund, Sweden) for providing pictures of the syntype of Holopyga dohrni Dahlbom, 1854 housed in Dahlbom’s collection; Villu Soon (Tartu, Estonia) and Juho Paukkunen (MZH, Finland) for providing notes on Valkeila’s types and reviewing the manuscript; Kevin Holston (NHRS) for proofreading the English manuscript. Lastly we are grateful to Riksmuseets vänner (The Friends of the Swedish Museum of Natural History) who supported the visit of the first author in Stockholm.

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