Print
Two new species of the genus Betacixius Matsumura, 1914 from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae)
expand article infoYan Zhi§, Chang-Hua Zhang|, Lin Yang§, Xiang-Sheng Chen§
‡ Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China
§ Guizhou University, Guiyang, China
| Guizhou Tobacco Company Zunyi Branch, Zunyi, China
Open Access

Abstract

Two new species of Betacixius Matsumura, 1914 (Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae), B. latissimus Zhi & Chen, sp. nov. and B. maguanensis Zhi & Chen, sp. nov., are described from Yunnan Province, China. The genus is reviewed and a key to all known species is provided. The females of four Chinese species are described for the first time.

Keywords

Female genitalia, Fulgoroidea, morphology, Oriental region, taxonomy

Introduction

Betacixius is a small genus established by Matsumura (1914) for 23 species in the subfamily Cixiinae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae), with B. ocellatus Matsumura, 1914 as the type species. Betacixius belongs to the tribe Semonini (Emeljanov 2002) and has been taxonomically studied by various authors, with a number of species published successively (e.g. Jacobi 1944; Fennah 1956; Hori 1982; Tsaur et al. 1991; Zhang and Chen 2011).

Recent study of some Chinese specimens has found two new species, B. latissimus Zhi & Chen, sp. nov. and B. maguanensis Zhi & Chen, sp. nov., which are described here. Female specimens of four species are also described for the first time. So far, including the two new species, the genus currently now counts for 25 valid species and two subspecies, all distributed in the Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Bourgoin 2020).

Materials and methods

The morphological terminology and measurements follow Bourgoin (1987) and Bourgoin et al. (2015). The morphological terminology of female genitalia follows Bourgoin (1993). Body length was measured from apex of vertex to tip of forewing; vertex length was measured the median length of vertex (from apical transverse carina to tip of basal emargination). Fuchsin staining was used to highlight female genitalia structures studied. External morphology and drawings were made with the aid of a Leica MZ 12.5 stereomicroscope. Photographs were taken with KEYENCE VHX-1000 system. Illustrations were scanned with a CanoScan LiDE 200 flatbed scanner and imported into Adobe Photoshop 7.0 for labeling and figure composition. The distribution map was generated with Google Earth Pro v. 7.3.2 (Google LLC). The dissected male and female genitalia are preserved in glycerin in small plastic tubes pinned together with the specimens.

The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, China (GUGC).

Taxonomy

Betacixius Matsumura, 1914

Betacixius Matsumura, 1914: 412; Tsaur et al. 1991: 27; Zhang and Chen 2011.

Type species

Betacixius ocellatus Matsumura, 1914, by original designation.

Diagnosis

See Zhang and Chen (2011: 48).

Distribution

China, Japan, Vietnam.

Key to species of Betacixius1

1 Forewing with markings 2
Forewing without any markings 21
2 Forewing with a large ocellate marking in apical half 3
Forewing without ocellate marking in apical half 6
3 Forewing with an oblique, brown band extending from clavus across middle of corium B. tonkinensis Matsumura, 1914
Forewing without such a band 4
4 Endosoma of aedeagus with one spine, hook-shaped (Zhang and Chen 2011: figs 22, 23) B. flagellihamus Zhang & Chen, 2011
Endosoma of aedeagus with two spines, not hook-shaped 5
5 Periandrium of aedeagus apically with two L-shaped processes B. maculosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
Periandrium of aedeagus apically with one nearly straight and one arched processes B. ocellatus Matsumura, 1914
6 Forewing with an oblique band extending from stigma passing through its middle part 7
Forewing without such a band 13
7 Forewing with apical cells of M and Cu strongly infuscate B. transversus Jacobi, 1944
Forewing with apical cells not infuscate 8
8 Forewing with apical margin black or distinctly darkened 9
Forewing with apical margin fuscous or not distinctly darkened 10
9 Frons with a pallid spot at centre of lateral margins; mesonotum testaceous B. kumejimae Matsumura, 1914
Frons without such spots; mesonotum, except scutellum, castaneous-piceous B. euterpe Fennah, 1956
10 Forewing with a spot near sutural margin of clavus near union of claval veins, no oblique dark band at this level extending into corium 11
Forewing with an oblique dark band extending from clavus into centre of corium, slightly distad of level of union of claval veins 12
11 Forewing basally with a broad transverse band from dorsal margin to sutural margin of clavus (Fig. 3E) B. latissimus sp. nov.
Forewing without above band B. obliquus Matsumura, 1914
12 Forewing basally with a light brown band B. pallidior Jacobi, 1944
Forewing basally without band B. michioi Hori, 1982
13 Forewing with a long black stripe from base, along clavus extending to Rs B. fuscus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
Forewing without such a stripe 14
14 Forewing along the R with a black stripe widened towards the rear B. robustus Jacobi, 1944
Forewing without such a stripe 15
15 Anal segment asymmetrical B. nelides Fennah, 1956
Anal segment symmetrical 16
16 Ventral margin of periandrium basally with two broad, lobate processes (Zhang and Chen 2011: figs 10, 11) B. bispinus Zhang & Chen, 2011
Ventral margin of periandrium basally without process 17
17 Endosoma apically without spinose process 18
Endosoma apically with one or two spinose processes 19
18 Spinose process on right side of periandrium medium-sized, curved upwards, apex dorsally directed; spinose process on left side parallel to periandrium for most potion, apex ventrocephalically directed B. rinkihonis Matsumura, 1914
Spinose process on right side of periandrium very short, nearly straight, apex directed cephalad; spinose process on left side generally dorsocephalically directed B. shirozui Hori, 1982
19 In lateral view, apical lobe of anal segment ventrally rounded B. delicatusTsaur & Hsu, 1991
In lateral view, apical lobe of anal segment ventrally pointed 20
20 Spinose process on right side of periandrium near dorsal margin, coiled 90 degrees to left; endosoma with two spinose processes B. sparsus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991
Spinose process on right side of periandrium near ventral margin, nearly straight, apex directed cephalad; endosoma with one spinose process B. maguanensis sp. nov.
21 Endosoma of aedeagus apically with two processes 22
Endosoma of aedeagus apically with one process 23
22 Ventral margin of periandrium with a long process B. flavovittatus Hori, 1982
Ventral margin of periandrium without process B. nigromarginalis Fennah, 1956
23 Frons without median carina B. clypealis Matsumura, 1914
Frons with median carina 24
24 Body pale brown; periandrium of aedeagus with two processes on right side B. brunneus Matsumura, 1914
Body green; periandrium of aedeagus with one process on each side B. herbaceus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991

Betacixius bispinus Zhang & Chen, 2011

Figure 1A–I

Betacixius bispinus Zhang & Chen, 2011: 53, figs 1–13, 24.

Material examined

China: 1♂, Guizhou Province, Yanhe County, Mayanghe National Natural Reserve (600 m) (28°40'N, 108°19'E), 5–12 June 2007, Xiang-Sheng Chen (holotype); 1♂ 7♀♀, Guizhou Province, Yanhe County, Mayanghe National Natural Reserve (600 m), 5–12 June 2007, Xiang-Sheng Chen (paratypes); 1♂ 1♀, Guizhou Province, Tongren City, Fanjingshan National Natural Reserve (500–1800 m) (27°54'N, 108°38'E), 1–3 June 2002, Xiang-Sheng Chen; 2♂♂ 1♀, Guizhou Province, Daozhen County, Sanqiao Town (29°3'N, 107°30'E), 24 May 2002, Xiang-Sheng Chen; 1♂, Guizhou Province, Chishui City, Shizhangdong Waterfall (28°22'N, 105°43'E), 30 May 2006, Zai-Hua Yang; 27♂♂ 25♀♀, Guizhou Province, Suiyang County, Kuankuoshui National Natural Reserve (28°14'N, 107°12'E), 8–9 June 2010, Pei Zhang, Bin Zhang, Yu-Jian Li, Ji-Chun Xing; 2♂♂ 1♀, Guizhou Province, Huishui County, Duanshan Town, Guangrong Village (25°50'N, 106°37'E), 9 May 2013, Jian-Kun Long, Zai-Hua Yang; 1♂ 1♀, Sichuan Province, Nanchong City, Dayou Township (30°48'N, 106°41'E), 9–10 May 2008, Zheng-Guang Zhang, Zai-Hua Yang; 2♂♂ 2♀♀, Yunnan Province, Longling County (24°35'N, 98°41'E), 23 May 2016, Meng-Shu Dong; 4♂♂ 3♀♀, Yunnan Province, Maguan County, Gulinqing Township (22°48'N, 103°57'E), 30–31 May 2016, Liang-Jing Yang, Qiang Luo, Ying-Jian Wang.

Supplementary description

Female genitalia. Tergite IX (Fig. 1A, B, D) moderately sclerotized, with a large nearly dumbbell-shaped wax plate. Anal segment (Fig. 1C) rectangular, widening to apex, 1.1 times wider than long in dorsal view, anal style strap-like. Gonapophysis VIII (Fig. 1E) elongate, and slightly curved upwards. Gonapophysis IX (Fig. 1F) with two middle teeth, distance ratio between distal middle tooth to apex and length of denticulate portion is 2.2. Gonoplac (Fig. 1G) rod-like, 3.5 times longer than wide in lateral view. Posterior vagina pattern as shown in Figure 1H, I.

Figure 1. 

Betacixius bispinus Zhang & Chen, 2011, female A genitalia, lateral view B genitalia, ventral view C anal segment, dorsal view D tergite IX, caudal view E gonapophysis VIII and gonocoxa VIII, ventral view F gonapophysis IX, lateral view G gonoplac, inner lateral view H posterior vagina, ventral view I posterior vagina, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan).

Note

The female genitalia of this species are described and illustrated for the first time.

Betacixius flagellihamus Zhang & Chen, 2011

Figure 2A–I

Betacixius flagellihamus Zhang & Chen, 2011: 54, figs 14–23, 25.

Material examined

China: 1♂, Guizhou Province, Leishan County, Leigongshan National Natural Reserve (26°31'N, 108°17'E), 13 May 1985, Zi-Zhong Li (holotype); 7♂♂ 9♀♀, Guizhou Province, Leishan County, Leigongshan National Natural Reserve, 13 May 1985, Zi-Zhong Li (paratypes); 2♂♂, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, June 1983, Students of Grade 79, Major Plant Protection (paratypes); 1♂ 2♀♀, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Forest Park (1000 m) (26°32'N, 106°45'E), 20 May 2007, Xiang-Sheng Chen (paratypes); 1♂ 1♀, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Forest Park, 14–17 May 1984, collector unknown; 2♂♂ 1♀, Guizhou Province, Duyun City, Gantang Town, Tuanzhai Village (26°16'N, 107°26'E), 12 May 2014, Ming Ning, Gai-Ping Yang; 1♂5♀♀, Guizhou Province, Suiyang County, Kuankuoshui National Natural Reserve (28°14'N, 107°12'E), 8–9 June 2010, Pei Zhang, Bin Zhang; 3♂♂ 2♀♀, Guizhou Province, Huishui County, Duanshan Town, Guangrong Village (25°50'N, 106°37'E), 9 May 2013, Jian-Kun Long, Zai-Hua Yang; 1♂ 3♀♀, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Huaxi District (26°25'N, 106°40'E), 15–16 May 1982, collector unknown; 2♂♂ 3♀♀, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Huaxi District, 1 May 2008, Zheng-Guang Zhang; 1♂, Guizhou Province, Libo County, Maolan Town (25°23'N, 108°4'E), 9 April 2011, Jian-Kun Long; 2♂♂1♀, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Forest Park, 24 May 2006, Zai-Hua Yang; 3♂♂ 2♀♀, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Forest Park, 21 April 2010, Jun-Qiang Ni; 10♂♂ 6♀♀, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Forest Park, 18 May 2012, Wei-Bin Zheng, Yong-Gang Xiao; 1♂, Guizhou Province, Guiyang City, Huaxi District, 29 April 2017, Yong-Jin Sui.

Supplementary description

Female genitalia. Tergite IX (Fig. 2A, B, D) moderately sclerotized, with a large nearly dumbbell-shaped wax plate. Anal segment (Fig. 2C) rectangular, widening to apex, 1.5 times wider than long in dorsal view, anal style strap-like. Gonapophysis VIII (Fig. 2E) elongate, and slightly curved upwards. Gonapophysis IX (Fig. 2F) with two middle teeth, distance ratio between distal middle tooth to apex and length of denticulate portion is 2.1. Gonoplac (Fig. 2G) rod-like, 3.6 times longer than wide in lateral view. Posterior vagina pattern as shown in Figure 2H, I.

Figure 2. 

Betacixius flagellihamus Zhang & Chen, 2011, female A genitalia, lateral view B genitalia, ventral view C anal segment, dorsal view D tergite IX, caudal view E gonapophysis VIII and gonocoxa VIII, ventral view F gonapophysis IX, lateral view G gonoplac, inner lateral view H posterior vagina, ventral view I posterior vagina, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Host plant

Quercus sp. (Fagaceae).

Distribution

China (Guizhou).

Note

The female genitalia of this species are described and illustrated for the first time.

Betacixius latissimus sp. nov.

Figures 3A–M, 4A–I

Type material

Holotype : ♂, China: Yunnan Province, Jinping County, Fenshuiling National Nature Reserve (22°46'N, 103°13'E), 7–8 June 2016, Liang-Jing Yang, Ying-Jian Wang; paratypes: 1♂ 1♀, same data as holotype.

Description

Body length : male 6.9–7.1 mm (n = 2), female 7.2 mm (n = 1).

Coloration. General color blackish brown (Fig. 3A–D). Eyes reddish brown, lateral ocelli dark red and median ocellus yellow. Vertex dark brown, pronotum yellowish to blackish brown and mesonotum blackish brown. Face generally dark brown, yellowish white above frontoclypeal suture. Postclypeus yellowish brown and anteclypeus blackish brown. Rostrum generally yellowish brown except darker tip. Forewing semi-translucent, base with a broad transverse band from dorsal margin to sutural margin of clavus; clavus with a blackish brown spot on apical third, an oblique transverse band originating from stigma extending to ventral margin. Hind tibiae yellowish brown and abdominal sternites blackish brown.

Head and thorax. Vertex (Fig. 3A, C) broad, 1.9 times wider than long; anterior margin arched convex, posterior margin slightly arched concave; median carina distinct and complete. Frons (Fig. 3D) 0.6 times as long as wide, median carina indistinct, extending from slightly above level of lateral ocelli to median ocellus. Clypeus with median carina distinct and elevated throughout. Pronotum (Fig. 3C) 1.4 times longer than vertex, posterior margin concaved in obtuse angle. Mesonotum 1.6 times longer than pronotum and vertex combined. Forewing (Fig. 3E) 1.9 times longer than wide, with nine apical and five subapical cells; fork Sc+RP slightly distad of fork CuA1+CuA2; first crossvein r-m slightly distad of fork MP; RP 2 branches, MP with four terminals: MP 1, MP2, MP3, and MP4, fork MP1+MP2 almost at same level as fork MP3+MP4. Hind tibia with three lateral spines, six apical spines; chaetotaxy of hind tarsi: 7/7, second segment of hind tarsus with three platellae.

Figure 3. 

Betacixius latissimus sp. nov., male A habitus, dorsal view B habitus, lateral view C head and thorax, dorsal view D face, ventral view E forewing F genitalia, lateral view G pygofer and gonostyli, ventral view H anal segment, dorsal view I gonostyli, inner lateral view J aedeagus, right side K aedeagus, left side L aedeagus, dorsal view M aedeagus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (C,D, F–M); 1.0 mm (E).

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Fig. 3F, G) symmetrical, dorsal margin concave and U-shaped ventrally, widened towards apex; in lateral view, lateral lobes arched extended caudally. Medioventral process triangular in ventral view. Anal segment (Fig. 3F, H) long, tubular, asymmetrical, apical lobes arched extended ventrally in lateral view, left lobe larger than right one, 2.8 times longer than wide in dorsal view; anal style finger-like, not beyond anal segment. Gonostyli (Fig. 3F, G, I) symmetrical in ventral view; in inner lateral view, apical part extended, apical margin acute. Aedeagus (Fig. 3J–M) in total with four processes. Right side of periandrium with a long spinose process apically, straight for most portion, directed dorsocephalically, apex curved downwards and directed ventrocephalically; left side of periandrium apically with two medium-sized spinose processes, the upper one strongly curved and directed dorsally and the other one slightly curved and directed cephalad. Base of periandrium ventrally with several saw-like teeth. Endosoma slender, structure simple, apically with a small spinose process on left margin.

Female genitalia. Tergite IX (Fig. 4A, B, D) moderately sclerotized, with two connected wax plates, nearly oval. Anal segment (Fig. 4C) rectangular, 1.4 times wider than long in dorsal view, anal style strap-like. Gonapophysis VIII (Fig. 4E) elongate, and slightly curved upwards. Gonapophysis IX (Fig. 4F) with two middle teeth, distance ratio between distal middle tooth to apex and length of denticulate portion is 2.4. Gonoplac (Fig. 4G) rod-like, 3.8 times longer than wide in lateral view. Posterior vagina pattern as shown in Figure 4H, I.

Figure 4. 

Betacixius latissimus sp. nov., female A genitalia, lateral view B genitalia, ventral view C anal segment, dorsal view D tergite IX, caudal view E gonapophysis VIII and gonocoxa VIII, ventral view F gonapophysis IX, lateral view G gonoplac, inner lateral view H posterior vagina, ventral view I posterior vagina, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Etymology

The specific name, derived from Latin word meaning the broadest, refers to the forewing with an extremely broad band at apex.

Remarks

Male genitalia of B. latissimus sp. nov. is similar to B. herbaceus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991, but differs in: (1) left side of periandrium with two spinose processes (in B. herbaceus, left side of periandrium with one spinose process); (2) spinose process on right of periandrium curved downwards (in B. herbaceus, spinose process in the same position curved upwards); (3) anal segment asymmetrical (the latter symmetrical); (4) forewing with one blackish brown spot and two bands (the latter without any marking).

Betacixius maculosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991

Figure 5A–I

Betacixius maculosus Tsaur and Hsu in Tsaur et al. 1991: 31, fig. 15A–I.

Material examined

China: 3♂♂ 1♀, Taiwan Province, Nantou County (24°2'N, 121°7'E), 25 November 2002, Xiang-Sheng Chen.

Supplementary description

Female genitalia. Tergite IX (Fig. 5A, B, D) moderately sclerotized, with a medium-sized, nearly dumbbell-shaped wax plate. Anal segment (Fig. 5C) rectangular, slightly widening to apex, 1.1 times longer than wide in dorsal view, anal style finger-like. Gonapophysis VIII (Fig. 5E) elongate, and slightly curved upwards. Gonapophysis IX (Fig. 5F) with two middle teeth, distance ratio between distal middle tooth to apex and length of denticulate portion is 2.1. Gonoplac (Fig. 5G) rod-like, 3.4 times longer than wide in lateral view. Posterior vagina pattern as shown in Figure 5H, I.

Figure 5. 

Betacixius maculosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991, female A genitalia, lateral view B genitalia, ventral view C anal segment, dorsal view D tergite IX, caudal view E gonapophysis VIII and gonocoxa VIII, ventral view F gonapophysis IX, lateral view G gonoplac, inner lateral view H posterior vagina, ventral view I posterior vagina, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

China (Taiwan).

Note

The female genitalia of this species are described and illustrated for the first time in detail.

Betacixius maguanensis sp. nov.

Figures 6A–M, 7A–I

Type material

Holotype : ♂, China: Yunnan Province, Maguan County, Gulinqing Township (22°48'N, 103°57'E), 30–31 May 2016, Liang-Jing Yang, Ying-Jian Wang, Qiang Luo; paratypes: 8♂♂ 5♀♀, same data as holotype.

Description

Body length: male 5.9–6.5 mm (n = 9), female 6.7–7.0 mm (n = 5).

Coloration. General color blackish brown (Fig. 6A–D). Eyes reddish brown, ocelli light yellow. Vertex yellowish brown, pronotum yellowish brown and mesonotum black. Face generally yellowish brown, yellowish white above frontoclypeal suture. Postclypeus yellow and anteclypeus blackish brown. Rostrum generally yellowish brown. Forewing semi-translucent, clavus with a blackish brown spot on apical third, stigma blackish brown. Hind tibiae light blackish brown and abdominal sternites blackish brown.

Figure 6. 

Betacixius maguanensis sp. nov., male A habitus, dorsal view B habitus, lateral view C head and thorax, dorsal view D face, ventral view E forewing F genitalia, lateral view G pygofer and gonostyli, ventral view H anal segment, dorsal view I gonostyli, inner lateral view J aedeagus, right side K aedeagus, left side L aedeagus, dorsal view M aedeagus, ventral view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm (C, D, F–M); 1.0 mm (E).

Head and thorax. Vertex (Fig. 6A, C) broad, 2.6 times wider than long; anterior margin slightly arched convex, posterior margin arched concave; median carina distinct and complete. Frons (Fig. 6D) 0.8 times as long as wide, median carina indistinct, extending from slightly above level of lateral ocelli to median ocellus. Clypeus with median carina distinct and elevated throughout. Pronotum (Fig. 6C) 2.3 times longer than vertex, posterior margin concaved in an obtuse angle. Mesonotum 1.7 times longer than pronotum and vertex combined. Forewing (Fig. 6E) 2.5 times longer than wide, with nine apical and five subapical cells; fork Sc+RP distad of fork CuA1+CuA2; first crossvein r-m almost at same level as fork MP; RP 2 branches, MP with four terminals: MP 1, MP2, MP3, and MP4, fork MP1+MP2 distad of fork MP3+MP4. Hind tibia with three lateral spines, six apical spines; chaetotaxy of hind tarsi: 7/7, second segment of hind tarsus with three platellae.

Male genitalia. Pygofer (Fig. 6F, G) symmetrical, dorsal margin concave and U-shaped ventrally, widened towards apex; in lateral view, lateral lobes triangularly extended caudally. Medioventral process triangular in ventral view. Anal segment (Fig. 6F, H) long tubular, symmetrical, apical lobes ventrally pointed, 2.1 times longer than wide in dorsal view; anal style strap-like, not extending beyond anal segment. Gonostyli (Fig. 6F, G, I) symmetrical in ventral view; in inner lateral view, apical part extended, apical margin rounded. Aedeagus (Fig. 6J–M) with three processes. Right side near ventral margin of periandrium apically with a long spinose process, nearly straight, apex directed cephalad; left side near dorsal margin of periandrium with a shorter spinose process curving upwards, apex right-dorsally directed. Base of periandrium ventrally with several saw-like teeth. Endosoma slender, structure simple, apically with a small hook-like spinose process.

Female genitalia. Tergite IX (Fig. 7A, B, D) moderately sclerotized, with a large, nearly dumbbell-shaped wax plate. Anal segment (Fig. 7C) rectangular, 1.1 times longer than wide in dorsal view, anal style finger-like. Gonapophysis VIII (Fig. 7E) elongate, and slightly curved upwards. Gonapophysis IX (Fig. 7F) with two middle teeth, distance ratio between distal middle tooth to apex and length of denticulate portion is 2.0. Gonoplac (Fig. 7G) rod-like, 3.8 times longer than wide in lateral view. Posterior vagina pattern as shown in Figure 7H, I.

Figure 7. 

Betacixius maguanensis sp. nov., female A genitalia, lateral view B genitalia, ventral view C anal segment, dorsal view D tergite IX, caudal view E gonapophysis VIII and gonocoxa VIII, ventral view F gonapophysis IX, lateral view G gonoplac, inner lateral view H posterior vagina, ventral view I posterior vagina, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Etymology

The species name is derived from Maguan County, Yunan Province, where the type locality is located.

Remarks

Male genitalia of B. maguanensis sp. nov. is similar to B. flagellihamus Zhang & Chen, 2011, but differs in: (1) spinose process on right of periandrium nearly straight, directed cephalad (in B. flagellihamus, spinose process on right of periandrium curving dorsally); (2) apical lobes of anal segment pointed ventrally (the latter rounded); (3) forewing without ocellate marking (the latter with a large ocellate marking in apical half).

Betacixius sparsus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991

Figure 8A–I

Betacixius sparsus Tsaur and Hsu in Tsaur et al. 1991: 46, fig. 23A–E.

Material examined

China: 20♂♂ 56♀♀, Guangxi Province, Wuming County, Daming Mountain (23°27'N, 108°27'E), 14–15 May 2012, Zhi-Hua Fan, Hu Li, Nan-nan Yang; 11♂♂ 11♀♀, Guangxi Province, Wuming County, Daming Mountain, 14–17 May 2011, Xiao-Fei Yu, Rong Huang, Xin-Feng Zhang; 4♂♂ 4♀♀, Guangxi Province, Shangsi County, Shiwandashan National Forest Park (21°56'N, 108°6'E), 2–4 May 2011, Xiao-Fei Yu, Rong Huang.

Supplementary description

Female genitalia. Tergite IX (Fig. 8A, B, D) moderately sclerotized, with two nearly oval wax plates, separated from each other. Anal segment (Fig. 8C) rectangular, widening to apex, 1.1 times wider than long in dorsal view, anal style strap-like. Gonapophysis VIII (Fig. 8E) elongate, and slightly curved upwards. Gonapophysis IX (Fig. 8F) with two middle teeth, distance ratio between distal middle tooth to apex and length of denticulate portion is 2.3. Gonoplac (Fig. 8G) rod-like, 3.8 times longer than wide in lateral view. Posterior vagina pattern as shown in Figure 8H, I.

Figure 8. 

Betacixius sparsus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991, female A genitalia, lateral view B genitalia, ventral view C anal segment, dorsal view D tergite IX, caudal view E gonapophysis VIII and gonocoxa VIII, ventral view F gonapophysis IX, lateral view G gonoplac, inner lateral view H posterior vagina, ventral view I posterior vagina, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution

China (Guangxi, Taiwan).

Note

The female genitalia of this species are described and illustrated for the first time.

Discussion

Prior to this study, nothing has been reported on the host plants of Betacixius. Nonetheless, we found these planthoppers most commonly in grass, shrubs, or on bamboo and tree leaves, at elevations up to 2600 m. Unfortunately, there is no knowledge of what plants these planthoppers really feed on, except that B. flagellihamus was collected on Quercus sp. (Fagaceae), which might be the plant on which it feeds.

Based on published data and our field surveys, the distribution of Betacixius is mostly restricted to the Oriental parts of China, Japan, and Vietnam, with B. obliquus Matsumura, 1914, occurring in both Palaearctic and Oriental regions, as the only exception (Fig. 9).

Figure 9. 

Distribution records of the species from genus Betacixius 1 B. bispinus Zhang & Chen, 2011 2 B. brunneus Matsumura, 1914 3 B. clypealis Matsumura, 1914 4 B. delicatus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991 5 B. euterpe Fennah, 1956 6 B. flagellihamus Zhang & Chen, 2011 7 B. flavovittatus Hori, 1982 8 B. fuscus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991 9 B. herbaceus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991 10 B. kumejimae Matsumura, 1914 11 B. latissimus sp. nov. 12 B. maculosus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991 13 B. maguanensis sp. nov. 14 B. michioi Hori, 1982 15 B. nelides Fennah, 1956 16 B. nigromarginalis Fennah, 1956 17 B. obliquus Matsumura, 1914 18 B. ocellatus Matsumura, 1914 19 B. pallidior Jacobi, 1944 20 B. rinkihonis Matsumura, 1914 21 B. robustus Jacobi, 1944 22 B. shirozui Hori, 1982 23 B. sparsus Tsaur & Hsu, 1991 24 B. tonkinensis Matsumura, 1914 25 B. transversus Jacobi, 1944.

The regional studies on Betacixius in China are not equally efficient at finding species. To date, 23 species are known from China, of which about half that number (12 species) are known from Taiwan and only 12 species have been described from southern mainland China, which is much broader and more variant in ecological complexity compared with Taiwan. Therefore, we believe that additional comprehensive field surveys will find that the diversity of Betacixius in mainland China is doubtlessly richer.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the specimen collectors for their hard work in the field collections. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 31472033), the Program of Excellent Innovation Talents, Guizhou Province (no. 20154021), the Program of Science and Technology Innovation Talents Team, Guizhou Province (no. 20144001), the International Cooperation Base for Insect Evolutionary Biology and Pest Control (no. 20165802), the Science and Technology Project of Guiyang (no. [2017]5-25), and the Science-Technology Program of Guizhou Tobacco Company Zunyi Branch (no. [2018]11).

References

  • Bourgoin T (1987) A new interpretation of the homologies of the Hemiptera male genitalia, illustrated by the Tettigometridae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha). Proceedings 6thAuchenorrhyncha Meeting, Turin, Italy, 7–11 September 1987, 113–120.
  • Bourgoin T (1993) Female genitalia in Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha, morphological and phylogenetic data. Annales de la Société Entomologique France 29(3): 225–244.
  • Bourgoin T, Wang RR, Asche M, Hoch H, Soulier-Perkins A, Stroiński A, Yap S, Szwedo J (2015) From micropterism to hyperpterism: recognition strategy and standardized homology-driven terminology of the forewing venation patterns in planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha). Zoomorphology 134: 63–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-014-0243-6
  • Bourgoin T (2020) FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on the Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha. Version 8, updated 30 March 2020. http://hemiptera-databases.org/flow/ [Accessed on: 2020-4-2]
  • Emeljanov AF (2002) Contribution to classification and phylogeny of the family Cixiidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha). Denisia 04: 103–112.
  • Fennah RG (1956) Fulgoroidea from Southern China. Proceedings of the California Academy of Science (4th series) 28: 441–527.
  • Hori Y (1982) The genus Betacixius Matsumura, 1914 (Homoptera: Cixiidae) of Formosa. In: Satô M, Hori Y, Arita Y, Okadome T (Eds) Special Issue to the Memory of Retirement of Emeritus Professor Michio Chûjô. Association of the Memorial Issue of Emeritus Professor M. Chûjô C/O Biological Laboratory, Nagoya Women’s University, Nagoya, 175–182.
  • Jacobi A (1944) Die Zikadenfauna der Provinz Fukien in Südchina und ihre tiergeographischen Beziehungen. Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 34: 5–66.
  • Matsumura S (1914) Die Cixiinen Japans. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 8: 393–434.
  • Tsaur SC, Hsu TC, Stalle JV (1991) Cixiidae of Taiwan, Part V. Cixiini except Cixius. Journal of Taiwan Museum 44: 1–78.
  • Zhang P, Chen XS (2011) A checklist and key to species of the genus Betacixius Matsumura (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Cixiidae) with descriptions of two new species from Guizhou province, China. Florida Entomologist 94(1): 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.094.0107

1revised from Fennah 1956; Zhang and Chen 2011