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Data Paper
Free-living marine nematodes from San Julián Bay (Santa Cruz, Argentina)
expand article infoCatalina Pastor de Ward, Virginia Lo Russo, Gabriela Villares, Viviana Milano§, Lidia Miyashiro, Renato Mazzanti
‡ Laboratorio de Meiobentos CENPAT-CONICET, Puerto Madryn, Argentina
§ Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Puerto Madryn, Argentina
Open Access

Abstract

The free-living marine nematodes of San Julián Bay dataset is based on sediment samples collected in January 2009 during the project PICT AGENCIA-FONCYT 2/33345-2005. A total of 36 samples have been taken at three locations in the San Julián Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for the nematode benthic biodiversity assessment as this area remains one of the least known regions in Patagonia. In total 10,030 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 9 orders, 35 families, 78 genera and 125 species were collected. The San Julián city site presented a very high species richness.

Keywords

Nematoda, Enoplea, Chromadorea, South Atlantic

Data published through

GBIF: http://www.gbif.org/dataset/06df03fc-8973-490c-af74-089fffae9e24

Taxonomic coverage description

This is the first study on nematodes performed on a sub-Antarctic salt marsh along the coast of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina with a growing human impact (oil ventures, mining, aquaculture and tourism). The objectives of the study were to collect, identify and discover the structure and diversity of nematode community of San Julián Bay. The coverage (Figure 1) of this dataset includes two classes: Chromadorea (82%) and Enoplea (18%); nine orders: with Monhysterida (36%), followed by Enoplida (15%) and Chromadorida (13%) as those of main occurrences and thirty-five families (see Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Taxonomic coverage by class, order and family.

Taxonomic ranks

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Nematoda

Class: Chromadorea, Enoplea

Order: Monhysterida, Enoplida, Chromadorida, Desmodorida, Araeolaimida, Plectida, Rhabditida, Dorylaimida, Triplonchida

Family: Xyalidae, Linhomoeidae, Monhysteridae, Microlaimidae, Chromadoridae, Comesomatidae, Leptolaimidae, Oncholaimidae, Oxystominidae, Cyatholaimidae, Desmodoridae, Sphaerolaimidae, Diplopeltidae, Dorylaimidae, Ironidae, Neotonchidae, Thoracostomopsidae, Tripyloididae, Tylenchidae, Aegialoalaimidae, Anoplostomatidae, Aphelenchoididae, Axonolaimidae, Enchelidiidae, Ethmolaimidae.

Genera: Odontophora, Hopperia, Laimella, Sabatieria, Campylaimus, Chromadora, Chromadorella, Prochromadora, Dichromadora, Neochromadora, Spilophorella, Marylynnia, Paracanthonchus, Paracyatholaimus, Pomponema, Paraethmolaimus, Gomphionema, Neotonchus, Halichoanolaimus, Molgolaimus, Polysigma, Spirinia, Bolbolaimus, Microlaimus, Desmolaimus, Metalinhomoeus, Terschellingia, Paralinhomoeus, Siphonolaimus, Diplolaimella, Diplolaimelloides, Halomonhystera, Monhystera, Sphaerolaimus, Subsphaerolaimus, Amphimonhystera, Daptonema, Linhystera, Metadesmolaimus, Paramonohystera, Pseudosteineria, Steineria, Theristus, Haliplectus, Cyartonema, Camacolaimus, Deontolaimus, Antomicron, Leptolaimoides, Leptolaimus, Paramicrolaimus, Mesorhabditis, Aphelenchoides, Panagrolaimus, Boleodorus, Tylenchorhynchus, Tylenchus, Dorylaimus, Eudorylaimus, Chaetonema, Thoracostomopsis, Dolicholaimus, Syringolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassoalaimus, Wieseria, Calyptronema, Adoncholaimus, Oncholaimellus, Viscosia, Oncholaimus, Rhabdocoma, Bathylaimus, Tripyloides, Trichodorus, Pandolaimus.

Species with higher occurrences: Paraethmolaimus dahli, Sabatieria mortenseni, Daptonema rectangulatum, Metalinhomoeus parafiliformis, Leptolaimus puccinelliae, Diplolaimelloides oschei, Leptolaimus sebastiani, Metalinhomoeus gloriae, Thalassomonhystera parva, Metalinhomoeus typicus, Haliplectus salicornius.

Spatial coverage

General spatial coverage: San Julián Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina (Figure 2). For this study three sites were selected: “La pingüinera”(M), at the bay entrance, “La Rural” (C) in front of San Julián city and “El Rincón” (E) at the end of the bay. At each sampling site, three tidal levels were chosen: upper-littoral, high tide, salt-marsh habitat (u); middle littoral, mean tide, un-vegetated habitat (m) and low littoral, low tide, un-vegetated habitat (l) (Figure 3).

Figure 2.

Spatial coverage. San Julián Bay, Argentina. Sites: M = “La pingüinera”, C = “La Rural”, E = “El Rincón”. Levels = u, m, i.

Figure 3.

San Julián Bay, Argentina. Views from the sampling sites. A, B “La pingüinera” (M) C “La Rural”(C) D “El Rincón” (D).

Coordinates: La pingüinera: Mu = 49°16'15.24"S; 67°42'40.68"W; Mm = 49°16'12"S; 67°42'43.92"W; Ml = 49°16'11.28"S; 67°42'39.6"W. La Rural: Cu = 49°18'37.44"S; 67°42'55.8"W; Cm = 49°18'34.92"S; 67°42'55.8"W; Cl = 49°18'35.28"S; 67°42'52.56"W. El Rincón: Eu = 49°21'18.72"S; 67°41'26.88"W; Em = 49°21'14.4"S; 67°41'42.36"W; El = 49°21'18"S; 67°41'51"W.

Temporal coverage

11–13 January 2009.

Methods

Sampling description: At each site and level location, four replicates (20 ml) were sampled with a PVC syringe (60 ml, inner diameter 2.9 cm) and separated by a distance of 5-10 m each: four for marine nematodes counts, two for organic matter and two for sediment analyses. Each sample was fixed in situ, with a solution of 5% formaldehyde in filtered sea water with the addition of Rose Bengal tint.

Marine nematodes were extracted from samples using the elutriation/decantation LUDOX TM (colloidal silica polymer) method at a specific gravity of 1.15, quantifying only organisms passing through a 500 µm mesh and then retained by a 63 µm mesh. Samples were evaporated to anhydrous glycerol and permanent slides made (Somerfield and Warwick 1996).

The taxonomic classification followed proposed by De Ley and Blaxter (2004). For the identification of species international keys (Platt and Warwick 1983, Platt and Warwick 1988, Warwick et al. 1998, Lorenzen 1994, Abebe et al. 2006) and previous taxonomical papers for Santa Cruz nematodes (Pastor de Ward 1978, 1980, 1984a, b, c, d, e, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995a, b, 1996, 1998a, b, c, 1999, Pastor de Ward and Lo Russo 2009, Villares and Pastor de Ward 2012, Villares et al. 2013, Pastor de Ward et al. 2013) were used.

Project details

Project title:Evaluación del impacto urbano en costas areno-limosas de la provincia de Santa Cruz, usando métodos rápidos de análisis de cambios en estructura comunitaria del bentos.” [Impact assessment in urban sand-clay coastal areas of Santa Cruz Province, using methods of rapid assessment in changes of nematodes community structure].

Personnel: Catalina Pastor de Ward (Project Director, meio-benthos specialist); Héctor Zaixso (Project Co-director, macro-benthos specialist), Virginia Lo Russo (Field work, nematodes identification, data collection and analysis), Gabriela Villares (Data collection and analysis), Viviana Milano (Grant student, data input), Lidia Miyashiro (Darwin core data input), Renato Mazzanti (Software engineer, data base manager).

Funding: PICT AGENCIA-FONCYT 2/33345-2005

Study extent description: The San Julián Bay marine nematodes is a dataset that gives new insights on the taxonomic and geographic distribution of south Atlantic marine nematodes, covering an under-explored region of the southern Atlantic coasts. This is the first study on marine nematodes in this locality. This dataset presents species occurrences and species richness of the individual free-living marine nematodes present at three coastal areas (La pingüinera; La Rural; El Rincón) of the San Julián Bay at three different tidal levels (upper, middle and low-littoral).

In total 10,030 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 9 orders, 35 families, 78 genera and 125 species were collected.

Collected species.

Genera and species Family Order Class
Odontophora peritricha Wieser, 1956 Axonolaimidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Hopperia americana Pastor de Ward, 1984 Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Hopperia arntzi Chen & Vincx, 1998 Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Laimella sp. 1 Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Laimella sp. 2 Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Sabatieria sp. 1 Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Sabatieria sp. 2 Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Sabatieria mortenseni (Ditlevsen, 1921) Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Sabatieria wieseri Platt, 1985 Comesomatidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Campylaimus gerlachi Timm, 1961 Diplopeltidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Campylaimus sp. 1 Diplopeltidae Araeolaimida Chromadorea
Chromadora nudicapitata Bastian, 1865 Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Chromadorella circumflexa Wieser, 1954 Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Prochromadora argentinensis Pastor de Ward, 1984 Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Dichromadora sp. 1 Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Neochromadora lineata Pastor de Ward, 1985 Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Neochromadora papillosa Pastor de Ward, 1985 Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Neochromadora sp. 1 Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Spilophorella paradoxa (De Man, 1888) Chromadoridae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Marylynnia quadriseta (Wieser, 1954) Cyatholaimidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Paracanthonchus longispiculum Pastor de Ward, 1985 Cyatholaimidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Paracyatholaimus chilensis Gerlach, 1953 Cyatholaimidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Pomponema tautraense (Allgén, 1933) Cyatholaimidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Paraethmolaimus dahli (Gerlach, 1953) Ethmolaimidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Gomphionema sp. 1 Neotonchidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Neotonchus sp. 1 Neotonchidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Halichoanolaimus ovalis Ditlevsen, 1921 Selachinematidae Chromadorida Chromadorea
Molgolaimus minutus Jensen, 1978 Desmodoridae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Molgolaimus sp. 1 Desmodoridae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Polysigma sp. 1 Desmodoridae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Spirinia septentrionalis (Cobb, 1914) Desmodoridae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Bolbolaimus sp. 1 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Bolbolaimus sp. 3 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Microlaimus capillaris Gerlach, 1957 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Microlaimus conothelis (Lorenzen, 1973) Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Microlaimus cyatholaimoides Gerlach, 1957 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Microlaimus decoratus Pastor de Ward, 1991 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Microlaimus gerlachi Wieser, 1954 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Microlaimus globiceps De Man, 1880 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Microlaimus sp. 1 Microlaimidae Desmodorida Chromadorea
Desmolaimus sp. 1 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Desmolaimus sp. 2 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Metalinhomoeus gloriae Pastor de Ward, 1989 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Metalinhomoeus parafiliformis Pastor de Ward, 1989 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Metalinhomoeus typicus De Man, 1907 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Terschellingia distalamphida Juario, 1974 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Terschellingia longicaudata De Man, 1907 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Terschellingia sp. 1 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Terschellingia sulfidrica Pastor de Ward, 1989 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paralinhomoeus aridus Pastor de Ward, 1989 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paralinhomoeus pachyamphis Wieser, 1956 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paralinhomoeus visitus Pastor de Ward, 1989 Linhomoeidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Siphonolaimus auratus Wieser, 1956 Siphonolaimidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Diplolaimella gerlachi Pastor de Ward, 1984 Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Diplolaimelloides oschei Meyl, 1954 Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Diplolaimelloides tehuelchus Pastor de Ward & Lo Russo, 2009 Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Diplolaimelloides warwicki Pastor de Ward & Lo Russo, 2009 Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Halomonhystera disjuncta (Bastian, 1865) Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Halomonhystera sp. 1 Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Halomonhystera sp. 2 Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Halomonhystera sp. 3 Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Thalassomonhystera parva (Bastian, 1865) Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Thalassomonhystera refringens (Bresslau & Stekhoven, 1935) Monhysteridae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Sphaerolaimus pacificus Allgen 1947 Sphaerolaimidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Sphaerolaimus pentasetus Pastor de Ward, 1984 Sphaerolaimidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Subsphaerolaimus sp. 1 Sphaerolaimidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Amphimonhystera sp. 1 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Daptonema concordiense Pastor de Ward, 1985 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Daptonema laxus Wieser, 1956 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Daptonema lopezi Pastor de Ward, 1985 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Daptonema rectangulatum Pastor de Ward, 1985 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Daptonema sp. 1 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Linhystera longa Pastor de Ward, 1985 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Metadesmolaimus sp. 1 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Metadesmolaimus sp. 2 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paramonohystera megacephala (Steiner, 1916) Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paramonohystera parabutschlii Timm, 1961 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paramonohystera sp. 1 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paramonohystera sp. 2 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Paramonohystera sp. 3 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Pseudosteineria anticipans Wieser, 1956 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Steineria pilosa Cobb, 1914 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Theristus modicus Wieser, 1956 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Theristus sp. 1 Xyalidae Monhysterida Chromadorea
Haliplectus salicornius Pastor de Ward, 1984 Haliplectidae Plectida Chromadorea
Cyartonema flexile Cobb, 1920 Aegialoalaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Camacolaimus barbatus Warwick, 1970 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Deontolaimus papillatus De Man, 1880 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Antomicron alveolatum Villares & Pastor de Ward, 2012 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Leptolaimoides sp. 1 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Leptolaimoides sp. 2 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Leptolaimus gabinoi Villares & Pastor de Ward, 2012 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Leptolaimus puccinelliae Gerlach, 1959 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Leptolaimus sebastiani Vitiello, 1974 Leptolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Paramicrolaimus spirulifer Wieser, 1959 Paramicrolaimidae Plectida Chromadorea
Mesorhabditis sp. 1 Mesorhabditidae Rhabditida Chromadorea
Aphelenchoides sp. 1 Aphelenchoididae Rhabditida Chromadorea
Panagrolaimus sp. 1 Panagrolaimidae Rhabditida Chromadorea
Boleodorus sp. 1 Neotylenchidae Rhabditida Chromadorea
Tylenchorhynchus sp. 1 Tylenchidae Rhabditida Chromadorea
Tylenchus sp. 1 Tylenchidae Rhabditida Chromadorea
Dorylaimus sp. 1 Dorylaimidae Dorylaimida Enoplea
Eudorylaimus sp. 1 Dorylaimidae Dorylaimida Enoplea
Chaetonema sp. 1 Anoplostomatidae Enoplida Enoplea
Thoracostomopsis sp. 1 Thoracostomopsidae Enoplida Enoplea
Dolicholaimus marioni De Man, 1888 Ironidae Enoplida Enoplea
Syringolaimus smarigdus Cobb, 1928 Ironidae Enoplida Enoplea
Halalaimus (Halalaimus) setosus Timm, 1961 Oxystominidae Enoplida Enoplea
Halalaimus (Nuada) diacros Mawson, 1958 Oxystominidae Enoplida Enoplea
Halalaimus sp. 3 Oxystominidae Enoplida Enoplea
Halalaimus floridanus Keppner, 1992 Oxystominidae Enoplida Enoplea
Thalassoalaimus sp. 1 Oxystominidae Enoplida Enoplea
Wieseria sp. 1 Oxystominidae Enoplida Enoplea
Calyptronema maxweberi (De Man, 1922) Enchelidiidae Enoplida Enoplea
Eurystomina sp. 1 Enchelidiidae Enoplida Enoplea
Adoncholaimus sp. 1 Enchelidiidae Enoplida Enoplea
Oncholaimellus paracarlbergi Pastor de Ward, 1993 Oncholaimidae Enoplida Enoplea
Viscosia macramphida Chitwood, 1951 Oncholaimidae Enoplida Enoplea
Viscosia separabilis (Wieser, 1953) Oncholaimidae Enoplida Enoplea
Oncholaimus salobrus Pastor de Ward, 1993 Oncholaimidae Enoplida Enoplea
Rhabdocoma sp. 1 Trefusiidae Enoplida Enoplea
Bathylaimus australis Cobb, 1894 Tripyloididae Enoplida Enoplea
Tripyloides amazonicus (Gerlach, 1957) Tripyloididae Enoplida Enoplea
Trichodorus sp. 1 Trichodoridae Triplonchida Enoplea
Pandolaimus sp. 1 Pandolaimidae Triplonchida Enoplea

Quality control description: The geo-referencing of all specimens were recorded using a Garmin eTrex Legend GPS (WGS84 Datum) with an accuracy of less than 10 m and with at least 5 satellites.

The taxonomic identification of specimens, scientific names, and their current accurate spelling were verified by C. Pastor de Ward, a free-living marine nematode specialist. Other post-validation procedures (including geographic coordinate format, congruence between collection and identification dates, absence of ASCII anomalous characters) were checked using the Darwin Test software (http://www.gbif.es/darwin_test/Darwin_Test_in.php).

Dataset description

Object name: Darwin Core Archive free-living marine Nematodes from San Julián Bay (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

Character encoding: UTF-8

Format name: Darwin Core Archive format

Format version: 1.0

Distribution: http://www.cenpat-conicet.gov.ar:8080/ipt-2.0.3/resource.do?r=sjnem

Publication date of data: 2013-10-17

Language: English

Licenses of use: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons CC0 1.0 License http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode

External datasets

Object name: Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET)

Distribution: http://www.cenpat-conicet.gov.ar:8080/ipt-2.0.3/resource.do?r=sjnem

Object name: Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología de Argentina (Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos - SNDB)

Distribution: GBIF: http://www.gbif.org/dataset/06df03fc-8973-490c-af74-089fffae9e24

Formatted: English (U.K.)

Field Code Changed

Metadata language: English

Date of metadata creation: 2013-10-17

Hierarchy level: Dataset

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to the Agencia de Investigaciones Científicas (MINCyT), to Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos (SNDB) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CENPAT-CONICET) for their financial support.

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