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Commented checklist of European Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera)
expand article infoPeter Huemer, Ole Karsholt§
‡ Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen, Innsbruck, Austria
§ Zoological Museum, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Co­penhagen, Denmark
Open Access

Abstract

The checklist of European Gelechiidae covers 865 species, belonging to 109 genera, with three species records which require confirmation. Further, it is the first checklist to include a complete coverage of proved synonyms of species and at generic level. The following taxonomic changes are introduced: Pseudosophronia constanti (Nel, 1998) syn. nov. of Pseudosophronia exustellus (Zeller, 1847), Metzneria expositoi Vives, 2001 syn. nov. of Metzneria aestivella (Zeller, 1839); Sophronia ascalis Gozmány, 1951 syn. nov. of Sophronia grandii Hering, 1933, Aproaerema incognitana (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cinctelloides (Nel & Varenne, 2012) comb. nov., Aproaerema azosterella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema montanata (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cincticulella (Bruand, 1851) comb. nov., Aproaerema buvati (Nel, 1995) comb. nov., Aproaerema linella (Chrétien, 1904) comb. nov., Aproaerema captivella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema semicostella (Staudinger, 1871) comb. nov., Aproaerema steppicola (Junnilainen, 2010) comb. nov., Aproaerema cottienella (Nel, 2012) comb. nov., Ptocheuusa cinerella (Chrétien, 1908) comb. nov., Pragmatodes melagonella (Constant, 1895) comb. nov., Pragmatodes albagonella (Varenne & Nel, 2010) comb. nov., Pragmatodes parvulata (Gozmány, 1953) comb. nov., Oxypteryx nigromaculella (Millière, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx wilkella (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. nov., Oxypteryx ochricapilla (Rebel, 1903) comb. nov., Oxypteryx superbella (Zeller, 1839) comb. nov., Oxypteryx mirusella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx baldizzonei (Karsholt & Huemer, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx occidentella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2011) comb. nov., Oxypteryx libertinella (Zeller, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx gemerensis (Elsner, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx deserta (Piskunov, 1990) comb. nov., Oxypteryx unicolorella (Duponchel, 1843) comb. nov., Oxypteryx nigritella (Zeller, 1847) comb. nov., Oxypteryx plumbella (Heinemann, 1870) comb. nov., Oxypteryx isostacta (Meyrick, 1926) comb. nov., Oxypteryx helotella (Staudinger, 1859) comb. nov., Oxypteryx parahelotella (Nel, 1995) comb. nov., Oxypteryx graecatella (Šumpich & Skyva, 2012) comb. nov.; Aproaerema genistae (Walsingham, 1908) comb. rev., Aproaerema thaumalea (Walsingham, 1905) comb. rev.; Dichomeris neatodes Meyrick, 1923 sp. rev.; Caryocolum horoscopa (Meyrick, 1926) stat. rev.; Ivanauskiella occitanica (Nel & Varenne, 2013) sp. rev.; Apodia martinii Petry, 1911 sp. rev.; Caulastrocecis cryptoxena (Gozmány, 1952) sp. rev. Following Article 23.9.2 ICZN we propose Caryocolum blandella (Douglas, 1852) (Gelechia) nom. protectum and Caryocolum signatella (Eversmann, 1844) (Lita) nom. oblitum.

Keywords

Europe, species diversity, cryptic diversity, DNA barcoding, synonymy, new combination

Introduction

Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, are among the best-known insects, and due to a long tradition of studying Lepidoptera in Europe our knowledge of European Lepidoptera is more comprehensive compared to other parts of the world. Even though Lepidoptera is a well-defined group they exhibit a huge diversity in size, colour and wing markings. Whereas everybody can recognize a butterfly the vast majority of Lepidoptera are small and often dull coloured insects. One such group is the family Gelechiidae. They have for a long time been rather neglected by most lepidopterists mainly due to their external similarity and lack of resources for their identification. Over the last couple of decades, the latter problem has partly been addressed, e.g., Elsner et al. (1999), Huemer and Karsholt (1999, 2010), and at the same time there has been an increasing research interest in the Gelechiidae, resulting in a number of smaller and larger taxonomic reviews and faunistic publications (see reference list) dealing with these moths. However, what was becoming increasingly a hindrance for ongoing research was the lack of an updated checklist of European Gelechiidae. In particular, when planning an extensive DNA barcoding project for the family (Huemer et al. 2020), this deficit became obvious and therefore the authors decided to compile such a checklist for this and future requirements.

A checklist is the most basic taxonomic work on a group of organisms. It can be alphabetical or systematic, viz. trying to reflect the current knowledge of the relationship of the included taxa. This checklist is in systematic order, and it moreover includes synonyms and annotations. Its aim is to present an updated overview of the Gelechiidae known from Europe. This is highly appropriate as nearly a quarter of the currently known species have been described since 1990 (Huemer et al. 2020).

This checklist of European Gelechiidae is the first one to include all known synonyms of genera and species of Europaean Gelechiidae. It is mainly based on data published in Fauna Europaea (Karsholt 2004–2019) but supplemented with numerous published and unpublished additions and corrections from the last few years. It covers all currently accepted species known from the European fauna and their synonyms. Subspecies are not given separate entries, but listed among synonyms, though marked as subspecies. Subgenera are listed among generic synonyms. The considerable number of likely undescribed species (Huemer et al. 2020) are not included in the list.

Taxonomically critical genera and species, especially possible cases of cryptic diversity (Fig. 1) manifested by divergent DNA barcodes, are commented on in detail (see also Huemer et al. 2020).

Figure 1. 

Alpine species of Sattleria are a striking example of long underestimated species diversity (photograph Michel Billard).

Materials and methods

Geographic restriction

For the purpose of the present checklist we define Europe in a broad sense, which includes the Ural Mountains, Russian parts of the Caucasus, the ‘European’ part of Kazakhstan, the Mediterranean islands and the Macaronesian Islands (except Cape Verde) (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. 

Geographical boundaries of research area.World boundaries: https://www.arcgis.com/; SRTM-Data: https://dds.cr.usgs.gov/srtm/version2_1/SRTM3/.

The inclusion of the Russian parts of the Caucasus only added four species to the list (Acompsia caucasella Huemer & Karsholt, Neofriseria caucasicella Sattler, Chionodes caucasiella Huemer & Sattler and Scrobipalpa caucasica (Povolný)), which is surprising. One would expect a richer gelechiid fauna to occur in this vast and diverse mountain system. However, most likely the species inventory is simply underestimated as only few lepidopterists have done field research in this area so far.

Content and structure of the checklist

The checklist is restricted to described nominal taxa. Potentially undescribed species (Huemer et al. 2020) are not included. Species introduced from other parts of the World are only included if they are known to have been naturalized within the area described above. Doubtful, though possible, records of occurrence are considered in the checklist and marked with an asterisk *, whereas confirmed incorrect records and doubtful species (taxa incertae sedis) are not listed. Names applied to misidentified taxa are listed only in cases where the incorrect taxonomy has been widely used or where the misidentification can easily cause misunderstandings. These are marked with auct. (= of authors).

Systematic arrangement

The higher classification follows the molecular study of Karsholt et al. (2013), whereas the listed order of genera and species is largely according to published revisions and data from Huemer et al. (2020).

Synonymy

Although our knowledge of European Gelechiidae has increased much over the last years, there are still available species-group names in the family which have not yet been associated with known species. Very few of these are likely to represent additional taxa, whereas most cases will be synonyms. Furthermore, several of the published synonyms need taxonomic re-assessment. We have not made special efforts to search for type specimens of such taxa for the purpose of the present checklist, and they should be considered in connection with taxonomic revisions within the Gelechiidae.

Gender agreement

Many species-group names of European Gelechiidae have been combined in different genera since they were first made available. Following article 31.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999) these names require gender agreement between specific and generic names. However, we follow the widely accepted proposals by Sommerer (2002) in Lepidoptera and keep the original spelling of species names to avoid unnecessary instability (van Nieukerken et al. 2019).

Molecular species delimitation

DNA barcodes have been sequenced for a significant number of the species included in the inventory (741 nominal species with sequences > 500 bp). These supported the compilation of the checklist and helped identify and fix yet unpublished synonyms and the systematic position of some species. Details to species and specimens are available on BOLD (Ratnasingham 2018) in the public dataset “Lepidoptera (Gelechiidae) of Europe” under the DOI: https://doi.org/10.5883/DS-GELECHEU (see also Huemer et al 2020).

We tested the congruence of morphologically based species determinations and COI sequence data with the Barcode Index Number (BIN), a methodology recently proposed by Ratnasingham and Hebert (2013). This system clusters sequences into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) regardless of their previous taxonomic assignment. It is based on a two-stage algorithm that groups the sequences in a cluster and automatically assigns new sequences. All high-quality sequences > 500 bp are recorded independently of the project origin and assigned to a BIN. Though BINs reflect classical Linnean taxonomy to a high level they were not used uncontested (Huemer et al 2020). We found 114 morphologically delimited species with multiple BINs that are potential cases of cryptic diversity, particularly cases with BIN distances > 3%, and these are therefore discussed in the comments. However, there is clear evidence that no species delimiting threshold values exist in Lepidoptera (Kekkonen et al. 2015) and therefore all cases of barcode divergence require further and integrative analysis in the future. Such work was largely outside the scope of this paper which principally followed current taxonomy and only exceptionally considered obvious taxonomic issues. An in-depth taxonomical analysis will also be necessary for 65 clusters with a unique BIN which remained unidentified to species level from morphology and which are not considered in the checklist itself, and for 55 cases of BIN-sharing (see also Huemer et al. (2020)).

Results

Overview

The checklist covers 865 nominal species of European Gelechiidae belonging to 109 genera, including 3 species with doubtful records (*). The majority belong to Gelechiinae (445 spp.), followed by Anomologinae (253 spp.), Anacampsinae (89 spp.), Dichomeridinae (47 spp.), Apatetrinae (29 spp.), and Thiotrichinae (5 spp.) (Table 1).

Number of described species per tribe/subfamily.

Higher taxa Species no.
Gelechiidae Stainton, 1854 865
Anacampsinae Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851 89
Anacampsini Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851 67
Chelariini Le Marchand, 1947 22
Dichomeridinae Hampson, 1918 47
Apatetrinae Le Marchand, 1947 29
Pexicopiini Hodges, 1986 6
Apatetrini Le Marchand, 1947 23
Thiotrichinae Karsholt, Mutanen, Lee & Kaila, 2013 5
Anomologinae Meyrick, 1926 253
Gelechiinae Stainton, 1854 445
Gelechiini Stainton, 1854 132
Gnorimoschemini Povolný, 1964 240
Litini Bruand d’Uzelle 1859 73

Taxon excluded from the Gelechiidae

A single species originally described in the Gelechiidae is excluded from the family, viz. Brachmia infuscatella Rebel, 1940, and is transferred to Autostichidae without generic assignation.

Checklist

Numbers [1] – [202] refer to comments; * refers to doubtful records for the European fauna.

Gelechiidae Stainton, 1854

Anacampsinae Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851 [1]

Stomopteryginae Heslop, 1938, unavailable

Anacampsini Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851

Stomopteryx Heinemann, 1870 [2]

Inotica Meyrick, 1913

Acraeologa Meyrick, 1921

Kahelia Turati, 1922, unavailable

Stomopteryx detersella (Zeller, 1847)

egenella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851), unavailable

palermitella (La Harpe, 1860)

tenuisignella Turati, 1924

obliterella Turati, 1924, unavailable

Stomopteryx bolschewickiella (Caradja, 1920)

Stomopteryx nugatricella Rebel, 1893 [3]

Stomopteryx mongolica Piskunov, 1975 [3]

Stomopteryx lineolella (Eversmann, 1844) [3]

Stomopteryx basalis (Staudinger, 1876)

oxychalca (Meyrick, 1937)

Stomopteryx deverrae (Walsingham, 1905) [4]

Stomopteryx flavoclavella Zerny, 1935 [5]

Stomopteryx remissella (Zeller, 1847) [6]

vetustella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

tripunctigerella (Bruand d’Uzelle, 1859)

submissella (Frey, 1880), homonym

rufobasella (Rebel, 1916)

yunusemrei Koçak, 1986

Stomopteryx spathulella Nel, Varenne & Labonne, 2019 [6]

Stomopteryx orthogonella (Staudinger, 1871)

Stomopteryx flavipalpella Jäckh, 1959 [7]

Stomopteryx hungaricella Gozmány, 1957

Stomopteryx lusitaniella Corley & Karsholt, 2014

Stomoptery jeppeseni Karsholt & Šumpich, 2018

Stomopteryx alpinella Nel & Varenne, 2016

Stomopteryx schizogynae (Walsingham, 1908)

Aproaerema Durrant, 1897 [8]

Harpagus Stephens, 1834, homonym

Untomia Busck, 1906

Schuetzeia Spuler, 1910

Syncopacma Meyrick, 1925

Lixodessa Gozmány, 1957

Aproaerema patruella (Mann, 1857)

fulvistillella (Rebel, 1891)

Aproaerema coronillella (Treitschke, 1833)

fournieri (Nel, 1998)

Aproaerema incognitana (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov. [8]

Aproaerema sangiella (Stainton, 1863)

Aproaerema cinctella (Clerck, 1759) [9]

vorticella (Scopoli, 1763)

ligulella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

vittata (Fourcroy & Geoffroy, 1785)

vittatella (Villers, 1789)

albistrigella (Stephens, 1834)

ussuriella (Caradja, 1920)

finlandica (Gozmány, 1957)

Aproaerema cinctelloides (Nel & Varenne, 2012) comb. nov. [8]

Aproaerema larseniella (Gozmány, 1957)

ligulella auct.

Aproaerema wormiella (Wolff, 1958) [8]

parawormiella (Nel & Varenne, 2016)

Aproaerema azosterella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov. [8]

Aproaerema ochrofasciella (Toll, 1936)

Aproaerema taeniolella (Zeller, 1839)

sircomella (Stainton, 1854)

Aproaerema montanata (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov. [8]

Aproaerema albifrontella (Heinemann, 1870)

ignobilella (Heinemann, 1870)

Aproaerema cincticulella (Bruand, 1851) comb. nov.

Aproaerema vinella Bankes, 1898

fasciata Bankes, 1898, unavailable

biformella Schütze, 1902

Aproaerema buvati (Nel, 1995) comb. nov. [8]

Aproaerema linella (Chrétien, 1904) comb. nov. [8, 10]

schoenmanni (Gozmány, 1957)

Aproaerema albipalpella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

leucopalpella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854), unavailable

ruptella (Constant, 1865)

Aproaerema suecicella (Wolff, 1958) [11]

Aproaerema captivella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov. [8]

sarothamnella (Zeller, 1868)

Aproaerema polychromella (Rebel, 1902)

argyrolobiella Caradja, 1920, unavailable

faceta (Meyrick, 1914)

Aproaerema karvoneni (Hackman, 1950) [12]

Aproaerema semicostella (Staudinger, 1871) comb. nov. [8]

albicapitella (Bidzilya, 1996)

Aproaerema steppicolella (Junnilainen, 2010) comb. nov. [8]

Aproaerema cottiennella (Nel, 2012) comb. nov. [8]

Aproaerema genistae (Walsingham, 1908) comb. rev. [8]

Aproaerema thaumalea (Walsingham, 1905) comb. rev. [8]

Aproaerema anthyllidella (Hübner, 1813) [13]

caliginosella (Duponchel, 1843)

elachistella (Stainton, 1859), subspecies

psoralella (Millière, 1865)

lachtensis (Erschoff, 1877)

sparsiciliella (Barrett, 1891)

infestella (Rebel, 1896)

natrixella (Weber, 1945)

brundini (Benander, 1945)

alfalfella Amsel, 1958

aureliana Căpuşe, 1964

Aproaerema lerauti Vives, 2001

Aproaerema mercedella Walsingham, 1908

Iwaruna Gozmány, 1957 [14]

Iwaruna heringi Gozmány, 1957

Iwaruna biguttella (Duponchel, 1843)

Iwaruna klimeschi Wolff, 1958

Iwaruna robineaui Nel, 2008

Anacampsis Curtis, 1827

Tachyptilia Heinemann, 1870

Agriastis Meyrick, 1914

Anacampsis populella (Clerck, 1759) [15]

tremella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

boeberana (Fabricius, 1787)

populi (Haworth, 1828), emendation

laticinctella Stephens, 1834

tremulella Duponchel, 1839

atra (Strand, 1901), unavailable

lugens (Caradja, 1920)

sachalinensis (Matsumura, 1931)

fuscatella (Bentinck, 1934)

ambronella (Meder, 1934)

ceballosi Agenjo, 1959

Anacampsis blattariella (Hübner, 1796) [15]

thapsiella (Hübner, 1796)

blattariae (Haworth, 1828), emendation

atragriseella Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851

betulinella Vári, 1941

Anacampsis timidella (Wocke, 1887)

quercella (Chrétien, 1907)

disquei (Meess, 1907)

suberiella Caradja, 1920

Anacampsis scintillella (Fischer v. Röslerstamm, 1841) [16]

brunneella Herrich-Schäffer, 1854

contuberniella (Staudinger, 1859)

Anacampsis temerella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

pernigrella (Douglas, 1850)

Anacampsis trifoliella (Constant, 1890)

Anacampsis fuscella (Eversmann, 1844)

Anacampsis hirsutella (Constant, 1885)

Anacampsis obscurella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) [17]

subsequella (Hübner, 1796)

Anacampsis malella Amsel, 1959

Mesophleps Hübner, 1825 [18]

Brachyacma Meyrick, 1886

Lathontogenus Walsingham, 1897

Paraspistes Meyrick, 1905

Chretienia Spuler, 1910

Lipatia Busck, 1910

Stiphrostola Meyrick, 1923

Crossobela Meyrick, 1923

Xerometra Meyrick, 1925

Gnosimacha Meyrick, 1927

Bucolarcha Meyrick, 1929

Uncustriodonta Agenjo, 1952

Mesophleps corsicella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1856)

lala Agenjo, 1961

Mesophleps silacella (Hübner, 1796)

pyropella auct.

luteella (Hübner, 1896), unavailable

silacea (Haworth, 1828), emendation

apicellus Caradja, 1920

calaritanus Amsel, 1939

Mesophleps oxycedrella (Millière, 1871)

Mesophleps trinotella Herrich-Schäffer, 1856

aurantiella (Rebel, 1915)

subtilipennis (Turati, 1924)

Mesophleps ochracella (Turati, 1926)

orientella Nel & Nel, 2003

gallicella Varenne & Nel, 2011

Chelariini Le Marchand, 1947

Hypatimini Kloet & Hincks, 1945, unavailable

Anarsiini Amsel, 1977

Nothris Hübner, 1825 [19]

Nothris congressariella (Bruand, 1858)

declaratella Staudinger, 1859

Nothris lemniscellus (Zeller, 1839)

Nothris gregerseni Karsholt & Šumpich, 2015 [20]

Nothris verbascella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

discretella Rebel, 1889

clarella Amsel, 1935

Nothris sulcella Staudinger, 1879

magna Nel & Peslier, 2007

Nothris radiata (Staudinger, 1879) [21]

Nothris skyvai Karsholt & Šumpich, 2015

Neofaculta Gozmány, 1955

Haplovalva Janse, 1958

Neofaculta ericetella (Geyer, 1832) [22]

gallinella (Treitschke, 1833)

lanceolella (Stephens, 1834)

fuscella (Duponchel, 1844)

subatrella (Duponchel, 1845)

quinquemaculella (Bruand d’Uzelle, 1859)

orcella (Zerny, 1927), subspecies

atlanticella (Amsel, 1938), subspecies

tenalella (Amsel, 1938)

amseli (Dufrane, 1955)

pyrenemontana (Dufrane, 1955)

betulea auct.

Neofaculta infernella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

infernalis, unavailable

Neofaculta taigana Ponomarenko, 1998 [23]

Hypatima Hübner, 1825

Chelaria Haworth, 1828

Tituacia Walker, 1864

Stomylia Snellen, 1878

Allocota Meyrick, 1904, homonym

Cymatomorpha Meyrick, 1904

Deuteroptila Meyrick, 1904

Semodictis Meyrick, 1909

Allocotaniana Strand, 1913

Episacta Turner, 1919

Hypatima rhomboidella (Linnaeus, 1758) [24]

conscriptella (Hübner, 1805)

hubnerella (Donovan, 1806), incorrect original spelling

huebnerella (Donovan, 1806), justified emendation

conscripta Haworth, 1828, emendation

Anarsia Zeller, 1839 [25]

Ananarsia Amsel, 1959

Anarsia lineatella Zeller, 1839

pullatella (Hübner, 1796), nomen oblitum

pruniella Clemens, 1860

heratella Amsel, 1967, subspecies

tauricella Amsel, 1967, subspecies

Anarsia innoxiella Gregersen & Karsholt, 2017

Anarsia spartiella (Schrank, 1802)

robertsonella (Curtis, 1837)

genistae Stainton, 1854

genistella Doubleday, 1859, emendation

ragonotella Réal, 1994

krausei Réal, 1994

lhommella Réal, 1994

acutiloba Réal, 1994

pseudospartiella Réal, 1994

ungemachi Réal, 1994

Anarsia bilbainella (Rössler, 1877) [26]

burmanni Amsel, 1958

bizensis Réal, 1994

infundiblulella Réal, 1994

ovilella Réal, 1994

Anarsia eleagnella Kuznetsov, 1957

Anarsia dejoannisi Réal, 1994

Anarsia leberonella Réal, 1994

Anarsia sibirica Park & Ponomarenko, 1996

Anarsia stepposella Ponomarenko, 2002

psammobia Falkovitsh & Bidzilya, 2003

Anarsia acaciae Walsingham, 1896

Anarsia balioneura Meyrick, 1921

Dichomeridinae Hampson, 1918

Brachminae Omelko, 1999

Dichomerinae, misspelling

Dichomeris Hübner, 1818 [27]

Elasmion Hübner, 1808, unavailable

Oxybelia Hübner, 1825

Rhinosia Treitschke, 1833

Gaesa Walker, 1864

Uliaria Dumont, 1921

Cymotricha Meyrick, 1923

Acanthophila Heinemann, 1870

Mimomeris Povolný, 1978

Dichomeris acuminatus (Staudinger, 1876)

ianthes (Meyrick, 1887)

rusticus (Walsingham, 1892)

lotellus (Constant, 1893)

ammoxanthus (Meyrick, 1904)

ochrophanes (Meyrick, 1907)

sublotellus (Caradja, 1920)

Dichomeris cisti (Staudinger, 1859)

meridionella (Walsingham, 1891)

Dichomeris limbipunctellus (Staudinger, 1859) [28]

millierellus Stainton, 1873

Dichomeris neatodes Meyrick, 1923 sp. rev. [28]

Dichomeris helianthemi (Walsingham, 1903)

Dichomeris castellana (Schmidt, 1941)

Dichomeris juniperella (Linnaeus, 1761) [29]

juniperi Haworth, 1828, emendation

Dichomeris marginella (Fabricius, 1781)

fimbriella (Thunberg, 1788)

clarella (Treitschke, 1833)

Dichomeris ustalella (Fabricius, 1794)

capucinella (Hübner, 1796)

cornutus (Fabricius, 1798)

ustulatus (Fabricius, 1798), emendation

burgundiellus (Bruand d’Uzelle, 1859)

Dichomeris derasella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

fasciella (Hübner, 1796)

unguiculatus (Fabricius, 1798)

coreanus Matsumura, 1931

paranthes Meyrick, 1936

Dichomeris limosellus (Schläger, 1849)

deflectivellus (Reutti, 1853)

Dichomeris nitiellus (Costantini, 1923)

Dichomeris rasilella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) [30]

lacrimella (Caradja, 1920)

insulella (Dumont, 1921)

occidentella (Zerny, 1927), subspecies

Dichomeris barbella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

Dichomeris alacella (Zeller, 1839)

Dichomeris latipennella (Rebel, 1937)

scotosiella (Hackman, 1945)

piceana (Šulcs, 1968)

steueri Povolný, 1978

Anasphaltis Meyrick, 1925

Anasphaltis renigerellus (Zeller, 1839)

Acompsia Hübner, 1825 [31]

Brachycrossata Heinemann, 1870

Telephila Meyrick, 1923

Acompsia cinerella (Clerck, 1759)

murinella (Scopoli, 1763)

ardeliella (Hübner, 1817)

cinerea (Haworth, 1828), emendation

spodiella (Treitschke, 1833)

Acompsia pyrenaella Huemer & Karsholt, 2002 [32]

Acompsia antirrhinella Millière, 1866 [33]

Acompsia baldizzonei Pinzari, Nel & Pinzari, 2016

Acompsia maculosella (Stainton, 1851) [34]

Acompsia dimorpha Petry, 1904

Acompsia subpunctella Svensson, 1966

Acompsia delmastroella Huemer, 1998

Acompsia muellerrutzi Wehrli, 1925

Acompsia caucasella Huemer & Karsholt, 2002

Acompsia minorella Rebel, 1899

Acompsia tripunctella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) [35]

Acompsia ponomarenkoae Huemer & Karsholt, 2002

Acompsia schmidtiellus (Heyden, 1848)

durdhamellus (Stainton, 1849)

quadrinella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Brachmia Hübner, 1825 [36]

Claododes Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Eudodacles Snellen, 1889

Aulacomima Meyrick, 1904

Apethistis Meyrick, 1908

Brachmia dimidiella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) [37]

costiguttella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

kneri (Nowicki, 1864)

Brachmia blandella (Fabricius, 1798)

gerronella (Zeller, 1850)

Brachmia procursella Rebel, 1903

Brachmia inornatella (Douglas, 1850)

Helcystogramma Zeller, 1877

Ceratophora Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Dectobathra Meyrick, 1904

Teuchophanes Meyrick, 1914

Schemataspis Meyrick, 1918

Parelectra Meyrick, 1925, homonym

Psamathoscopa Meyrick, 1937

Anathyrsotis Meyrick, 1939

Parelectroides Clarke, 1952

Onebala auct.

Helcystogramma lineolella (Zeller, 1839)

Helcystogramma triannulella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

sepiella (Steudel, 1866)

cinerea (Caradja, 1931)

macroscopa (Meyrick, 1932)

Helcystogramma lutatella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Helcystogramma rufescens (Haworth, 1828)

simplella (Eversmann, 1844)

diaphanella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

isabella (Stainton, 1849)

rufescentella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

Helcystogramma albinervis (Gerasimov, 1929)

Helcystogramma arulensis (Rebel, 1929)

Helcystogramma klimeschi Ponomarenko & Huemer, 2001

Helcystogramma flavescens Junnilainen, 2010

Helcystogramma convolvuli (Walsingham, 1908)

chrypsilychna (Meyrick, 1914)

dryadopa (Meyrick, 1918)

effera (Meyrick, 1918)

emigrans (Meyrick, 1921)

Helcystogramma lamprostoma (Zeller, 1847) [38]

scutata (Meyrick, 1894)

Pseudosophronia Corley, 2001 [39]

Pseudosophronia exustellus (Zeller, 1847)

catharurga Meyrick, 1923

parahumerella Amsel, 1935

buvati Nel, 1998

constanti Nel, 1998, syn. nov.

Pseudosophronia cosmella (Constant, 1885)

Apatetrinae Le Marchand, 1947

Chrysoesthiinae Paclt, 1947, unavailable

Pexicopiini Hodges, 1986

Harpagidia Ragonot, 1895

Glaphyrerga Meyrick, 1925

Harpagidia magnetella (Staudinger, 1871)

pallidibasella Ragonot, 1895

melitophanes (Meyrick, 1931)

Pectinophora Busck, 1917

Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders, 1844)

Pexicopia Common, 1958

Pexicopia malvella (Hübner, 1805) [40]

lutarea (Haworth, 1828), unavailable

umbrella auct.

Platyedra Meyrick, 1895

Aratrognathosia Gozmány, 1968, unavailable

Platyedra subcinerea (Haworth, 1828)

vilella (Zeller, 1847)

parviocellatella (Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851)

bathrosticta (Meyrick, 1937)

Sitotroga Heinemann, 1870

Nesolechia Meyrick, 1921

Syngenomictis Meyrick, 1927

Sitotroga psacasta Meyrick, 1908

celyphodes (Meyrick, 1909)

nea Walsingham, 1920

Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1789)

hordei (Kirby, 1815)

arctella (Walker, 1864)

melanarthra (Lower, 1900)

palearis (Meyrick, 1913)

aenictopa (Meyrick, 1927)

ochrescens (Meyrick, 1938)

asemodes (Meyrick, 1938)

Apatetrini Le Marchand, 1947 [41]

Dactylotula Cockerell, 1888

Dactylota Snellen, 1876, homonym

Didactylota Walsingham, 1892

Rotundivalva Janse, 1951

Dactylotula altithermella (Walsingham, 1903)

Dactylotula kinkerella (Snellen, 1876) [42]

Apatetris Staudinger, 1879 [43]

Apatetris agenjoi Gozmány, 1954

Apatetris mediterranella Nel & Varenne, 2012 [44]

Catatinagma Rebel, 1903

Catatinagma trivittellum Rebel, 1903 [45]

Catatinagma kraterella Junnilainen & Nupponen, 2010 [46]

Coloptilia Fletcher, 1940

Colopteryx Hofmann, 1898, homonym

Coloptilia conchylidella (Hofmann, 1898)

Chrysoesthia Hübner, 1825 [47]

Microsetia Stephens, 1829

Chrysia Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851

Nomia Clemens, 1860, homonym

Chrysopora Clemens, 1860

Nannodia Heinemann, 1870

Anaphaula Walsingham, 1904

Chrysoesthia drurella (Fabricius, 1775) [48]

myllerella (Fabricius, 1794)

zinckenlla (Hübner, 1813)

druryella (Zeller, 1851), emendation

hermannella auct.

Chrysoesthia eppelsheimi (Staudinger, 1885)

Chrysoesthia verrucosa Tokár, 1999

Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg, 1794)

auropunctella (Thunberg, 1794)

aurofasciella (Stephens, 1834)

naeviferella (Duponchel, 1843)

stipella auct.

Chrysoesthia halimionella Bidzilya & Budashkin, 2015

Chrysoesthia atriplicella (Amsel, 1939) [49]

Chrysoesthia gaditella (Staudinger, 1859) [49]

Chrysoesthia aletris (Walsingham, 1919) [49]

Chrysoesthia boseae (Walsingham, 1908)

Chrysoesthia falkovitshi Lvovsky & Piskunov, 1989

Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, 2014

Metanarsia Staudinger, 1871

Calyptrotis Meyrick, 1891

Epipararsia Rebel, 1914

Parametanarsia Gerasimov, 1930

Metanarsia modesta Staudinger, 1871 [50]

kurdistanella Amsel, 1959, subspecies

Metanarsia onzella Christoph, 1887

Metanarsia guberlica Nupponen, 2010

Metanarsia incertella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861)

longivitella (Rebel, 1914)

halmyropis (Meyrick, 1926)

ramiferella (Lucas, 1940)

Oecocecis Guenée, 1870

Oecocecis guyonella Guenée, 1870 [51]

Thiotrichinae Karsholt, Mutanen, Lee & Kaila, 2013 [52]

Palumbininae Chapman, 1902, nomen nudum

Thiotricha Meyrick, 1886

Reuttia Hofmann, 1898

Mystax Caradja, 1920, homonym

Thiotricha majorella Rebel, 1910

Thiotricha subocellea (Stephens, 1834)

internella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

dissonella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

subocellella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

Thiotricha coleella (Constant, 1885)

Thiotricha wollastoni (Walsingham, 1884)

Palumbina Rondani, 1876

Thyrsostoma Meyrick, 1907

Palumbina guerinii (Stainton, 1858)

terebintella Rondani, 1876

pistaciae (Anagnostopoulos, 1935)

Anomologinae Meyrick, 1926

Aristoteliinae Le Marchand, 1947

Metzneriini Piskunov, 1975

Isophrictini Povolný, 1979

Bryotropha Heinemann, 1870 [53]

Mniophaga Pierce & Daltry, 1938

Adelphotropha Gozmány, 1955

Bryotropha sabulosella (Rebel, 1905)

Bryotropha domestica (Haworth, 1828)

domesticella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

punctata (Staudinger, 1876)

salmonis (Walsingham, 1908)

algiricella Chrétien, 1917

Bryotropha vondermuhlli Nel & Brusseaux, 2003

Bryotropha rossica Anikin & Piskunov, 1996

tachengensis Li & Zheng, 1997

Bryotropha azovica Bidzilia, 1997

Bryotropha arabica Amsel, 1952

Bryotropha patockai Elsner & Karsholt, 2003

Bryotropha purpurella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

flavipalpella (Nylander, 1848)

Bryotropha tachyptilella (Rebel, 1916)

Bryotropha italica Karsholt & Rutten, 2005

Bryotropha politella (Stainton, 1851)

expolitella (Doubleday, 1859)

Bryotropha aliterrella (Rebel, 1935)

Bryotropha nupponeni Karsholt & Rutten, 2005

Bryotropha satschkovi Anikin & Piskunov, 2018

Bryotropha terrella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) [54]

inulella (Hübner, 1805)

pauperella (Hübner, 1825)

latella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

lutescens (Constant, 1865)

suspectella (Heinemann, 1870)

alpicolella Heinemann, 1870

tenebrosella (Teich, 1886)

sardoterrella Schawerda, 1936

quignoni Dufrane, 1938, unavailable

joannisi Dufrane, 1938, unavailable

rufa Dufrane, 1938, unavailable

ochrea Dufrane, 1938, unavailable

Bryotropha sattleri Nel, 2003

Bryotropha desertella (Douglas, 1850) [55]

decrepidella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

glabrella Heinemann, 1870

Bryotropha wolschrijni Karsholt & Rutten, 2005

Bryotropha heckfordi Karsholt & Rutten, 2005

Bryotropha figulella (Staudinger, 1859)

capnella (Constant, 1865)

cinnamomea Turati, 1934

Bryotropha plantariella (Tengström, 1848)

cinerosella (Tengström, 1848)

serrulatella (Tengström, 1848)

brevipalpella Rebel, 1893

Bryotropha galbanella (Zeller, 1839)

angustella (Heinemann, 1870)

ilmatariella (Hoffmann, 1893)

griseella (Caradja, 1920)

haareki (Strand, 1920)

fusconigratella (Palm, 1947)

Bryotropha boreella (Douglas, 1851)

Bryotropha sutteri Karsholt & Rutten, 2005

Bryotropha gallurella Amsel, 1952

Bryotropha hendrikseni Karsholt & Rutten, 2005

Bryotropha pallorella Amsel, 1952

mulinoides Amsel, 1952

zannonicola Hartig, 1953

Bryotropha hulli Karsholt & Rutten, 2005 [56]

Bryotropha plebejella (Zeller, 1847)

imperitella (Staudinger, 1859)

ancillula (Walsingham, 1908)

inexpectella Nel, 1999

Bryotropha dryadella (Zeller, 1850)

saralella Amsel, 1952

Bryotropha basaltinella (Zeller, 1839)

Bryotropha affinis (Haworth, 1828) [57]

tegulella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

tectella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

affinella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

affinitella (Bruand d’Uzelle, 1859), emendation

Bryotropha umbrosella (Zeller, 1839) [58]

mundella (Douglas, 1850)

portlandicella (Richardson, 1890)

fulvipalpella Joannis, 1908

anacampsoidella (Hering, 1924)

oppositella auct.

Bryotropha similis (Stainton, 1854)

thuleella (Zeller, 1857)

similella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

pullifimbriella (Clemens, 1863)

confinis (Stainton, 1871)

obscurecinerea (Nolcken, 1871)

stolidella (Morris, 1872)

fuliginosella (Snellen, 1882)

tahavusella (Forbes, 1922)

clandestina (Meyrick, 1923)

dufraneella (Joannis, 1928)

novisimilis Li & Zheng, 1997

Bryotropha senectella (Zeller, 1839)

ciliatella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

obscurella Heinemann, 1870

minorella Heinemann, 1870

phoebusella Millière, 1876

larseni Strand, 1927

Epidola Staudinger, 1859 [59]

Epidola stigma Staudinger, 1859

Epidola barcinonella Millière, 1867

Epidola semitica Amsel, 1942 [60]

Epidola nuraghella Hartig, 1939

Epidola melitensis Amsel, 1955

Aristotelia Hübner, 1825 [61]

Ergatis Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Eucatoptus Walsingham, 1897

Aristotelia decurtella (Hübner, 1813) [62]

turbatella (Treitschke, 1835)

amoenella (Joannis,1891)

Aristotelia decoratella (Staudinger, 1879)

Aristotelia leonhardi Krone, 1907

Aristotelia ericinella (Zeller, 1839) [63]

silendrella Caradja, 1920, unavailable

Aristotelia subdecurtella (Stainton, 1859) [64]

Aristotelia subericinella (Duponchel, 1843) [65]

prohaskaella (Rebel, 1907)

Aristotelia billii Varenne & Nel, 2013 [66]

Aristotelia montarcella Schmidt, 1941

Aristotelia heliacella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

rogenhoferi (Staudinger, 1872)

Aristotelia pancaliella (Staudinger, 1871)

Aristotelia baltica Šulcs & Šulcs, 1983

coeruleopictella auct.

Aristotelia brizella (Treitschke, 1833)

Aristotelia brizelloidea Amsel, 1935

Aristotelia confusella Bidzilya & Budashkin, 2015

Aristotelia staticella Millière, 1876

Aristotelia mirandella Chrétien, 1908

Aristotelia frankeniae Walsingham, 1898

Aristotelia calastomella (Christoph, 1873)

Aristotelia mirabilis (Christoph, 1888)

Caulastrocecis Chrétien, 1931 [67]

Caulastrocecis pudicellus (Mann, 1861)

apicella (Caradja, 1920)

Caulastrocecis gypsella (Constant, 1893)

Caulastrocecis furfurella (Staudinger, 1871) [68]

Caulastrocecis cryptoxena (Gozmány, 1952) sp. rev. [68]

Caulastrocecis perexigella Junnilainen, 2010

Caulastrocecis interstratella (Christoph, 1873)

salinatrix (Meyrick, 1926)

Paranarsia Ragonot, 1895 [69]

Paranarsia joannisiella Ragonot, 1895

Megacraspedus Zeller, 1839 [70]

Chilopselaphus Mann, 1867

Chilopsephalus Rebel, 1901, misspelling

Toxoceras Chrétien, 1915, homonym

Toxidoceras Chrétien, 1923

Nevadia Caradja, 1920, homonym

Cauloecista Dumont, 1928

Reichardtiella Filipjev, 1931

Vadenia Caradja, 1933

Megacraspedus lanceolellus (Zeller, 1850) [71]

subdolellus Staudinger, 1859

hessleriellus Rössler, 1868

tutti Walsingham, 1897

grossisquammellus Chrétien, 1925

Megacraspedus bengtssoni Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus junnilaineni Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus uzunsyrtus Bidzilya & Budashkin, 2015

Megacraspedus similellus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus tokari Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus dolosellus (Zeller, 1839) [72]

separatellus (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843)

incertellus Rebel, 1930

Megacraspedus neli Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus faunierensis Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus gredosensis Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus cuencellus Caradja, 1920

Megacraspedus bidentatus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus fuscus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus trineae Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus tristictus Walsingham, 1910

Megacraspedus alfacarellus Wehrli, 1926

Megacraspedus pusillus Walsingham, 1903

Megacraspedus skoui Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus spinophallus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018 [73]

Megacraspedus occidentellus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus granadensis Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus heckfordi Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus tenuiuncus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus lativalvellus Amsel, 1954

Megacraspedus dejectella (Staudinger, 1859)

Megacraspedus devorator Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus binotella (Duponchel, 1843) [74]

Megacraspedus brachypteris Huemer & Karsholt, 2018 [75]

Megacraspedus barcodiellus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus bilineatella Huemer & Karsholt, 1996

Megacraspedus andreneli Varenne & Nel, 2014 [76]

Megacraspedus sumpichi Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus gallicus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus ribbeella (Caradja, 1920)

Megacraspedus numidellus (Chrétien, 1915)

mareotidellus Turati, 1924,

Megacraspedus albovenata Junnilainen, 2010

Megacraspedus longipalpella Junnilainen, 2010

Megacraspedus niphorrhoa (Meyrick, 1926)

Megacraspedus fallax (Mann, 1867)

Megacraspedus balneariellus (Chrétien, 1907)

Megacraspedus podolicus (Toll, 1942)

Megacraspedus knudlarseni Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus imparellus (Fischer v. Röslerstamm, 1843) [77]

litovalvellus Junnilainen, 2010

Megacraspedus multispinella Junnilainen & Nupponen, 2010

Megacraspedus cerussatellus Rebel, 1930

Megacraspedus attritellus Staudinger, 1871

Megacraspedus lagopellus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860)

Megacraspedus argyroneurellus Staudinger, 1871

Megacraspedus ibericus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus squalida Meyrick, 1926

escalerellus Schmidt, 1941

Megacraspedus pentheres Walsingham, 1920

Megacraspedus teriolensis Huemer & Karsholt, 2018 [78]

Megacraspedus korabicus Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus quadristictus Lhomme, 1946

Megacraspedus eburnellus Huemer & Karsholt, 2001

Megacraspedus skulei Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Megacraspedus peyerimhoffi Le Cerf, 1925

Megacraspedus peslieri Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Dirhinosia Rebel, 1905 [79]

Dirhinosia cervinella (Eversmann, 1844)

trifasciella Rebel, 1905

Dirhinosia arnoldiella (Rebel, 1905)

Dirhinosia interposita Bidzilya & Budashkin, 2015

Psamathocrita Meyrick, 1925 [80]

Psamathocrita osseella (Stainton, 1860)

Psamathocrita argentella Pierce & Metcalfe, 1942

Psamathocrita dalmatinella Huemer & Tokár, 2000

Chimericorsa Varenne, Huemer & Nel, 2017

Chimericorsa nioloensis Varenne, Huemer & Nel, 2017

Spiniphallellus Bidzilya & Karsholt, 2008

Spiniphallellus desertus Bidzilya & Karsholt, 2008

Spiniphallellus chrysotosella Junnilainen, 2016

Deltophora Janse, 1950

Deltophora maculata (Staudinger, 1879)

Deltophora stictella (Rebel, 1927)

Deltophora gielisia Hull, 1995

Ivanauskiella Ivinskis & Piskunov, 1980 [81]

Spatuncusella Nel & Varenne, 2013

Ivanauskiella psamathias (Meyrick, 1891)

turkmenica auct.

Ivanauskiella occitanica (Nel & Varenne, 2013) sp. rev. [82]

Ptocheuusa Heinemann, 1870 [83]

Syneunetis Wallengren, 1881

Ptocheuusa paupella (Zeller, 1847) [84]

inulella (Curtis, 1850)

melanolepidella (Heydenreich, 1851)

perniveella (Bruand d’Uzelle, 1859)

Ptocheuusa inopella (Zeller, 1839) [85]

amesella Chrétien, 1908

Ptocheuusa abnormella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Ptocheuusa minimella (Rebel, 1936)

Ptocheuusa asterisci (Walsingham, 1903)

Ptocheuusa scholastica (Walsingham, 1903)

Ptocheuusa guimarensis (Walsingham, 1908)

Ptocheuusa sublutella Christoph, 1873

Ptocheuusa cinerella (Chrétien, 1908) comb. nov. [86]

Gladiovalva Sattler, 1960

Gladiovalva rumicivorella (Millière, 1881)

Gladiovalva aizpuruai Vives, 1990

Gladiovalva badidorsella (Rebel, 1935)

Ornativalva Gozmány, 1955

Pelostola Janse, 1960

Ornativalva heluanensis (Debski, 1913)

frankeniivorella (Chrétien, 1917)

oasicolella (Turati, 1924)

siculella (Mariani, 1937)

Ornativalva ornatella Sattler, 1967

Ornativalva tamariciella (Zeller, 1850)

Ornativalva pseudotamariciella Sattler, 1967

Ornativalva antipyramis (Meyrick, 1925)

Ornativalva plutelliformis (Staudinger, 1859)

olbiaella (Millière, 1861)

siewersiellus (Christoph, 1867)

sinuatella (Walsingham, 1904)

Ornativalva sieversi (Staudinger, 1871)

Ornativalva mixolitha (Meyrick, 1918)

bipunctella (Sattler, 1967), subspecies

Atremaea Staudinger, 1871

Calamotypa Meyrick, 1926

Atremaea lonchoptera Staudinger, 1871

exstans (Meyrick, 1926)

Amblypalpis Ragonot, 1886 [87]

Amblypalpis olivierella Ragonot, 1887

Parapodia Joannis, 1912 [88]

Cecidonostola Amsel, 1958

Parapodia sinaica (Frauenfeld, 1860)

tamaricicola Joannis, 1912

tamariciella (Amsel, 1958)

Isophrictis Meyrick, 1917 [89]

Isophrictis robinella (Chrétien, 1907)

microlina Meyrick, 1935

Isophrictis meridionella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Isophrictis constantina (Baker, 1888)

Isophrictis cerdanica Nel, 1995

Isophrictis lineatellus (Zeller, 1850)

albilineella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

Isophrictis kefersteiniellus (Zeller, 1850) [90]

senicula (Meyrick, 1913)

Isophrictis striatella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

tanacetella (Schrank, 1802)

substriatella (Caradja, 1920), subspecies

Isophrictis corsicella Amsel, 1936

Isophrictis invisella (Constant, 1885)

Isophrictis anthemidella (Wocke, 1871) [91]

Isophrictis impugnata Gozmány, 1957

Pyncostola Meyrick, 1917

Pyncostola bohemiella (Nickerl, 1864)

tunesiella (Chrétien, 1915)

jablonkayi (Gozmány, 1954)

Metzneria Zeller, 1839 [92]

Cleodora Stephens, 1834, homonym

Parasia Duponchel, 1846

Archimetzneria Amsel, 1936

Metzneria paucipunctella (Zeller, 1839)

zimmermanni Hering, 1940

confusalis Lucas, 1956

luqueti Nel, 1995

Metzneria tenuiella (Mann, 1864)

seminivora (Walsingham, 1903)

infelix Walsingham, 1908

insignificans Walsingham, 1908

Metzneria neuropterella (Zeller, 1839)

nevropterella (Duponchel, 1843) [93]

gigantella Krulikowsky, 1909, unavailable

Metzneria aestivella (Zeller, 1839) [94]

carlinella (Stainton, 1851)

selaginella (Mann, 1855)

torridella (Mann, 1859)

dichroa Walsingham, 1908, subspecies.

expositoi Vives, 2001, syn. nov.

Metzneria lappella (Linnaeus, 1758)

Metzneria castiliella (Möschler, 1866)

eatoni Walsingham, 1899

Metzneria littorella (Douglas, 1850)

quinquepunctella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Metzneria riadella Englert, 1974

Metzneria diffusella Englert, 1974

Metzneria fulva Labonne, Huemer, Thibault & Nel, 2019 [95]

Metzneria torosulella (Rebel, 1893) [95]

monochroa Walsingham, 1908

ignota Turati, 1922

Metzneria ehikeella Gozmány, 1954 [96]

Metzneria metzneriella (Stainton, 1851) [97]

falcatella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

Metzneria hilarella Caradja, 1920

Metzneria staehelinella Englert, 1974

Metzneria artificella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) [98]

litigiosella (Millière, 1879)

pannonicella Rebel, 1915

Metzneria agraphella (Ragonot, 1895)

incognita Walsingham, 1904

Metzneria aprilella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) [99]

igneella (Tengström, 1859)

sanguinolentella Joannis, 1910

Metzneria subflavella Englert, 1974 [100]

Metzneria filia Piskunov, 1979

Metzneria intestinella (Mann, 1864)

Metzneria santolinella (Amsel, 1936)

consimilella Hackman, 1946

Metzneria tristella Rebel, 1901

Metzneria campicolella (Mann, 1857) [101]

varennei Nel, 1997

Apodia Heinemann, 1870

Apodia bifractella (Duponchel, 1843)

inulella (Vallot, 1829), homonym

Apodia martinii Petry, 1911 sp. rev. [102]

Pragmatodes Walsingham, 1908 [103]

Pragmatodes fruticosella Walsingham, 1908

Pragmatodes melagonella (Constant, 1895) comb. nov. [103, 104]

Pragmatodes albagonella (Varenne & Nel, 2010) comb. nov. [103]

Pragmatodes cyrneogonella (Nel & Varenne, 2012) comb. nov. [103]

Pragmatodes parvulata (Gozmány, 1953) comb. nov. [103]

mediterranea (Nel & Luquet, 1997)

Argolamprotes Benander, 1945

Argolamprotes micella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

asterella (Treitschke, 1833)

Monochroa Heinemann, 1870 [105]

Paltodora Meyrick, 1894

Catabrachmia Rebel, 1909

Monochroa rumicetella (Hofmann, 1868) [106]

acutangulella (Heinemann, 1870)

leptotechna (Meyrick, 1937)

Monochroa rebeli (Hering, 1927)

Monochroa sepicolella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) [107]

Monochroa rectifasciella (Fuchs, 1902) [107]

Monochroa tenebrella (Hübner, 1817) [108]

fuscocuprea (Haworth, 1828)

subcuprella (Stephens, 1834)

tenebrosella (Zeller, 1839)

parvella (Heydenreich, 1851)

fuscocuprella Doubleday, 1859, emendation

buffonella (Millière, 1876)

Monochroa scutatella (Müller-Rutz, 1920)

Monochroa dellabeffai (Rebel, 1932)

Monochroa servella (Zeller, 1839) [109]

farinosae (Stainton,1867)

Monochroa conspersella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

questionella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

morosa (Mühlig, 1864)

Monochroa tetragonella (Stainton, 1885)

gudmanni (Larsen, 1927)

Monochroa elongella (Heinemann, 1870)

micrometra (Meyrick, 1935)

Monochroa inflexella Svensson, 1992

Monochroa sperata Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Monochroa lutulentella (Zeller, 1839)

brunickii (Rebel, 1913)

Monochroa aenigma Anikin & Piskunov, 2018

Monochroa saltenella (Benander, 1928)

Monochroa palustrellus (Douglas, 1850)

rozsikella (Rebel, 1909)

Monochroa divisella (Douglas, 1850)

csornensis Rebel, 1909

lepidolampra (Gozmány, 1952)

zarichella Piskunov, 1975

Monochroa lucidella (Stephens, 1834) [110]

scordiscella (Rebel, 1904)

unipunctella (Amsel, 1935)

immaculatella Huemer, 1996, subspecies

Monochroa simplicella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

impella (Piskunov, 1975)

Monochroa moyses Uffen, 1991

Monochroa arundinetella (Boyd, 1857) [111]

Monochroa suffusella (Douglas, 1850) [111]

oblitella (Doubleday, 1859)

peterseni (Teich, 1901)

Monochroa cytisella (Curtis, 1837)

fuscipennis (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845)

walkeriella (Douglas, 1850)

coenulentella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

clinosema (Meyrick, 1935)

griseocapitella (Bentinck, 1949), unavailable

Monochroa ferrea (Frey, 1870)

latiuscula (Heinemann, 1870)

alfkeni (Amsel, 1938)

servella auct.

Monochroa nomadella (Zeller, 1868) [112]

Monochroa bronzella Karsholt, Nel, Fournier, Varenne & Huemer, 2013

Monochroa hornigi (Staudinger, 1883)

leptocrossa (Meyrick, 1926)

nordmanella Bruun, 1958

Monochroa niphognatha (Gozmány, 1953)

Oxypteryx Rebel, 1911 [113]

Eulamprotes Bradley, 1971

Lamprotes Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Argyritis Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Siderea Omelko, 1999

Oxypteryx nigromaculella (Millière, 1872) comb. nov. [113, 114]

punctatella (Staudinger, 1879)

morphochroma (Walsingham, 1900)

jactatrix (Meyrick, 1926)

angustipennis (Rebel, 1931)

craterotypa (Meyrick, 1939)

donskoffi (Nel & Luquet, 1997)

Oxypteryx wilkella (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. nov. [113, 115]

merianella (Linnaeus, 1758)

germarella (Geyer, 1832)

pictella (Zeller, 1839)

tarquiniella (Stainton, 1862)

Oxypteryx ochricapilla (Rebel, 1903) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx superbella (Zeller, 1839) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx mirusella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2013) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx baldizzonei (Karsholt & Huemer, 2013) comb. nov. [113, 116]

Oxypteryx occidentella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2011) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx libertinella (Zeller, 1872) comb. nov. [113, 117]

Oxypteryx gemerensis (Elsner, 2013) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx deserta (Piskunov, 1990) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx unicolorella (Duponchel, 1843) comb. nov. [113]

lucentella (Peyerimhoff, 1870)

Oxypteryx atrella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

quadripunctella (Fabricius, 1781)

umbriferella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

aurimaculella (Höfner, 1897)

ornata (Dufrane, 1942), unavailable

Oxypteryx nigritella (Zeller, 1847) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx immaculatella (Douglas, 1850)

phaeella (Heckford & Langmaid, 1988)

Oxypteryx plumbella (Heinemann, 1870) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx isostacta (Meyrick, 1926) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx helotella (Staudinger, 1859) comb. nov. [113]

damonella (Millière, 1876)

algeriella (Baker, 1888)

doliodes (Meyrick, 1891)

striatopunctella (Rebel, 1891)

levisella (Chrétien, 1922)

Oxypteryx parahelotella (Nel, 1995) comb. nov. [113]

Oxypteryx graecatella (Šumpich & Skyva, 2012) comb. nov. [113]

Gelechiinae Stainton, 1954

Gelechiini Stainton, 1954

Xystophora Wocke, 1876

Doryphora Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Doryphorella Cockerell, 1888

Xystophora carchariella (Zeller, 1839)

Xystophora pulveratella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

intaminatella (Stainton, 1860)

steudeliella (Frey, 1880)

Athrips Billberg, 1820 [118]

Rhynchopacha Staudinger, 1871

Epithectis Meyrick, 1895

Leobatus Walsingham, 1904

Ziminiola Gerasimov, 1930

Cremona Busck, 1934

Athrips spiraeae (Staudinger, 1871)

Athrips pruinosella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

Athrips rancidella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) [119]

triatomaea (Mühlig, 1864)

vepretella (Zeller, 1870)

superfetella (Peyerimhoff, 1877)

cotoneastri (Busck, 1934)

haifella Amsel, 1935

cerasivorella (Kuznetsov, 1960)

Athrips thymifoliella (Constant, 1893)

Athrips amoenella (Frey, 1882) [120]

allgunnensis Svensson, 1993, unavailable

Athrips nigricostella (Duponchel, 1842)

Athrips tetrapunctella (Thunberg, 1794)

lathyri (Stainton, 1865)

lathyrella (Doubleday, 1866), emendation

Athrips mouffetella (Linnaeus, 1758)

pedisequella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

punctifera (Haworth, 1828)

Athrips asarinella (Chrétien, 1930)

Athrips medjella (Chrétien, 1900)

Athrips patockai (Povolný, 1979)

Athrips polymaculella Park, 1991

Athrips stepposa Bidzilya, 2005

Athrips aquila Junnilainen, 2010

Athrips bidzilyai Junnilainen, 2010

Athrips fagoniae (Walsingham, 1904)

Neofriseria Sattler, 1960

Neofriseria peliella (Treitschke, 1835) [121]

senecionella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

Neofriseria singula (Staudinger, 1876)

suppeliella (Walsingham, 1896)

amaurella (Rebel, 1927), homonym

ifranella (Lucas, 1956)

hispanicella (Amsel, 1953)

Neofriseria pseudoterrella (Rebel, 1928)

Neofriseria baungaardiella Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, 2014 [122]

Neofriseria kuznetzovae Bidzilya, 2002 [123]

Neofriseria caucasicella Sattler, 1960

Neofriseria mongolinella Piskunov, 1987

Prolita Leraut, 1993

Lita Treitschke, 1833, homonym

Prolita sexpunctella (Fabricius, 1794)

virgella (Thunberg, 1794)

longicornis (Curtis, 1827)

longicornella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

histrionella (Geyer, 1832)

zebrella (Treitschke, 1833)

alpicolo (Frey, 1867)

alternatella (Kearfott, 1908)

melanica (Strand, 1920), unavailable

petulans (Braun, 1925)

Prolita solutella (Zeller, 1839)

fumosella (Douglas, 1852)

cornubiae (Boyd, 1858)

pribitzeri (Rebel, 1889)

nigrobipunctatella (Lucas, 1932)

Sophronia Hübner, 1825 [124]

Sophronia semicostella (Hübner, 1813) [125]

marginella (Thunberg, 1794), homonym

Sophronia gelidella Nordman, 1941

Sophronia consanguinella Herrich-Schäffer, 1854 [126]

marginella Toll, 1936

Sophronia illustrella (Hübner, 1796)

Sophronia grandii Hering, 1933 [127]

ascalis Gozmány, 1951, syn. nov.

Sophronia chilonella (Treitschke, 1833) [128]

Sophronia finitimella Rebel, 1905

Sophronia acaudella Rebel, 1903

Sophronia curonella Standfuss, 1884

Sophronia humerella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

Sophronia sicariellus (Zeller, 1839) [129]

Sophronia santolinae Staudinger, 1863

Mirificarma Gozmány, 1955 [130]

Helina Guenée, 1849, homonym

Mirificarma rhodoptera (Mann, 1866)

Mirificarma minimella Huemer & Karsholt, 2001

Mirificarma denotata Pitkin, 1984

Mirificarma maculatella (Hübner, 1796)

Mirificarma aflavella (Amsel, 1935)

Mirificarma flavella (Duponchel, 1844)

segetella (Zeller, 1847)

Mirificarma eburnella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

formosella (Hübner, 1796), homonym

flammella (Hübner, 1825)

rufeoformosella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

Mirificarma fasciata Pitkin, 1984

Mirificarma lentiginosella (Zeller, 1839) [131]

Mirificarma pederskoui Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Mirificarma cytisella (Treitschke, 1833) [132]

roseella (Hauder, 1918), unavailable

leonella Amsel, 1959, subspecies

Mirificarma monticolella (Rebel, 1931) [133]

Mirificarma interrupta (Curtis, 1827)

interuptella (Hübner, 1793), homonym

Mirificarma burdonella (Rebel, 1930) [134]

Mirificarma cabezella (Chrétien, 1925)

Mirificarma ulicinella (Staudinger, 1859) [135]

Mirificarma mulinella (Zeller, 1839)

caminariella (Fuchs, 1902)

nigraesilvae (Amsel, 1950)

Aroga Busck, 1914

Aroga velocella (Zeller, 1839) [136]

affiniella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

tesserella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

brunnea (Schöyen, 1882)

aterrimella (Rebel, 1889)

peperistis (Meyrick, 1926)

rupicolella (Müller-Rutz, 1934)

Aroga flavicomella (Zeller, 1839) [137]

aureodorsella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

Aroga eatoni Corley & Goodey, 2014

Aroga pascuicola (Staudinger, 1871)

eremella (Chrétien, 1915)

Aroga aristotelis (Millière, 1876)

astragali (Staudinger, 1879)

fulminella (Millière, 1882)

lacertella (Walsingham, 1904)

aplasticella (Rebel, 1913), unavailable

hyrcanella (Toll, 1948)

Aroga corsa Varenne & Nel, 2019

Aroga temporariella Sattler, 1960

Aroga balcanicola Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Filatima Busck, 1939

Filatima angustipennis Sattler, 1961

albicosta auct.

Filatima pallipalpella (Snellen, 1884)

Filatima spurcella (Duponchel, 1843)

fuscantella (Heinemann, 1870)

Filatima transsilvanella Kovács & Kovács, 2002

Filatima algarbiella Corley, 2014

Filatima tephritidella (Duponchel, 1844)

tephriditella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Filatima textorella (Chrétien, 1908)

Filatima djakovica Anikin & Piskunov, 1996

Filatima incomptella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

turbidella (Nolcken, 1871)

Filatima ukrainica Piskunov, 1971

Filatima zagulajevi Anikin & Piskunov, 1996

Chionodes Hübner, 1825 [138]

Chionodes lugubrella (Fabricius, 1794)

luctificella (Hübner, 1813)

lunatella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

Chionodes tragicella (Heyden, 1865)

libidinosa (Staudinger, 1871)

Chionodes soella Huemer & Sattler, 1995

Chionodes luctuella (Hübner, 1793) [139]

sauteriella (Zeller, 1868)

Chionodes aprilella Huemer & Sattler, 1995

Chionodes violacea (Tengström, 1848)

Chionodes mongolica Piskunov, 1979

ukrainica Piskunov, 1979

Chionodes holosericella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

cognatella (Heinemann, 1870)

norvegiae (Strand, 1903)

dovrella (Grønlien, 1925)

meesi (Barca, 1932)

danieli (Osthelder, 1951)

Chionodes praeclarella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

pergrandella (Rebel, 1917)

colorella (Caradja, 1920), unavailable

decolorella auct.

Chionodes caucasicella Huemer & Sattler, 1995

Chionodes nubilella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

tarandella (Wocke, 1864)

Chionodes continuella (Zeller, 1839)

brumella (Clemens, 1864)

trimaculella (Packard, 1867)

albomaculella (Chambers, 1875)

Chionodes perpetuella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Chionodes apolectella (Walsingham, 1900)

Chionodes distinctella (Zeller, 1839)

striolatella (Heinemann, 1870)

tristella (Teich, 1889)

indistinctella (Rebel, 1901)

latiorella (Amsel, 1939)

unicolor (Toll, 1948)

deserticola Piskunov, 1979

Chionodes hayreddini Koçak, 1986

ochripalpella (Frey, 1880), homonym

Chionodes hinnella (Rebel, 1935)

Chionodes bastuliella (Rebel, 1931)

Chionodes electella (Zeller, 1839)

Chionodes viduella (Fabricius, 1794)

leucomella (Quenzel, 1802)

luctiferella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1856)

labradoriella (Clemens, 1863)

Chionodes nebulosella (Heinemann, 1870)

Chionodes fumatella (Douglas, 1850) [140]

celerella (Stainton, 1851)

oppletella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

reuttiella (Heinemann, 1870)

nigricans (Heinemann, 1870)

syrticola (Staudinger, 1871)

brunnea (Teich, 1901), homonym

carpella Piskunov, 1971

Chionodes ignorantella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

ochrisignella (Nolcken, 1871)

Gelechia Hübner, 1825 [141]

Guenea Bruand d´Uzelle, 1851

Cirrha Chambers, 1872

Oeseis Chambers, 1875

Mesogelechia Omelko, 1986

Gelechia rhombella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

rhombea (Haworth, 1828), emendation

axilella (Thunberg, 1794)

Gelechia scotinella Herrich-Schäffer, 1854

conspurcatella Heinemann, 1870

confusella Heinemann, 1870

kiesenwetteri Heuäcker, 1873

lakatensis Rebel, 1904

baueri (Rebel, 1917)

Gelechia senticetella (Staudinger, 1859) [142]

limitanella Rebel, 1904

nigrostriella (Zerny, 1936)

Gelechia obscuripennis (Frey, 1880) [143]

melanotica (Burmann, 1950), unavailable

albicans (Burmann, 1950), unavailable

Gelechia sabinellus (Zeller, 1839)

hoffmanniella (Strand, 1902)

corsella (Rebel, 1930)

kalevalella (Kanerva, 1936)

Gelechia atlanticella (Amsel, 1955)

Gelechia nervosella (Zerny, 1927)

thuriferella (Cleu, 1936)

Gelechia sororculella (Hübner, 1817)

Gelechia jakovlevi Krulikovsky, 1905

nigrovittata Schantz, 1971

Gelechia muscosella Zeller, 1839

griseella Caradja, 1920

Gelechia cuneatella Douglas, 1852

Gelechia aspoecki Huemer, 1992

Gelechia asinella (Hübner, 1796)

aurorella Frey, 1882

Gelechia hippophaella (Schrank, 1802)

basalis Stainton, 1854

acupediella Frey, 1870

Gelechia basipunctella Herrich-Schäffer, 1854

basiguttella Heinemann, 1870

albicans Heinemann, 1870

Gelechia nigra (Haworth, 1828)

cautella Zeller, 1839

Gelechia turpella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

populella (Hübner, 1796)

nebulea (Haworth, 1828), unavailable

pinguinella (Treitschke, 1832)

kochiella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Gelechia rhombelliformis Staudinger, 1871

Gelechia sirotina Omelko, 1986

Gelechia sestertiella Herrich-Schäffer, 1854

Gelechia mediterranea Huemer, 1991

Gelechia dujardini Huemer, 1991

Psoricoptera Stainton, 1854

Psoricoptera speciosella Teich, 1893

Psoricoptera gibbosella (Zeller, 1839)

triorthias (Meyrick, 1935)

lepigreella (Lucas, 1938)

Agnippe Chambers, 1872 [144]

Evippe Chambers, 1873

Phaetusa Chambers, 1875, homonym

Tholerostola Meyrick, 1917

Agnippe echinuloides Bidzilya & Li, 2010

Agnippe lunaki (Rebel, 1941)

penicillata (Amsel, 1961)

Agnippe pseudolella (Christoph, 1888)

cephalella (Caradja, 1920)

Holcophora Staudinger, 1871 [145]

Aponoaea Walsingham, 1905

Holcophora statices Staudinger, 1871

Holcophora inderskella (Caradja, 1920) [146]

Holcophora obtusipalpis (Walsingham, 1905)

cinerellus (Turati, 1930)

Gnorimoschemini Povolný, 1964

Gnorimoschema Busck, 1900

Lerupsia Riedl, 1965

Neoschema Povolný, 1967

Gnorimoschema soffneri (Riedl, 1965)

antiquum Povolný, 1966

Gnorimoschema herbichii (Nowicki, 1864) [147]

pusillella (Rebel, 1893)

tengstroemiella (Joannis, 1910)

pazsiczkyi (Rebel, 1913)

parentesella (Toll, 1936)

tengstroemi (Hackman, 1946)

mongoliae Povolný, 1973, subspecies

kamchaticum Povolný, 1977, subspecies

Gnorimoschema bodillum Karsholt & Nielsen, 1974

Gnorimoschema nupponeni Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Gnorimoschema robustella (Staudinger, 1871)

syrphetopa (Meryick, 1926)

Gnorimoschema steueri Povolný, 1975

Gnorimoschema epithymella (Staudinger, 1859)

brunneomaculella (Hackman, 1946), subspecies

boerneri (Amsel, 1952), subspecies

kirgisicum Povolný, 1994, subspecies

Gnorimoschema nordlandicolella (Strand, 1902)

cyceonodes (Meyrick, 1924)

eucausta (Meyrick, 1929)

fennicella (Hackman, 1946)

Gnorimoschema nilsi Huemer, 1996

Gnorimoschema valesiella (Staudinger, 1877)

diabolicella (Hering, 1924)

charcoti (Meyrick, 1934)

hackmani (Schantz, 1952)

Gnorimoschema streliciella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Gnorimoschema hoefneri (Rebel, 1909)

Scrobipalpopsis Povolný, 1967

Scrobipalpopsis petasitis (Pfaffenzeller, 1867)

petasitella (Staudinger, 1867)

petasitae (Heinemann, 1870), emendation

Tecia Povolný, 1973

Tecia solanivora (Povolný, 1973)

Scrobipalpa Janse, 1951 [148]

Ilseopsis Povolný, 1965

Euscrobipalpa Povolný, 1967

Ergasiola Povolný, 1967

*Scrobipalpa aptatella (Walker, 1864) [149]

heliopa (Lower, 1900)

Scrobipalpa kasyi Povolný, 1968

Scrobipalpa notata (Povolný, 2001)

Scrobipalpa acuminatella (Sircom, 1850)

pulliginella (Sircom, 1850)

cirsiella (Stainton, 1851)

porcella (Heinemann, 1870)

ingloriella (Heinemann, 1870)

gracilella (Stainton, 1871)

Scrobipalpa skulei Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa hungariae (Staudinger, 1871)

Scrobipalpa adaptata (Povolný, 2001)

Scrobipalpa brahmiella (Heyden, 1862)

Scrobipalpa vasconiella (Rössler, 1877)

drahomirae Povolný, 1966

Scrobipalpa dorsolutea Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa amseli Povolný, 1966 [150]

Scrobipalpa hyssopi Nel, 2003 [150]

Scrobipalpa montanella (Chrétien, 1910)

Scrobipalpa corleyi Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa chrysanthemella (Hofmann, 1867)

opificella (Mann, 1878)

Scrobipalpa proclivella (Fuchs, 1886)

rancidella auct.

Scrobipalpa frugifera Povolný, 1969

hypothetica Povolný, 1973

Scrobipalpa oleksiyella Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa smithi Povolný & Bradley, 1964

Scrobipalpa occulta (Povolný, 2002)

sibirica Bidzilya, 2009

Scrobipalpa grisea Povolný, 1969

uralensis Povolný, 1973, unavailable

Scrobipalpa usingeri Povolný, 1969

Scrobipalpa clintoni Povolný, 1968

linella Piskunov, 1975

deleta Povolný, 1981

Scrobipalpa reiprichi Povolný, 1984 [151]

Scrobipalpa obsoletella (Fischer v. Röslerstamm, 1841)

miscitatella (Clarke, 1932)

bipunctella (Hartig, 1941)

calaritanella (Amsel, 1952)

hospes Povolný, 1964

Scrobipalpa feralella (Zeller, 1872)

rebeliella (Hauder, 1917)

Scrobipalpa halonella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Scrobipalpa perinii (Klimesch, 1951)

Scrobipalpa phagnalella (Constant, 1895)

staehelinella (Caradja, 1920), unavailable

Scrobipalpa tokari Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa karadaghi (Povolný, 2001)

Scrobipalpa heimi Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa acuta (Povolný, 2001)

Scrobipalpa soffneri Povolný, 1964

Scrobipalpa jariorum Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa murinella (Duponchel, 1843)

culminicolella (Staudinger, 1871)

excelsa (Frey, 1880)

Scrobipalpa wiltshirei Povolný, 1966

obrteliana Povolný, 1971, subspecies

Scrobipalpa caucasica (Povolný, 2001) [152]

bezengensis (Povolný, 2001)

Scrobipalpa pauperella (Heinemann, 1870) [153]

klimeschi Povolný, 1967

Scrobipalpa spumata (Povolný, 2001)

Scrobipalpa arenbergeri Povolný, 1973

Scrobipalpa mercantourica Varenne & Nel, 2018 [154]

Scrobipalpa nana Povolný, 1973

caroxyli (Falkovitsh & Bidzilya, 2006), subspecies

Scrobipalpa heretica Povolný, 1973

submagnificella Povolný, 1977

Scrobipalpa bigoti Povolný, 1973

tunesica Povolný, 1979, subspecies

Scrobipalpa dorsoflava (Povolný, 1996)

Scrobipalpa magnificella Povolný, 1967

Scrobipalpa abstrusa Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa superstes Povolný, 1977

Scrobipalpa remota Povolný, 1972

Scrobipalpa plesiopicta Povolný, 1969

Scrobipalpa bradleyi Povolný, 1971

glaserorum Povolný, 1977

meyricki auct.

Scrobipalpa selectella (Caradja, 1920)

fraterna Povolný, 1969

Scrobipalpa alterna (Falkovitsh & Bidzilya, 2006) [155]

Scrobipalpa lutea Povolný, 1977 [155]

Scrobipalpa griseoflava Bidzilya & Budashkin, 2011

Scrobipalpa niveifacies Povolný, 1977

milleri Povolný, 1977

Scrobipalpa indignella (Staudinger, 1879)

pseudobsoletellum (Povolný & Gregor, 1955)

hyoscyamivora (Gerasimov, 1940)

grossa Povolný, 1966

Scrobipalpa punctata (Povolný, 1996)

Scrobipalpa lagodes (Meyrick, 1926)

*Scrobipalpa deluccae Povolný, 1966

Scrobipalpa atriplicella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1841)

atrella (Thunberg, 1788), homonym

detersella (Clemens, 1860), homonym

infumatella (Fuchs, 1901)

brackenridgiella (Busck, 1903)

chenopodiella (Busck, 1916)

arogantella Povolný, 1967

altajica Povolný, 1969

Scrobipalpa suaedella (Richardson, 1893)

flavidorsella (Amsel, 1952)

hartigi Povolný, 1977

Scrobipalpa solitaria Povolný, 1969

*Scrobipalpa dagmaris Povolný, 1987

rezniki Piskunov, 1990

turkmenica Piskunov, 1990

Scrobipalpa suasella (Constant, 1895)

Scrobipalpa hendrikseni Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa halimifolia Bidzilya & Budashkin, 2011

Scrobipalpa traganella (Chrétien, 1915)

Scrobipalpa bazae Povolný, 1977

Scrobipalpa artemisiella (Treitschke, 1833) [156]

ancillella (Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851)

paniculatella (Novickij, 1924)

mongolensis Povolný, 1969

oreocyrniella (Petry, 1904), subspecies

syriaca Povolný, 1967, subspecies

Scrobipalpa stangei (Hering, 1889) [156]

saltenella (Meess, 1910)

Scrobipalpa suaedivorella (Chrétien, 1915)

detersipunctella (Toll, 1947)

Scrobipalpa bryophiloides Povolný, 1966 [157]

Scrobipalpa algeriensis Povolný & Bradley, 1964

Scrobipalpa deutschi Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa disjectella (Staudinger, 1859)

Scrobipalpa fontanensis Varenne & Nel, 2017

Scrobipalpa mixta Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa achtubica Anikin & Piskunov, 2018

Scrobipalpa rebeli (Preissecker, 1914)

fuscella (Klimesch, 1938)

japonica Povolný, 1977

Scrobipalpa gallicella (Constant, 1885)

Scrobipalpa ustulatella (Staudinger, 1871)

Scrobipalpa postulatella Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa filia Povolný, 1969

Scrobipalpa nitentella (Fuchs, 1902)

seminella (Pierce & Metcalfe, 1935)

Scrobipalpa costella (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845)

costimaculella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

Scrobipalpa hyoscyamella (Stainton, 1869)

Scrobipalpa portosanctana (Stainton, 1859)

eremaula (Meyrick, 1891)

lyciella (Walsingham, 1900)

desertella (Rebel, 1901)

bertramella (Lucas, 1940)

leroyella (Lucas 1950)

reisseri (Povolný & Gregor, 1955)

philolycii (Hering, 1957)

gallincolella auct.

Scrobipalpa vicaria (Meyrick, 1921)

tineiformis Povolný, 1967

Scrobipalpa ocellatella (Boyd, 1858) [158]

ocellatella (Stainton, 1859), homonym

submissella (Stainton, 1859)

horticolella (Rössler, 1866)

clarella (Caradja, 1920)

obscurior (Rebel, 1927)

orientale (Gregor & Povolný, 1954)

portosanctana auct.

Scrobipalpa pulchra Povolný, 1967

Scrobipalpa gecko (Walsingham, 1911)

Scrobipalpa hannemanni Povolný, 1966

furva Povolný, 1969, subspecies

gamanthi (Falkovitsh & Bidzilya, 2006), subspecies

Scrobipalpa erichi Povolný, 1964

Scrobipalpa divisella (Rebel, 1936)

Scrobipalpa voltinella (Chrétien, 1898)

Scrobipalpa corsicamontes Varenne & Nel, 2013

Scrobipalpa suaedicola (Mabille, 1906)

suaedicola (Amsel, 1939), homonym

mabillei Povolný, 1971

Scrobipalpa monochromella (Constant, 1895)

Scrobipalpa samadensis (Pfaffenzeller, 1870)

plantaginella (Stainton, 1883)

brunhildae (Schawerda, 1921)

zimmermanni (Zimmermann, 1923), unavailable

mariae (Zimmermann, 1926)

testacella (Rebel, 1935)

echo (Meyrick, 1937)

Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller, 1847) [159]

omachella auct.

zernyella (Rebel, 1918)

corsicanum (Gregor & Povolný, 1954)

ignotum (Gregor & Povolný, 1954)

trebujenae Povolný, 1977

Scrobipalpa spergulariella (Chrétien, 1910) [159]

Scrobipalpa salicorniae (Hering, 1889) [159]

caliacrae (Caradja, 1932)

Scrobipalpa halimioniella Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Scrobipalpa thymelaeae (Amsel, 1939)

Scrobipalpa halymella (Millière, 1864) [160]

Scrobipalpa camphorosmella Nel, 1999

Scrobipalpa stabilis Povolný, 1977 [160]

Scrobipalpa instabilella (Douglas, 1846)

lagunella (Chrétien, 1910)

strobilacella (Caradja, 1920), unavailable

salsolella (Amsel, 1935)

halymiphaga (Amsel, 1952)

Scrobipalpa peterseni (Povolný, 1965)

Scrobipalpa ergasima (Meyrick, 1916)

hyoscyamella (Rebel, 1912), homonym

mignatella (Caradja, 1920), unavailable

intestina (Meyrick, 1921)

mirabile (Gregor & Povolný, 1955)

pervada (Clarke, 1962)

Turcopalpa Povolný, 1973

Turcopalpa glaseri Povolný, 1973

Scrobipalpula Povolný, 1964 [161]

Scrobipalpula psilella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

nocturnella (Staudinger, 1859)

pallidella (Heinemann, 1870)

killiasii (Frey, 1880)

astericolellum (Hering, 1957), unavailable

asiatica Povolný, 1968, subspecies

Scrobipalpula ramosella (Müller-Rutz, 1934)

Scrobipalpula seniorum Povolný, 2000

ptarmicae (Hering, 1957), unavailable

compositella (Povolný, 1964), unavailable

Scrobipalpula diffluella (Frey, 1870)

cacuminum (Frey, 1870)

diffluella (Heinemann, 1870)

bellidiastri (Klimesch, 1951)

uniflorellum (Hering, 1957), unavailable

Scrobipalpula tussilaginis (Stainton, 1867)

tussilaginella (Heinemann, 1870)

retusella (Rebel, 1891)

Phthorimaea Meyrick, 1902

Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873)

terrella (Walker, 1864)

solanella (Boisduval, 1874)

tabacella (Ragonot, 1879)

sedata (Butler, 1880)

argentinae Povolný, 1989

piscipellis auct.

epicentra auct.

Tuta Kieffer & Jørgensen, 1910

Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917)

Keiferia Busck, 1939 [162]

Keiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham, 1897)

Ephysteris Meyrick, 1908

Microcraspedus Janse, 1958

Opacopsis Povolný, 1964

Echinoglossa Clarke, 1965

Ephysteris promptella (Staudinger, 1859) [163]

despectella (Walker, 1863)

petiginella (Mann, 1867)

parvula (Staudinger, 1879)

cacomicra (Walsingham, 1908)

chersaea Meyrick, 1908

oschophora (Meyrick, 1910)

crystallista (Meyrick, 1911)

dispensata (Meyrick, 1921)

fanatica (Meyrick, 1921)

xanthorhabda (Gozmány, 1951)

australiae Povolný, 1977

Ephysteris tenuisaccus Nupponen, 2010

Ephysteris deserticolella (Staudinger, 1871)

albocapitella (Rebel, 1928)

buvati (Povolný, 1992)

Ephysteris insulella (Heinemann, 1870)

insularis (Staudinger, 1871)

praticolella (Christoph, 1872), subspecies

gallica (Povolný, 1992)

Ephysteris brachyptera Karsholt & Sattler, 1998

Ephysteris diminutella (Zeller, 1847) [164]

lunaki (Hartig, 1941)

treskensis Povolný, 1964

hispanica Povolný, 1981

foulonsensis Povolný, 1981

Ephysteris inustella (Zeller, 1839) [165]

delminiella (Rebel, 1904)

gredosensis (Rebel, 1935), subspecies

Ephysteris olympica Povolný, 1968

monticola Povolný, 1981

Ephysteris iberica Povolný, 1977

Ochrodia Povolný, 1966 [166]

Ochrodia subdiminutella (Stainton, 1867)

jamaicensis (Walsingham, 1897)

bucolica (Meyrick, 1904)

zygophyllella (Rebel, 1912)

ericnista (Meyrick, 1914)

ferritincta (Turner, 1919), subspecies

ochrodeta (Meyrick, 1923)

extorris (Meyrick, 1923)

crocoleuca (Meyrick, 1923)

unitella (Turati, 1930)

tribulivora (Dumont, 1931)

pulverea (Janse, 1950)

turgida (Janse, 1951)

pentamacula (Janse, 1958)

infallax (Gozmány, 1960)

tractatum (Gozmány, 1960)

Vladimirea Povolný, 1967

Distinxia Povolný, 1967

Vladimirea glebicolorella (Erschoff, 1874)

submaculata Povolný, 1967

Microlechia Turati, 1924

Hedma Dumont, 1932

Megalocypha Janse, 1960

Microlechia rhamnifoliae (Amsel & Hering, 1931)

rhamnifoliae (Amsel, 1935)

Microlechia chretieni Turati, 1924

microcasis (Meyrick, 1929)

micradelpha (Walsingham, 1900), homonym

hyoscyamella (Amsel & Hering, 1931), homonym

abzacella (Dumont, 1932)

hyoscyami (Amsel, 1935)

polioptera (Janse, 1960)

aellographa (Janse, 1960)

Microlechia klimeschi (Povolný, 1972)

Microlechia karsholti (Nupponen, 2010)

Cosmardia Povolný, 1965

Cosmardia moritzella (Treitschke, 1835)

morizella (Geyer, 1836)

roseella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

Lutilabria Povolný, 1965 [167]

Lutilabria lutilabrella (Mann, 1857)

robustella (Rebel, 1910)

olympica Huemer, 1993, subspecies

Lutilabria volgensis Anikin & Piskunov, 1996

Lutilabria prolata Junnilainen & Nupponen, 2010

Klimeschiopsis Povolný, 1967

Klimeschiopsis kiningerella (Duponchel, 1843) [168]

atralbella (Palm, 1947)

Klimeschiopsis discontinuella (Rebel, 1899)

Klimeschiopsis maritimaealpina Nel & Varenne, 2011

Klimeschiopsis terroris (Hartig, 1938)

Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 [169]

Caryocolum fischerella (Treitschke, 1833)

Caryocolum tischeriella (Zeller, 1839) [170]

Caryocolum alsinella (Zeller, 1868) [171]

albifrontella (Heinemann, 1870)

tristella (Heinemann, 1870)

semidecandriella (Tutt, 1887)

semidecandrella (Threlfall & Stainton, 1887)

Caryocolum viscariella (Stainton, 1855)

crepusculella (Teich, 1889)

Caryocolum albifaciella (Heinemann, 1870)

behenella (Constant, 1890)

Caryocolum vicinella (Douglas, 1851) [172]

inflatella (Chrétien, 1901)

albescens (Bankes, 1909), unavailable

suffusa (Bankes, 1909), unavailable

Caryocolum bosalella (Rebel, 1936)

Caryocolum sciurella (Walsingham, 1908)

rubidella (Chrétien, 1908)

Caryocolum amaurella (Hering, 1924) [173]

viscariae (Schütze, 1926)

Caryocolum crypticum Huemer, Karsholt & Mutanen, 2014

Caryocolum tredosella Nel & Requena, 2017

Caryocolum oculatella (Thomann, 1930)

ochraceella (Thomann, 1929), homonym

Caryocolum leucofasciatum Huemer, 1989

Caryocolum petryi (Hofmann, 1899)

rougemonti (Rebel, 1907)

repentella (Chrétien, 1908)

benanderi (Hering, 1933)

Caryocolum baischi Huemer & Karsholt, 2010

Caryocolum repentis Huemer & Luquet, 1992

repentella auct.

Caryocolum siculum Bella, 2008

Caryocolum inflativorella (Klimesch, 1938)

xuthella (Rebel, 1941)

census (Gozmány, 1954)

Caryocolum saginella (Zeller, 1868) [174]

coussonella (Chrétien, 1908)

Caryocolum cauligenella (Schmid, 1863) [175]

Caryocolum trauniella (Zeller, 1868)

Caryocolum peregrinella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) [176]

melantypella (Mann, 1877)

Caryocolum delphinatella (Constant, 1890)

fiorii (Klimesch, 1953)

Caryocolum provinciella (Stainton, 1869)

Caryocolum mucronatella (Chrétien, 1900)

poschiavensis (Rebel, 1936)

Caryocolum leucomelanella (Zeller, 1839) [177]

gypsophilae (Stainton, 1869)

Caryocolum mazeli Huemer & Nel, 2005

Caryocolum leucothoracellum (Klimesch, 1953)

Caryocolum schleichi (Christoph, 1872) [178]

syriacum Povolný, 1977

dianthella (Chrétien, 1925), subspecies

hackeri Derra, 1985

improvisella (Rebel, 1936), subspecies

Caryocolum arenariella (Benander, 1937) [178]

Caryocolum marmorea (Haworth, 1828) [179]

manniella (Zeller, 1839)

marmorella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

pulchra (Wollaston, 1858), subspecies

mediocorsa Varenne & Nel, 2013, subspecies

marmoreum auct.

Caryocolum pullatella (Tengström, 1848) [180]

pulla (Tengström, 1848)

subtractella (Walker, 1864)

livoniella (Teich, 1898)

agricolaris (Meyrick, 1933)

Caryocolum stramentella (Rebel, 1935)

emarginatum Huemer, 1988

Caryocolum hispanicum Huemer, 1988

Caryocolum confluens Huemer, 1988

Caryocolum srnkai Huemer & Karsholt, 2011

Caryocolum gallagenellum Huemer, 1989

Caryocolum fraternella (Douglas, 1851)

intermediella (Hodgkinson, 1897)

Caryocolum klosi (Rebel, 1917) [181]

Caryocolum interalbicella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

quadrella (Fabricius, 1794), homonym

Caryocolum laceratella (Zeller, 1868)

thurneri (Pinker, 1953)

Caryocolum dauphini Grange & Nel, 2012

Caryocolum blandella (Douglas, 1852) nom. protectum [182]

signatella (Eversmann, 1844) nom. oblitum

maculea (Haworth, 1828), (nec Fabricius, 1794), emendation, misident.

Caryocolum blandelloides Karsholt, 1981

Caryocolum horoscopa (Meyrick, 1926) stat. rev. [183]

Caryocolum jaspidella (Chrétien, 1908)

Caryocolum proxima (Haworth, 1828)

maculiferella (Douglas, 1851)

maculivicinella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

horticolla (Peyerimhoff, 1871)

proximum auct.

Caryocolum blandulella (Tutt, 1887)

Caryocolum arenbergeri Huemer, 1989

Caryocolum tricolorella (Haworth, 1812)

contigua (Haworth, 1828)

acernella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Caryocolum fibigerium Huemer, 1988 [184]

Caryocolum junctella (Douglas, 1851) [185]

aganocarpa (Meyrick, 1935)

Caryocolum cassella (Walker, 1864)

melanotephrella (Erschoff, 1877)

albifasciella (Toll, 1936)

subvicinella (Hackman, 1946)

falellum Piskunov, 1975

Caryocolum moehringiae (Klimesch, 1954)

Caryocolum petrophila (Preissecker, 1914)

kemnerella (Palm, 1947)

Caryocolum huebneri (Haworth, 1828)

hubnerella (Doubleday, 1866)

knaggsiella (Stainton, 1866)

Caryocolum kroesmanniella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

huebneri auct.

Tila Povolný, 1965

Tila capsophilella (Chrétien, 1900)

Pogochaetia Staudinger, 1879

Pogonochaetia Rye, 1881

Chaetopogon Rye, 1881

Pogochaetia solitaria Staudinger, 1879

ocymoidella (Walsingham, 1900), subspecies

cabreretsi Povolný, 1981

Agonochaetia Povolný, 1967

Sautereopsis Povolný, 1965

Agonochaetia terrestrella (Zeller, 1872) [186]

muestairella (Müller-Rutz, 1922)

Agonochaetia intermedia Sattler, 1968

Agonochaetia quartana Povolný, 1990

Canarischema Karsholt, 2017

Canarischema fuerteventura Karsholt, 2017

Sattleria Povolný, 1965 [187]

Sattleria melaleucella (Constant, 1865) [188]

mariae (Frey, 1867), unavailable

fusca (Burmann, 1954)

Sattleria arcuata Pitkin & Sattler, 1991

Sattleria pyrenaica (Petry, 1904) [189]

Sattleria taurandi Nel & Varenne, 2019

Sattleria karsholti Huemer & Hebert, 2011

Sattleria cottiella Huemer & Hebert, 2011

Sattleria marguareisi Huemer & Sattler, 1992

Sattleria izoardi Huemer & Sattler, 1992

Sattleria graiaeella Huemer & Hebert, 2011

Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, 2014

Sattleria basistrigella Huemer, 1997

Sattleria triglavica Povolný, 1987

Sattleria basistrigella Huemer, 1997

basistrigella (Müller-Rutz, 1934), unavailable

Sattleria dinarica Huemer, 2014

Sattleria haemusi Huemer, 2014

Sattleria dzieduszyckii (Nowicki, 1864)

tatrica (Gregor & Povolný, 1955)

Sattleria angustispina Pitkin & Sattler, 1991

Sattleria breviramus Pitkin & Sattler, 1991

Sattleria sophiae Timossi, 2014

Sattleria styriaca Pitkin & Sattler, 1991

Litini Bruand d’Uzelle 1859 [190]

Teleiodini Piskunov, 1973

Exoteleiini Omelko, 1999

Schneidereria Weber, 1957

Schneidereria pistaciella Weber, 1957 [191]

Teleiodes Sattler, 1960

Dubitationis Omelko & Omelko, 1998

Teleia Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Teleiodes vulgella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) [191]

aspera (Haworth, 1828)

Teleiodes italica Huemer, 1992 [192]

gallica Huemer, 1992

Teleiodes brevivalva Huemer, 1992 [192]

Teleiodes wagae (Nowicki, 1860)

marsata Piskunov, 1973

Teleiodes saltuum (Zeller, 1878) [193]

nigristrigella (Wocke, 1898)

Teleiodes kaitilai Junnilainen, 2010 [193]

Teleiodes luculella (Hübner, 1813) [194]

subrosea (Haworth, 1828)

Teleiodes flavimaculella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) [195]

rufipunctella (Steudel, 1882)

dealbella (Klemensiewicz, 1902), unavailable

herrichi (Dufrane, 1955), unavailable

Teleiodes albidorsella Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Teleiodes albiluculella Huemer & Karsholt, 2001

Neotelphusa Janse, 1958

Neotelphusa sequax (Haworth, 1828)

apicistrigella (Duponchel, 1843)

sequaxella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

sequacella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

Neotelphusa huemeri (Nel, 1998)

pseudocisti Leraut, 1997, unavailable

Neotelphusa traugotti (Huemer & Karsholt, 2001)

Neotelphusa cisti (Stainton, 1869)

Carpatolechia Căpuşe, 1964

Vicina Omelko, 1999

Carpatolechia decorella (Haworth, 1812)

humeralis (Zeller, 1839)

lyellella (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845)

incretella (Duponchel, 1845)

humeralella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1851), emendation

marmoripennella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1851)

pisticella (Nowicki, 1860)

scabra (Staudinger, 1870)

erschoffii (Frey, 1880)

subericolella (Caradja, 1920), unavailable

buckwelli (Lucas, 1956)

dumitrescui Căpuşe, 1964

Carpatolechia aenigma (Sattler, 1983)

Carpatolechia fugitivella (Zeller, 1839)

vovkella (Piskunov, 1973)

melanella (Romaniszyn, 1933), unavailable

Carpatolechia fugacella (Zeller, 1839)

nigrofasciella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1851)

Carpatolechia minor (Kasy, 1978)

Carpatolechia filipjevi (Lvovsky & Piskunov, 1993)

Carpatolechia alburnella (Zeller, 1839)

seniculella (Eversmann, 1844)

radiella (Krulikowsky, 1909), unavailable

Carpatolechia notatella (Hübner, 1813)

euratella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

oskella (Piskunov, 1973)

Carpatolechia proximella (Hübner, 1796)

peritella (Constant, 1885)

ochracella (Romaniszyn, 1933), unavailable

Carpatolechia intermediella Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Carpatolechia epomidella (Tengström, 1869)

Pseudotelphusa Janse, 1958

Sattleria Căpuşe, 1968, homonym

Klaussattleria Căpuşe, 1968

Pseudotelphusa scalella (Scopoli, 1763) [196]

aleella (Fabricius, 1794)

bicolorella (Treitschke, 1832)

Pseudotelphusa istrella (Mann, 1866)

decuriella (Mann, 1872)

trifasciella (Rebel, 1916)

Pseudotelphusa occidentella Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Pseudotelphusa paripunctella (Thunberg, 1794)

tigratella (Costa, 1834)

triparella (Zeller, 1839)

trijugella (Erschoff, 1877)

sultanella (Caradja, 1920)

griseella (Preissecker, 1931), unavailable

myricae (Gilles, 1936), unavailable

pseudowagae (Svensson, 1993), unavailable

Pseudotelphusa tessella (Linnaeus, 1758)

albinigrella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

sturmella (Hübner, 1825)

berberidella (Hübner, 1825)

funestella (Geyer, 1832)

alboquadrella (Bruand d´Uzelle, 1859)

Istrianis Meyrick, 1918

Pseudoteleia Amsel, 1935

Istrianis myricariella (Frey, 1870)

Istrianis arenicolella (Caradja, 1920)

amilcarella (Lucas, 1933)

Istrianis pseudomyricariella Bidzilya & Karsholt, 2015

Istrianis nilssoni Bidzilya & Karsholt, 2015

Istrianis brucinella (Mann, 1872)

Istrianis femoralis (Staudinger, 1876)

comedonella (Staudinger, 1879)

gravosensis (Rebel, 1937)

angustipennis (Rebel, 1941)

funebrella (Rebel, 1941)

squamodorella auct.

Istrianis piskunovi Bidzilya & Karsholt, 2015

Streyella Janse, 1958

Streyella canariensis (Walsingham, 1908)

Streyella anguinella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861)

ostentella (Zerny, 1934)

Teleiopsis Sattler, 1960

Teleiopsis terebinthinella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1856)

Teleiopsis latisacculus Pitkin, 1988

Teleiopsis diffinis (Haworth, 1828) [197]

dissimilella (Treitschke, 1833)

scabidella (Zeller, 1839)

friesella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

diffinella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

groenliensis (Strand, 1920), unavailable

Teleiopsis lunariella (Walsingham, 1908)

Teleiopsis bagriotella (Duponchel, 1840) [197]

elatella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854)

Teleiopsis laetitiae Schmid, 2011 [197]

Teleiopsis lindae Schmid, 2011

Teleiopsis albifemorella (Hofmann, 1867) [197]

Teleiopsis paulheberti Huemer & Mutanen, 2012 [197]

Teleiopsis rosalbella (Fologne, 1862) [197]

Xenolechia Meyrick, 1895 [198]

Xenolechia aethiops (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845)

aterrima (Edleston, 1844)

aethiopella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

squamulella (Peyerimhoff, 1871)

tristis (Staudinger, 1879)

Xenolechia lindae Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Xenolechia pseudovulgella Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Altenia Sattler, 1960

Altenia perspersella (Wocke, 1862)

empetrella (Karvonen, 1932)

Altenia scriptella (Hübner, 1796) [199]

Altenia elsneriella Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Altenia mersinella (Staudinger, 1879)

melanostictella (Ragonot, 1895)

sagittella (Caradja, 1920)

praedicta (Meyrick, 1923)

tribolopis (Meyrick, 1927)

Altenia wagneriella (Rebel, 1926)

danilevskyi (Piskunov, 1973)

Altenia modesta (Danilevsky, 1955)

Recurvaria Haworth, 1828

Lita Kollar, 1832

Telea Stephens, 1834, homonym

Aphanaula Meyrick, 1895

Hinnebergia Spuler, 1910

Recurvaria nanella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

pumilella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

nana Haworth, 1828, emendation

crataegella Busck, 1903

unicolor Rebel, 1927

pruniella auct.

Recurvaria leucatella (Clerck, 1759)

leucatea Haworth, 1828, emendation

albocingulella (Duponchel, 1839)

Recurvaria thomeriella (Chrétien, 1901)

Recurvaria costimaculella Huemer & Karsholt, 2001

Coleotechnites Chambers, 1880

Evagora Clemens, 1860, homonym

Eidothea Chambers, 1873 (emendation and homonym)

Eucordylea Dietz, 1900

Pulicalvaria Freeman, 1963

Coleotechnites piceaella (Kearfott, 1903)

nigra (Kearfott, 1903), homonym

obscurella (Kearfott, 1907)

Exoteleia Wallengren, 1881

Paralechia Busck, 1903

Heringia Spuler, 1910, homonym

Heringiola Strand, 1917

Exoteleia dodecella (Linnaeus, 1758) [200]

duodecimcristata (Retzius, 1783), unavailable

punctulata (Fourcroy, 1785)

dodecea (Haworth, 1828), emendation

annulicornis (Stephens, 1834)

favillaticella (Zeller, 1839)

reussiella (Ratzeburg, 1840)

Exoteleia succinctella (Zeller, 1872)

oribatella (Rebel, 1918)

Stenolechia Meyrick, 1894

Poecilia Heinemann, 1870, homonym

Gibbosa Omelko, 1988

Stenolechia gemmella (Linnaeus, 1758)

nivella (Fabricius, 1794)

nivea (Haworth, 1828), emendation

lepidella (Zeller, 1839)

nigrovittella (Duponchel, 1839)

Parastenolechia Kanazawa, 1985

Origo Omelko, 1988

Tutor Omelko, 1988

Laris Omelko, 1988

Parastenolechia nigrinotella (Zeller, 1847)

nigralbella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854), unavailable

Stenolechiodes Elsner, 1996

Stenolechiodes pseudogemmellus Elsner, 1996

Stenolechiodes macrolepiellus Huemer & Karsholt, 1999

Parachronistis Meyrick, 1925

Cochlevalva Omelko, 1986

Dentivalva Omelko, 1986

Parachronistis albiceps (Zeller, 1839) [201]

albicipitella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854), emendation

albicapitella (Doubleday, 1859), emendation

Schistophila Chrétien, 1899

Schistophila laurocistella Chrétien, 1899

striatana (Lucas, 1937)

Unplaced genus

Telphusacistiflorella (Constant, 1890) [202]

Comments on the checklist

Approximately 200 comments on systematic problems, taxonomic changes and particularly potential cryptic diversity, are mainly derived from molecular data and are cross-referenced in the checklist: [1] – [202].

[1] Anacampsidae Bruand d’Uzelle, 1851 has priority over Gelechiidae Stainton 1854. The former name has hardly been used (Sattler 1973) and the use of the older synonym would threaten stability. Following Art. 23.9.3 (ICZN) the case should therefore be referred to the Commission for a ruling under the plenary power. The year of description of Anacampsidae is according to Viette (1977).

[2] Stomopteryx. This genus is in need of a taxonomic revision and includes several probable cases of cryptic diversity, and equally probably cases of over-splitting.

[3] Stomopteryx nugatricella / S. mongolica / S. lineolella. The taxonomy of these species is unresolved and should be checked in upcoming revisionary work. Junnilainen et al. (2010) separated S. mongolica and S. lineolella on morphological differences they observed in male genitalia but at the same time stated that European specimens of S. mongolica differ from typical Mongolian vouchers (Note: They did not compare S. mongolica from southern Russia with the externally similar S. nugatricella from Spain). DNA barcodes do not support species status of all these taxa which cluster with very low divergences in the same BIN. We therefore believe that taxonomic over-splitting cannot be excluded and would be a reasonable explanation for the current species concept, although barcode sharing between some taxa cannot be excluded.

[4] Stomopteryx deverrae. We have barcoded only North African specimens so far, including a syntype from Algeria, and the material from Spain should be sequenced in future to prove the occurrence in Europe.

[5] Stomopterayx flavoclavella. European samples from Spain slightly differ from a sequenced syntype from Morocco and cluster in a separate BIN. The suspected conspecificity will be addressed in an upcoming revision.

[6] Stomopteryx remissella. This species represents an unresolved species complex. DNA barcodes show an extraordinarily high and largely geographic variation, reflected by eight different BINs and differences in phenotype. The recently described Stomopteryx spathulella (Nel et al. 2019) probably belongs to one of the BINs summarized for S. remissella. However, the whole complex requires thorough revisionary work and a re-evaluation of available names.

[7] Stomopteryx flavipalpella. A genetically variable species which clusters into three BINs without obvious geographic variation.

[8] Aproaerema. Recently Aaarvik et al. (2017) synonymized the widely accepted and diverse genus Syncopacma with Aproaerema, resulting in numerous nomenclatural changes. We here propose the following new or revised combinations: Aproaerema incognitana (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cinctelloides (Nel & Varenne, 2012) comb. nov., Aproaerema wormiella (Wolff, 1958) comb. nov., Aproaerema azosterella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema montanata (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cincticulella (Bruand, 1851) comb. nov., Aproaerema buvati (Nel, 1995) comb. nov., Aproaerema linella (Chrétien, 1904) comb. nov., Aproaerema captivella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema semicostella (Staudinger, 1871) comb. nov., Aproaerema steppicola (Junnilainen, 2010) comb. nov., Aproaerema cottienella (Nel, 2012) comb. nov., Aproaerema genistae (Walsingham, 1908) comb. rev., Aproaerema thaumalea (Walsingham, 1905) comb. rev. The genus Aproaerema includes several yet unresolved DNA barcode clusters which may partly reflect cryptic diversity and therefore requires revisionary work.

[9] Aproaerema cinctella. This species clusters into two weakly separated DNA barcode clusters with max. distance of 1.86%, probably reflecting intraspecific variation.

[10] Aproaerema linella. A unicolorous, dissected male from Montenegro largely corresponds with the lectotype figured by Nel et al. (1996) in the male genitalia. However, the original description of A. linella as well as bred samples from the type area characterize S. linella as a species with a distinct yellow-orange subterminal fascia or costal and tornal spots and a further yellow spot in the middle of the forewing. A female from northern Italy clustering in a separate BIN matches these phenotypical characters better and also largely agrees in the genitalia. However, in the absence of molecular data from the type-locality, identification of both specimens remains uncertain and we only tentatively assign the name A. linella to the former specimen and leave the latter as an unidentified cluster.

[11] Aproaerema suecicella. Two strongly divergent BINs (4.33% min. distance) show a geographic pattern and need to be tested for potential cryptic diversity.

[12] Aproaerema karvoneni. Three weakly separated BINs (1.61% min. distance) partially show geographic (probably intraspecific) variation.

[13] Aproaerema anthyllidella. The moderate DNA barcode variation with three BINs may reflect cryptic diversity, as e.g., suspected for the current synonym A. natrixella (Schmid pers. comm.) and some of the other five current synonyms, but has to be carefully checked with an integrative taxonomic approach.

[14] Iwaruna. Species in this genus share their BINs and partially overlap in DNA barcodes (I. biguttella and I. klimeschi) but differ in morphology. DNA barcodes of I. heringi, a species requiring taxonomic re-assessment, are unknown.

[15] Anacampsis populella / A. blattariella. A population from western Austria (Vorarlberg) shares its BIN with a unique specimen of A. populella from Finland though matching A. blattariella in morphology. This is most likely a case of a so far unrecognized introgression in these two species, though the weakly deviating DNA barcode may require further studies. All other sequenced specimens of both species group in separate BINs.

[16] Anacampsis scintillella. Two specimens from Spain cluster in a separate BIN.

[17] Anacampsis obscurella. Our limited data indicates geographically separated species with three BINs but requires additional revisionary work.

[18] Mesophleps. The genus was recently revised by Li and Sattler (2012). Two strongly deviating DNA barcode clusters (and BINs) from Spain and Greece probably represent undescribed species.

[19] Nothris. The sequence of species follows the revision by Karsholt and Šumpich (2015).

[20] Nothris gregerseni. A specimen from Sweden clusters into a unique BIN (3.83% min. distance, but probably representing only an intraspecific split.

[21] Nothris radiata. The yet unpublished occurrence in Europe is based on a DNA barcoded specimen from Macedonia (Šumpich in prep.).

[22] Neofaculta ericetella. This species shows high intraspecific DNA barcode variation and clusters into three BINs without geographic variation.

[23] Neofaculta taigana. The occurrence of this Asian species in Europe will be dealt with separately by Aarvik, Berggren, Karsholt and Mutanen.

[24] Hypatima rhomboidella. Genetically variable species clustering into three BINs without geographic variation.

[25] Anarsia. The genus requires revisionary work and probably includes two undescribed species from Greece and Cyprus respectively.

[26] Anarsia bilbainella. A unique sequence from the type-area in Spain clusters into a separate BIN (1.26% min. distance).

[27] Dichomeris. As currently understood, Dichomeris is the largest genus within the Gelechiidae. Ponomarenko (2009) lists 582 species (+ some species placed in Acanthophila and Uliaria). Due to the high external diversity, many genera were erected, especially for tropical species. Ponomarenko (2009) and Vives Moreno (2014) listed more than 80 synonyms of Dichomeris. Here we only consider genera relevant for the European fauna. The genus includes one probably undescribed species from Spain.

[28] Dichomeris limbipunctellus / D. neatodes. These two taxa, which have been regarded as conspecific, differ in phenotypy, show a different distribution pattern in the eastern (D. neatodes) and western Mediterranean (D. limbipunctellus), and cluster into two BINs. We accordingly list them as separate species and reinstate D. neatodes sp. rev. as a valid species.

[29] Dichomeris juniperella. The species splits into two strongly divergent BINs (5.26% min. distance), one widespread, and the other restricted to the southern Alps, reflecting possible cryptic diversity.

[30] Dichomeris rasilella. A single DNA barcode from Russia is highly divergent from other samples and clusters into a separate BIN (6.26% min. distance).

[31] Acompsia. The sequence of species follows the revision by Huemer and Karsholt (2002).

[32] Acompsia pyrenaeella. The species clusters into three BINs, one shared with phenotypically compared specimens of A. tripunctella and A. antirrhinella, indicating occasional introgression.

[33] Acompsia antirrhinella. Despite diagnostic morphological characters, this species shares the only known BIN with two genetically variable species, A. pyrenaella and A. tripunctella. See also comments under these species.

[34] Acompsia maculosella. Sequences of specimens from the southern Alps group into a separate BIN and are also separated by reduced forewing markings, but agree in genitalia morphology and are therefore tentatively considered as A. maculosella. [

[35] Acompsia tripunctella. A genetically highly variable species, which clusters into seven BINs, possibly reflecting cryptic diversity requiring revisionary work. One BIN is shared with A. pyrenaeella and A. antirrhinella. See also comments under these species.

[36] Brachmia. A species from Greece (Crete) is probably undescribed (Berggren in prep.).

[37] Brachmia dimidiella. A genetically variable species clustering into three different BINs.

[38] Helcystogramma lamprostoma. Male and female genitalia match Helcystogramma Zeller, 1877 and the species was placed in this genus in recent papers (Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016, Bidzilya et al. 2019, Karsholt and Huemer 2017). The DNA barcode indicates the species as sister-group of the other European Helcystogramma.

[39] Pseudosophronia. The identity of the three currently listed European species is somewhat doubtful and requires further analysis. Corley (2001) gives a clear indication that alleged diagnostic characters for P. constanti described by Nel (1998) in fact fall within the intraspecific variation of S. exustellus. Furthermore, a successfully sequenced specimen from the type-area of P. constanti fully agrees with P. exustellus from France and Spain. We therefore formally synonymize P. constanti with P. exustellus (syn. nov.).

[40] Pexicopia malvella. The species splits into two BINs (4.33% min. distance) without geographic distinction and requires further analysis. The geographic variation in the forewing colour and pattern between specimens from Central Europe and South Europe is not reflected in the DNA barcode.

[41] Apatetrini. Genera and species of this tribe are in need of revision. Several of the included taxa do not cluster together in a barcode-based NJ tree and Apatetrini sensu auct. is likely not a monophyum.

[42] Dactylotula kinkerella. The species splits into two divergent clusters representing two BINs (4.49% min. distance).

[43] Apatetris. The two species listed here, A. agenjoi and A. mediterranella, are based on morphology not strictly congeneric with the type of the genus (A. mirabella Staudinger, 1879 from Turkey) and probably also not with each other, but are left here pending forthcoming revisionary work. Similarly, two yet unidentified species which are probably undescribed are not closely related and only tentatively assigned to Apatetris.

[44] Apatetris mediterranella. The species clusters into two geographically separate BINs (3.05% min. distance) and requires further revision.

[45] Catatinagma trivittellum. The species splits into two geographically separate and strongly divergent clusters, representing two BINs (5.11% min. distance). These should be tested for potential cryptic diversity with further sampling and a comprehensive morphological analysis.

[46] Catatinagma kraterella. The species does not cluster close to the type of the genus (C. trivittellum), instead appears closer to Apatetris mediterranella. It is, however, left in Catatinagma pending discovery of the unknown female and forthcoming revisionary work.

[47] Chrysoesthia. This genus lacks generic revision. Three yet unassigned, but sequenced species, may partly belong to the insufficiently revised taxa of the European fauna.

[48] Chrysoesthia drurella. This species splits into two strongly divergent BINs (3.69% min. distance) which partly overlap geographically and require careful re-assessment.

[49] Chrysoesthia atriplicella / C. gaditella / C. aletris. Morphological revisionary work and additional DNA barcoding efforts are required to determine if these three names represent one or more species. C. halymella (Amsel, 1935) also belongs to this complex (Bidzilya et al. 2019).

[50] Metanarsia modesta. The species splits into two BINs, one only known from extra-European Armenia.

[51] Oecocecis guyonella. We were able to dissect both sexes from specimens provided by Christian Gibeaux. The female genitalia are rather similar to Metanarsia, but the male genitalia are strongly different. Therefore, and in the absence of molecular data, the systematic position is tentative and requires further revisionary work.

[52] For a discussion of the validity of Palumbininae, see Ponomarenko (2005, 2008b) and Karsholt et al. (2013).

[53] Bryotropha. The sequence of species follows the revision by Karsholt and Rutten (2005). We did not obtain DNA barcodes from the taxa listed in that publication as ‘Bryotropha species A’ and ‘Bryotropha species B’.

[54] Bryotropha terrella. Two deviating DNA barcodes from Austria group into a separate BIN (2.94% min. distance) and the corresponding specimens require careful re-evaluation.

[55] Bryotropha desertella. A genetically variable species clustering into three BINs without geographical structure.

[56] Bryotropha hulli. The species clusters into two BINs without geographical separation.

[57] Bryotropha affinis. This species shares its BIN with one BIN of B. umbrosella.

[58] Bryotropha umbrosella. The species clusters into two BINs, one shared with B. affinis, which differs in phenotype and genitalia morphology (Karsholt and Rutten 2005).

[59] Epidola. Unrevised genus. The identity of Epidola grisea, described from a single male without an abdomen and collected in Sardinia (Amsel 1942) remains obscure and needs further revisionary work. We therefore do not include it in the current checklist of European Gelechiidae.

[60] Epidola semitica. This species was described from a single male from Israel, but according to recently collected material it also occurs in Greece (new record for Europe, for detailed data see dataset in BOLD).

[61] Aristotelia. This genus is in strong need of a generic revision and includes several probably undescribed species.

[62] Aristotelia decurtella. This species genetically clusters into two BINs (2.25% min. distance) which are in need of morphological revision.

[63] Aristotelia ericinella. Specimens from Sardinia cluster separately into a different BIN (2.73% min. distance) and are considered as a separate species.

[64] Aristotelia subdecurtella. Two barcode clusters, grouping into different BINs that overlap in distribution.

[65] Aristotelia subericinella. The species identity is based on barcoded material from the type area (eastern Austria). Several additional clusters formerly identified as A. subericinella probably include cryptic diversity and are in strong need of taxonomic revision. These clusters are considered as unidentified taxa in our analysis.

[66] Aristotelia billii. DNA barcodes of this species are based upon the successfully sequenced holotype and prove a wide distribution from the Mediterranean to Kirgizia.

[67] Caulastrocecis. The genus is in need of revision.

[68] Caulastrocecis furfurella / C. cryptoxena. The former was considered as a senior synonym of C. cryptoxena but both are clearly divergent in DNA barcodes and represent different species (Bidzilya and Karsholt in prep.). We therefore reinstate C. cryptoxena sp. rev. as a valid species.

[69] Paranarsia. The systematic position of this genus is not fully resolved. The genitalia somewhat resemble those of Caulastrocesis but DNA barcodes are distant. Here we follow Elsner et al. (1999) in placing these two genera next to each other.

[70] Megacraspedus. This genus was recently revised with 27 newly described species from Europe (Huemer and Karsholt 2018). The authors recognized extraordinary intraspecific DNA barcode variation within several species, some of which might include additional cryptic diversity.

[71] Megacraspedus lanceolellus. Genetically extremely variable species, which clusters into 19 BINs of mainly geographic variation, with an intraspecific DNA barcode variation of 12.5% (Huemer and Karsholt 2018).

[72] Megacraspedus dolosellus. Genetically extremely variable species, which clusters into 23 BINs of mainly geographic variation, with an intraspecific DNA barcode variation of 13.8% (Huemer and Karsholt 2018).

[73] Megacraspedus spinophallus. Two barcode clusters, representing separate BINs with records from nearby localities.

[74] Megacraspedus binotella. Genetically variable species, which clusters into three BINs without clear geographic separation.

[75] Megacraspedus brachypteris. Genetically variable species, which clusters into four BINs without clear geographic separation.

[76] Megacraspedus andreneli. Two barcode clusters, representing separate BINs with records from nearby localities.

[77] Megacraspedus imparellus. Genetically variable species, which clusters into three BINs with probable geographic separation.

[78] Megacraspedus teriolensis. Genetically variable species, which clusters into two geographically distinct BINs.

[79] Dirhinosia. Species in this genus partly share DNA barcodes (D. cervinella and D. interposita) but differ in morphology (Bidzilya and Budashkin 2015).

[80] Psamathocrita. The genus is in need of revision. A probably undescribed species has been studied by Tokár and Junnilainen (in litt.) and Barton (in litt.).

[81] Ivanauskiella. This small genus seems to be more diverse than hitherto recognized, reflected an unidentified species from Russia and Spain. Some of the species are found in association with Limonium which is a likely host plant of the larvae (OK unpublished). Spatuncusella Nel & Varenne, 2013 was recently synonymized with Ivanauskiella (Nel and Varenne 2017a).

[82] Ivanauskiella occitanica. This species was synonymized with I. psamathias by Nel and Varenne (2017a). However, it clearly differs in DNA barcodes and furthermore the forewing pattern and male genitalia figures in the original description show diagnostic characters which support a separate species. We therefore reinstate I. occitanica sp. rev. as a valid species.

[83] Ptocheuusa. The genus is in strong need of revision. Barcoding efforts for several validly described species failed to produce any sequences.

[84] Ptocheuusa paupella. The species clusters into three separate BINs without geographic separation.

[85] Ptocheuusa inopella. Two barcode clusters from Spain and Sweden represent three separate BINs and need to be re-examined.

[86] Ptocheuusa cinerella. We transfer Recurvaria cinerella Chrétien from Gelechiinae: Litini to Anomologinae as Ptocheuusa cinerella (Chrétien, 1908) comb. nov. The male genitalia are similar overall to other species of Ptocheuusa and seem sufficient for this new combination despite the lack of molecular data.

[87] Amblypalpis. The systematic position of this genus needs re-evaluation. It was recently published as new to Europe (Vives Moreno 2019).

[88] Parapodia. Material from the western and eastern Mediterranean cluster into two strongly divergent BINs (5.43% min. distance). Although an initial morphological examination of females reveals no obvious diagnostic characters, these clusters should be tested for potential cryptic diversity by examining additional material and a widened morphological approach.

[89] Isophrictis. Unrevised genus, which includes cases of unresolved and apparently intraspecific DNA barcode divergence and probably some undescribed species, misidentified records or unrecognized synonymies for the European fauna. So far only six out of the twelve species in the checklist have been successfully barcoded.

[90] Isophrictis kefersteiniellus. Genetically highly variable species, which clusters into four BINs. A thorough evaluation of this problem is necessary.

[91] Isophrictis anthemidella. Genetically variable species, which clusters into three BINs. A thorough evaluation of this problem is necessary.

[92] Metzneria. The classic generic revision by Englert (1974) is out of date and several probably undescribed species or cases of distinct (though unresolved) splits in DNA barcodes urgently require a new revisionary work.

[93] Metzneria neuropterella. The species clusters into two BINs (2.89% min. distance) without geographic separation.

[94] Metzneria aestivella. The DNA barcode of a paratype of Metzneria expositoi Vives, 2001 from Spain fully agrees with that of M. aestivella. Also, the genitalia morphology of the two taxa is virtually identical, and we therefore consider M. expositoi to be a synonym of M. aestivella (syn. nov.).

[95] Metzneria fulva / Metzneria torosulella. Despite distinct diagnostic characters in phenotypic appearance and in the male genitalia, both species share barcodes.

[96] Metzneria ehikeella. The species clusters into two BINs (2.91% min. distance) without geographic separation.

[97] Metzneria metzneriella. This genetically variable species splits into four partly sympatric DNA barcode clusters, representing four BINs. A careful morphological examination of the problem is advisable.

[98] Metzneria artificella. Two weakly separated barcode clusters, representing geographically distinct BINs (1.46% min. distance), need to be re-examined.

[99] Metzneria aprilella. The species splits into three geographically separated DNA barcode clusters, representing three BINs. This possible case of cryptic diversity requires careful morphological re-examination.

[100] Metzneria subflavella. Two DNA barcodes referring to specimens from Spain and France respectively are strongly divergent and are considered separate species. These results are supported by genitalia morphology, with the Spanish specimen likely representing an undescribed species.

[101] Metzneria campicolella. Metzneria varennei Nel, 1997 was recently shown to be a synonym of M. campicolella (Nel and Varenne 2017b). The generic placement of this species is tentative.

[102] Apodia martinii. DNA barcodes of this species and A. bifractella with separate BINs (6.58% min. distance) fully support the species status for this long-disputed taxon. We therefore reinstate A. martinii sp. rev. as a valid species. Differences from A. bifractella in morphology, biology and distribution still need to be studied in detail.

[103] Pragmatodes. This genus, which has until now been placed in Gelechiini, has always been considered monotypic and endemic to the Canary Islands. However, a group of closely related species placed under Monochroa, i.e., Pragmatodes melagonella (Constant, 1895) comb. nov., Pragmatodes albagonella (Varenne & Nel, 2010) comb. nov., Pragmatodes cyrneogonlla (Nel & Varenne, 2012) comb. nov. and Pragmatodes parvulata (Gozmány, 1953) comb. nov., have similar genitalia which do not fit well with Monochroa, and their DNA barcodes cluster separately from that genus. Moreover, the known larvae of the above-mentioned species, as well as the type species of the genus (P. fruticosella) all feed on plants in the family Rubiaceae, an unusual feeding substrate for Gelechiidae. The genus includes additional, probably undescribed, species from South-East Europe and the Middle East.

[104] Pragmatodes melagonella. Specimens initially identified as this species from France and Bulgaria differ in the DNA barcode and also morphology and are considered as separate species. The type locality of P. melagonella is in France.

[105] Monochroa. This genus is in strong need of a generic revision and includes several probably undescribed species.

[106] Monochroa rumicetella. Two weakly separated BINs (2.12% min. distance) without geographic separation most probably reflect intraspecific variation.

[107] Monochroa sepicolella / M. rectifasciella. Elsner et al. (1999) had previously discussed a two-species hypothesis which is now fully supported by two strongly divergent DNA barcode clusters representing two BINs (6.7% min. distance). M. sepicolella occurs in North and Central Europe, whereas the name Monochroa rectifasciella (Fuchs, 1902) is currently used for the species with a more southern distribution (e.g., Pastorális et al. 2013). However, this problem is in need of a thorough revisionary work taking into account all available names for both species.

[108] Monochroa tenebrella. Two weakly separated BINs (1.12% min. distance) without geographic separation most probably reflect intraspecific variation.

[109] Monochroa servella. Two BINs (2.89% min. distance) without geographic separation most probably reflect intraspecific variation.

[110] Monochroa lucidella. Despite a low intraspecific divergence, this species may include cryptic diversity as indicated by the morphologically and genetically (only short sequences available) weakly deviating subspecies immaculatella from Northern Italy.

[111] Monochroa arundinetella / M. suffusella. These two morphologically separate species represent one of the few cases of barcode sharing among European Gelechiidae. The author and year of description of M. arundinetella follow Sattler (2009).

[112] Monochroa nomadella. This genetically highly variable species clusters in four different and geographically separate BINs and is in strong need of revisionary work. Junnilainen et al. (2010) recognized differences in the female genitalia between specimens collected in the Ural Mountains, Central Europe, and those figured by Elsner et al. (1999). They speculated that either material from Czechia was misidentified or that it could point to cryptic diversity. Unlike the few known females from Central Europe, specimens from South Russia are slightly brachypterous which might be a further indication of a potential species complex.

[113] Oxypteryx. Eulamprotes Bradley, 1971 with the type species E. atrella is shown to be a synonym of Oxypteryx Rebel, 1911 (Bidzilya et al. 2019), resulting in a number of new nomenclatural changes. We here propose the following new combinations: Oxypteryx nigromaculella (Millière, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx wilkella (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. nov., Oxypteryx ochricapilla (Rebel, 1903) comb. nov., Oxypteryx superbella (Zeller, 1839) comb. nov., Oxypteryx mirusella Huemer & Karsholt, 2013 comb. nov., Oxypteryx occidentella Huemer & Karsholt, 2011 comb. nov., Oxypteryx libertinella (Zeller, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx baldizzonei Karsholt & Huemer, 2013 comb. nov., Oxypteryx gemerensis Elsner, 2013 comb. nov., Oxypteryx deserta (Piskunov, 1990) comb. nov., Oxypteryx unicolorella (Duponchel, 1843) comb. nov., Oxypteryx nigritella (Zeller, 1847) comb. nov., Oxypteryx plumbella (Heinemann, 1870) comb. nov., Oxypteryx isostacta (Meyrick, 1926) comb. nov., Oxypteryx helotella (Staudinger, 1859) comb. nov., Oxypteryx parahelotella Nel, 1995 comb. nov., Oxypteryx graecatella Šumpich & Skyva, 2012 comb. nov. Despite this new taxonomic approach, the genus is in strong need of revision. DNA barcodes separate into three clades seemingly supported by some morphological characters. For example, species formerly considered to be in the E. wilkella-group and characterized by the blackish ground colour of the forewings with silvery or whitish markings, form a separate clade. Further, the genus has an extraordinary intraspecific barcode variation with 18 sequenced species belonging to 27 BINs, with at least three yet unidentified species.

[114] Oxypteryx nigromaculella. A specimen from Greece clusters into a separate BIN and may represent a different species.

[115] Oxypteryx wilkella. Two specimens from Italy and Hungary respectively are strongly divergent from the large bulk of E. wilkella DNA barcodes and cluster into a separate BIN. The taxonomic status of this cluster requires careful evaluation.

[116] Oxypteryx baldizzonei. Two strongly divergent DNA barcode clusters, representing three BINs, have been considered as intraspecific variation by Huemer et al. (2013).

[117] Oxypteryx libertinella. The geographic variation of DNA barcode clusters in this genetically highly variable species with eight BINs has been discussed by Huemer et al. (2013). Currently this variation is considered as an intraspecific divergence.

[118] Athrips. The sequence of species follows the generic revision by Bidzilya (2005).

[119] Athrips rancidella. A specimen from Greece clusters separately into a second BIN (2.86% min. distance) and is in need of taxonomic re-evaluation.

[120] Athrips amoenella. A genetically highly variable species, which clusters into five BINs.

[121] Neofriseria peliella. Two weakly separated BINs (1.44% min. distance) without clear geographical separation most probably reflect intraspecific variation.

[122] Neofriseria hitadoella. A strongly divergent BIN from France with 3.85% min. distance to N. hitadoella from Morocco is considered as a probable cryptic species, but the problem needs to be carefully revised.

[123] Neofriseria kuznetzovae. This species was listed by Piskunov (1987) and partially by Huemer and Karsholt (1999) under the name of N. caucasicella Sattler, 1960. The latter occurs only in the Caucasus and has not been found elsewhere in Europe.

[124] Sophronia. Unrevised genus with some doubtful taxa lacking DNA barcodes.

[125] Sophronia semicostella. Two DNA barcode clusters, grouped into two BINs, show no clear geographic separation.

[126] Sophronia consanguinella. S. marginella was recently shown to be a junior synonym of this species (Šumpich et al. 2019).

[127] Sophronia grandii. The DNA barcode of a paratype of Sophronia ascalis Gozmány, 1951 fully agrees with that of S. grandii. The two taxa are virtually identical, and we therefore consider S. ascalis to be a synonym of S. grandii (syn. nov.).

[128] Sophronia chilonella. A single DNA barcode from Bulgaria of a specimen similar to S. chilonella strongly deviates and may represent the taxonomically disputed and unrevised S. acaudella.

[129] Sophronia sicariellus. A single DNA barcode sequence of 504bp from Germany strongly deviates, although it may represent intraspecific variation.

[130] Mirificarma. Several species show a high genetic variation which could indicate cryptic diversity. Therefore, despite available taxonomic revisions by Pitkin (1984) and Huemer and Karsholt (1999), a re-evaluation of morphology seems advisable in some species.

[131] Mirificarma lentiginosella. Two DNA barcode clusters, which separate into two BINs (1.7% min. distance) without geographic separation.

[132] Mirificarma cytisella. A genetically variable species, separated into four BINs without geographic separation.

[133] Mirificarma monticolella. Two DNA barcode clusters from Italy and Bulgaria are highly divergent and separate into two BINs (4.49% min. distance).

[134] Mirificarma burdonella. Two DNA barcodes from France show a deep split into two BINs (5.78% min. distance) and require taxonomic re-evaluation.

[135] Mirificarma ulicinella. Two DNA barcode clusters from France and Portugal are highly divergent and separate into two BINs (3.37% min. distance).

[136] Aroga velocella. The species splits into three BINs, which show no clear geographic separation. The attribution of authorship follows Joannis (1922).

[137] Aroga flavicomella. A genetically variable species, which splits into four BINs.

[138] Chionodes. The sequence of species follows the revision by Huemer and Sattler (1995).

[139] Chionodes luctuella. DNA barcodes from central and northern Europe cluster into separate BINs (1.87% min. distance) which are currently not confirmed by morphology.

[140] Chionodes fumatella. DNA barcodes from central and northern Europe cluster into three geographically partially separated BINs and need taxonomic re-assessment.

[141] Gelechia. This genus includes at least one additional and probably undescribed species.

[142] Gelechia senticetella. DNA barcodes cluster into two geographically separate BINs with min. distances > 2% to the Nearest Neighbour, and need taxonomic re-assessment.

[143] Gelechia obscuripennis. This disputed taxon has recently been re-considered to be a separate species based on molecular data, morphology and biology (Huemer 2019).

[144] Agnippe. The genus (as Evippe Chambers, 1873) has traditionally been placed in the Litini. DNA barcodes of two species are not supportive of the systematic position of the genus in that tribe. We therefore follow Bidzilya and Li (2010) and Metz et al. (2019) in placing Agnippe as an isolated genus within the Gelechiini.

[145] Holcophora. The genera Holocophora and Aponoaea have been synonymized recently by Adamski and Sattler (2019), based on some similarities of the type-species. However, the systematic position within the Gelechiidae remains uncertain for the time being.

[146] Holcophora inderskella. The species was included in Holcophora by Adamski and Sattler (2019). It was described from Lake Indersky in Western Kazakhstan and is here attached to the European fauna despite a distance of ca. 10 km from the type-locality to the widely accepted natural border of the Continent, the Ural River.

[147] Gnorimoschema herbichii. Northern European populations of this species cluster into two BINs.

[148] Scrobipalpa. This extraordinary diverse genus still requires some taxonomic re-assessment, reflected by several yet unidentified barcode clusters which at least partly belong to undescribed species.

[149] Scrobipalpa aptatella. Records from Europe (France, Italy, former Yugoslavia) are unconfirmed (Huemer and Karsholt 2010).

[150] Scrobipalpa amseli / S. hyssopi. Both species clusters into the same BIN but differ in morphology of the male genitalia (Huemer and Karsholt 2010). Additional material should be checked to confirm if the holotype of S. hyssopi represents a specimen of S. amseli with deformed genitalia.

[151] Scrobipalpa reiprichi. Two geographically separate barcodes BINs (2.57% min distance) may reflect cryptic diversity, with altogether four potential species from preliminary morphological analysis (Wiesmair et al. 2018).

[152] Scrobipalpa caucasica. Only known from the Caucasus. S. benzengensis (Povolný, 2001) is a junior synonym (Huemer and Karsholt 2010).

[153] Scrobipalpa pauperella. Some externally different specimens from northern Italy are slightly divergent in their DNA barcodes and may belong to a separate species.

[154] Scrobipalpa mercantourica. This species clusters together with Scrobipalpa arenbergeri but according to the original description differs in morphology. A taxonomic re-assessment seems advisable to fix the status of the taxon.

[155] Scrobipalpa alterna / S. lutea. Both species share barcodes and are virtually indistinguishable in genitalia characters, although the ground colour of the forewings is usually distinct with rare intermediates. A re-assessment of this group is in preparation (Bidzilya in litt.).

[156] Scrobipalpa artemisiella / Scrobipalpa stangei. These two species are clearly separated by their biology and female genitalia morphology, but share one barcode BIN. A second BIN of S. artemisiella based on a single sequence most probably reflects intraspecific variation.

[157] Scrobipalpa bryophiloides. A genetically variable species which clusters into two separate BINs and requires further evaluation.

[158] Scrobipalpa ocellatella. DNA barcodes of this species clusters into two weakly separated BINs (1.44% min distance), most probably reflecting intraspecific variation.

[159] Scrobipalpa salinella / S. salicorniae / S. spergulariella. Although these species show diagnostic morphology (Huemer and Karsholt 2010) and (two) unique DNA barcode haplotypes, they cluster into the same BIN. The third species, viz. S. spergulariella, has not yet been barcoded.

[160] Scrobipalpa halymella / S. stabilis. Both species cluster into the same BIN but differ weakly in morphology (Huemer and Karsholt 2010).

[161] Scrobipalpula. All five successfully sequenced species share BINs, but still show species-specific DNA barcode haplotypes.

[162] Keiferia lycopersicella. An American species introduced to Europe in 2008 which apparently has not established permanent populations (Huemer and Karsholt 2010).

[163] Ephysteris promptella. A genetically highly variable species clustering into four BINs. A taxonomic re-evaluation of this problem is necessary.

[164] Ephysteris diminutella. Two strongly divergent and geographically separate DNA barcode clusters reflected by two BINs (5.94% min. distance) require taxonomic revision.

[165] Ephysteris inustella. The year of description follows Sattler (2011). The different interpretation by Huemer & Karsholt (2019) with inustella originally published in synonymy and only made available in 1847 is contradicted by the Code, Article 11.6.1. “However, if such a name published as a junior synonym had been treated before 1961 as an available name and either adopted as the name of a taxon or treated as a senior homonym, it is made available thereby but dates from its first publication as a synonym.”

[166] Ochrodia. An unidentified species from Greece (Crete) clusters with specimens from Saudia Arabia. The genus is in need of revision.

[167] Lutilabria lutilabrella. DNA barcodes from Slovenia and Slovakia cluster into separate BINs (3.41% min. distance) and need revisionary work.

[168] Klimeschiopsis kiningerella. Specimens from northern Italy cluster into a BIN separate from all other samples from various parts of Europe.

[169] Caryocolum. Despite extensive past revisionary work on this genus, it still includes a remarkable amount of unresolved taxonomic problems with several potential cryptic species.

[170] Caryocolum tischeriella. DNA barcodes cluster into three BINs without geographic separation.

[171] Caryocolum alsinella. A genetically highly variable species with strongly divergent DNA barcode clusters separated into three BINs. A thorough taxonomic re-assessment seems necessary.

[172] Caryocolum vicinella. DNA barcodes cluster into four BINs. A thorough taxonomic re-assessment seems necessary.

[173] Carayocolum amaurella. This genetically highly variable species clusters into five BINs, but alleged cryptic diversity is not supported by morphology (Huemer et al. 2014).

[174] Caryocolum saginella. DNA barcode sequences with two BINs (5.46% min. distance). clearly support the existence of a separate species in the SW-Alps (Huemer in prep.).

[175] Caryocolum cauligenella. A single specimen from Spain strongly deviates in DNA barcode with a separate BIN and C. saginella instead of C. cauligenella as Nearest Neighbor (5.46% min. distance). However, the specimen clearly matches the latter in phenotypy and needs taxonomic re-assessment.

[176] Caryocolum peregrinella. This species splits into three highly divergent allopatric clusters which most probably represent different species (Huemer in prep.). One of the major problems in resolving the taxonomic mismatches is the status of the holotype of C. peregrinella, a female without an abdomen and unknown type-locality, stated as Europe (Huemer 1988).

[177] Caryocolum leucomelanella. Two DNA barcode clusters with separate BINs (2.73% min. distance) show no geographic pattern.

[178] Caryocolum schleichi / C. arenariella. Initially described as different species, the largely allopatric taxa of this group have been merged into a single species by Huemer (1988). However, all these taxa are separated phenotypically and by characters in the male genitalia. As a consequence, Aarvik et al. (2017) give species status to the northern European population and re-introduced it as C. arenariella. Following an initial genetic analysis of the group (Huemer et al. 2014) this taxonomic change seems well supported, however, C. schleichi as currently understood includes several separate species. The problem is presently under revision (Huemer in prep.).

[179] Caryocolum marmorea spp. mediocorsa agrees in DNA barcode with the nominotypical subspecies.

[180] Caryocolum pullatella. This species shows an extraordinary genetic variation across its holarctic range (Mutanen et al. 2012) and is in strong need of taxonomic re-assessment. In Europe two geographically separated DNA barcode clusters with separate BINs are present.

[181] Caryocolum klosi. A single DNA barcode from the French Pyrenees is highly divergent with a separate BIN (4.17% min. distance) and may represent a different species.

[182] Caryocolum blandella. Lita signatella was described from an unstated number of specimens from Kazan in Russia (“provincia Casanensi”) (Eversmann 1844). The short description is insufficient for identifying the species. The type series in the Zoological Institute in St. Petersburg is apparently mixed. During earlier visits Klaus Sattler (in litt.) and OK examined alleged syntypes of L. signatella incorporated under that name and which proved conspecific with Carpatolechia proximella (Hübner), and thus L. signatella was formally synonymized with that species in the Russian checklist (Ponomarenko 2008). However, only a single specimen of L. signatella was mentioned in an earlier work on the collection of Eversmann (Bremer 1870) and this specimen was recently designated as the lectotype (Sinev et al. 2017). It is conspecific with Caryocolum blandella (Douglas) which thereby became a junior synonym of L. signatella.

Whereas the name Caryocolum blandella has been universally in use for a widespread European species since Kloet and Hincks (1972), Lita signatella has to our knowledge not been used as a valid name since 1899, and it is not listed in the main catalogues of the Gelechiidae (Rebel 1901, Meyrick 1925, Gaede 1937). According to Articles 23.9.1 and 23.9.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999), we therefore declare the name Caryocolum blandella Douglas, 1852 to be a nomen protectum, and the name Lita signatella Eversmann, 1844, which has not been used as a valid name after 1899, to be a nomen oblitum. Supplementary material 1 lists 35 references by more than ten different authors that have used C. blandella (or its alternative spelling C. blandellum) in the last 50 years (ICZN article 23.9.1.2). The name is moreover used in several other published works and on numerous internet sites.

[183] Caryocolum horoscopa. Initially described as a species, this taxon was recently considered to be a subspecies of Caryocolum blandella (Huemer and Karsholt 2010). However, in addition to diagnostic morphology, DNA barcodes also clearly support a separate species status for this taxon, and we therefore reinstate C. horoscopa stat. rev.

[184] Caryocolum fibigerium. Huemer et al. (2014) had indicated likely taxonomical problems in this group highlighted by three DNA barcode clusters on the Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas. These genetic splits are also supported by morphological traits and probably reflect three different species (Huemer in prep.).

[185] Caryocolum junctella. Two barcode clusters with separate BINs show no clear geographic separation.

[186] Agonochaetia terrestrella. Specimens from Switzerland and Romania cluster into a separate BIN, but are considered as conspecific (Huemer and Karsholt 2010).

[187] Sattleria. The sequence of species follows Huemer and Timossi (2014).

[188] Sattleria melaleucella. The species shares BINs with one cluster of the morphologically different S. pyrenaica, indicating occasional introgression.

[189] Sattleria pyrenaica. A genetically variable species with five different BINs, one shared with Sattleria melaleucella. The species requires taxonomic re-assessment.

[190] Litini. Ponomarenko (2005, 2008) showed that Teleiodini is a junior synonym of Litini, described as Litidae by Bruand d’Uzelle (1859).

[191] Schneidereria pistaciella Weber, 1957. The systematic placement of this genus and species follows Huemer and Karsholt (2001).

[192] Teleiodes vulgella / T. italica / T. brevivalva. These three species differ strongly in the male genitalia but share DNA barcodes.

[193] Teleiodes saltuum / T. kaitilai. Both species are closely related, mainly differing in the structures of the female genitalia. In DNA barcodes T. saltuum clusters into two BINs and T. kaitilai in a separate BIN.

[194] Teleiodes luculella. A genetically variable species, which clusters into three BINs. A thorough evaluation of this problem is necessary.

[195] Teleiodes flavimaculella. A genetically highly variable species, which clusters into three BINs. A re-evaluation of this problem is necessary.

[196] Pseudotelphusa tessella. Two weakly separated BINs (1.61% min. distance) without clear geographic separation are considered as intraspecific variation.

[197] Teleiopsis diffinis / T. bagriotella / T. albifemorella / T. paulheberti / T. rosalbella. These closely related species differ in morphology whereas barcodes give a more complex pattern. Genetic differences are generally weak with partial BIN sharing (i.e., T. rosalbella / T. albifemorella) and/or likely introgression in some taxa, while high intraspecific variation - with two BINs in three species - indicates possible further cryptic diversity.

[198] Xenolechia. Species in this genus share DNA barcodes but differ in morphology (Huemer and Karsholt 1999).

[199] Altenia scriptella. Two BINs without clear geographic separation are considered as intraspecific variation.

[200] Exoteleia dodecella. The taxonomy of dark specimens in this group, mainly observed in Central Europe, is disputed, though usually these are considered as infrasubspecific variation (Huemer and Karsholt 1999). We were able to sequence large series of specimens across Europe and discovered that DNA barcodes of normal and dark specimens are usually separated by a low but constant barcode gap of about 1%. These results, in combination with differences in adult morphology, clearly indicate presence of two separate species. Revisionary work is currently under preparation (Huemer et al. in prep.).

[201] Parachronistis albiceps. Genetically variable species, which clusters into four BINs without clear geographic separation.

[202] “Telphusa”. The placement of cistiflorella Constant, 1890 in the genus Telphusa follows Sattler (1985), who pointed out that this placement should be regarded as tentative. The DNA barcode of T. cistiflorella clusters among genera placed in the Gelechiini, and the male genitalia are overall similar to those of Mirificarma, although they have no filament.

Acknowledgments

We are most grateful to Oleksiy Bidzilya (Kiev, Ukraine), Klaus Sattler (London, U.K.), and Jan Šumpich (Prague, Czech Republic) for various comments and support with unpublished observations. Jacques Nel (La Ciotat, France) and Thierry Varenne (Nice, France) supported our work with important material, Michel Billard (Saint Alban Leysse, France) with an excellent picture of Sattleria, and Roman Unterasinger helped with construction of the map. Tomas Pape (ZMUC) kindly commented on a relevant case, Vazrick Nazari (Ottawa, Canada) and particularly Mark Metz (Washington, U.S.A.) thoroughly reviewed the manuscript. Robert J. Heckford (Plympton, U.K.) is thanked for his careful language proofreading with valuable comments.

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