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Integrative taxonomy of New World Euplectrus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), with focus on 55 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica
expand article infoChrister Hansson, M. Alex Smith§, Daniel H. Janzen|, Winnie Hallwachs|
‡ The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
§ Department of Integrative Biology and the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada
| University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

90 species of Euplectrus are treated: 55 newly described, all from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), and 35 previously described species, of which 20 occur in ACG. Three of the previously described species (E. brasiliensis Ashmead, E. hircinus (Say), E. ronnai (Brèthes)) have unknown status, owing to missing or severely damaged type material. The new species, all authored by C. Hansson, are: Euplectrus alejandrovalerioi, E. alexsmithi, E. alvarowillei, E. andybennetti, E. andydeansi, E. annettewalkerae, E. billbrowni, E. bobwhartoni, E. carlosarmientoi, E. carlrettenmeyeri, E. charlesmicheneri, E. charlesporteri, E. chrisdarlingi, E. chrisgrinteri, E. corriemoreauae, E. daveroubiki, E. davesmithi, E. davidwahli, E. dianariasae, E. donquickei, E. eowilsoni, E. garygibsoni, E. gavinbroadi, E. gerarddelvarei, E. henrytownesi, E. howelldalyi, E. hugokonsi, E. iangauldi, E. jacklonginoi, E. jesusugaldei, E. jimwhitfieldi, E. jjrodriguezae, E. johnheratyi, E. johnlasallei, E. johnnoyesi, E. josefernandezi, E. lubomirmasneri, E. markshawi, E. mikegatesi, E. mikeschauffi, E. mikesharkeyi, E. ninazitaniae, E. pammitchellae, E. paulhansoni, E. paulheberti, E. paulhurdi, E. philwardi, E. robbinthorpi, E. ronaldzunigai, E. roysnellingi, E. scottshawi, E. sondrawardae, E. sydneycameronae, E. victoriapookae, E. wonyoungchoi. The species are described or redescribed, and thoroughly and uniformly illustrated, and included in two identification keys, one for females and one for males. Lectotypes are designated for eight species: Euplectrus catocalae Howard (♂), E. junctus Gahan (♀), E. leucotrophis Howard (♂), E. marginatus Ashmead (♀), E. pachyscaphus Girault (♀), E. platyhypenae Howard (♂), E. semimarginatus Girault (♀), Heteroscapus ronnai Brèthes (♂). One synonym is established: Euplectrus walteri Schauff is a junior synonym of E. testaceipes (Cameron). Brief image notes and host records are provided on the natural history of the wasps as well as the details of their morphology. Hosts are known for 74 Euplectrus species.

Keywords

Chalcidoidea, Eulophinae, Euplectrini, DNA barcoding, Lepidoptera, gregarious caterpillar ectoparasitoids, tropical biodiversity, Nearctic, Neotropical

Introduction

Larvae of the genus Euplectrus develop as ectoparasitoids on various species of caterpillars that live exposed on their food plants (Schauff and Janzen 2001) (Figs 533). The species are usually gregarious, with five to several hundred larvae per host caterpillar (Schauff and Janzen 2001). In a few species only one egg is laid per host (Gerling and Limon 1976). Some species of Euplectrus females temporarily paralyze the host (Chattergee 1945) while other species do not (Clausen 1940). Prior to oviposition, the female injects a venom that inhibits further ecdyses of the host caterpillar. Regardless of the fate of the parasitoid larvae, this renders the host caterpillar incapable of molting (which would shed the parasitoid larvae), and it eventually dies (Coudron and Puttler 1988, Coudron et al. 1994) but not until after the wasp larvae are full-sized and ready to spin their cocoons. The eggs have a pedicel with an anchor at the terminus and are fastened to the host with the anchor under the cuticle, but above the hypodermis (Gerling and Limon 1976). They are usually placed on the dorsum of the caterpillar. The parasitoid larvae remain at their oviposition site throughout their development (Gerling and Limon 1976), sucking haemolymph out of the caterpillar. When fully grown, the larvae usually migrate to the underside of the dead host caterpillar to spin a loose cocoon prior to pupation (Gerling and Limon 1976). In some species the larvae spin a communal ruff of cocoons around the dying host, in which they pupate (Schauff and Janzen 2001). The ability of Euplectrus to spin a cocoon is unique among the Eulophidae. The silken material in the cocoon is made by modified malpighian tubules and is secreted through the anal opening (Thomsen 1927). The parasitoid larva undergoes 3–5 molts and the time from egg-laying to adult is two weeks or less (Gerling and Limon 1976).

Euplectrus is a cosmopolitan genus with 141 valid species names prior to this study (Noyes 2014), and forms the bulk of the tribe Euplectrini, which currently includes six additional genera in the Americas (Wijesekara and Schauff 1995). Members of Euplectrus are easy to recognize and differentiate from other Eulophinae through a combination of three easy-to-see characters: hind tibial spurs very long and strong (the longest spur is at least half as long as hind tarsus and serves to help anchor the wasp to the back of the caterpillar while ovipositing), scutellum without lateral grooves/pit-rows, and propodeum with a single strong median carina. Euplectrus is a morphologically conservative genus, frequently displaying small interspecific morphological differences. These slight differences among species have been largely overlooked, which, coupled with non-existent or insufficient tools for identification, has resulted in numerous erroneous host and distribution records in the literature. Due to the difficulties associated with the identification of Euplectrus species, only biological information about the type series is included for previously described species.

American species of Euplectrus have never been comprehensively treated, neither in North, nor in Central or South America. Prior to this publication, 35 species were known from the entire American continent. Of these 20 were recorded from Costa Rica, and mostly from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), the geographic focus here. Girault (1916) included all eight species known from North America in a key, and Schauff and Janzen (2001) treated the known Costa Rican species and included them in a key. These are the only keys to Euplectrus species available for the Americas. Euplectrus species have also been included in catalogues covering different parts of the Americas, in the Nearctic by Peck (1951, 1963) and Burks (1979), and in the Neotropics by De Santis (1967, 1979, 1980b) and De Santis and Fidalgo (1994). Due to misidentifications of both wasps and hosts, many distribution records and host records in these catalogues are erroneous, and we do not discuss them.

All patronyms assigned here are offered in deep appreciation from Janzen and Hallwachs for the Hymenoptera portion of the “taxasphere” (Janzen 1993) having collectively offered Hymenoptera knowledge and identification for the ongoing biodiversity inventory and conservation of ACG for more than five decades.

Interim species-level epithets of hosts and Euplectrus species are not italicized, so as to distinguish them from published scientific names.

Methods

The specimens described in this study are entirely reared from ACG in Costa Rica (see http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu for details for any particular specimen, to be found by its voucher code). Host caterpillars, ecological information, and morphological data, along with DNA barcodes (standardised region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene) when available, are used for species determination and are available in the project website: http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu/caterpillars/database.lasso. See Janzen et al. 2009 for a description of the entire ACG inventory process, which captures any and all parastoids in wild-caught caterpillars. The newly eclosed wasps were killed by freezing at the field site where reared, and kept in alcohol until processed for morphological analysis. The latter process included dehydration through an alcohol series followed by air-drying and glue-mounting on paper cards as described by Noyes (1982).

The species descriptions made here were based on morphology, however, when available we also analyzed DNA sequence data from the standard DNA barcode region for animals (the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene, Hebert et al. 2003). DNA barcode sequences for all available ACG inventory Euplectrus specimens were obtained using DNA extracts prepared from single legs using a glass fibre protocol (Ivanova et al. 2006). Following total genomic DNA extraction, DNA was re-suspended in 30 μl of dH2O, and a 658-bp region near the 5’ terminus of the COI gene was amplified using standard primers (LepF1–LepR1) following established protocols (Smith et al. 2006, 2007, 2008). If the initial 658 bp amplification was unsuccessful, smaller, overlapping sequences were generated using internal primers. If each of these smaller amplifications was successful a composite sequence was generated. However in cases where only one read amplified, this shorter sequence was used. All information for the sequences associated with each individual specimen (including GenBank accessions) can be retrieved from the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.boldsystems.org) (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007) using the following public DOI: 10.5883/DS-ASEUPL.

The NJ trees presented (Fig. 35 & Suppl. material 1) are phenetic drawings of similarity (or distance) of barcodes, but they are not phylogenetic hypotheses. While, in some cases, the branching pattern may in fact resemble a proper phylogenetic hypothesis derived using multiple information sources and more evolutionary tree-building algorithms (e.g. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood or Bayesian) it is not on it’s own an evolutionary branching diagram. They are presented here as visual representations of the COI distances, and as such are useful in illustrating the divergence of species from each other (i.e. a visual confirmation that the species hypotheses erected have different DNA barcodes), but the NJ trees should not be used on their own to state sister species relationships. This requires more information and better evolutionary algorithms.

Observations of the adults were made through a stereomicroscope, Nikon© SMZ 1000 with a halogen ring light. The colour photos of adults were taken with a DS-Fi1 camera mounted on the stereomicroscope and the light source for the photos was a dome light made from a description by Kerr et al. (2008). Each picture was made from several photos taken at different levels of focus, and merged using Helicon Focus©. Micrographs are from uncoated specimens analyzed in low vacuum, with a JEOL© JSM 5600 LV scanning microscope. Caterpillar, cocoon and wasp larvae images (Figs 533) were taken of living specimens in the field, originally with Kodachrome II film and a Nikon camera, and with a Canon digital camera after about 1995.

Acronyms

BMNH the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (Natalie Dale-Skey)

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects and Arachnids, Ottawa, Canada (John T. Huber)

INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica (Ronald Zuñiga)

MACN Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Buenos Aires, Argentina (Juan José Martínez)

MIUCR Museo de Insectos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica (Paul Hanson)

MZLU Museum of Biology (Entomology), Lund, Sweden

UCR University of California, Riverside, USA (Douglas A. Yanega)

USNM United States National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA (Michael E. Gates)

Abbreviations (Figs 1–4)

DO = largest diameter of one posterior ocellus; HE = height of eye in frontal view; HH = height of head in frontal view; LC = length of scape; LG = length of the gaster; LP = length of petiole; LT = length of hind tarsus; LT1 = length of first tarsomere on hind leg, LT2 = length of second tarsomere on hind leg, etc.; MM = length of the mesosoma, measured along the median mesosoma, from the pronotal collar carina to posterior margin of the propodeum; MS = malar space; OOL = the distance between eye and posterior ocellus; PM = length of the postmarginal vein; POL = the distance between posterior ocelli; POO = the distance between posterior ocelli and occipital margin; ST = length of the stigmal vein; TS1 = length of longest tibial spur; TS2 = length of shortest tibial spur; WE = width of eye; WF = width of frons, in frontal view the largest distance between eyes; WH = width of the head, measured at widest part; WM = width of mouth opening; WP = width of petiole, measured across widest part; WS = width of scape, measured across widest part; WT = width of the thorax, measured across the widest part which is usually just in front of the attachment point of the fore wing, the “shoulders”; nm = not measurable.

Lower face as defined by Gibson (1997), i.e. the part below an imaginary line from eye to eye touching ventral edge of toruli. Additional terminology is explained and illustrated on http://www.neotropicaleulophidae.com/.

ACG = Area de Conservación Guanacaste, 120.000 ha of conserved dry forest, cloud forest and rain forest, and intergrades, in northwestern Costa Rica, from the Pacific slopes to Caribbean lowlands (0–2000 m elevation (http://www.acguanacaste.ac.cr and Janzen et al. 2009).

The male has pores on the scape (Figs 426, 427), presumably for purposes of communication with females. The part of the scape to which these pores are confined is referred to as the “sensory area” in the descriptive text.

The descriptions are based on the holotype, and if the other sex is present, on one of the paratypes.

Results

Biology

Population biology of ACG Euplectrus will be discussed in the context of total parasitization (e.g. Smith et al. 2006, 2007, 2008, 2012, Fernandez-Triana et al. 2014) of the ACG caterpillar fauna in later publications. In general terms, in those cases where we have achieved large samples of a particular species of caterpillar, the percent parasitized by a species of Euplectrus ranges from well less than 1% to as high as 10%. Equally striking is that all species of Euplectrus reared to date are either (usually) host-specific to a particular species of caterpillar or (occasionally) to a particular life-form of caterpillar within a genus or family (Table 1, Fig. 34), and those usually feeding on a narrow range of food plants. It is noteworthy that no ACG Euplectrus has been reared from a butterfly caterpillar (Hesperiidae plus all higher butterflies), Arctiinae (now in Erebidae, the Arctiidae of old), Saturniidae, or hairy caterpillars (irrespective of the family), with one exception (Euplectrus josefernandezi parasitizing Euglyphis jessiehillae, which does not spin a silk cocoon, but rather, pupates naked below the cadaver of its host that is appressed to the leaf (Figs 32–33).

Hosts with their Euplectrus parasitoids.

Host Euplectrus species
Arctiidae
Arctiidae indet.?doubtful record E. leucotrophis
Erebidae
Alabama argillacea E. comstockii
Antapistis Poole10 E. ninazitaniae
Antiblemma amarga E. mikegatesi
Antiblemma ceras E. carlrettenmeyeri
Antiblemma Poole03 E. ronaldzunigai
Antiblemma Poole21DHJ02 E. dianariasae
Antiblemma Poole22 E. gavinbroadi
Anticarsia gemmatalis E. puttleri
Catocala sp. E. catocalae
Ceromacra Poole02 E. davesmithi
Eulepidotis caeruleilinea E. chrisgrinteri
Gonodonta holosericea E. johnnoyesi
Gonodonta sicheas E. johnnoyesi
Gonodonta sinaldus E. johnnoyesi
Hypena Poole36 E. davidwahli
Letis mycerina E. chrisdarlingi, E. roysnellingi
Oraesia serpens E. johnnoyesi
Oxidercia thaumantis E. garygibsoni
Plusiodonta clavifera E. sydneycameronae
Rejectaria splendida E. paulhansoni
Rejectaria Janzen06 E. paulhansoni
Sanys irrosea E. sondrawardae
Trauaxa lua E. scottshawi
Tyrissa Poole01 E. annettewalkerae
Euteliidae
Paectes lunodes E. josei
Paectes nana E. josei
Geometridae
Cyclophora Janzen14 E. victoriapookae
Iridopsis herse E. alejandrovalerioi
Isochromodes sheilaDHJ05 E. hansoni
Oxydia apidania E. carlosarmientoi
Oxydia sociataDHJ02 E. orias
Prochoerodes marciana E. charlesmicheneri
Sicya medangula E. charlesmicheneri
Sphacelodes vulneraria E. anae
Thysanopyga cermala E. henrytownesi
Lasiocampidae
Euglyphis jessiehillae E. josefernandezi
Noctuidae
Argyrosticta aurifundensDHJ02 E. eowilsoni
Argyrosticta bellinita E. eowilsoni
Argyrosticta scionePoole01 E. eowilsoni
Argyrosticta vauaurea E. eowilsoni
Bagisara pacifica E. pammitchellae
Bagisara tristicta E. bobwhartoni
Baniana signiplena E. philwardi
Callopistria floridensis E. alvarowillei
Cecharismena zoum E. lubomirmasneri
Concana hoshea E. mariae
Concana Poole01 E. mariae
Concana Poole02 E. mariae
Cropia cedica E. ivonae
Cropia connecta E. ivonae
Cropia hadenoides E. ivonae
Cropia rivulosa E. johnheratyi
Ctenoplusia oxygramma E. jimwhitfieldi
Diastema tigris E. charlesporteri
Dyops chromatophilaDHJ01 E. billbrowni
Elaphria Poole08 E. wonyoungchoi
Euscirrhopterus poeyi E. ivonae
Eustrotia Poole04 E. andydeansi
Eustrotia Poole14 E. alexsmithi
Hemicephalis alesaDHJ01 E. donquickei, E. howelldalyi
Lophomyra Poole02 E. eowilsoni
Mursa maricaDHJ01 E. jacklonginoi
noctuid 11-SRNP-33495 E. corriemoreauae
Noctuidae indet. E. frontalis
Ozarba geta E. jjrodriguezae
Perigea berindaDHJ02 E. mikesharkeyi
Perigea micrippia E. mikesharkeyi
Plathypena scabra E. platyhypenae
Pseudoplusia includens E. lubomirmasneri
Spodoptera frugiperda E. platyhypenae
Tarachidia bicolorata E. jesusugaldei
Nolidae
Motya Poole02 E. ireneae
Notodontidae
Cargida pyrrha E. markshawi
Chliara croesus E. magdae
Colax apulusDHJ01 E. magdae
Dasylophia guarana E. hugokonsi, E. magdae
Dasylophia maxtlaDHJ06 E. magdae
Elymiotis attenuata E. andybennetti
Hapigiodes sigifredomarini E. magdae
Hemiceras clarki E. xiomarae
Hemiceras corema E. xiomarae
Hemiceras Janzen13 E. xiomarae
Hemiceras nigrescens E. daveroubiki, E. xiomarae
Hemiceras sabis E. daveroubiki, E. xiomarae
Hemiceras vecina E. daveroubiki, E. xiomarae
Hemiceras zula E. xiomarae
Pentobesa pinnaDHJ02 E. magdae
Rosema attenuata E. xiomarae
Rosema thestiaDHJ02 E. xiomarae
Sericochroa Janzen01 E. johnlasallei
Tagela cayuga E. paulhurdi
Sphingidae
Aellopos clavipes E. paulheberti
Callionima denticulata E. scottshawi
Cautethia spuria E. floryae, E. ronniei
Enyo ocypete E. mikeschauffi, E. floryae
Erinnyis alope E. gerarddelvarei
Isoparce cupressi E. junctus
Manduca dilucida E. testaceipes
Manduca florestan E. testaceipes
Manduca lanuginosa E. testaceipes
Manduca rustica E. testaceipes
Manduca sexta E. testaceipes
Perigonia ilusDHJ01 E. floryae
Perigonia lusca E. iangauldi, E. floryae
Tortricidae
Olethreutes Brown20 E. robbinthorpi

There is no evidence of pupal dormancy to pass inimical seasons, there are species of Euplectrus in ACG dry forest, rain forest and cloud forest, and the caterpillar species attacked range from very small noctuoids and notodontoids to very large sphingids. However, to date all species of caterpillars attacked are external feeders on living leaves. No hyperparasitoids of Euplectrus have been encountered, though owing to the method of rearing wild-caught caterpillars in captivity (in closed plastic bags), Euplectrus prepupae and pupae in their cocoons are not exposed to potential pupal hyperparasitoids. Euplectrus are only very rarely caught by ACG Malaise traps, despite the wasps themselves being common in the habitat where trapping has occurred.

All species of feeding (growing) Euplectrus larvae are green to greenish yellow, irrespective of the species of caterpillar attacked. The wasp larvae are very visible (Figs 726) and not easily scraped off the caterpillar. Parasitized caterpillars are active and continue to feed in captivity, but as observed by others, never molt once the eggs have been deposited into the caterpillar’s cuticle.

DNA barcodes

Members of the genus Euplectrus from ACG are characterised by a homopolymer read in the 5’ region of the barcode standard (11 base pair polyT). Such a homopolymer region reduces Sanger-based sequencing success due to slippage of the Taq polymerase resulting in sequences of varying lengths after this point (Kieleczawa 2006). This homopolymer region likely accounts for the lower than expected sequencing success we have observed within this genus (70%, 170 sequences/242 specimens) compared with other experiences DNA barcoding ACG parasitoid Hymenoptera. We do not consider this as low success in DNA barcoding per se, since any gene region that possessed such a homopolymer region would likely have reduced sequencing success. In addition to this poly-T region, ACG Euplectrus are characterised by a 6 bp deletion in the 3’ end of the barcode region of COI. While the mitochondrial protein-coding COI does not usually have deletions, such an in-frame anomaly is not uncommon in some families of Hymenoptera (Quicke et al. 2012).

In two cases, species were described based on morphology and biology as there were no DNA barcode differences that could be used to differentiate amongst these two species pairs (E. roysnellingi from E. daveroubiki and E. davesmithi from E. victoriapookae (Figure 35, Suppl. material 1)). Three out of the four cases currently have a very small number of sequences and or specimens and so an increased sample size will be needed to resolve whether these cases represent incidences where viable, species-specific morphological discontinuities were not associated with differences within the standard animal DNA barcode region.

In most cases, the DNA barcodes match perfectly with what is expected from the combination of close examination of morphology/color, and biological data where the host species has been accurately identified. It was possible to DNA barcode nearly all reared species because the holotype had siblings from the same rearing, one being used as the holotype and another DNA barcoded. However, for some species the barcode analysis failed and these are hence not included in the NJ-tree, but they are nevertheless included the paper because their biology and morphology are specific. We expect that the molecular data will support these conclusions once we have fresh specimens. A current total NJ tree is available for all specimens of the DNA barcoded Euplectrus (Suppl. material 1). We use such an NJ tree as a device for flagging potential different species, an attention-grabber that is then followed up by close morphological and host analysis. In a few cases we were not prepared to describe what appear to be additional species, without having larger or better samples, and therefore have left them in the total specimen NJ tree as a way of indicating their existence in nature, but we have not included them in the single-specimen tree. An NJ tree of one representative barcode per species (Fig. 35) is offered to illustrate the interspecific differences for Euplectrus barcodes.

Taxonomy

The addition of the 55 new species does not alter the morphological definition of Euplectrus (see below), and as the American species do not show a significant group variation in morphological characters a subdivision of the genus into species-groups or subgenera is not justified at this time, if ever.

Euplectrus Westwood

Euplectrus Westwood, 1832. Type species Euplectrus maculiventris Westwood, 1832, by monotypy.

Diplectron Dahlbom, 1857. Type species Pteromalus bicolor Swederus, 1795, by subsequent designation. Synonymized by Dalla Torre 1898.

Heteroscapus Brèthes, 1918. Type species Heteroscapus ronnai Brèthes, 1918, by monotypy. Synonymized by De Santis 1980b.

Pachyscapha Howard, 1897. Type species Pachyscapha insularis Howard, 1897, by monotypy. Synonymized by Ferrière 1941.

Rekabia Cameron, 1904. Type species Rekabia testaceipes Cameron, 1904, by monotypy. Synonymized by Kerrich 1974.

Diagnosis

Hind tibial spurs elongate and strong (Figs 3, 424, 425), longest spur usually at least half as long as length of hind tarsus; scutellum without lateral grooves or lines of foveae (e.g. Figs 117, 120); propodeum anteromedially with a raised “cup” - triangular to semicircular, and with a complete median carina behind cup (e.g. Figs 733–738).

Description

Antenna in both sexes with six flagellomeres, including a 2-segmented clava (e.g. Figs 58, 59, 63); male scape usually wider than female scape and with sensory pores that are usually confined to ventral margin, but occasionally scattered over the inner or outer lateral surface; in the latter case the scape is ± strongly swollen (e.g. Figs 59, 726). Mandibles and palpi usually white, occasionally dark brown. Head dark and shiny, lower face usually ± pale, pale area reaching from eye to eye (e.g. Figs 139, 140), to confined to a pale spot below toruli (e.g. Figs 37, 38); in some species the lower face is completely dark (e.g. Figs 54, 55). Lower frons smooth, upper frons with very weak reticulation (e.g. Figs 47, 50); 1–4 rows of setae close to eyes. Occipital margin rounded (e.g. Fig. 48) to carinate (e.g. Fig. 51).

Mesoscutum with raised and distinct reticulation (e.g. Figs 49, 52); midlobe with a complete median carina and with three pairs of setae, two pairs close to notauli and one pair medially; each sidelobe with three strong setae close to posterior margin and with 5–18 scattered setae in front of strong setae; notauli distinct throughout. Scutellum 0.8–1.1× as long as wide, usually convex but occasionally almost flat, with two pairs of setae close to lateral margins (e.g. Figs 49, 52). Scutoscutellar suture wide (e.g. Figs 49, 52). Axillae with very weak reticulation (e.g. Figs 49, 52). Dorsellum 0.2× as long (medially) as wide, and 0.3× as long as length of median propodeum, ± flat, smooth and shiny, with (e.g. Figs 733–738) or without (e.g. Figs 741, 743) a groove or foveae along anterior margin, posterior margin with two oblong-rounded indentations laterally and medially with 2–4 (usually two) spines. Propodeum anteromedially with a triangular to semicircular cup that continues backwards as a narrow median carina (e.g. Figs 733–738) that splits into two carinae just before posterior margin of propodeum, carinae reach down to supracoxal flanges; propodeal callus with 5–15 setae. Hind tibial spurs long and strong, longest spur usually at least half as long as length of hind tarsus (Figs 3, 424, 425). Wings transparent, veins yellowish-white to yellowish-brown and setae dark brown to black; submarginal vein usually with five setae, occasionally four or six; speculum present and usually closed, very occasionally open below and towards base of wing; costal cell with 1–2 rows of setae on ventral surface, and fore margin with 0–8 setae close to marginal vein; with 13–36 admarginal setae, in 1–3 rows.

Petiole black with strong sculpture, 0.5–1.5× as long as wide, frequently longer in male. Female gaster ± ovate to rounded (e.g. Figs 56, 62), male gaster rounded ± triangular (e.g. Figs 125, 193). However, it should be noted that the shape and length of the gaster are affected by how the specimen has been killed and subsequently dried.

Hosts and biology

Species develop as gregarious ectoparasitoids on caterpillars of several Lepidoptera families: “Arctiidae” (unconfirmed, and now a subfamily – Arctiinae – in Erebidae), Erebidae, Euteliidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae (one record), Noctuidae, Nolidae, Notodontidae, Sphingidae, Tortricidae (one doubtful record) – all treated in this paper. See also chapter on “Biology” above.

Distribution

Cosmopolitan (Noyes 2014).

Key to females

1 Frons with lower face dark (black to very dark reddish-brown) and not delimited from surrounding parts of frons (e.g. Figs 480, 503) 2
Frons with at least parts of lower face distinctly paler than surrounding parts of frons (e.g. Figs 105, 241) 19
2(1) Basal 3–4 flagellomeres distinctly paler than flagellomeres 5–6 (Fig. 505); mandibles dark brown Euplectrus zamorai Schauff
At most with basal flagellomeres 1–2 more or less pale; mandibles dark brown to white 3
3(2) Hind coxa black to brown (dark brown to pale brown) (e.g. Figs 479, 720) 4
Hind coxa yellow to dark yellowish-brown (e.g. Figs 104, 138) 8
4(3) Mandibles dark brown to dark yellowish-brown 5
Mandibles predominantly to completely yellowish-white to yellowish-brown, occasionally with base brown 7
5(4) Hind coxa pale brown (Fig. 720) Euplectrus valverdei Schauff
Hind coxa black to dark brown (Figs 349, 479) 6
6(5) Mandibles and hind coxa very dark brown, almost black (Fig. 349); female flagellomeres shorter, e.g. flagellomere 1 1.8× as long as wide (Fig. 352) Euplectrus wonyoungchoi Hansson, sp. n.
Mandibles dark yellowish-brown to brown and hind coxa dark brown (Fig. 479); female flagellomeres longer, e.g. flagellomere 1 2.5× as long as wide (Fig. 484) Euplectrus paulhansoni Hansson, sp. n.
7(4) Mid coxa brown (Fig. 53) Euplectrus alvarowillei Hansson, sp. n.
Mid coxa white (Fig. 539) Euplectrus scottshawi Hansson, sp. n.
8(3) Gaster yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Figs 639, 695) 9
Gaster completely dark brown in at least posterior ½ (e.g. Figs 328, 431) 10
9(8) Posterior ocelli large, OOL/DO = 1.5, and situated away from occipital margin, POL/OOL/POO = 6.1/3.6/1.0 (Fig. 493); scutellum with very weak and superficial reticulation (Fig. 494) Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard
Posterior ocelli small, OOL/DO = 2.3, and situated very close to occipital margin, POL/OOL/POO = 21.0/16.0/1.0 (Fig. 704); scutellum with stronger and more distinct reticulation (Fig. 705) Euplectrus edithae Schauff
10(8) Scutellum smooth or with very weak traces of reticulation (Fig. 338); hind leg with 4th tarsomere darker than hind tibia (Fig. 325); postmarginal vein 1.2× as long as stigmal vein Euplectrus jacklonginoi Hansson, sp. n.
Scutellum predominantly reticulate (e.g. Figs 100, 437), occasionally very weak (E. furnius); hind leg with 4th tarsomere with same colour as hind tibia; postmarginal vein 1.3–2.0× as long as stigmal vein 11
11(10) Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 431) 12
Gaster dark brown with a pale median spot or stripe anteromedially (e.g. Figs 90, 413) 13
12(11) Flagellomeres longer, e.g. flagellomere 4 1.9× as long as wide (Fig. 433) Euplectrus lubomirmasneri Hansson, sp. n.
Flagellomeres shorter, e.g. flagellomere 4 1.2× as long as wide Euplectrus furnius Walker
13(11) Gaster with pale spot I-shaped, i.e. with about same width throughout (Figs 90, 413, 729) 14
Gaster with pale spot ±T-shaped, i.e. with posterior part expanded (e.g. Figs 260, 283) 16
14(13) Scutellum with very weak reticulation, shiny (Fig. 100); gaster with pale I-shaped spot narrow, 1.0× as wide as width of petiole (Fig. 90) Euplectrus andydeansi Hansson, sp. n.
Scutellum with strong reticulation (Fig. 423); gaster with pale I-shaped spot wider, 1.6× as wide as width of petiole (Figs 413, 729) 15
15(14) Petiole 1.0× as long as wide; propodeum with weak and superficial reticulation (Fig. 768) Euplectrus josefernandezi Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 0.7× as long as wide; propodeum with strong reticulation Euplectrus marginatus Ashmead
16(13) Mandibles yellowish-white or yellowish-brown 17
Mandibles brown 18
17(16) Petiole 0.5× as long as wide Euplectrus eowilsoni Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 0.8–1.0× as long as wide Euplectrus sondrawardae Hansson, sp. n.
18(16) Gaster with basal part of pale spot sharped to a point (Fig. 283) Euplectrus ninazitaniae Hansson, sp. n.
Gaster with basal part of pale spot not pointed (Fig. 368) Euplectrus carlowae Schauff
19(1) Hind coxa dark brown (e.g. Figs 417, 662) to dark yellowish brown (Fig. 70) 20
Hind coxa white to yellowish-brown (e.g. Figs 162, 308) 25
20(19) Petiole 1.5× as long as wide; posterior part of scutellum overhanging and hiding anterior part of dorsellum (see figs 68 & 69 in Schauff and Janzen 2001) Euplectrus rojasi Schauff
Petiole 0.6–1.0× as long as wide; entire dorsellum visible (e.g. Figs 761, 802) 21
21(20) Head dark brown, lower face medially pale brown (Fig. 418); scutellum smooth laterally, posteriorly and medially, remaining parts of scutellum with very weak and superficial reticulation Euplectrus orias Schauff
Head black, lower face medially yellowish-brown (Fig. 265) or dark reddish-brown (Fig. 326); scutellum predominantly reticulate, or with very weak reticulation all over 22
22(21) Hind femur predominantly dark brown (Fig. 662); scutellum medially with isodiametric meshes (Fig. 798) Euplectrus xiomarae Schauff
Hind femur yellowish-brown (e.g. Figs 70, 264); scutellum medially with elongate meshes (e.g. Figs 736, 770) 23
23(22) OOL/DO = 1.2; hind coxa dark yellowish-brown (Fig. 70) Euplectrus andybennetti Hansson, sp. n.
OOL/DO = 1.7–1.9; hind coxa dark yellowish-brown to dark brown (Figs 264, 325) 24
24(23) Scutellum with very weak and superficial reticulation, partly smooth (Fig. 338); hind coxa dark yellowish-brown (Fig. 325) Euplectrus jacklonginoi Hansson, sp. n.
Scutellum with strong reticulation (Fig. 273); hind coxa pale brown to dark brown (Fig. 264) Euplectrus markshawi Hansson, sp. n.
25(19) Hind femur with apical ½ pale brown (Fig. 308) Euplectrus iangauldi Hansson, sp. n.
Hind femur with apical ½ white to yellowish-brown (e.g. Figs 162, 572) 26
26(25) Eyes and ocelli large (Figs 408, 614), WE/WF = 0.6–0.9, OOL/DO = 0.5–0.6 27
Eyes smaller (e.g. Figs 169, 285), WE/WF = 0.3–0.5, OOL/DO = 0.8–1.8 28
27(26) Eyes very large (Fig. 407), WE/WF = 0.9; vertex between posterior ocelli with one pair of setae (Fig. 408) Euplectrus ireneae Schauff
Eyes smaller (Fig. 613), WE/WF = 0.6; vertex behind posterior ocelli with two pairs of setae (Fig. 614) Euplectrus josei Schauff
28(26) Pale area on lower face dark reddish-brown, small and confined to level of inner margins of toruli (e.g. Figs 163, 275) 29
Pale area on lower face more distinct and larger (e.g. Figs 78, 584) 33
29(28) Hind tarsus short, tarsomere 1 shorter than either tarsomere 2 or 3 (Fig. 424) Euplectrus garygibsoni Hansson, sp. n.
Hind tarsus long and slender (Fig. 425), tarsomere 1 longer or with same length as either tarsomere 2 or 3 30
30(29) Dorsellum with a wide groove along anterior margin, 0.4× as long as length of median dorsellum (Figs 757, 785) 31
Dorsellum without a groove along anterior margin (Figs 755, 779) 32
31(30) Setae on vertex dark brown (Fig. 573) Euplectrus victoriapookae Hansson, sp. n.
Setae on vertex predominantly yellowish-white (Fig. 275) Euplectrus henrytownesi Hansson, sp. n.
32(30) Hind leg with tarsomere 1 2.4× as long as tarsomere 3; petiole 1.1× as long as wide Euplectrus philwardi Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with tarsomere 1 1.6× as long as tarsomere 3; petiole 1.3× as long as wide Euplectrus gavinbroadi Hansson, sp. n. / Euplectrus dianariasae Hansson, sp. n.
33(28) Hind leg with 4th tarsomere darker than hind tibia (Fig. 325) Euplectrus jacklonginoi Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with 4th tarsomere with same colour as hind tibia 34
34(33) Gaster with posterior ½ predominantly pale, pale to dark yellowish-brown, distinctly paler than lateral margins in anterior ½ of gaster (e.g. Figs 79, 209) 35
Gaster with posterior ½ predominantly dark brown to black, with same colour as lateral margins in anterior ½ of gaster (e.g. Figs 141, 498), sometimes with apex of gaster paler 45
35(34) Entire lower face pale, pale area reaching from eye to eye (Fig. 584) Euplectrus floryae Schauff
Lower face with a narrow black stripe, at least 0.5× the diameter of one torulus, between lower part of eye and pale area (e.g. Figs 78, 207) 36
36(35) Gaster with posterior ½ pale, except sometimes dark lateral margins (e.g. Figs 79, 209) 37
Gaster with posterior ½ with a dark median spot (Fig. 45) or a dark transverse band (Fig. 158, 345) 41
37(36) Pale area on lower face more extensive, reaching almost to eye (Fig. 78); scutellum with strong reticulation (Fig. 86) Euplectrus charlesporteri Hansson, sp. n.
Pale area on lower face smaller, reaching at most slightly outside of level of outer lateral margins of toruli (e.g. Figs 207, 231); scutellum with weak reticulation, shiny (e.g. Figs 219, 239) 38
38(37) Pale area on lower face small and dark, laterally reaching to level of midpoint of toruli (Fig. 207) Euplectrus corriemoreauae Hansson, sp. n.
Pale area on lower face larger and more pale, laterally reaching at least to level of outer lateral margins of toruli (Figs 61, 231) 39
39(38) Petiole 0.7× as long as wide; hind leg with tarsomere 1 2.4× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus jesusugaldei Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 0.5× as long as wide; hind leg with tarsomere 1 1.5–1.8× as long as tarsomere 3 40
40(39) Pale area on lower face laterally reaching half-way between lateral margin of toruli and eye margin (Fig. 689); scutellum distinctly reticulate, only with posterior margin smooth Euplectrus junctus Gahan
Pale area on lower face laterally reaching just outside of lateral margin of toruli (Fig. 61); scutellum smooth medially and with very weak engraved reticulation laterally (Fig. 69) Euplectrus bobwhartoni Hansson, sp. n.
41(36) Posterior part of gaster with a dark band reaching from side to side (Figs 158, 345) 42
Posterior part of gaster with a dark median spot (e.g. Figs 45, 718) 43
42(41) Head with pale area on lower face reaching half-way between outer margin of toruli and eye margin (Fig. 343) Euplectrus jimwhitfieldi Hansson, sp. n.
Head with pale area on lower face confined to part below toruli, does not reach outside level of lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 156) Euplectrus carlrettenmeyeri Hansson, sp. n.
43(41) Head with pale area on lower face reaching almost to eye margin, leaving just a narrow dark band close to eye margin (Fig. 717) Euplectrus frontalis Howard
Head with pale area on lower face confined to part below toruli, does not reach outside level of lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 44) 44
44(43) Gaster in anterior ½ with dark lateral margins each as wide as median pale area (Fig. 45) Euplectrus alexsmithi Hansson, sp. n.
Gaster in anterior ½ with dark lateral margins much narrower than median pale area Euplectrus pachyscaphus Girault
45(34) Entire lower face pale, pale area reaching from eye to eye (e.g. Figs 394, 496) 46
Pale area on lower face smaller, with at least a dark stripe between pale area and eye (e.g. Figs 241, 471) 49
46(45) Pale area on lower face reaching to hypostomal carina, i.e. with gena below level of eye pale (Fig. 582) Euplectrus paulheberti Hansson, sp. n.
Pale area on lower face does not reach hypostomal carina, i.e. with part of gena close to mouth cavity dark (Fig. 581) 47
47(46) Lower face with median part (area between and below toruli) reddish-brown, lateral parts yellowish-brown (Fig. 677) Euplectrus chapadae Ashmead
Lower face with entire median part yellowish-brown (Figs 139, 394) 48
48(47) Hind leg with 1st tarsomere longer, 1.8× as long as 2nd and 2.9× as long as 3rd tarsomere Euplectrus carlosarmientoi Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with 1st tarsomere shorter, 1.4× as long as 2nd and 2.0× as long as 3rd tarsomere Euplectrus johnnoyesi Hansson, sp. n. / Euplectrus sydneycameronae Hansson, sp. n. (inseparable)
49(45) Scutellum with median carinae (Fig. 469), or with a small hump posteromedially (Figs 253, 612), meshes of reticulation more or less elongate (Figs 253, 469, 612) 50
Scutellum without median carinae and evenly convex to almost flat, meshes of reticulation isodiametric (e.g. Figs 304, 307) or elongate (few species) 52
50(49) Scutellum with median carinae (Fig. 469), but without a hump Euplectrus mikesharkeyi Hansson, sp. n.
Scutellum with a small hump posteromedially (Figs 253, 612), but without median carinae 51
51(50) Eyes larger (Fig. 610), HE/MS = 2.6; POL/OOL = 2.2 Euplectrus ivonae Schauff
Eyes smaller (Fig. 251), HE/MS = 1.8; POL/OOL = 1.6 Euplectrus donquickei Hansson, sp. n.
52(49) Pale area on lower face with median part darker than lateral parts (e.g. Figs 292, 710), pale area usually large, almost reaching eyes 53
Pale area on lower face not darkened medially (e.g. Figs 224, 442) 62
53(52) Gaster with posterior ½ partly pale (Figs 300, 672) 54
Gaster with posterior ½ completely dark brown (e.g. Figs 294, 712) 55
54(53) Vertex lateral to ocellar triangle black; propodeum with lateral panels smooth (Fig. 775); petiole 1.1× as long as wide Euplectrus pammitchellae Hansson, sp. n.
Vertex lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown; propodeum with lateral panels with weak reticulation; petiole 0.8× as long as wide Euplectrus catocalae Howard
55(53) Distance between posterior ocelli and eyes large (Fig. 707), OOL/DO = 1.7 Euplectrus puttleri Gordh
Distance between posterior ocelli and eyes smaller, OOL/DO = 1.1–1.3 56
56(55) POL/POO = 5.0–6.3, OOL/POO = 2.2–3.3 57
POL/POO = 7.2–9.8, OOL/POO = 4.0–5.8 59
57(56) Gaster with dark lateral margins in anterior ½ complete and wide, about as wide as width of petiole (Fig. 294) Euplectrus hugokonsi Hansson, sp. n.
Gaster with dark lateral margins in anterior ½, missing in posterior part, and narrow, about 0.2× as wide as width of petiole (Figs 96, 653) 58
58(57) Petiole 0.7× as long as wide; hind leg with tarsus 1.6× as long as longest tibial spur Euplectrus ronniei Schauff
Petiole 0.9× as long as wide; hind leg with tarsus 1.8× as long as longest tibial spur Euplectrus chrisgrinteri Hansson, sp. n.
59(56) Lower face with pale area larger, reaching almost to eye margin, leaving just a narrow dark stripe close to eye (Fig. 197) Euplectrus gerarddelvarei Hansson, sp. n.
Lower face with pale area smaller, reaching at most half-way between outer lateral margins of toruli and eyes (Figs 533, 624, 360) 60
60(59) Lower face with pale area confined to surface below toruli (Fig. 533) Euplectrus robbinthorpi Hansson, sp. n.
Lower face with pale area reaching outside of level of lateral margins of toruli (Figs 360, 624) 61
61(60) Hind leg with tarsomeres 1+2 3.5× as long as tarsomere 3; lower face with pale area paler (Fig. 624) Euplectrus mariae Schauff
Hind leg with tarsomeres 1+2 4.2× as long as tarsomere 3; lower face with pale area darker (Fig. 360) Euplectrus johnheratyi Hansson, sp. n.
62(52) Petiole 1.1–1.3× as long as wide 63
Petiole 0.5–1.0× as long as wide 69
63(62) Dorsellum with a wide groove anteriorly, 0.3× as long as length of median dorsellum (Fig. 750) Euplectrus davidwahli Hansson, sp. n.
Dorsellum without a groove (Fig. 781), or anteriorly with a narrow groove that is at most 0.2× the length of median dorsellum (Fig. 790) 64
64(63) Hind leg with longest tibial spur 4.7× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus hansoni Schauff
Hind leg with longest tibial spur at most 4.2× as long as tarsomere 3 65
65(64) Hind leg with longest tibial spur 3.1× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus mikegatesi Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with longest tibial spur at 3.5–4.2× as long as tarsomere 3 66
66(65) Dorsellum with a narrow groove along anterior margin, groove 0.2× as long as length of median dorsellum (Fig. 738) Euplectrus annettewalkerae Hansson, sp. n.
Dorsellum without a groove along anterior margin (Figs 743, 755, 781) 67
67(66) Hind leg with 4th tarsomere 1.4× as long as tarsomere 2 Euplectrus ronaldzunigai Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with 4th tarsomere 0.9–1.0× as long as tarsomere 2 68
68(67) Hind leg with tarsomere 1 2.6× as long as tarsomere 3; POL/OOL = 1.4 Euplectrus charlesmicheneri Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with tarsomere 1 1.6× as long as tarsomere 3; POL/OOL = 1.9 Euplectrus gavinbroadi Hansson, sp. n. / Euplectrus dianariasae Hansson, sp. n.
69(62) Dorsellum with two large foveae anteriorly (Fig. 794) Euplectrus magdae Schauff
Dorsellum with foveae smaller, or with a groove anteriorly, or smooth and shiny without a groove or foveae anteriorly 70
70(69) Dorsellum without a groove along anterior margin (Fig. 782), or with groove very narrow, medially 0.1–0.2× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 748) 71
Dorsellum with a groove or foveae along anterior margin, groove medially at least 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum (e.g. Figs 749, 754) 74
71(70) Hind leg with tarsomere 4 4.6× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus daveroubiki Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with tarsomere 4 1.6–2.4× as long as tarsomere 3 72
72(71) Scutellum with elongate and narrow meshes, mesh-rows converging towards the middle Euplectrus mellipes Provancher
Scutellum with isodiametric to transverse meshes, if meshes are elongate then with mesh-rows parallel 73
73(72) Scutellum with medioposterior part with transverse meshes (Fig. 341); hind tarsus with tarsomere 2 1.9× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus roysnellingi Hansson, sp. n.
Scutellum with medioposterior part with ±isodiametric meshes (Fig. 202); hind tarsus with tarsomere 2 1.3× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus chrisdarlingi Hansson, sp. n.
74(70) Hind leg with tarsomere 1 the shortest tarsomere Euplectrus garygibsoni Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with tarsomere 3 the shortest tarsomere 75
75(74) Hind leg with tarsomere 4 2.0–2.5× as long as tarsomere 3 76
Hind leg with tarsomere 4 1.2–1.8× as long as tarsomere 3 77
76(75) Hind leg with longest tibial spur 6.3× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus davesmithi Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with longest tibial spur 3.5–4.3× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus mikeschauffi Hansson, sp. n.
77(75) Head with part below level of lower margin of eyes longer and more pointed (Fig. 656) Euplectrus testaceipes (Cameron)
Head with part below level of lower margin of eyes shorter and more blunt (e.g. Figs 234, 546) 78
78(77) Hind leg with tarsomeres 1 and 4 about equally long, LT1/LT4 = 0.9–1.0 79
Hind leg with tarsomere 1 always distinctly longer than 4, LT1/LT4 = 1.3–2.1 80
79(78) POL/OOL = 1.5; HE/MS = 2.2 Euplectrus robbinthorpi Hansson, sp. n.
POL/OOL = 1.9; HE/MS = 1.8 Euplectrus jjrodriguezae Hansson, sp. n.
80(78) Hind leg with tarsomeres 2 and 4 with same length 81
Hind leg with tarsomeres 2 and 4 different in length, LT1/LT4 = 0.8 or 1.2–1.3 84
81(80) POL/OOL = 2.3; OOL/DO = 1.0 Euplectrus anae Schauff
POL/OOL = 1.8–2.0; OOL/DO = 1.2–1.3 82
82(81) Petiole 1.0–1.1× as long as wide; hind leg with longest tibial spur 3.7× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus davidwahli Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 0.8× as long as wide; hind leg with longest tibial spur 4.2–4.9× as long as tarsomere 3 83
83(82) Pale area on lower face reddish-brown and smaller, does not reach outside level of lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 122) Euplectrus billbrowni Hansson, sp. n.
Pale area on lower face yellowish-brown and larger, reaching outside level of lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 513) Euplectrus paulhurdi Hansson, sp. n.
84(80) Hind leg with tarsomere 4 longer than tarsomere 2, LT4/LT2 = 1.3 Euplectrus comstockii Howard
Hind leg with tarsomere 4 shorter than tarsomere 2, LT4/LT2 = 0.8–0.9 85
85(84) Petiole as long as wide; eyes smaller (Fig. 387), WE/WF = 0.3; head less wide (Fig. 387), WH/HH = 1.3 Euplectrus johnlasallei Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 0.8× as long as wide; eyes larger (Fig. 47), WE/WF = 0.4; head wider (Fig. 47), WH/HH = 1.4 Euplectrus alejandrovalerioi Hansson, sp. n.

Key to males

1 Scape strongly swollen, 1.4–1.6× as long as wide (e.g. Figs 59, 263) 2
Scape at most moderately swollen, at least 2.2× as long as wide 6
2(1) Scape dark brown to black (Fig. 59) 3
Scape yellow to pale brown (e.g. Figs 263, 726) 4
3(2) Lower face with median part reddish-brown; hind leg with coxa and femur yellowish-brown; petiole 0.8× as long as wide Euplectrus insularis (Howard)
Lower face with median part black (Fig. 55); hind leg with coxa with posterior surface brown and femora infuscate; petiole 1.0× as long as wide Euplectrus alvarowillei Hansson, sp. n.
4(2) Scape with inner lateral surface pale brown (Fig. 263) Euplectrus eowilsoni Hansson, sp. n.
Scape with inner lateral surface yellow to yellowish-brown (Figs 580, 726) 5
5(4) Flagellomeres 1–4 yellowish-white and 5–6 pale brown (Fig. 726); mid tibia yellowish-brown Euplectrus valverdei Schauff
Entire flagellum yellow (Fig. 580); mid tibia with apex black Euplectrus ronnai (Bréthes)
6(1) Lower face dark (e.g. Figs 430, 481) 7
Lower face with at least median part paler than surrounding parts of frons (e.g. Figs 472, 72) 12
7(6) Hind coxa dark brown (Figs 479, 539) 8
Hind coxa yellow to yellowish-brown (e.g. Figs 87, 428) 9
8(7) Hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 479) Euplectrus paulhansoni Hansson, sp. n.
Hind femur with basal ⅓ yellowish-brown and apical ⅔ dark brown (Fig. 539) Euplectrus scottshawi Hansson, sp. n.
9(7) Mandibles dark brown Euplectrus lubomirmasneri Hansson, sp. n.
Mandibles white to yellowish-white 10
10(9) Petiole 1.0× as long as wide Euplectrus andydeansi Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 0.6–0.8× as long as wide 11
11(10) Scape 4.1× as long as wide, widest in apical part (Fig. 698); pale area on gaster smaller, with posterior part of pale area 0.3× the width of gaster at that level (Fig. 696) Euplectrus edithae Schauff
Scape 3.1× as long as wide, widest in median part (Fig. 643); pale area on gaster larger, with posterior part of pale area 0.5× the width of gaster at that level (Fig. 640) Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard
12(6) Hind coxa dark brown (Fig. 662) to pale brown (Fig. 70) 13
Hind coxa white to yellowish-brown (e.g. Figs 308, 470) 14
13(12) Hind femur predominantly dark brown (Fig. 662) Euplectrus xiomarae Schauff
Hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 70) Euplectrus andybennetti Hansson, sp. n.
14(12) Dorsellum anteriorly with two large foveae (Figs 760, 773, 794) 15
Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove (e.g. Fig. 766), or a row of foveae (Fig. 772), or without a groove or foveae (e.g. Fig. 741) 17
15(14) Scape with sensory area brown (Fig. 476) Euplectrus mikesharkeyi Hansson, sp. n.
Scape with sensory area as pale as remaining scape 16
16(15) Scape with base narrow (Fig. 314); flagellomere 1 distinctly narrower at base than at apex (Fig. 314) Euplectrus iangauldi Hansson, sp. n.
Scape with base wide (Fig. 622); flagellomere 1 with same width at base and at apex (Fig. 622) Euplectrus magdae Schauff
17(14) Scape with sensory pores scattered all over outer lateral surface (Fig. 382) Euplectrus johnlasallei Hansson, sp. n.
Scape with sensory pores confined to ventral part, or apicolateral ¾ 18
18(17) Lower face with pale area reaching distinctly outside of level of outer lateral margins of toruli (e.g. Figs 140, 395) 19
Lower face with pale area reaching at most to level of outer lateral margins of toruli (e.g. Figs 157, 174) 36
19(18) Lower face completely pale, pale area reaching from eye to eye (e.g. Figs 140, 395) 20
Lower face with a dark area close to eyes, this area is at least as wide as ½ the diameter of one torulus (e.g. Figs 671, 711) 23
20(19) Dorsellum without a groove along anterior margin (Fig. 741), hind leg with tarsomere 1 2.9× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus carlosarmientoi Hansson, sp. n.
Dorsellum with a groove along anterior margin that is 0.1–0.3× as long as length of median dorsellum, if very narrow (0.1× as long as length of median dorsellum) then hind leg with tarsomere 1 only 2.0× as long as tarsomere 3 21
21(20) Pale area on lower face does not reach hypostomal carina, i.e. with parts close to mouth cavity dark (Fig. 581) Euplectrus johnnoyesi Hansson, sp. n. / Euplectrus sydneycameronae Hansson, sp. n. (inseparable)
Pale area on lower face reaches hypostomal carina, i.e. with parts close to mouth cavity pale (Fig. 582) 22
22(21) Lower face with pale area close to eyes reaching distinctly above upper level of toruli (Fig. 585) Euplectrus floryae Schauff
Lower face with pale area close to eyes reaching to upper level of toruli (Fig. 497) Euplectrus paulheberti Hansson, sp. n.
23(19) Petiole 0.5-0.9× as long as wide 24
Petiole 1.0–1.2× as long as wide 33
24(23) Scape with sensory area as pale as remaining scape 25
Scape with sensory area darker than remaining scape (e.g. Figs 602, 715) 28
25(24) Scape 4.8× as long as wide and widest medially (Fig. 675) Euplectrus catocalae Howard
Scape 3.2–3.6× as long as wide, slightly expanded apically, or widest medially but then only 3.2× as long as wide 26
26(25) Hind leg with tarsus 5.0× as long as length of tarsomere 3 and with tarsomere 4 1.3× as long as tarsomere 3; posterior margin of petiole strongly curved forwards (Fig. 702) Euplectrus leucotrophis Howard
Hind leg with tarsus 5.7–7.1× as long as length of tarsomere 3 and with tarsomere 4 1.6–1.8× as long as tarsomere 3; posterior margin of petiole straight 27
27(26) Petiole 0,5× as long as wide; OOL/DO = 0.8 Euplectrus frontalis Howard
Petiole 0.7× as long as wide; OOL/DO = 1.5 Euplectrus comstockii Howard
28(24) Dorsellum with anterior groove medially 0.5–0.7× as long as length of dorsellum (e.g. Figs 792, 800) 29
Dorsellum with anterior groove covering 0.2–0.4× as long as length of dorsellum (Figs 752, 795) 32
29(28) Scape narrower, LC/WS = 4.4, and with sensory area dark brown (Fig. 715) Euplectrus puttleri Gordh
Scape wider, LC/WS = 2.8–3.3, and with sensory area pale brown (e.g. Figs 287, 602) 30
30(29) Flagellomeres more slender (Fig. 602), e.g. flagellomere 3 2.7× as long as wide Euplectrus ivonae Schauff
Flagellomeres more stout (Figs 287, 565), flagellomere 3 1.5–1.8× as long as wide 31
31(30) Scape 2.8× as long as wide (Fig. 565) Euplectrus anae Schauff
Scape 3.3× as long as wide (Fig. 297) Euplectrus hugokonsi Hansson, sp. n.
32(28) Scape with sensory area pale brown (Fig. 246) Euplectrus donquickei Hansson, sp. n.
Scape with sensory area dark brown (Fig. 629) (head of male Euplectrus ronniei not known – missing in single known specimen, but Euplectrus ronniei also belongs in this couplet) Euplectrus mariae Schauff
33(23) Head with part below level of eyes and toruli narrow and strongly pointed (Fig. 646) Euplectrus testaceipes (Cameron)
Head with part below level of eyes and toruli wider and more blunt (e.g. Figs 361, 514) 34
34(33) Scutellum with more or less isodiametric meshes (Fig. 528) Euplectrus paulhurdi Hansson, sp. n.
Scutellum with distinctly elongate meshes (Figs 355, 372) 35
35(34) Scape widest in median part (Fig. 365); dorsellum behind anterior groove with a median carina (Fig. 765); hind leg with longest tibial spur 4.2× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus johnheratyi Hansson, sp. n.
Scape widest above the middle (Fig. 348); dorsellum behind anterior groove without median carina (Fig. 763); hind leg with longest tibial spur 3.7× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus jimwhitfieldi Hansson, sp. n.
36(18) Petiole 1.1–1.3× as long as wide 37
Petiole 0.6–1.0× as long as wide 42
37(36) Dorsellum without a groove along anterior margin (Figs 743, 779) 38
Dorsellum with a narrow to wide groove along anterior margin (e.g. Figs 738, 742) 39
38(37) Scape wider, 2.3× as long as wide (Fig. 178) Euplectrus charlesmicheneri Hansson, sp. n.
Scape narrower, 2.9× as long as wide (Fig. 525) Euplectrus philwardi Hansson, sp. n.
39(37) OOL/DO = 0.9 40
OOL/DO = 1.2–1.5 41
40(39) Scape wider, 2.5× as long as wide (Fig. 161) Euplectrus carlrettenmeyeri Hansson, sp. n.
Scape narrower, 3.1× as long as wide (Fig. 447) Euplectrus mikegatesi Hansson, sp. n.
41(39) Frons with median part of lower face yellowish-brown in upper ½, dark brown in lower ½ (Fig. 106); scutellum with larger meshes (Fig. 117) Euplectrus annettewalkerae Hansson, sp. n.
Frons with entire median part of lower face yellowish-brown (Fig. 225); scutellum with smaller meshes (Fig. 236) Euplectrus davidwahli Hansson, sp. n.
42(36) Postmarginal vein 2.0–2.1× as long as stigmal vein 43
Postmarginal vein 1.2–1.8× as long as stigmal vein 46
43(42) Hind leg with tarsomere 1 1.1× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus sondrawardae Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with tarsomere 1 2.0–2.7× as long as tarsomere 3 44
44(43) Hind leg with tarsomere 1 2.7× as long as tarsomere 3 Euplectrus alejandrovalerioi Hansson, sp. n.
Hind leg with tarsomere 1 2.0× as long as tarsomere 3 45
45(44) Petiole 0.8× as long as wide; hind leg with tarsomere 4 2.0× as long as tarsomere 3, and 1.0× as long as tarsomere 1 Euplectrus mikeschauffi Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 1.0× as long as wide; hind leg with tarsomere 4 1.4× as long as tarsomere 3, and 0.7× as long as tarsomere 1 Euplectrus davidwahli Hansson, sp. n.
46(42) Scape with sensory area dark brown (Fig. 331) Euplectrus jacklonginoi Hansson, sp. n.
Scape with sensory area white to pale brown 47
47(46) Eyes small (Figs 123, 412), WF/WE = 2.8–2.9 48
Eyes larger, WF/WE = 1.5–2.6 49
48(47) Petiole 0.8× as long as wide; scape 2.8× as long as wide (Fig. 127) Euplectrus billbrowni Hansson, sp. n.
Petiole 1.0× as long as wide; scape 3.5× as long as wide (Fig. 416) Euplectrus josefernandezi Hansson, sp. n.
49(47) Eyes very large (Fig. 605), WF/WE = 1.5, OOL/DO = 0.6 Euplectrus josei Schauff
Eyes smaller, WF/WE = 2.1–2.6, OOL/DO = 1.1–1.5 50
50(49) Setae on vertex dark brown (Fig. 574) Euplectrus victoriapookae Hansson, sp. n.
Setae on vertex transparent to whitish (e.g. Figs 208, 276) 51
51(50) Scape widest below the middle and with sensory area pale brown (Fig. 212) Euplectrus corriemoreauae Hansson, sp. n.
Scape widest in median part or above the middle and with sensory area white to yellowish-white(Figs 195, 280) 52
52(51) Scape widest above the middle (Fig. 280); OOL/DO = 1.5 Euplectrus henrytownesi Hansson, sp. n.
Scape widest in the middle (Figs 195, 538); OOL/DO = 1.2–1.3 53
53(52) Scutellum with very weak reticulation, partly smooth (Fig. 202); dorsellum with groove along anterior margin medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 745) Euplectrus chrisdarlingi Hansson, sp. n.
Scutellum with weak but distinct reticulation (Fig. 548); dorsellum with groove along anterior margin medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 780) Euplectrus robbinthorpi Hansson, sp. n.

Species treatments – new species, all from ACG

Euplectrus alejandrovalerioi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 36–42, 47–49, 733

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Mundo Nuevo, Punta Plancha, 31.vii.2013, M. Pereira, ex Iridopsis herse eating Cochlospermum vitifolium, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0053946, 13-SRNP-56118” (BMNH). Paratypes: 10♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially dark yellowish-brown reaching to level of middle of toruli (Figs 37, 38); scutellum smooth (Fig. 49); fore and mid legs with coxae yellowish-white, femora tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown, hind leg with coxa dark yellowish-brown, femur, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown (Fig. 36); petiole 0.8× as long as wide; female and male gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with narrow dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 39, 40); male scape slightly enlarged (Fig. 42), widest medially, 3.2× as long as wide.

Description

Female. Length of body 1.7 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum dark brown (Fig. 41). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially dark yellowish-brown reaching to level of middle of toruli (Fig. 37). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 47). Vertex smooth and shiny (Fig. 48). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 48).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 36). Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; smooth and shiny (Fig. 49). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carina medially (Fig. 733), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth and shiny (Fig. 733); anteromedially with a short and wide semicircular cup that is strongly raised in posterior part; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs (Fig. 36): fore and mid legs with coxae yellowish-white, femora tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; hind leg with coxa dark yellowish-brown, femur, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with narrow dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 39).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 8.6/4.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.8/3.3; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.4/7.2/3.0/1.6/1.0/1.4; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.4.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape slightly enlarged, widest medially (Fig. 42), with sensory pores limited to apical ⅔ of ventral margin, sensory area yellowish-white. Similar to female except shorter gaster.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.2; MM/LG = 1.7.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Iridopsis herse (Geometridae) feeding on Cochlospermum vitifolium (Bixaceae), parasitoid cocoons under larval mummy of host.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Alejandro A. Valerio, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus alexsmithi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 43–46, 50–52, 734

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 12.i.2006, P. Rios, ex Eustrotia Poole14 eating Brachiaria arrecta, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028872, 06-SRNP-30437” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 8♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM).

Diagnosis

Antenna long and slender (Fig. 46), e.g. flagellum 3.0× as long as height of an eye; lower face black with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margin of toruli (Fig. 44); legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 43); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins and apex, and with a dark brown spot medially on tergite 4 (Fig. 45).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna long and slender, with scape yellowish-white in basal ⅔, yellowish-brown in apical ⅓, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–3 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 46). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margin of toruli (Fig. 44). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae with upper part of row removed away from eye (Fig. 50). Vertex smooth (Fig. 51). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 51).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 43). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 52). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 734), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 734); anteromedially with a short and wide triangular cup; propodeal callus with 10 setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 43). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with six setae close to marginal vein; with ten admarginal setae in one row.

Gaster yellowish-brown with sides and apex dark brown, and with a dark brown spot medially on tergite 4 (Fig. 45).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 4.7/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.7/4.7/3.5; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.6/7.4/2.5/1.5/1.0/2.3; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Eustrotia Poole14 (Noctuidae) feeding on Brachiaria arrecta (Poaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after M. Alex Smith, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus alvarowillei Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 53–59, 64–66, 735

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Potrerillos, Rio Azufrado, 18.v.2006, L. Swiacki, ex Callopistria floridensis eating Ceratopteris Espinoza 4311, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028881, 06-SRNP-13561” (BMNH). Paratypes: 13♀ 2♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: 5♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio); Sector Potrerillos: Rio Azufrado: ex Callopistria floridensis eating Ceratopteris Espinoza 4311 18.v.2006, L. Swiacki, sibling of wasp DHJPAR00288954311, 06-SRNP-13538, (6♀, in BMNH, CNC, MZLU, USNM); Sector Pitilla: Bullas, 12.ii.2010, D. Martinez, ex C. floridensis eating Niphidium oblanceolatum, sibling of wasp DHJPAR00392, 10-SRNP-70752 (2♀ 1♂, in INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face black (Figs 54, 55); legs yellowish-brown with mid and hind coxae and hind femur brown (Fig. 53); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 56) or white (male, Fig. 57), with lateral margins black, posterior ½ black; male antenna with scape dark brown to black, strongly swollen (Fig. 59), 1.6× as long as wide, with numerous sensory pores scattered all over the inner lateral surface. Very similar to E. insularis but with lower face black (reddish-brown in E. insularis), male petiole as long as wide (0.8× as long as wide in E. insularis), and hind legs with coxae and femora brown (yellowish-brown in E. insularis).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-brown with dorsal surface dark brown, flagellomeres 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 58). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-brown. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 54). Frons close to eyes with four irregular rows of setae (Fig. 64). Vertex smooth and shiny (Fig. 65). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 65).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 53). Scutellum 0.8× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation (Fig. 66). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a deep groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 735), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth and shiny (Fig. 735); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 11 setae. Legs (Fig. 53): fore leg yellowish-brown; mid leg with coxa brown, femur, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown; hind leg with coxa and femur brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with one complete row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with six setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae in one row.

Gaster in anterior ½ yellowish-brown with lateral margins black, posterior ½ black (Fig. 56).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.7/1.0/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 8.3/4.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.8; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/4.9/3.7; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 5.0/3.0/8.3/3.3/1.8/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape dark brown to black, strongly swollen (Fig. 59); with entire inner lateral surface with sensory pores. Similar to female except antenna with pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-white, flagellomeres 3–6 dark brown to black, 3–4 with peduncles yellowish-white (Fig. 59), gaster with anterior pale area white (Fig. 57).

Ratios. LC/WS = 1.6; MM/LG = 1.0.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larva of Callopistria floridensis (Noctuidae) feeding on Ceratopteris Espinoza 4311 (Parkeriaceae) and Niphidium oblanceolatum (Polypodiaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Alvaro Wille, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus andybennetti Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 77–80, 81–83, 427, 736

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo, 11.vii.1994, gusaneros, ex Elymiotis attenuata eating Mascagnia sinemariensis, no barcode, 94-SRNP-5588” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 48♀ 12♂: Guanacaste: 31♀ 2♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM); following from same locality and host as holotype but collected 9.viii.1992, no barcode, 92-SRNP-4426 (7♀, in INBio, MIUCR), 16.vii.1993, host feeding on Hiraea reclinata, no barcode, 93-SRNP-3731 (1♀ 2♂, in INBio), 11.vii.1994, no barcode, 94-SRNP-5595 and 94-SRNP-5588 (10♀ 8♂, in BMNH, CNC, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially reddish-brown (female, Fig. 71) or yellowish-brown (male, Fig. 72), pale area reaching slightly outside level of lateral margin of toruli, parts betwen pale area and eyes black; vertex with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown; fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg with coxa dark yellowish-brown, femur yellowish-brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-white (Fig. 70); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (female, Fig. 73) or white with dark brown lateral margins (male, Fig. 74), posterior ½ dark brown; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest medially, 3.3× as long as wide (Fig. 76), sensory area dark brown.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½ and yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 75). Mandibles yellowish-white, palpi white. Head black and shiny, vertex with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown, lower face medially reddish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside level of lateral margin of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 71). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 81). Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, smooth outside triangle (Fig. 82). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 82).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 70). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 14 setae. Scutellum 0.8× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 83). Dorsellum anteriorly with a wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 736), groove medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 736); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with five setae. Legs with fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg with coxa dark yellowish-brown, femur yellowish-brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-white (Fig. 70). Fore wing: costal cell with 1 row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 73).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.5/1.0/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 10.0/5.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.6/3.3; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.8/2.8/7.6/2.8/1.8/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest medially, sensory pores confined to anteroventral ¾ (Fig. 427), sensory area dark brown (Fig. 76). Otherwise similar to female except lower face with pale part yellowish-brown (Fig. 72), gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, and shorter (Fig. 74).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.3; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar karva of Elymiotis attenuata (Notodontidae) feeding on Hiraea reclinata and Mascagnia sinemariensis (Malpighiaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Andy Bennett, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus andydeansi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 87–93, 98–100, 737

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Ingas, 28.xi.2011, F. Quesada, ex Eustrotia Poole04 feeding on Scleria melaleuca, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0046907, 11-SRNP-33575” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 4♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face completely black (Fig. 88, 89); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 87); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster in female dark brown with a narrow yellowish-brown longitudinal stripe in anteromedian ½ (Fig. 90), in male with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 91); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle and with apex narrow, 3.1× as long as wide, sensory area brown (Fig. 93).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres dark brown (Fig. 92). Mandibles and palpi white. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 88). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 98). Vertex smooth (Fig. 99). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 99).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 87). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with nine setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 100). Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 737), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 737); anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 87). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown with a narrow yellowish-brown longitudinal stripe in anteromedian ½ (Fig. 90).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.2/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 3.3/2.2/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.6/3.1; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.8/7.3/2.6/1.6/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.5 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle and with apex narrow (Fig. 93), sensory pores confined to ventral margin and with sensory area brown. Otherwise similar to female except gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 91), and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.1; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larva of Eustrotia Poole04 (Noctuidae) feeding on Scleria melaleuca (Cyperaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Andy R. Deans, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus annettewalkerae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 104–110, 115–117, 738

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Medrano, 19.i.2012, R. Calero, ex Tyrissa Poole01 eating Senegalia tenuifolia, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0046917, 12-SRNP-70154” (BMNH). PARATYPE: 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown in upper ½, dark brown in lower ½, pale area reaching to outer lateral margin of toruli (Figs 105, 106); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 104); petiole 1.1× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a dusky pale spot medially (Figs 107, 108); male antenna with scape expanded and widest medially, 2.8× as long as wide (Fig. 110).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.7 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½ and yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel and flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 109). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown in upper ½, dark brown in lower ½, pale area reaching to outer lateral margin of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 105). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 115). Vertex smooth (Fig. 116). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 116).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 104). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 16 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 117). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 738), groove medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 738); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 104). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 12 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a dusky pale spot medially (Fig. 107).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 5.3/3.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.2/3.0; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.4/6.2/2.0/1.4/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 1.1; MM/LG = 1.4.

Male. Length of body 1.4 mm. Scape expanded and widest medially (Fig. 110), sensory pores confined to ventral margin; sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except shorter gaster.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.8; MM/LG = 1.5.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Tyrissa Poole01 (Erebidae) feeding on Senegalia tenuifolia (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to host larva cuticle and leaf.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Annette K. Walker, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus billbrowni Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 121–131, 27, 132–134, 739

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Rio Blanco Abajo, 23.vi.2005, E. Araya, ex Dyops chromatophilaDHJ01 eating Coussapoa nymphaeifolia, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028838, 05-SRNP-3556” (BMNH). Paratypes: 44♀ 21♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially reddish-brown (female, Fig. 122) or yellowish-white (male, Fig. 123), pale area reaching to outer lateral margin of toruli; scutellum with sides and posterior margin smooth (Fig. 134); female legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 121), male with fore and mid legs predominantly yellowish-white and hind leg yellowish-brown; male antenna with scape slightly expanded, widest in the middle, and 2.8× as long as wide (Fig. 127); petiole 0.8× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 124, 125).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 dark brown dorsally and yellowish-brown ventrally, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 126). Mandibles yellowish-brown with base dark brown, palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially reddish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margin of toruli, and with parts lateral to pale area black (Fig. 122). Frons close to eyes with three rows of setae (Fig. 132). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 133). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 133).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 121). Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with rather weak reticulation and with sides and posterior part smooth (Fig. 134). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 739), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 739); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 121). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae in basal ½ and one row in apical ½, and margin with one seta close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 124).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.9/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 8.0/4.1/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.9/5.0/3.7; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.9/3.6/7.1/2.7/1.7/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape white, somewhat expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 127); sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔, sensory area white. Similar to female except pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-white and 3–6 brown dorsally and yellowish-brown ventrally (Fig. 127), lower face medially yellowish-white (Fig. 123); fore and mid legs predominantly yellowish-white, gaster shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.8; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Dyops chromatophilaDHJ01 (Erebidae) feeding on Coussapoa nymphaeifolia (Urticaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Bill L. Brown, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus bobwhartoni Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 60–63, 67–69, 740

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Murcielago, Camino Bahia Hachal, 13.vi.2006, G. Pereira, ex Bagisara tristicta eating Herissantia crispa, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028861, 06-SRNP-17307” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 8♀: 1♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio); Guanacaste: Parque Nacional Palo Verde, 50 m, LN 260952/385020, 5-16.vi.1999, malaise trap, I. Jiménez (6♀, CNC, INBio, USNM); Puntarenas: Peninsula Osa, Estación Agujas, 250-350 m, LS 276750/526550, 4-20.vi.1999, swept, J. Azofeifa (1♀, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside outer lateral margin of toruli (Fig. 61); scutellum smooth medially and with very weak engraved reticulation laterally (Fig. 69); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 60); petiole 0.5× as long as wide; gaster yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 62).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½ and yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–4 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, 5–6 dark brown (Fig. 58). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside outer lateral margin of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 61). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 67). Vertex smooth (Fig. 68). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 68).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 60). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; smooth medially and with very weak engraved reticulation laterally (Fig. 69). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is very narrow laterally and wide medially, medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum, groove is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 740). Propodeum partly with very weak reticulation and partly smooth (Fig. 740); anteromedially with a short and wide triangular cup; propodeal callus with 12 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 60). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 24 admarginal setae, in two rows.

Gaster yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 62).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 6.7/3.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.6/3.5; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.2; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.2/1.7/6.0/1.8/1.3/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 0.5; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Bagisara tristicta (Noctuidae) feeding on Herissantia crispa (Malvaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste and Puntarenas Provinces).

Etymology

This species is named after Bob A. Wharton, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus carlosarmientoi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 138–144, 149–151, 741

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Cacao, 18.xii.2007, D. Garcia, ex Oxidia apidania eating Inga punctata, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0023273, 07-SRNP-47481” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 4♀ 3♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Entire lower face yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 139) or completely white (male, Fig. 140), parts close to eyes extending above level of upper margin of toruli; dorsellum without groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 741); fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 138); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ white with wide dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 141, 142); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.8× as long as wide (Fig. 144), flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 143). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, entire lower face yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, parts close to eyes extending above level of upper margin of toruli (Fig. 139); vertex with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark yellowish-brown. Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 149). Vertex smooth (Fig. 150). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 150).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 138). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 14 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with strong engraved reticulation (Fig. 151). Dorsellum without groove along anterior margin (Fig. 741). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 741); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 138). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ white with wide dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 141).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.3/1.0/1.8; POL/OOL/POO = 4.5/2.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.4/3.1; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.7/2.7/7.1/2.9/1.6/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 144), sensory pores confined to ventral margin. Otherwise similar to female except flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae (Fig. 144), lower face completely white (Fig. 140); scutellum with very weak reticulation in posterior ¾; gaster shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.8; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Oxidia apidania (Geometridae) feeding on Inga punctata (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Carlos E. Sarmiento, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus carlrettenmeyeri Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 155–161, 166–168, 742

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector Rincon Rain Forest, Sendero Tucan, 25.xi.2011, P. Umana, ex Antiblemma ceras eating Conostegia xalapensis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0046912, 11-SRNP-44933” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 8♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margins of toruli (Figs 156, 157); antennal flagellum long, e.g. 1st flagellomere 3.0× as long as wide (Figs 160, 161); submarginal vein with four setae; legs yellowish-white with fore and mid coxae white (Fig. 155); petiole 1.3× as long as wide; gaster in female with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, followed by a wide dark brown transverse band, and with apex yellowish-brown (Fig. 158), in male with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 159); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.5× as long as wide (Fig. 161).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 160); flagellum long, e.g. 1st flagellomere 3.0× as long as wide. Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margins of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 156). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 166). Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, smooth outside (Fig. 167). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 167).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 155). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 168). Dorsellum anteriorly with a very narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 742), groove medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 742); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-white with fore and mid coxae white (Fig. 155). Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 20 admarginal setae, partly in two rows.

Gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, followed by a wide dark brown transverse band, and with apex yellowish-brown (Fig. 158).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.3/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 4.7/1.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.9; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.0/4.2/3.0; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.4/2.2/5.7/1.3/1.3/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 1.3; MM/LG = 1.2.

Male. Length of body 2.1 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Figs 161), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾. Otherwise similar to female except gaster with posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 159) and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.5; MM/LG = 1.4.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on intermediate instar larva of Antiblemma ceras (Erebidae) feeding on Conostegia xalapensis (Melastomataceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Carl W. Rettenmeyer, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus charlesmicheneri Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 16, 172–178, 183–185, 743

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Cacao, Sendero Nayo, 22.vi.2008, M. Pereira, ex Sicya medangula eating Crossopetalum parviflorum, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0031152, 08-SRNP-35772” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 11♀ 1♂: COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: 6♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio, MZLU); Sector Cacao, Estación Cacao, 25.vi.2008, H. Ramirez, ex Prochoerodes marciana eating Prunus annularis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0031155, 08-SRNP-35835 (3♀, in CNC, USNM); Estación Pitilla, LN 330200/380200, 700 m, vi.1996, C. Moraga & P. Rios (2♀, in INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 173) or yellowish-white (male, Fig. 174) reaching to level of outer margin of toruli; dorsellum without groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 743); female with legs yellowish-brown with fore coxa yellowish-white (Fig. 172), male legs white with tarsi, apical ⅓ of hind femur and hind tibia yellowish-brown; petiole 1.3× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins (Figs 175, 176); male antenna with scape expanded and widest in the middle, 2.3× as long as wide (Fig. 178).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 177). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown reaching to level of outer margin of toruli and parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 173). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 183). Vertex smooth (Fig. 184). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 184).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 172). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 185). Dorsellum without groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 743). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 743); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore coxa yellowish-white (Fig. 172). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with seven setae close to marginal vein; with 17 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 175).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.3/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 7.0/5.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.6/3.2; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.8; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.2/6.7/2.6/1.4/1.0/1.4; LP/WP = 1.3; MM/LG = 1.2.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape white, expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 178), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except pale area on lower face yellowish-white (Fig. 174); legs white with tarsi, apical ⅓ of hind femur and entire hind tibia yellowish-brown.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.3; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on intermediate instar larvae of Prochoerodes marciana feeding on Prunus annularis (Rosaceae), and Sicya medangula feeding on Crossopetalum parviflorum (Celastraceae) (both hosts are Geometridae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Charles D. Michener, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus charlesporteri Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 77–80, 84–86, 744

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Horizones, 14.x.1997, gusaneros, ex Diastema tigris eating Lantana camara, no barcode, 97-SRNP-9717” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 3♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, leaving a black area close to eye as wide as shortest diameter of torulus (Fig. 78); vertex dark reddish-brown; legs yellowish-brown, fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 77); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white and posterior ½ yellowish-brown, with dark brown lateral margins throughout (Fig. 79).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.5 mm. Antenna with scape white with apical ½ yellowish-brown, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 80). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, leaving a black area close to eye as wide as shortest diameter of torulus (Fig. 78); vertex dark reddish-brown outside ocellar triangle, black inside ocellar triangle. Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 84). Vertex smooth outside ocellar triangle, with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle (Fig. 82). Occipital margin with a carina (Fig. 82).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 77). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 15 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with rather strong engraved reticulation with elongate meshes (Fig. 86). Dorsellum anteriorly with a wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 744), groove medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 744); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 11 setae. Legs yellowish-brown, fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 77). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae in basal ½ and one row in distal ½, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white and posterior ½ yellowish-brown, with dark brown lateral margins throughout (Fig. 79).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.5; POL/OOL/POO = 4.8/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.6; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.5/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.4/2.0/6.4/2.3/1.4/1.0/1.1; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Diastema tigris (Noctuidae) feeding on Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Charles C. Porter, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus chrisdarlingi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 189–195, 200–202, 745

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 26.xii.2007, C. Moraga & M. Rios, ex Letis mycerina eating Inga oerstediana, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028698, 07-SRNP-34320” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 9♀ 1♂: Guanacaste: 6♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio, MZLU); 3♀ with same locality and host data but collected 8.xii.2007, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028700, 07-SRNP-34119 (CNC, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part dark reddish-brown with two small yellowish-brown spots, pale area not reaching outside of outer lateral margins of toruli (Figs 190, 191); dorsellum anteriorly with a very narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 745); legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 189); gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 192, 193); petiole 0.8× as long as wide in female, 1.0× in male; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.9× as long as wide (Fig. 195).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown with base yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 194). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part dark reddish-brown with two small yellowish-brown spots, pale area not reaching outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, and with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 190). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 200). Vertex smooth (Fig. 201). Occipital margin with a carina (Fig. 201).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 189). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with nine setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 202). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 745), groove medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 745); anteromedially with a transverse triangular cup; propodeal callus with 13 setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 189). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 192).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.4/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 8.0/4.6/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.4/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.6/2.2/5.6/1.7/1.3/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.2.

Male. Length of body 1.5 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 195), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except longer petiole.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.9; LP/WP = 1.0: MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Letis mycerina (Erebidae) feeding on Inga oerstediana (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after D. Chris Darling, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus chrisgrinteri Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 94–97, 101–103, 746

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa, 7.v.1995, gusaneros, ex Eulepidotis caeruleilinea eating Hymenaea courbaril, no barcode, 95-SRNP-3415” (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-white with median ⅓ pale yellowish-brown, pale area reaching outside level of outer lateral margin of toruli, leaving a wide black stripe between pale area and eye (Fig. 95); fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 94); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown anterolateral margins and with posterior part of margins yellowish-brown, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 96). Euplectrus chrisgrinteri is very similar to E. ronniei, the only differences are the longer petiole in E. chrisgrinteri and different host preferences.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel and flagellomeres yellowish-brown (Fig. 97). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-white with median ⅓ pale yellowish-brown, pale area reaching outside of level of outer lateral margins of toruli, leaving a wide black stripe between pale area and eyes (Fig. 95). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 101). Vertex smooth (Fig. 102). Occipital margin with a carina (Fig. 102).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 94). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 10 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 103). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 746), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with weak reticulation (Fig. 746); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 94). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, partly with two rows close to base, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown anterolateral margins and with posterior part of margins yellowish-brown, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 96).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = nm; POL/OOL/POO = 5.0/2.2/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/4.9/3.9; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.2; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.4/7.6/2.4/1.4/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Eulepidotis caeruleilinea (Erebidae) feeding on Hymenaea courbaril (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Chris C. Grinter, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus corriemoreauae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 206–212, 217–219, 747

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector Rincón Rain Forest, Palomo, 18.vii.2013, K. Aragón, ex same as Noctuidae 11-SRNP-33495 eating Rhipidocladum racemiflorum, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0053131, 13-SRNP-68860” (BMNH). Paratypes: 4♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part dark yellowish-brown reaching to level of middle of toruli (Figs 207, 208); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 206); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; female gaster yellowish-white in anterior ½, yellowish-brown in posterior ½, lateral margins dark brown (Fig. 209); male scape slightly enlarged (Fig. 212), widest medially, 3.0× as long as wide, sensory area brown and reaching along ventral margin.

Description

Female. Length of body 1.9 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white with apical ⅓yellowish-brown, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum dark brown with ventral part pale brown (Fig. 211). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part dark yellowish-brown reaching to level of middle of toruli (Fig. 207). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 217). Vertex smooth and shiny (Fig. 218). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 218).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 206). Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation (Fig. 219). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a deep groove (Fig. 747), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth and shiny (Fig. 747); anteromedially with a semicircular cup that is strongly raised in posterior part; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 206). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae.

Gaster yellowish-white in anterior ½, yellowish-brown in posterior ½, lateral margins dark brown (Fig. 209).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 4.5/2.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.0/5.2/3.8; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.7/2.0/6.3/2.2/1.3/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.9–1.0; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.7 mm. Scape slightly enlarged, widest medially, with sensory pores along entire ventral margin, sensory area brown (Fig. 212). Similar to female except gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 210).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.0, LP/WP = 1.0.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of noctuid 11-SRNP-33495 (Noctuidae) feeding on Rhipidocladum racemiflorum (Poaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Corrie S. Moreau, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus daveroubiki Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 111–114, 118–120, 748

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Del Oro, Rio Chon, 6.i.2008, R. Moraga, ex Hemiceras vecina eating Inga oerstediana, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0023280, 08-SRNP-20135” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 8♀: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: 3♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio); 4♀ with same data as holotype but sibling of wasp DHJPAR0023278, 08-SRNP-20132 (CNC, MZLU, USNM); Sector Brasilia, Piedrona, 24.vi.2008, D. Briceno, ex Hemiceras nigrescens eating Inga oerstediana, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0031185, 08-SRNP-65614 (1♀, in BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 112); fore and mid coxa yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 111); scutellum 0.9× as long as wide with rather strong reticulation (Fig. 120); dorsellum with a very narrow groove along anterior margin (Fig. 748); median carina on propodeum narrow (Fig. 748); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown ±T-shaped spot (Fig. 113), and with tergites 5–6 reddish-brown posteromedially.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.5 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½ and yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 dark brown with ventral part yellowish-brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 114). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 112). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 118). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 119). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 119).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 111). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with rather strong reticulation, meshes slightly elongate (Fig. 120). Dorsellum with a very narrow groove along anterior margin (Fig. 748), medially less than 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 748); anteromedially with a short triangular cup, 0.3× as long as wide; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs (Fig. 111): fore and mid coxae yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with one seta close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown ±T-shaped spot (Fig. 113), and with tergites 5–6 reddish-brown posteromedially.

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.3/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 6.8/4.2/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.5/3.3; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 2.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.7/2.3/6.6/2.3/1.7/1.0/4.6; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larvae of Hemiceras vecina and H. nigrescens (Notodontidae) feeding on Inga oerstediana (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Dave W. Roubik, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Remarks

In the analyzed material there are three females, not included here, from same locality and host as holotype but collected 23.xii.2007 (sibling of wasp DHJPAR0038555, 07-SRNP-24811). These specimens appear similar to E. daveroubiki, but the barcode is different from other samples of E. daveroubiki (Suppl. material 1, sample called E. Hansson32). All three specimens are damaged and because of this the morphological analysis can not be done with sufficient accuracy. Therefore we leave these specimens untreated for now, but in the future, as more material becomes available, this puzzle will be dealt with.

Another puzzle associated with the samples assigned to this species concern samples DHJPAR0031185 and DHJPAR0023280. Specimens from DHJPAR0031185 and DHJPAR0023280 are morphologically identical and have a similar biology (both target Hemiceras spp.), but with different barcodes (Suppl. material 1). Since the morphology and biology is the same we prefer to treat these as the same species.

See also remarks under E. roysnellingi.

Euplectrus davesmithi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 128–131, 135–137, 749

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 24.ix.2005, gusaneros, ex Ceromacra Poole01 eating Guatteria diospyroides, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028811, 05-SRNP-34118” (BMNH). PARATYPE: 1♀ with same label data as holotype (INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 129); scutellum transverse, 0.8× as long as wide, with very weak engraved reticulation, partly smooth (Fig. 137); dorsellum without spines posteromedially (Fig. 749); legs yellowish-white (Fig. 128); propodeum anteromedially with triangular cup short and wide (Fig. 749); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-white spot (Fig. 130).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 131). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 129), vertex dark brown. Frons close to eyes with one sparse row of setae (Fig. 135). Vertex smooth (Fig. 136). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 136).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 128). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with seven setae. Scutellum 0.8× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, partly smooth (Fig. 137). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 749), groove medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum, median posterior margin of dorsellum without spines. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 749); anteromedially with a short and wide semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-white (Fig. 128). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 25 admarginal setae, in two irregular rows.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-white spot (Fig. 130).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 3.7/1.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.4/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 2.0; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 6.3/2.8/7.7/2.3/1.7/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on second instar larva of Ceromacra Poole02 (Erebidae) feeding on Guatteria diospyroides (Annonaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to leaf substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Dave R. Smith, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Remarks

Euplectrus davesmithi and E. victoriapookae have the same barcode (Fig. 35, Suppl. material 1), but as they are morphologically distinct and their hosts are very different we treat them as separate species.

Euplectrus davidwahli Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 14–15, 223–229, 234–236, 750

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector San Cristobal, Tajo Angeles, 25.x.2010, G. Sihezar, ex Hypena Poole36 eating Drymonia macrophylla, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042122, 10-SRNP-6218” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 10♀ 5♂, COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: 6♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio, MZLU, USNM); Sector Pitilla: Estación Pitilla, 1.iii.2011, M. Rios, ex Hypena Poole36 eating Drymonia alloplectoides, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042397, 11-SRNP-30665 (1♀ 1♂, in INBio); Estación Quica, 8.i.2013, R. Calero, ex Hypena Poole36 eating D. alloplectoides, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0051510, 13-SRNP-70030 (1♀ 2♂, in BMNH); Quebradona, 7.i.2012, R. Calero, ex Hypena Poole36 eating Columnea hirta, 12-SRNP-70083 and 12-SRNP-70084, no barcode (2♀ 1♂, in CNC, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part reddish-brown (female, Fig. 224) or yellowish-brown (male, Fig. 225), pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli; legs yellowish-brown, fore and mid coxae yellowish-white in female (Fig. 223), white in male; petiole 1.0–1.1× as long as wide; gaster dark brown with a yellowish-white ±T-shaped spot in anterior ½ in female (Fig. 226), with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown in male (Fig. 227); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.0× as long as wide (Fig. 229).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.5 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown with base yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres dark brown (Fig. 228). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part reddish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 224). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 234). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 235). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 235).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 223). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 14 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation with slightly elongate meshes (Fig. 236). Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 750), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 750); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 223). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown with a yellowish-white ±T-shaped spot in anterior ½ (Fig. 226).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 7.4/4.2/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.6/3.5; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 2.0; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.7/2.0/6.0/2.0/1.4/1.0/1.4; LP/WP = 1.0–1.1; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Length of body 2.1 mm. Scape yellowish-white, slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 229), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except lower face with pale part yellowish-brown (Fig. 225), fore and mid coxae white; gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 227).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.0; MM/LG = 0.9.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Hypena Poole36 (Erebidae) feeding on Drymonia macrophylla, D. alloplectoides and Columnea hirta (Gesneriaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to cadaver and leaf substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after David B. Wahl, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus dianariasae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 145–148, 152–154, 751

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Nacho, 27.ix.2011, M. Rios, ex Antiblemma Poole21DHJ02 eating Meriania phlomoides, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0048227, 11-SRNP-32924” (BMNH). PARATYPE: 1♀ “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Laguna, 29.ix.2011, F. Quesada, ex Antiblemma Poole21DHJ02 eating Meriania phlomoides, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0046906, 11-SRNP-32973” (INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of median part of toruli (Fig. 146); dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 751); fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs predominantly yellowish-white; hind leg yellowish-white (Fig. 145); petiole 1.3× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 147). Morphologically identical to E. gavinbroadi.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 148). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of median part of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 146). Frons close to eyes with one sparse row of setae (Fig. 152). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 153). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 153).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 145). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide, with weak reticulation (Fig. 154). Dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 751). Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 751); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs (Fig. 145): fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs predominantly yellowish-white; hind leg yellowish-white. Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one complete row of setae and with a short row with three setae in front of complete row, and margin with five setae in apical ½; with 19 admarginal setae, mainly in one row but with three rows in apical ⅓.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 147).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.4/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 4.3/1.9/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.1/4.3/3.4; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.4/6.2/1.6/1.3/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 1.3; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on intermediate and third instar larvae of Antiblemma Poole21DHJ02 (Erebidae) feeding on Meriania phlomoides (Melastomataceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Diana C. Arias-Penna, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus donquickei Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 240–246, 251–253, 752

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Cacao, Quebrada Otilio, 29.vii.2005, M. Pereira, ex Hemicephalis alesaDHJ01 eating Varronia inermis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028814, 05-SRNP-46906” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 7♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio, MZLU, USNM).

Diagnosis

Head dark reddish-brown with lower face medially white with median part yellowish-white (female, Fig. 241) or completely white (male, Fig. 242), pale area reaching outside level of outer margins of toruli; scutellum with a small hump posteromedially (Fig. 253); legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 240); petiole 0.8× as long as wide; female gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown and posterior ½ pale brown with a dark brown spot anteromedially, entire gaster with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 243), male gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown anterolateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 244); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.2× as long as wide (Fig. 246), and with sensory area pale brown.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-white, flagellomeres 3–4 pale brown, 5–6 dark brown (Fig. 245). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head dark reddish-brown and shiny, lower face medially white with median part yellowish-white, pale area reaching outside level of outer margin of toruli, and parts between pale area and eyes dark reddish-brown (Fig. 241). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 251). Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, smooth outside (Fig. 252). Occipital margin with a carina (Fig. 252).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 240). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum convex, with a small hump posteromedially and with a weak groove anteromedially (Fig. 253); 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation. Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided into two by a median longitudinal carina (Fig. 752), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 752); anteromedially with a transverse triangular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 240). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 20 admarginal setae, in basal ⅓ in two rows and in apical ⅔ in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown and posterior ½ pale brown with a dark brown spot anteromedially, entire gaster with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 243).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 5.1/3.1/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.5/3.6; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.1/2.2/7.1/2.7/1.7/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 2.2 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 246), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔. Otherwise similar to female except pale part of lower face completely white (Fig. 242), gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown anterolateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 244).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Hemicephalis alesaDHJ01 (Noctuidae) feeding on Varronia inermis (Boraginaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Don L. J. Quicke, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus eowilsoni Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 22, 257–263, 268–270, 425, 753

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Brisanta, 25.vii.2007, D.Briceno, ex Argyrosticta vauaurea eating Phlebodium pseudoaureum, 07-SRNP-65277, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028932” (BMNH). Paratypes: 173♀ 26♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Alajuela: 45♀ 3♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM); Sendero Juntas, ex A. bellinita eating Campyloneurum brevifolium, 1.v.2008, J.Perez, 08-SRNP-40975, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0031158 (30♀ 3♂, in BMNH, CNC, INBio, MIUCR, USNM); Guanacaste: Sector Pitilla: Estación Quica: ex A. bellinita eating Microgramma percussa, 13.ii.2010, R.Calero, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039215, 10-SRNP-70776 (11♀ 1♂, in BMNH, INBio); ex A. bellinita eating Microgramma 22028, 24.i.2012, R.Calero, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0048966, 12-SRNP-70198 (6♀, in BMNH, INBio), from same host as previous but collected 21.ii.2012, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0048965, 12-SRNP-70197 (9♀, in BMNH, CNC, INBio, USNM); ex A. bellinita eating Campyloneurum angustifolium, 20.x.2010, R. Calero, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042138, 10-SRNP-73132 (2♂, in INBio); 20.x.2010, R. Calero, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042136, 10-SRNP-73145 (2♂, in BMNH); ex A. aurifundensDHJ02 eating Polypodium fraxinifolium, 21.vi.2010, R. Calero, 10-SRNP-71891, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0040316 (7♀, in CNC, USNM); ex Lophomyra tacitaDHJ02 eating M. percussa, 15.ii.2010, R. Calero, 10-SRNP-70813, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039211 (1♀ 1♂, in INBio); ex L. tacita eating M. percussa, 11.iii.2013, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0052362, 13-SRNP-70422, (1♂, in BMNH); ex Noctuidae indet. eating C. angustifolium, 28.ii.2011, M. Rios, 11-SRNP-70529, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042398 (21♀ 3 ♂, in BMNH, CNC, INBio, MIUCR, USNM); 28.ii.2011, M. Rios, 11-SRNP-70530, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042522 (1♀ 1♂, in BMNH); 5.v.2011, R. Calero, 11-SRNP-71022, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0043271 (11♀ 1♂, in INBio, USNM); Quebradona: ex A. bellinita eating Niphidium oblanceolatum, 13.ii.2010, R. Calero, 10-SRNP-70785, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039207 (1♀ 1♂, in INBio); 13.ii.2010, R.Calero, 10-SRNP-70789, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039206 (1♀, in INBio); 15.iv.2010, R. Calero, 10-SRNP-71431, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039591 (11♀ 2♂, in BMNH, CNC, USNM); 15.iv.2010, R. Calero, 10-SRNP-71432, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039593 (1♀, in INBio); 15.iv.2010, R. Calero, 10-SRNP-71433, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039592 (1♀ 1♂, in BMNH); ex Noctuidae indet. eating M. percussa, 11.i.2011, D.Martinez, 11-SRNP-70083, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042127 (1♀, in INBio); Calma: ex A. bellinita eating N. oblanceolatum, 29.i.2010, M. Rios, 10-SRNP-70576, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0039218 (6♀, in CNC, USNM); ex L. tacita eating M. percussa, 26.xi.2010, R.Calero, 10-SRNP-73315, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0041745 (1♀ 1♂, in BMNH); Medrano: ex A. bellinitaDHJ01 eating P. fraxinifolium, 23.vi.2010, R. Calero, 10-SRNP-71904, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0040318 (8♀ 3♂, in CNC, INBio, USNM); Puntarenas: Monteverde, 1000–1350 m, 3–31.i.1993, Z. Fuentes, malaise trap, LN 250850/449250, #2584 (1♀, in INBio).

Diagnosis

Female with lower face black with a small very dark reddish-brown spot medially, undelimited from surrounding parts of frons (Fig. 258), male with median part of lower face predominantly yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 259); legs yellowish-brown to yellowish-white (Fig. 257); petiole 0.5× as long as wide; female gaster with 1st tergite dark brown with a yellowish-brown and inverted “T” medially (Fig. 260), male gaster with 1st tergite white with wide dark brown lateral margins and remaining tergites dark brown (Fig. 261); male antenna with scape with outer lateral surface yellowish-white and inner lateral surface pale brown, strongly swollen (Fig. 263), 1.4× as long as wide, with numerous sensory pores scattered all over the inner lateral surface.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum dark brown with ventral part of flagellomeres 1–3 yellowish-brown (Fig. 262). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face black with a small very dark reddish-brown spot medially, that is undelimited from surrounding parts of frons (Fig. 258). Frons close to eyes with an irregular row of setae that is double in parts (Fig. 268). Vertex with very weak reticulation, areas lateral to posterior ocelli smooth (Fig. 269). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 269).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 257). Mesoscutum with weak reticulation (Fig. 270). Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation (Fig. 270). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a deep groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 753), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation, smooth close to median carina (Fig. 753); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown with basal ⅓ of mid femur yellowish-white (Fig. 257). Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with one complete row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae in one row.

Gaster with 1st tergite dark brown with a yellowish-brown inverted “T” medially, remaining tergites dark brown (Fig. 260).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.9/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 8.4/4.1/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.0/4.3/3.0; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.7; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.8/7.0/2.5/1.6/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.5; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.7 mm. Scape with outer lateral surface yellowish-white and inner lateral surface pale brown, strongly swollen (Fig. 263); with entire inner lateral surface with sensory pores. Similar to female except antenna with flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-brown and 3–6 pale brown (Fig. 263), lower face with median part of lower face predominantly yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, and with lower face drawn out and pointed (Fig. 259), fore and mid legs predominantly yellowish-white, gaster shorter, 1st tergite white with wide dark brown lateral margins and remaining tergites dark brown (Fig. 261).

Ratios. LC/WS = 1.4; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larvae of Argyrosticta bellinita feeding on Campyloneurum brevifolium, C. angustifolium, Microgramma percussa, Microgramma 22028 and Niphidium oblanceolatum; A. bellinitaDHJ01 feeding on Polypodium fraxinifolium; A. vauaurea feeding on Phlebodium pseudoaureum; A. aurifundensDHJ02 feeding on P. fraxinifolium; Lophomyra tacita feeding on M. percussa; L. tacitaDHJ02 feeding on M. percussa; Noctuidae indet. feeding on C. angustifolium. All hosts are Noctuidae feeding on different species of Polypodiaceae. Parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela, Guanacaste and Puntarenas Provinces).

Etymology

This species is named after Ed O. Wilson, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus garygibsoni Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 162–165, 169–171, 424, 754

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Medrano, 1.ix.2010, R. Calero, ex Oxidercia thaumantis eating Machaerium salvadorense, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042124, 10-SRNP-72753” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 5♀: 1♀ with same label data as holotype (INBio), 4♀ with same data as holotype, but sibling of wasp DHJPAR0041821, 10-SRNP-72754 (CNC, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale part reaching to level of median toruli (Fig. 163); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 162); fore femur enlarged, 2.6× as long as wide (Fig. 162); hind tarsus laterally flattened with tarsomere 1 being the shortest (Fig. 424); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 164).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.7 mm. Antenna with scape, pedicel and 1st flagellomere yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 2–3 with basal ½ yellowish-brown and apical ½ dark brown, flagellomeres 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 165). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-brown. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale part reaching to level of median toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 163). Frons close to eyes with two irregular rows of setae (Fig. 169). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 170). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 170).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 162). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 0.8× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation (Fig. 171). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a deep groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 754), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 754); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 162). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two complete rows of setae, three rows in some places, and margin with six setae close to marginal vein; with 22 admarginal setae, mainly in one row but with two rows in apical ⅓.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 164).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 8.0/3.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.8; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.2/4.5/3.3; WH/WT = 0.9; PM/ST = 1.9; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.8/2.8/7.8/1.0/1.5/1.5/3.5; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Oxidercia thaumantis (Erebidae) feeding on Machaerium salvadorense (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is after Gary A. P. Gibson, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus gavinbroadi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 179–182, 186–188, 755

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Estación Pitilla, 8.viii.2011, C. Moraga, ex Antiblemma Poole22 eating Henriettea tuberculosa, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0045450, 11-SRNP-32227 (BMNH). PARATYPES: 3♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of median toruli (Fig. 180); dorsellum without groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 755); fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs predominantly yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-white (Fig. 179); petiole 1.3× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 181).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape, pedicel and 1st flagellomere yellowish-brown, 2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 182). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of median toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 180). Frons close to eyes with one sparse row of setae (Fig. 186). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 187). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 187).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 179). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide, with very weak reticulation (Fig. 188). Dorsellum without groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 755). Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 755); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs (Fig. 179): fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs predominantly yellowish-white; hind leg yellowish-white. Fore wing: costal cell with two complete rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with seven setae in apical ½; with 22 admarginal setae, mainly in one row but with three rows in apical ⅓.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 181).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.6/1.0/1.5; POL/OOL/POO = 4.0/2.1/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.1; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.1/4.3/3.4; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.4/6.7/1.6/1.3/1.0/2.2; LP/WP = 1.3; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Antiblemma Poole22 (Erebidae) feeding on Henriettea tuberculosa (Melastomataceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Gavin R. Broad, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus gerarddelvarei Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 196–199, 203–205, 756

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Quebradona, 11.i.2011, D. Martinez, ex Erinnyis alope eating Carica papaya, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042126, 11-SRNP-70078” (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face pale, medially yellowish-brown and laterally yellowish-white, with a narrow black stripe along eye margin (Fig. 197); fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 196); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 198).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.5 mm. Antenna with scape white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–3 dark brown with ventral part yellowish-brown, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 199). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face pale, medially yellowish-brown and laterally yellowish-white, with a narrow black stripe along eye margin (Fig. 197). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 203). Vertex smooth (Fig. 204). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 204).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 196). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 18 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation (Fig. 205). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 756), groove medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 756); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 196). Fore wing: submarginal vein with six setae; costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 27 admarginal setae, in two irregular rows.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 198).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 9.8/5.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.5/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.9; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = nm; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on intermediate instar larva of Erinnyis alope (Sphingidae) feeding on Carica papaya (Caricaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to cuticle of host larva.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Gerard Delvare, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus henrytownesi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 274–280, 285–287, 757

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 18.ix.2005, M. Rios, ex Thysanopyga cermala eating Gouania polygama, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028805, 05-SRNP-33942” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 11♀ 3♂: 5♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio, MZLU); following from same locality and host as holotype but collected 18.ix.2005, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028810, 05-SRNP-33946 (2♀ 1♂, in CNC), 12.ix.2006, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028862, 06-SRNP-34122 (4♀ 1♂, in BMNH, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale part reaching only to inner lateral margins of toruli (Figs 275, 276); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 274); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 277) or white (male, Fig. 278) spot, female with apex of gaster pale brown, in male dark brown; male antenna with scape expanded and widest slightly above the middle, 3.5× as long as wide (Fig. 280), flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.5 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 279). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale part reaching only to inner lateral margins of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 275). Frons close to eyes with three rows of setae (Fig. 285). Vertex smooth (Fig. 286). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 286).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 274). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 287). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 757), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 757); anteromedially with a semicircular cup that has posterior part strongly raised and distinctly higher than anterior part; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 274). Fore wing: costal cell with two irregular rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with eight setae in apical ½; with 16 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown with apex pale brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown spot (Fig. 277).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.9/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 4.0/2.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/5.0/3.8; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.4/5.8/2.0/1.2/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 2.1 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest slightly above the middle (Fig. 280), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae (Fig. 280); gaster shorter, and with apex dark brown (Fig. 278).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.5; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Thysanopyga cermala (Geometridae) feeding on Gouania polygama (Rhamnaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to cuticle of host larva.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Henry K. Townes, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus howelldalyi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 213–216, 220–222, 758

Material

Holotype a male labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Cacao, Quebrada Otilio, D. Garcia, ex Hemicephalis alesaDHJ01 eating Varronia inermis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028882, 06-SRNP-45315” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 14♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face predominantly white, pale area reaches almost to eyes (Fig. 214); scape slightly expanded and widest in apical part, 3.4× as long as wide (Fig. 216), sensory pores confined to apico-ventral part, this area is yellowish-brown; scutellum convex with very strong engraved reticulation (Fig. 222); legs yellowish-white (Fig. 213); petiole 0.8× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ⅔ white with anterolateral margins dark brown, margin broken medially by white stripe, posterior ⅓ dark brown (Fig. 215). With same host as E. donquickei, but male with less pointy lower face in E. howelldalyi.

Description

Male. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white with apex yellowish-brown, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–4 yellowish-brown, clava pale brown; scape slightly expanded and widest in apical part (Fig. 216), sensory pores confined to apico-ventral part, this area is yellowish-brown. Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face predominantly white, (Fig. 214), pale area reaches almost to eyes. Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 220). Vertex smooth (Fig. 221). Occipital margin with a strong carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 221).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 213). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with strong engraved reticulation (Fig. 222). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove, medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 758). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 758); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-white (Fig. 213). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 19 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ⅔ white with anterolateral margins dark brown, margin broken medially by white stripe, posterior ⅓ dark brown (Fig. 215).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 5.7/2.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.1; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/1.9/3.8/2.7; LC/WS = 3.4; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.6/2.5/6.7/2.5/1.3/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.1.

Female. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Hemicephalis alesaDHJ01 (Noctuidae) feeding on Varronia inermis (Boraginaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Howell V. Daly, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus hugokonsi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 24, 291–297, 302–304, 759

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa, Sendero Natural, 13.xi.1990, gusaneros, ex Dasylophia guarana eating Platymiscium parviflorum, no barcode, 90-SRNP-2035” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 2♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part white laterally and yellowish-brown medially, pale area reaching outside of level of outer lateral margins of toruli, with a black area the width of 1.5× the width of scape between pale area and eye margin (Figs 292, 293); vertex with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown; fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 291); dorsellum along anterior margin with a wide groove, medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 759); petiole 0.8× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-white (female, Fig. 294) or white (male, Fig. 295).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6–2.7 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–4 pale brown with ventral part yellowish-brown, 5–6 pale brown (Fig. 296). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, vertex with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown, lower face with median part white laterally and yellowish-brown medially, pale area reaching outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, with a black area the width of 1.5× the width of scape between pale area and eye margin (Fig. 292). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 302). Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, outside ocellar triangle smooth (Fig. 303). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 303).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 291). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with nine setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with engraved weak reticulation (Fig. 304). Dorsellum with a wide groove along anterior margin, medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 759). Propodeum with weak reticulation (Fig. 759); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs (Fig. 291): fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with two irregular and sparse rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 22 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-white ovate spot (Fig. 294).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.4/1.3/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 6.3/3.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.7/3.5; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.6/6.8/2.5/1.6/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest medially (Fig. 297), sensory pores confined to anteroventral ¾, sensory area pale brown. Otherwise similar to female except gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins (margins narrower than in female) (Fig. 295), and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.3; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on intermediate instar larva of Dasylophia guarana (Notodontidae) feeding on Platymiscium parviflorum (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Hugo Kons, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus iangauldi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 25, 308–314, 319–321, 760

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Quebrada Otilio, 10.ix.2004, H. Ramirez, ex Perigonia lusca eating Guettarda macrosperma, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028769, 04-SRNP-48716” (BMNH). Paratypes: 32♀ 15♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: 10♀ 11♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM); Sector del Oro, Uncaria: ex Perigonia lusca eating Uncaria tomentosa, 16.vi.2004, C. Moraga, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028740, 04-SRNP-22738 (11♀ 3♂, in BMNH, INBio, MIUCR); 24.viii.2006, R. Moraga, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028888, 06-SRNP-22585 (11♀ 1♂, in CNC, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Head dark brown, lower face with median part yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 309), or white (male, Fig. 310), pale area reaching slightly outside lateral margin of toruli; dorsellum with two large foveae anteriorly (Fig. 760); fore coxa white, hind femur with apical ½ pale brown, remaining parts of legs yellowish-white (Fig. 308); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 311, 312); male antenna with scape expanded, widest in the middle, and 2.7× as long as wide (Fig. 314), 1st flagellomere 3.1× as long as wide, narrow at base and expanded in apical ⅓.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.7 mm. Antenna with scape white, pedicel yellowish-white, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2–6 pale brown (Fig. 313). Mandibles and palpi white. Head dark brown and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside lateral margin of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes dark brown (Fig. 309). Frons close to eyes with two irregular rows of setae (Fig. 319). Vertex smooth (Fig. 320). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 320).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 308). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with rather strong reticulation (Fig. 321). Dorsellum anteriorly with two large foveae (Fig. 760). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 760); anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs (Fig. 308): fore coxa white, hind femur with apical ½ pale brown, remaining parts of legs yellowish-white. Fore wing: costal cell with two irregular rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 24 admarginal setae in irregular two rows.

Gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 311).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.6/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 7.4/4.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.9/5.0/3.3; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 2.1; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.7/2.9/7.6/2.4/1.9/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 2.4 mm. Scape white, slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 314), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔, sensory area white. Similar to female except antenna with 1st flagellomere longer, 3.1× as long as wide, narrow at base and expanded in apical ⅓ (Fig. 314), lower face with pale area white (Fig. 310), gaster shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.7; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Perigonia lusca (Sphingidae) feeding on Guettarda macrosperma and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to larva and leaf substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Ian D. Gauld, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus jacklonginoi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 325–331, 336–338, 761

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Estación Quica, 17.x.2009, C. Moraga et al., ex Mursa maricaDHJ01 eating Panicum pilosum, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0038559, 09-SRNP-73275” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 51♀ 11♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: Sector Pitilla: 37♀ 7♂ from same locality, host and date as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM); Medrano, 15.x.2012, R. Calero, ex M. maricaDHJ01 eating P. pilosum, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0051503, 12-SRNP-72275 (1♂, INBio), and sibling of wasp DHJPAR0051509, 12-SRNP-72279 (4♀, INBio), DHJPAR0051506, 12-SRNP-72280 (4♀ 1♂, INBio), DHJPAR0051508, 12-SRNP-72287 (6♀ 2♂, BMNH), DHJPAR0051507, 12-SRNP-72276 (1♀, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially dark reddish-brown and undelimited from surrounding parts of frons (female, Fig. 326) or yellowish-brown (male, Fig. 327), pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margins of toruli; scutellum smooth and shiny, laterally with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 338); legs yellowish-brown, female with tarsomere 4 on hind leg dark (Fig. 325); fore wing with short postmarginal vein, 1.2× as long as stigmal vein; petiole 0.7× as long as wide; female gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a narrow pale brown spot (Fig. 328), male with pale spot white and wider (Fig. 329); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.1× as long as wide, with sensory area dark brown (Fig. 331).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 dark brown dorsally and yellowish-brown ventrally, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 330). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially dark reddish-brown, pale area extending slightly outside level of lateral margins of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 326). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 336). Vertex smooth (Fig. 337). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 337).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 325). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; smooth and shiny, laterally with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 338). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 761), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 761); anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-brown with tarsomeres 1–2 on all legs dark brown (Fig. 325). Fore wing: costal cell with one complete row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 10 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a narrow pale brown spot (Fig. 328).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 5.7/3.1/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.6/3.5; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.2; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.3/2.9/7.4/3.0/1.6/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle, sensory pores confined to apicoventral ½, sensory area dark brown (Fig. 331). Otherwise similar to female except lower face with median part yellowish-brown (Fig. 327), gaster with pale spot white and wider (Fig. 329), and gaster shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.1; MM/LG = 1.1.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Mursa maricaDHJ01 (Noctuidae) feeding on Panicum pilosum (Poaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to cuticle of host larva and leaf substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Jack T. Longino, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus jesusugaldei Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 230–233, 237–239, 762

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Horizones, 28.ix.1997, gusaneros, ex Tarachidia bicolorata eating Heliotropium indicum, no barcode, 97-SRNP-9370” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 3♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio). Note: all paratypes are broken.

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part reddish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 231); scutellum with very weak and engraved reticulation, hence shiny (Fig. 239); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 230); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster reddish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 232).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 233). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part reddish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 231). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 237). Vertex smooth outside ocellar triangle, with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle (Fig. 238). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 238).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 230). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with ten setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation and hence shiny (Fig. 239). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove, medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 762). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 762); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 11 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 230). Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 16 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster reddish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 232).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.7/1.0/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 5.8/3.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.6; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.0/3.2; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.5/6.9/2.4/1.5/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Tarachidia bicolorata (Noctuidae) feeding on Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Jesus A. Ugalde-Gomez, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus jimwhitfieldi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 342–348, 353–355, 763

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Cacao, Sendero a Maritza, 19.viii.2010, M. Pereira, ex Ctenoplusia oxygramma eating Baccharis trinervis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042135, 10-SRNP-35841” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 7♀ 5♂: 6♀ 5♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM); 1♀ from Guanacaste, Estación Cacao, LN 323100/375800, 1000-1400 m, 1-9.ii.1996, malaise trap, A. Masis (INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching half-way between level of lateral margin of toruli and eyes (Figs 343, 344); scutellum with very weak engraved reticulation and with distinctly elongate meshes (Fig. 355); dorsellum along anterior margin with a very wide groove reaching ½ the length of dorsellum, groove is divided by longitudinal carinae, and with posterior margin of groove strongly protruding upwards (Fig. 763); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 342); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; female gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, and with a dark brown median spot or band (Fig. 345), male gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 346); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle, 3.5× as long as wide (Fig. 348).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 347). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching half-way between level of lateral margin of toruli and eyes, part between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 343). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae, upper part of row moved away from eye margin (Fig. 353). Vertex smooth (Fig. 354). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 354).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 342). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 10 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation and with distinctly elongate meshes (Fig. 355). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a very wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae, groove medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum, and with posterior margin of groove strongly protruding upwards (Fig. 763). Propodeum with very weak reticulation and partly smooth (Fig. 763); anteromedially with a transverse circular cup; propodeal callus with 12 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 342). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 12 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, and with a dark brown median spot or band (Fig. 345).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.6/1.1/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 5.0/3.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.5/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.7/2.5/6.7/2.7/1.4/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 2.0 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle (Fig. 348), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ½, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except gaster shorter and anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 346).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.5; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Ctenoplusia oxygramma (Noctuidae) feeding on Baccharis trinervis (Asteraceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Jim B. Whitfield, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus jjrodriguezae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 247–250, 254–256, 764

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Horizontes, La Dama, 2.ix.1994, gusaneros, ex Ozarba geta eating Dyschoriste quadrangularis, no barcode, 94-SRNP-7129” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 2♀ with same label data as holotype (INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area extending slightly outside of outer lateral margin of toruli (Fig. 248); scutellum with very weak and engraved reticulation and smooth medially, hence shiny (Fig. 256); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 247); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ brown with a dark brown round spot medially (Fig. 249).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 250). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area extending slightly outside of outer lateral margin of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 248). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 254). Vertex smooth outside ocellar triangle, with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle (Fig. 255). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 255).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 247). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with seven setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, smooth medially, hence shiny (Fig. 256). Dorsellum with a groove in anterior part that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 764), groove medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 764); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 12 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 247). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ brown with a dark brown round spot medially (Fig. 249).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 5.3/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.7/4.6/3.5; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.3/1.8/6.0/1.7/1.3/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Ozarba geta (Noctuidae) feeding on Dyschoriste quadrangularis (Acanthaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Josephine J. Rodriguez, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus johnheratyi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 359–365, 370–372, 765

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 10.vi.2005, C. Moraga, ex Cropia rivulosa eating Cordia bicolor, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028817, 05-SRNP-32014” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 5♀ 3♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 360) or white (male, Fig. 361) with median part pale brown, pale area reaching slightly outside level of lateral margins of toruli; scutellum with distinctly elongate meshes (Fig. 372); dorsellum along anterior margin with a very wide groove, 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum, surface behind groove with a median carina (Fig. 765); legs yellowish-brown in female (Fig. 359), paler in male; propodeum anteromedially with a triangular cup that has posterior part strongly raised and distinctly higher than anterior part (Fig. 765); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster in anterior ½ yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 362) or white (male, Fig. 363) with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.5× as long as wide, sensory area yellowish-brown and slightly darker than scape (Fig. 365).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.8 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½ and yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–3 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 364). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown with median part pale brown, reaching slightly outside level of lateral margin of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 360). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 370). Vertex smooth (Fig. 371). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 371).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 359). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation and with distinctly elongate meshes (Fig. 372). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a very wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae, groove 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum, surface behind groove with a median carina (Fig. 765). Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 765); anteromedially with a transverse circular cup that has posterior part strongly raised and is distinctly higher than anterior part; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 359). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae in basal ⅔ and one row in apical ⅓, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster in anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 362).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 7.2/4.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.6/3.4; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.5/6.7/2.7/1.5/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 365), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area yellowish-brown and slightly darker than scape. Otherwise similar to female except lower face with pale part white (Fig. 361), legs paler, petiole longer, gaster shorter and with lateral parts of pale area white (Fig. 363).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.5; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.5.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Cropia rivulosa (Noctuidae) feeding on Cordia bicolor (Boraginaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after John M. Heraty, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus johnlasallei Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 31, 376–382, 387–389, 766

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Colocho, 21.ii.2007, C. Moraga, ex Sericochroa Janzen01 eating Vochysia guatemalensis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028927, 07-SRNP-31411” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 15♀ 2♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Figs 377, 378); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 376); propodeum with a wide median carina (Fig. 766); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 379) or white (male, Fig. 380) spot; male antenna with scape expanded and widest slightly above the middle, 2.2× as long as wide, narrow at base and apex (Fig. 382), sensory pores scattered all over outer lateral surface.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2 dark brown dorsally and yellowish-brown ventrally, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 381). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli, parts outside level of lateral margin of toruli and eyes black (Fig. 377). Frons close to eyes with one sparse row of setae (Fig. 387). Vertex smooth (Fig. 388). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 388).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 376). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 389). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove, medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 766). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 766); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 376). Fore wing: costal cell with two irregular rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 17 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster in anterior ½ with a yellowish-brown spot and with lateral margins dark brown, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 379).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.9/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 4.9/3.6/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.7; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.0/5.2/4.0; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.9/3.1/6.9/2.6/1.6/1.0/1.4; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 2.0 mm. Scape white, expanded and widest slightly above the middle (Figs 382), narrow at base and apex, sensory pores scattered all over outer lateral surface. Otherwise similar to female.

Ratio. LC/WS = 2.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larva of Sericochroa Janzen01 (Notodontidae) feeding on Vochysia guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after John La Salle, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus johnnoyesi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 17, 393–399, 404–406, 581, 767

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 1.xi.2007, P. Rios, ex Gonodonta sinaldus eating Cissampelos pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028699, 07-SRNP-33766” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 16♀ 10♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Alajuela: Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa: 3♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio); 17.x.2006, P. Rios, ex Oraesia serpens eating Cissampelos pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028863, 06-SRNP-34907 (2♀ 1♂, in INBio); 18.x.2007, M. Rios, ex Gonodonta sinaldus eating C. pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028952, 07-SRNP-33589 (1♀ 1♂, in CNC); 11.vii.2008, M. Rios, ex Gonodonta holosericea eating C. pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0031154, 08-SRNP-31542 (1♀, in INBio); Sector Pitilla, Coneja: 17.vii.2005, C. Moraga, ex Gonodonta sicheas eating C. pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028807, 05-SRNP-32687 (3♀ 1♂, in BMNH); 6.xi.2005, P. Rios, ex G. holosericea eating C. pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028834, 05-SRNP-34610 (1♀ 1♂, in MIUCR); 6.xi.2005, P. Rios, ex G. holosericea on C. pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028823, 05-SRNP-34616 (3♂, in BMNH, INBio); 11.x.2007, M. Rios, ex G. sinaldus eating C. pareira, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028954, 07-SRNP-33516 (1♀ 1♂, in USNM); 1.xi.2006, M. Rios, ex Oraesia serpens on C. tropaeolifolia, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028858, 06-SRNP-65085 (4♀ 1♂, in BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face entirely yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 394) or white (male, Fig. 395), pale part not reaching hypostomal carina and with area close to mouth cavity dark (Fig. 581); fore coxa yellowish-white, remaining fore leg and mid and hind legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 393); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ yellowish-white (female, Fig. 396) or white (male, Fig. 397) with dark brown lateral margins; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.6× as long as wide (Fig. 399), flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 398). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, entire lower face yellowish-brown with median part darker (Fig. 394). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 404). Vertex smooth (Fig. 405). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 405).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 393). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 20 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 406). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a very narrow groove (Fig. 767), medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 767); anteromedially with a semicircular cup that has posterior part strongly raised and is distinctly higher than anterior part; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs (Fig. 393): fore coxa yellowish-white, remaining fore leg and mid and hind legs yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae in basal ⅔ and one row in apical ⅓, and margin with six setae close to marginal vein; with 16 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 396).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.4; POL/OOL/POO = 4.9/2.9/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.5/3.2; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.4/6.4/2.0/1.4/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 399), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae (Fig. 399); entire lower face white (Fig. 395); scutellum with posterior ¼ smooth; gaster shorter and with pale part white.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.6; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on various instars of Gonodonta holosericea, G. sicheas, G. sinaldus, Oraesia serpens (all are Erebidae), feeding on Cissampelos pareira and C. tropaeolifolia (Menispermaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after John S. Noyes, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Remarks

Euplectrus johnnoyesi is morphologically identical to E. sydneycameronae, but differs in the barcode and biology. See remarks under E. sydneycameronae.

Euplectrus josefernandezi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 32–33, 410–416, 421–423, 768

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector San Cristobal, Quebrada Cementerio, 18.vi.2007, G. Sihezar, ex Euglyphis jessiehillae eating Nectandra hihua, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028908, 07-SRNP-2713” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 83♀ 7♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: Sector San Cristobal: 42♀ 5♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM); Sendero Pinyal, 17.vi.2006, O. Espinoza, ex Euglyphis jessiehillae eating Nectandra hihua, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028874, 06-SRNP-4798 (41♀ 2♂, in BMNH, CNC, INBio, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially very dark reddish-brown - almost black (female, Fig. 411), or yellowish-brown (male, Fig. 412), pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli; legs yellowish-brown to yellowish-white (Fig. 410); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; female gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a narrow pale brown spot (Fig. 413), in male with pale spot wider, with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 414); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.5× as long as wide (Fig. 416).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 415). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially very dark reddish-brown - almost black, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 411). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 421). Vertex smooth (Fig. 422). Occipital margin with a carina (Fig. 422).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 410). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 423). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 768), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 768); anteromedially with a triangular cup that has posterior part strongly raised and distinctly higher than anterior part; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 410). Fore wing: costal cell with one complete row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a narrow yellowish-brown spot (Fig. 413).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 3.6/2.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.0/5.1/3.6; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.5/2.8/6.8/2.8/1.5/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 416), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except lower face with median part yellowish-brown (Fig. 412); fore and mid legs yellowish-white; gaster with pale spot wider, reaching to dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 414), and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.5; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Euglyphis jessiehillae (Lasiocampidae) feeding on Nectandra hihua (Lauraceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to leaf substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Jose Fernandez-Triana, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus lubomirmasneri Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 29–30, 428–434, 435–437, 769

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 3.xi.2004, M. Rios, ex Pseudoplusia includens eating Acalypha macrostachya, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028760, 04-SRNP-56044” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 36♀ 7♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa: 19♀ 4♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM); 29.vii.2005, P. Rios, ex P. includens eating Acalypha macrostachya, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028822, 05-SRNP-32941 (17♀ 2♂, in BMNH, CNC, INBio, MIUCR, USNM); 1.xii.2008, P. Rios, ex Cecharismena zoum eating A. macrostachya, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0030530, 08-SRNP-32998 (1♂, in INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face black, median part very dark reddish-brown, almost black (Fig. 429); mandibles dark brown; fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 428); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster in anterior ½ with a yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 431) or white (male, Fig. 432) spot and with lateral margins dark brown, posterior ½ dark brown; male antenna with scape narrow and widest above the middle, 3.6× as long as wide (Fig. 434).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.9 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 433). Mandibles dark brown and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face black with median part very dark reddish-brown, almost black, not delimited from surrounding parts of frons (Fig. 429). Frons close to eyes with one sparse row of setae, row moving away from eye in upper part (Fig. 435). Vertex smooth (Fig. 436). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 436).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 428). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 437). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a very narrow groove (Fig. 769), medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 769); anteromedially with a triangular cup with posterior part strongly raised and distinctly higher than anterior part; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs (Fig. 428): fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with one complete row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with seven setae close to marginal vein; with 18 admarginal setae, in one row in the middle, in two rows at base and apically.

Gaster in anterior ½ yellowish-brown with wide dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 431).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 7.0/3.7/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.6/3.2; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 2.0; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.4/6.0/1.9/1.3/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape narrow and widest above the middle (Figs 434), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔, sensory area pale as scape. Similar to female except pale spot on gaster is white (Fig. 432).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.6.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larvae of Pseudoplusia includens feeding on Acalypha macrostachya, Cecharismena zoum feeding on Acalypha macrostachya (Euphorbiaceae), (both hosts are Noctuidae). Parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Lubo Masner, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus markshawi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 264–267, 271–273, 770

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa, Quebrada Costa Rica, 12.vi.2006, D. Rivera, ex Cargida pyrrha eating Colubrina elliptica, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028896, 06-SRNP-16286” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 2♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown, slightly darker medially, pale area reaching outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, with a black area the width of width of scape between pale area and eye margin (Fig. 265); scutellum with a small hump posteromedially and reticulate with elongate meshes, scutellum hence appearing striate (Fig. 273); dorsellum anteriorly with a wide groove, 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 770); legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa pale brown (Fig. 257); petiole 0.6× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ difficult to see on specimens because apical segments are retracted (Fig. 266). Very similar to Euplectrus ivonae, differs in having first tarsomere longer (LT/LT1 = 2.5; = 3.0 in E. ivonae), petiole shorter (LP/WP = 0.6; = 0.8 in E. ivonae), and with hind coxae darker.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½, yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–3 dark brown dorsally and yellowish-brown ventrally, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 267). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown, slightly darker medially, pale area reaching outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, with a black area the width of width of scape between pale area and eye margin (Fig. 265). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 271). Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, outside triangle smooth (Fig. 272). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 272).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 264). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 14 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with rather strong engraved reticulation, meshes elongate and scutellum appearing striate, in posteromedian ½ with a small hump (Fig. 273). Dorsellum anteriorly with a wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 770), groove medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 770); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa pale brown (Fig. 264). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 16 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ difficult to see on specimens (Fig. 266).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 4.8/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.7; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.3/3.5; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.6/2.6/7.4/3.0/1.5/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.6; MM/LG = not measurable, gaster with retracted apical segments.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Cargida pyrrha (Notodontidae) feeding on Colubrina elliptica (Rhamnaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Mark R. Shaw, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus mikegatesi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 438–440, 441–447, 771

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector Brasilia, Piedrona, 21.vi.2008, D. Briceno, ex Antiblemma amarga eating Vochysia ferruginea, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0031184, 08-SRNP-65612” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 8♀ 1♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Alajuela: 5♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio, MZLU); Guanacaste: Sector Pitilla, Quebradona, 11.iii.2013, R. Calero, ex Antiblemma amarga eating Vochysia guatemalensis, sibling wasp of DHJPAR0054879, 13-SRNP-70421 (3♀, in CNC, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Figs 442, 443); fore wing with four setae on dorsal surface of submarginal vein; dorsellum anteriorly with a very narrow groove (Fig. 771); fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 441); petiole 1.2× as long as wide; female gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown, posterior ½ reddish-brown, entire gaster with dark brown narrow lateral margins (Fig. 444), male gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 445); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.1× as long as wide (Fig. 447).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–3 pale brown, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 446). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 442). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 438). Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, smooth outside (Fig. 439). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 439).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 441). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with ten setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 440). Dorsellum anteriorly with a very narrow groove (Fig. 771), medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 771); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs (Fig. 441): fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 11 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown, posterior ½ reddish-brown, entire gaster with dark brown narrow lateral margins (Fig. 444).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.5/1.0/1.4; POL/OOL/POO = 5.3/2.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.9; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.0/4.0/3.0; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.1/1.8/5.5/1.3/1.3/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 1.2; MM/LG = 1.4.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 447), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 445), and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.1; MM/LG = 1.5.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Antiblemma amarga (Erebidae) feeding on Vochysia ferruginea and V. guatemalensis (Vochysiaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Mike W. Gates, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus mikeschauffi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 26, 453–459, 772

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, San Cristobal, Puente Palma, 28.vi.2011, E. Araya, ex Enyo ocypete eating Tetracera hydrophila, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0045452, 11-SRNP-2500” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 61♀ 6♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: 25♀ 3♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM); Sector Pitilla, Ingas, 20.vi.2011, M. Rios, ex E. ocypete eating Davilla nitida, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0045456, 11-SRNP-31737 (36♀ 3♂, in BMNH, CNC, INBio, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margin of toruli (Figs 454, 455); fore and mid coxae yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 453); dorsellum with a row of foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 772); propodeum with a wide median carina (Fig. 772); petiole 1.0× as long as wide in female, 0.8× in male; gaster in anterior ½ with median part yellowish-white and lateral parts black, posterior ½ black (Figs 456, 457); male antenna with scape enlarged, widest in the middle, and 2.5× as long as wide (Fig. 459).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.9 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 458). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margin of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 454). Frons with two irregular rows of setae (Fig. 464). Vertex smooth (Fig. 465). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 465).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 453). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with rather weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 466). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a row of foveae (Fig. 772). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 772); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs (Fig. 453): fore and mid coxae yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with two irregular rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 21 admarginal setae, in basal ½ in one row and in apical ½ in two rows.

Gaster in anterior ½ with median part yellowish-white and lateral parts black, posterior ½ black (Fig. 456).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.9/1.1/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 6.7/3.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.7/4.8/3.6; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 2.1; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.3/2.8/7.3/2.0/1.8/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape white, enlarged and widest in the middle (Fig. 459), sensory pores confined to apicolateral ¾ on outside facing surface, sensory area white. Similar to female except shorter petiole and gaster.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.5; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larva of Enyo ocypete (Sphingidae) feeding on Tetracera hydrophila and Davilla nitida (Dilleniaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Mike E. Schauff, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus mikesharkeyi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 19, 467–469, 470–476, 773

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector El Hacha, Estación Los Almendros, 11.ix.2008, R. Moraga, ex Perigea berindaDHJ02 eating Lepidaploa tortuosa, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0030516, 08-SRNP-23276” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 19♀ 4♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: 2♀ 3♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio); Sector Pitilla: Pasmompa, 28.i.2006, M. Rios, ex Perigea berindaDHJ02 eating Lepidaploa tortuosa, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028869, 06-SRNP-30731 (4♀, in CNC, USNM); Sector Cacao: Sendero a Maritza, D. Garcia, 1.ix.2010, ex Perigea micrippia eating Lepidaploa tortuosa, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042134, 10-SRNP-36122 (10♀ 1♂, in BMNH, INBio, MZLU, USNM); Sendero a Maritza, 22.ix.2010, D. Garcia, ex P. micrippia eating Lepidaploa tortuosa, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0042131, 10-SRNP-36497 (3♀, in CNC, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown with median part pale brown (female, Fig. 471), or white with median part yellowish-brown (male, Fig. 472), pale area reaching slightly outside of level of lateral margins of toruli; scutellum reticulate with distinctly elongate meshes and medially with several short longitudinal carinae (Fig. 469); dorsellum anteriorly with two large foveae (alternately with a wide groove that is divided by a median carina) (Fig. 773); legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa and hind femur darker (Fig. 470), male with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white; petiole 0.8× as long as wide; female gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 473), male gaster with anterior ½ white and with posterior ½ completely dark brown (Fig. 474); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest slightly above the middle, 3.3× as long as wide (Fig. 476), with sensory area brown.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown with base yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–3 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 475). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown with median part pale brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of level of lateral margins of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 471). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 467). Vertex smooth (Fig. 468). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 468).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 470). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation with distinctly elongate meshes; medially with several short longitudinal carinae (Fig. 469). Dorsellum anteriorly with two large foveae (alternately with a wide groove that is divided by a median carina) (Fig. 773). Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 773); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 11 setae. Legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa and hind femur darker (Fig. 470). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, and margin without setae; with 17 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 473).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 5.1/2.5/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.7/3.6; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.7/7.1/2.6/1.5/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 2.0 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest slightly above the middle (Fig. 476), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ½ and this area is brown. Otherwise similar to female except lower face with pale parts paler (Fig. 472), fore and mid coxae yellowish-white; gaster shorter, with anterior ½ white and entire posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 474).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.3; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Perigea berindaDHJ02 and P. micrippia (Noctuidae), both feeding on Lepidaploa tortuosa (Asteraceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Mike J. Sharkey, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus ninazitaniae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 281–284, 288–290, 774

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Cuestona, 8.ii.2004, M. Rios, ex Antapistis Poole10 eating Anthurium consobrinum, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028735, 04-SRNP-30603” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 3♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face black (Fig. 282); antenna long and slender (Fig. 284), flagellum 3.3× as long as height of eye; mandibles dark brown; dorsellum anteromedially with two large foveae (Fig. 774); legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 281); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown T-shaped spot and with base of T pointed (Fig. 283).

Description

Female. Length of body 3.1 mm. Antenna long and slender (Fig. 284), flagellum 3.3× as long as height of eye; scape yellowish-white with apex yellowish-brown, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum dark brown. Mandibles dark brown, palpi yellowish-white. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 282). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 288). Vertex smooth (Fig. 289). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 289).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 281). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with seven setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 290). Dorsellum anteromedially with two large foveae (Fig. 774). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 774); anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 281). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with eight setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown T-shaped spot and with base of T pointed (Fig. 283).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.9/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 4.4/2.7/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.0; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.2/4.4/3.2; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.7; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.6/2.2/5.8/1.6/1.4/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.2.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Antapistis Poole10 (Erebidae) feeding on Anthurium consobrinum (Araceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Nina M. Zitani, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus pammitchellae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 298–301, 305–307, 775

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Leonel, 3.i.2010, R. Calero, ex Bagisara pacifica eating Sida glomerata, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0038580, 10-SRNP-70029” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 4♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown medially and yellowish-white laterally, pale area reaching slightly outside of level of lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 299); fore coxa yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore leg and entire mid and hind legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 298); dorsellum with a wide groove along anterior margin, groove is medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 775); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with tergites 5–6 reddish-brown (Fig. 300).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–4 dark brown with ventral part yellowish-brown, 5–6 dark brown (Fig. 301). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown medially and yellowish-white laterally, pale area reaching slightly outside of level of lateral margins of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 299). Frons close to eyes with two irregular rows of setae (Fig. 305). Vertex smooth (Fig. 306). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 306).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 298). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 17 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide, with very weak reticulation (Fig. 307). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 775), groove medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 775); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs (Fig. 298): fore coxa yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore leg and entire mid and hind legs yellowish-brown. Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with two irregular and sparse rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with tergites 5–6 reddish-brown (Fig. 300).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 5.9/3.1/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.5/3.5; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.3/2.0/6.0/1.6/1.2/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Bagisara pacifica (Noctuidae) feeding on Sida glomerata (Malvaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Pamela A. Mitchell, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus paulhansoni Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 479–485, 489–491, 776

Material

Holotype a female labeled “ COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sendero Cuestona, 8.viii.2004, C. Moraga, ex Rejectaria splendida eating Asplundia microphylla, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028775, 04-SRNP-34368” (BMNH). Paratypes: 17♀ 5♂: COSTA RICA: Alajuela: San Cristobal, LN 318056/383200, 600-620 m, 23.i–23.ii.1996, malaise trap, F.A. Quesada (1♀, in INBio), 23.ii-25.ii.1996 (1♀, in BMNH), 25.ii–16.iv.1996 (1♀, in INBio); Guanacaste: 4♀ 4♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, USNM); Chon, 25.xi.2009, E. Cantillano, ex Rejectaria Janzen06 eating Bolbitis portoricensis, 09-SRNP-23523, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0038561 (1♀ 1♂, in MZLU); Finca Marcos Morales, 1100-1200 m, LN 317750/594800, 28.vi-5.vii.1995, M. Segura, malaise trap (2♀, in INBio); Heredia: 3 km S Puerto Viejo, OTS-La Selva, 100 m, 2.i.1996, malaise trap (1♀, in INBio); Puntarenas: Monteverde, 1000-1350 m, LN 250850/449250, Z. Fuentes, malaise trap, 3-31.i.1993 (2♀, in BMNH), ii.1993 (2♀, in INBio), vii.1993 (2♀, in CNC, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face black (Fig. 480); mandibles dark yellowish-brown to brown; fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg with coxa dark brown, femur, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown (Fig. 479); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ dark brown with a white marking shaped like an hour-glass with distal part wider than basal part, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 482, 483); male scape slightly enlarged (Fig. 485), widest medially, 3.3× as long as wide.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum dark brown (Fig. 484). Mandibles dark yellowish-brown to brown and palpi yellowish-white. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 480). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 489). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 490). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 490).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 479). Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation, median part partly smooth (Fig. 491). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a deep groove that is divided by three weak longitudinal carinae (Fig. 776), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth and shiny (Fig. 776); anteromedially with a semicircular cup that is strongly raised in posterior part; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs (Fig. 479): fore and mid legs yellowish-white; hind leg with coxa dark brown, femur, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with one complete row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with seven setae in apical ½; with 23 admarginal setae, in basal ½ in one row in apical ½ in two rows.

Gaster with anterior ½ dark brown with a white marking shaped like an hour-glass with distal part wider than basal part, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 482).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.1/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 9.0/5.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.6/4.7/3.6; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.7; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.2/6.4/2.0/2.3/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape yellowish-brown, slightly enlarged, widest medially, with sensory pores limited to apical ⅔ of ventral margin, sensory area yellowish-brown (Fig. 485). Similar to female except shorter gaster.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.3; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larvae of Rejectaria splendida (Erebidae) feeding on Asplundia microphylla (Cyclanthaceae), R. Janzen06 feeding on Bolbitis portoricensis (Lomariopsidaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela, Guanacaste, Heredia and Puntarenas Provinces).

Etymology

This species is named after Paul E. Hanson, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus paulheberti Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 5, 495–501, 506–508, 582, 777

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Santa Rosa, Area Administrativa, 8.x.2013, W. Hallwachs, ex Aellopos clavipes eating Randia aculeata, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0053133, 13-SRNP-10107” (BMNH). Paratypes: 8♀ 2♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face completely pale, in female medially yellowish-brown and laterally yellowish-white (Fig. 496), in male white (Fig. 497); fore and mid legs yellowish-white; hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 495); petiole 1.0× as long as wide in female, 0.8× in male; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with lateral margins dark brown posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 498); male scape slightly enlarged (Fig. 501), widest medially, 2.9× as long as wide.

Description

Female. Length of body 1.8 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 500). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face completely pale, medially yellowish-brown and laterally yellowish-white (Fig. 496). Frons close to eyes with a row of setae (Fig. 506). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 507). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 507).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 495). Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation (Fig. 508). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a deep groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 777), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation partly smooth (Fig. 777); anteromedially with a semicircular cup that is strongly raised in posterior part; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs (Fig. 495): fore and mid legs yellowish-white; hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with lateral margins dark brown posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 498).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 5.9/3.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.3/3.0; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.7/3.8/8.4/3.3/1.8/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Length of body 1.5 mm. Scape slightly enlarged, widest medially, with sensory pores limited to apical ⅔ of ventral margin, sensory area yellowish-white (Fig. 501). Similar to female except lower face white (Fig. 497), and shorter petiole and gaster.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.9; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.5.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on second instar larva of Aellopos clavipes (Sphingidae) feeding on Randia aculeata (Rubiaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Paul D. N. Hebert, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus paulhurdi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 512–518, 526–528, 778

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Cacao, Quebrada Otilio, 7.xi.2066, D. Garcia, ex Tagela cayuga eating Cupania guatemalensis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028878, 06-SRNP-48034” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 1♀ 2♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 513) or white (male, Fig. 514), pale area reaching slightly outside of level of outer margins of toruli; female with legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 512), male legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and hind femur slightly darker; petiole 0.8× as long as wide in female, 1.0× in male; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 515) or white (male, Fig. 516) spot; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.3× as long as wide (Fig. 518).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.9 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown with base yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-brown, 3 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 517). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown with pale area reaching slightly outside of level of outer margins of toruli, part between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 513). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 526). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 527). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 527).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 512). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 528). Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 778), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 778); anteromedially with a transverse triangular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 512). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-brown spot (Fig. 515).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 6.2/3.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.5/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.4/6.0/2.2/1.3/1.0/1.2; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.2.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape white and slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 518), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except lower face with pale part yellowish-white (Fig. 514), legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and hind femur slightly darker; petiole longer; gaster shorter and with pale part white (Fig. 516).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.3; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larva of Tagela cayuga (Notodontidae) feeding on Cupania guatemalensis (Sapindaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Paul D. Hurd, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus philwardi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 519–525, 529–531, 779

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector San Cristobal, Puente Palma, 25.v.2006, E. Araya, ex Deinopa signiplena eating Swartzia costaricensis, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028876, 06-SRNP-4161” (BMNH). PARATYPE: 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of median toruli (Figs 520, 521); dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 779); fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 519); petiole 1.1× as long as wide in female, 1,3× in male; gaster dark brown with a ±T-shaped yellowish-white spot in anterior ½ (female, Fig. 522), or with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (male, Fig. 523); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.9× as long as wide (Fig. 518).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.8 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown with base yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 524). Mandibles yellowish-brown, palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of median toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 520). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 529). Vertex smooth (Fig. 530). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 530).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 519). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 531). Dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 779). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 779); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs (Fig. 519): fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with six setae close to marginal vein; with 16 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown with a ±T-shaped yellowish-white spot in anterior ½ (Fig. 522).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.6/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 4.4/2.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.0; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.5/3.4; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.8; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.4/6.7/2.4/1.4/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 1.1; MM/LG = 1.4.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 525), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except petiole longer; gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 523).

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.9; LP/WP = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larva of Deinopa signiplena (Noctuidae) feeding on Swartzia costaricensis (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Phil S. Ward, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus robbinthorpi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 532–538, 546–548, 780

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector Brasilia, Piedrona, 6.xii.2007, L. Rios, ex Olethreutes Brown20 eating Inga oerstediana, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0023276, 07-SRNP-66139” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 3♀ 2♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part reddish-brown (female, Fig. 533) or yellowish-brown (male, Fig. 534), pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli; legs yellowish-brown with fore coxa yellowish-white (Fig. 532); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white (female, Fig. 535) or white (male, Fig. 536) with wide dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.9× as long as wide (Fig. 538).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.9 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum dark brown (Fig. 537). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 533). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 546). Vertex smooth (Fig. 547). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 547).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 532). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with nine setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 548). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 780), groove medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 780); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore coxa yellowish-white (Fig. 532). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with wide dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 535).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.2/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 8.8/5.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.4/3.5; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.6/2.4/5.6/1.6/1.4/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.4.

Male. Length of body 1.5 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 538), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except median part of lower face yellowish-brown (Fig. 534), gaster shorter and with pale part white (Fig. 536).

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.9; MM/LG = 1.6.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Olethreutes Brown20 (Tortricidae) feeding on Inga oerstediana (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate. There remains some doubt as to whether this caterpillar was correctly identified, and only further host records will determine that.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Robbin W. Thorp, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus ronaldzunigai Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 315–318, 322–324, 781

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 15.vii.2005, C. Moraga, ex Antiblemma Poole03 eating Miconia impetiolaris, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028824, 05-SRNP-32613” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 7♀: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa: 2♀ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio); following from same host as holotype but collected 25.vii.2005, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0045454, 11-SRNP-32077 (1♀, INBio) and DHJPAR0045455, 11-SRNP-32079 (1♀, CNC), 25.vii.2011, DHJPAR0045455, 11-SRNP-32079 (3♀, BMNH, MZLU, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face black with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Fig. 316); dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 781); legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and apical ¾ of hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 315); petiole 1.2× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 317).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–3 pale brown, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 318). Mandibles yellowish-white, palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Fig. 316). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 322). Vertex smooth (Fig. 323). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 323).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 315). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 324). Dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 781). Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 781); anteromedially with a very short and wide semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and apical ¾ of hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 315). Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 317).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 4.7/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.6; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.7/4.8/3.7; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.7; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.4/6.4/1.8/1.4/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 1.2; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Antiblemma Poole03 (Erebidae) feeding on Miconia impetiolaris (Melastomataceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to leaf substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Ronald Zuñiga, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus roysnellingi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 332–335, 339–341, 782

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Amonias, 20.ix.2007, P. Rios, ex Letis mycerina eating Inga oerstediana, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028972, 07-SRNP-33368” (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale part reaching slightly outside of level of outer lateral margin of toruli (Fig. 333); fore and mid coxae yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 332); scutellum 0.8× as long as wide with slightly elongate meshes, very posteromedian part with transverse meshes (Fig. 341); dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 782); propodeum anteromedially with a transverse triangular cup, median carina on propodeum wide (Fig. 782); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-white spot (Fig. 334), and with tergites 5–6 reddish-brown posteromedially.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½ and yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–4 dark brown with ventral part yellowish-brown, 5–6 dark brown (Fig. 335). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part yellowish-brown, pale part reaching slightly outside of level of outer lateral margin of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 333). Frons close to eyes with one irregular row of setae (Fig. 339). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 340). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 340).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 332). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 0.8× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation, meshes slightly elongate (Fig. 341). Dorsellum without a groove or foveae along anterior margin (Fig. 782). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 782); anteromedially with a strongly transverse triangular cup that is 0.3× as long as wide; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs (Fig. 332): fore and mid coxa yellowish-white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs and entire hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with two irregular and sparse rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 21 admarginal setae, partly in two rows.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a large yellowish-white spot (Fig. 334), and with tergites 5–6 reddish-brown posteromedially.

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.6/1.0/1.4; POL/OOL/POO = 5.0/3.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.0/3.7/2.8; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.9; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.2/8.0/2.4/1.9/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on second instar larva of Letis mycerina (Erebidae) feeding on Inga oerstediana (Fabaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Roy R. Snelling, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Remarks

The barcode from the single available specimen from this sample (DHJPAR0028972) is very similar to the barcode of DHJPAR0023280 (Suppl. material 1). Specimens from DHJPAR0023280 are included under the description of E. daveroubiki. Specimens from DHJPAR0028972 are morphologically distinct from those of DHJPAR0023280, and also have a very different host. Therefore we prefer to treat these two samples as different species. See also remarks under E. daveroubiki.

Euplectrus scottshawi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 539–545, 549–551, 783

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Cuestona, 22.v.2006, C. Moraga, ex Trauaxa lua eating Stemmadenia robinsonii, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028877, 06-SRNP-31991” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 24♀ 4♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Alajuela: Sector San Cristobal, Finca San Gabriel, 29.v.2006, C. Cano, ex T. lua eating Tabernaemontana alba, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028857, 06-SRNP-4258 (2♀, in INBio); Guanacaste: Sector Pitilla: Sendero Mismo, 18.v.2006, C. Moraga, ex T. lua eating Stemmadenia robinsonii, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028892, 06-SRNP-31937 (3♀ 1♂, in BMNH, INBio); Sendero Cuestona, 22.v.2006, C. Moraga, ex T. lua eating S. robinsonii, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028877, 06-SRNP-31991 (2♀, in CNC, USNM); Sendero Evangelista, 15.vii.2006, P. Rios, ex T. lua eating S. robinsonii, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028894, 06-SRNP-32841 (10♀, in BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, USNM), with same locality and host as previous but collected 19.v.2012, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0050062, 12-SRNP-30860 (1♀ 1♂, in INBio); Sendero Naciente, 30.iv.2008, P. Rios, ex T. lua eating S. robinsonii, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0031172, 08-SRNP-31151 (2♀ 1♂, in BMNH); Sendero Nacho, 2.xii.2013, ex T. lua eating S. robinsonii, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0054868, 13-SRNP-31727, (4♀ 1♂, in BMNH); Sendero Orosilito, 15.iv.2013, F. Quesada, ex Callionima denticulata eating S. robinsonii, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0052363, 13-SRNP-30579 (2♀ 1♂, in BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face black (Figs 540, 541); fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs yellowish-brown, hind leg with coxa dark brown to almost black, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ dark brown, tibia yellowish-white, tarsus yellowish-brown (Fig. 539); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 542, 543); male scape expanded and widest above the middle (Fig. 545), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔, sensory area pale brown.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 544). Mandibles yellowish-brown with base brown, palpi yellowish-white. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 540). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae in lower ½, with two rows in upper ½ (Fig. 549). Vertex smooth (Fig. 550). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 550).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 539). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 10 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 551). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 783), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 783); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 11 setae. Legs (Fig. 539): fore and mid coxae white, remaining parts of fore and mid legs yellowish-brown; hind leg with coxa dark brown - almost black, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ dark brown, tibia yellowish-white, tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with two irregular rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 17 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 542).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 6.5/3.5/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.5/3.3; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.7; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.6/6.4/2.4/1.2/1.0/2.1; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.4.

Male. Length of body 2.1 mm. Scape white, expanded and widest above the middle (Fig. 545), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔, sensory area pale brown. Otherwise similar to female.

Ratio. LC/WS = 3.5.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Trauaxa lua (Erebidae) feeding on Stemmadenia robinsonii and Tabernaemontana alba (Apocynaceae), and on second instar larva of Callionima denticulata (Sphingidae) feeding on S. robinsonii, parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Scott R. Shaw, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Remarks

The specimens from Callionima denticulata are distinctly paler than specimens from Trauaxa lua but it is not known whether this is due to some aspect of their treatment, or if they were preserved in ethanol while still teneral. The unexpected host record of C. denticulata, a normal herbivore for this plant, was confirmed by further inspection and photography of the morphology of the mummy.

Euplectrus sondrawardae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 552–558, 566–568, 784

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Mismo, 23.v.2006, C. Moraga, ex Sanys irrosea eating Maytenis recondita, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028850, 06-SRNP-31984” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 1♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face black with a dark reddish-brown spot medially, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Figs 553, 554); antenna long and slender, flagellum 3.2× as long as height of eye in female (Fig. 557), and 3.8× in male (Fig. 558); legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 552); hind tarsus short with 1st tarsomere short, 1.1× as long as 3rd tarsomere; petiole 0.8× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a ±T-shaped yellowish-white (female, Fig. 555) or white (male, Fig. 556) spot; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest just below the middle, 2.7× as long as wide (Fig. 558).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.7 mm. Antenna long and slender, flagellum 3.2× as long as height of eye (Fig. 557); scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, 3–6 dark brown. Mandibles yellowish-brown, palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face black with a dark reddish-brown spot medially, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Fig. 553). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 566). Vertex smooth (Fig. 567). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 567).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 552). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with seven setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 568). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 784), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 784); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 552). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 17 admarginal setae, two rows in basal ½ and one row in apical ½.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a ±T-shaped yellowish-white spot (Fig. 555).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.5/1.0/1.6; POL/OOL/POO = 7.8/3.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.2/4.1/3.0; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 2.1; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.6/2.2/5.6/1.1/1.3/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 2.0 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest slightly below the middle (Fig. 558), sensory pores confined to ventral margin and scattered along entire margin, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except antennal flagellum 3.8× as long as height of eye (Fig. 558); fore and mid coxae white; gaster shorter and with pale part white (Fig. 556).

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.7; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on last instar larva of Sanys irrosea (Erebidae) feeding on Maytenis recondita (Celastraceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Sondra Ward, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Euplectrus sydneycameronae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 17, 393–399, 404–406, 581, 767

Material

Holotype a female labeled “ COSTA RICA: Alajuela, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 15.x.2007, P. Rios, ex Plusiodonta clavifera eating Cissampelos tropaeolifolia, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028936, 07-SRNP-33543” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 5♀ 1♂ with same label data as holotype (BMNH, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face entirely yellowish-brown (female, as in Fig. 394) or white (male, as in Fig. 395), pale part not reaching hypostomal carina and with area close to mouth cavity dark (as in Fig. 581); fore coxa yellowish-white, remaining fore leg and mid and hind legs yellowish-brown (as in Fig. 393); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ yellowish-white (female, as in Fig. 396) or white (male, as in Fig. 397) with dark brown lateral margins; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.6× as long as wide (as in Fig. 399), flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (as in Fig. 398). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, entire lower face yellowish-brown with median part darker (as in Fig. 394). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (as in Fig. 404). Vertex smooth (as in Fig. 405). Occipital margin rounded (as in Fig. 405).

Mesosoma black and shiny (as in Fig. 393). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 20 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (as in Fig. 406). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a very narrow groove (as in Fig. 767), medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (as in Fig. 767); anteromedially with a semicircular cup that has posterior part strongly raised and is distinctly higher than anterior part; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs (as in Fig. 393): fore coxa yellowish-white, remaining fore leg and mid and hind legs yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae in basal ⅔ and one row in apical ⅓, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 16 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins (as in Fig. 396).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.4; POL/OOL/POO = 4.9/2.9/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.4; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.5/3.2; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.4/6.4/2.0/1.7/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (as in Fig. 399), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except flagellomeres 2–5 with a basal whorl of erect setae (as in Fig. 399); entire lower face white (as in Fig. 395); scutellum with posterior ¼ smooth; gaster shorter and with pale part white.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.9; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar of Plusiodonta clavifera (Erebidae) feeding on Cissampelos tropaeolifolia (Menispermaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Sydney A. Cameron, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Remarks

This species is morphologically identical to E. johnnoyesi, but the barcode is significantly different from this species, it is 5% divergent from E. johnnoyesi within the barcode region (24–32 bp (& 1 amino acid) different) (Fig. 35, Suppl. material 1), and also the host is different. In spite of the morphological similarity we therefore regard these as two different species.

Euplectrus victoriapookae Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 572–578, 590–592, 785

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Pasmompa, 5.viii.2005, P. Rios, ex Cyclophora Janzen14 eating Siparuna thecophora, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028836, 05-SRNP-33114” (BMNH). PARATYPES: 8♀ 3♂: COSTA RICA (ACG): Guanacaste: 4♀ with same label data as holotype (CNC, INBio, USNM); Alajuela: Sector Rincon Rain Forest: Camino Rio Franca, M. Carmona, 30.iv.2007, ex Cyclophora Janzen14 eating Siparuna thecophora, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0028928, 07-SRNP-41115 (2♀ 1♂, in BMNH, INBio); 1♂ from same locality as previous but collected 14.vii.2011 on Cyclophora Janzen14 eating S. thecophora, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0045453, 11-SRNP-80930 (INBio); Jacobo, 25.ix.2012, ex Cyclophora Janzen14 eating S. thecophora, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0050058, 12-SRNP-81575 (2♀ 1♂, in BMNH, MZLU); Sendero Anonas, 2.ix.2013, J. Perez, ex C. Janzen14 eating S. thecophora, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0053943, 13-SRNP-43435 (2♀, in CNC, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Figs 573, 574); fore wing with four setae on dorsal surface of submarginal vein and admarginal setae in three rows; legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 572); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Figs 575, 576); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle, 3.3× as long as wide (Fig. 578).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown with infuscations dorsally, 2 dark brown with base yellowish-brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 577). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli, with parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 573). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 590). Vertex with very weak reticulation (Fig. 591). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 591).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 572). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 592). Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 785), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 785); anteromedially with a triangular cup that has posterior part strongly raised; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 572). Fore wing: submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell on ventral surface with three rows of setae in basal ½, two rows in apical ½, and margin with eight setae close to marginal vein; with 36 admarginal setae, in three rows.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 575).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.2/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 6.3/3.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.1; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.3/3.0; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.7/2.0/5.5/1.9/1.5/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle (Fig. 578), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ¾, sensory area pale as scape. Otherwise similar to female except shorter gaster.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.3; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on penultimate instar larva of Cyclophora Janzen14 (Geometridae) feeding on Siparuna thecophora (Siparunaceae), parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela and Guanacaste Provinces).

Etymology

This species is named after Victoria G. Pook, in recognition of her contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Remarks

Euplectrus victoriapookae and E. davesmithi have the same barcode (Fig. 35, Suppl. material 1), but as they are morphologically distinct and their hosts are very different we treat them as separate species.

Euplectrus wonyoungchoi Hansson, sp. n.

Figures 28, 349–352, 356–358, 786

Material

Holotype a female labeled “COSTA RICA: Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Cuestona, 26.ix.2011, C. Moraga, ex Elaphria Poole08 eating unidentified Lejeuneaceae, sibling of wasp DHJPAR0048229, 11-SRNP-32964” (BMNH). Paratypes: 4♀ with same label data as holotype (CNC, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face black (Fig. 350); mandibles dark brown; fore and mid legs with coxae yellowish-white, femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; hind leg with coxa black, femur yellowish-brown with apical ⅓ pale brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown (Fig. 349); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with wide dark brown lateral edges, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 351).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.9 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum dark brown (Fig. 352). Mandibles dark brown and palpi yellowish-white. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 350). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 356). Vertex smooth and shiny (Fig. 357). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 357).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 349). Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation, partly smooth (Fig. 358). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a deep groove (Fig. 786), groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth and shiny (Fig. 786); anteromedially with short and wide semicircular cup that is strongly raised in posterior part; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs (Fig. 349): fore and mid legs with coxae yellowish-white, femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; hind leg with coxa black, femur yellowish-brown with apical ⅓ pale brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae in apical ½; with 13 admarginal setae.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with wide dark brown lateral edges, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 351).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 8.0/4.2/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.1; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.6/3.4; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.8; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.5/6.5/2.5/1.5/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Feeding on third instar larva of Elaphria Poole08 (Noctuidae) feeding on unidentified Lejeuneaceae, parasitoid cocoons stuck to dead larva and substrate.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Etymology

This species is named after Won-Young Choi, in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of ACG Hymenoptera taxonomy.

Species treatments – described species from ACG

Euplectrus anae Schauff

Figures 559–565, 569–571, 787

Euplectrus anae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 193–194. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 3♀ 2♂ paratypes of Euplectrus anae (USNM). Additional material: 4♀ from same rearing series (voucher 92-SRNP-747) as types (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 560) or white (male, Fig. 561), pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margin of toruli; legs yellowish-white with hind coxae pale yellowish-brown (Fig. 559); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ⅔ yellowish-white (female, Fig. 562) or white (male, Fig. 563) with dark brown lateral margins, and with posterior ⅓ pale brown (female) or dark brown (male).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white with apex yellowish-brown, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum yellowish-brown ventrally and pale brown dorsally (Fig. 564). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny with area lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown, lower face yellowish-brown, pale area reaches slightly outside of outer lateral margin of toruli (Fig. 560). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae, row partially double in upper ½ (Fig. 569). Vertex smooth with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle (Fig. 570). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 570).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 559). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with ten setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 571). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a wide groove, medially 0.5× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 787). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 787); anteromedially with a triangular cup that has posterior part strongly raised; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs yellowish-white with hind coxae pale yellowish-brown (Fig. 559). Fore wing: submarginal vein with six setae; costal cell on ventral surface predominantly with two rows of setae, apically with a single row, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 14 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins and with posterior ⅓ pale brown (Fig. 562).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.3/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 9.0/4.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.0; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.2/4.0/3.0; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.7; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.6/7.0/2.6/1.6/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest apically, sensory pores confined to anteroventral ¾, sensory area pale brown (Fig. 565). Otherwise similar to female except pale area on lower face white (Fig. 561), gaster with anterior ⅔ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ⅓ dark brown (Fig. 563), and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.8; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Sphacelodes vulneraria (Geometridae) feeding on an unknown plant (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus carlowae Schauff

Figures 366–369, 373–375, 788

Euplectrus carlowae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 194–196. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ paratype of Euplectrus carlowae (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face with median part very dark reddish-brown and not delimited from surrounding black areas (Fig. 367); mandibles dark brown; dorsellum anteriorly with a fovea, medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum, that is divided medially by a longitudinal carina (Fig. 788); legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 366); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown with a yellowish-white T-shaped spot in anterior ½ (Fig. 368).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white with apex yellowish-brown, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally, flagellomeres 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 369). Mandibles dark brown, palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face with median part very dark reddish-brown and not delimited from surrounding black areas (Fig. 367). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 373). Vertex smooth (Fig. 374). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 374).

Mesosoma dark brown and shiny (Fig. 366). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 375). Dorsellum anteriorly with a fovea, medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum, that is divided medially by a longitudinal carina (Fig. 788). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 788); anteromedially with a triangular cup that has posterior part strongly raised; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown with fore and mid coxae yellowish-white (Fig. 366). Fore wing: costal cell one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with ten admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown with a yellowish-white T-shaped spot in anterior ½ (Fig. 368).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.0/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 4.0/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.7; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.2/3.2; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 2.0; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.7/6.5/1.7/1.5/1.0/2.1; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus floryae Schauff

Figures 21, 583–589, 593–595, 789

Euplectrus floryae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 200–203. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ 1♂ paratypes of Euplectrus floryae (BMNH). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 104♀ 15♂, caterpillar project vouchers: 82-SRNP-368, 84-SRNP-1501, 90-SRNP-1946, 91-SRNP-248, 91-SRNP-248, 91-SRNP-251, 91-SRNP-277, 91-SRNP-278, 91-SRNP-282, 91-SRNP-1512, 91-SRNP-1713, 92-SRNP-293, 92-SRNP-524, 92-SRNP-1073, 92-SRNP-1084, 92-SRNP-1115, 92-SRNP-2612, 92-SRNP-3473, 92-SRNP-5353, 93-SRNP-2502, 93-SRNP-7708, 94-SRNP-935, 97-SRNP-3317, 97-SRNP-4188, 97-SRNP-4197, 97-SRNP-4198, 97-SRNP-4210, 97-SRNP-4238, 97-SRNP-4240, 97-SRNP-4242, 97-SRNP-4248, 97-SRNP-4250, 97-SRNP-4251, 97-SRNP-4270, 97-SRNP-4271, 97-SRNP-4275, 97-SRNP-4310, 97-SRNP-4323, 97-SRNP-4324, 97-SRNP-5955, 97-SRNP-9370, 05-SRNP-55990, 05-SRNP-55991, 11-SRNP-20910, 11-SRNP-20928, 11-SRNP-20935, 13-SRNP-20741 (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Entire lower face yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 584) or completely white (male, Fig. 585), pale part close to eyes extends above level of toruli and laterally to hypostomal carina; vertex dark reddish-brown; legs in female with fore and mid legs white to yellowish-white with tarsi yellowish-brown, hind leg with coxa and tarsus yellowish-brown, femur and tibia yellowish-white (Fig. 583), in male fore and mid legs as in female, but hind leg with coxa and basal ½ of femur white, apical ½ of femur, tibia and tarsus yellowish-white; petiole 1.0× as long as wide in both sexes; female gaster yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, with posterior ⅓ pale brown with dark brown lateral margins and with a small round dark brown spot anteromedially (Fig. 586), male gaster with basal ½ white with black lateral margins, posterior ½ black (Fig. 587); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.8× as long as wide (Fig. 589).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white with apex yellowish-brown, pedicel and flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2–3 pale brown, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 588). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown (Fig. 584), pale part close to eyes extends above level of toruli and laterally to hypostomal carina; vertex dark reddish-brown. Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 593). Vertex smooth (Fig. 594). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 594).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 583). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 14 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 595). Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 789), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 789); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 12 setae. Legs (Fig. 583): fore and mid legs white to yellowish-white with tarsi yellowish-brown, hind leg with coxa and tarsus yellowish-brown, femur and tibia yellowish-white. Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Petiole anterolaterally with a strong seta. Gaster yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ⅓ pale brown with dark brown lateral margins and with a small round dark brown spot anteromedially (Fig. 586).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.3/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 7.4/3.6/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.9; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.2/3.0; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.9/7.1/2.4/1.9/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.2.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape white, slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 589), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔. Otherwise similar to female except lower face completely white (Fig. 585); hind coxa and basal ½ of femur white, apical ½ of femur, tibia and tarsus yellowish-white; gaster with basal ½ white with black lateral margins, posterior ½ black (Fig. 587).

Ratios. LC/WS = 2,8; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Cautethia spuria, Enyo ocypete, Perigonia ilusDHJ01, P. lusca (all hosts are Sphingidae).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus hansoni Schauff

Figures 383–386, 390–392, 790

Euplectrus hansoni Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 203–204. Holotype ♀ (USNM), examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ holotype (USNM). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 1♀ from Guanacaste, ACG, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Mismo, 30.viii.2006, ex Isochromodes sheilaDHJ05 on Calatola costaricensis, caterpillar project voucher code 06-SRNP-34036, no barcode (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Fig. 384); gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 385); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 383); occipital margin rounded (Fig. 391); petiole 1.2× as long as wide.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna with scape, pedicel and flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 386). Mandibles yellowish-brown, palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially dark reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli, with part between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 384). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 390). Vertex smooth (Fig. 391). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 391).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 383). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 392). Dorsellum with a very narrow groove along anterior margin (Fig. 790), medially less than 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 790); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 383). Fore wing: costal cell with two complete rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with nine setae in apical ½; with 35 admarginal setae, in two rows in basal ⅔, with three rows in apical ⅓.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 385).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.3/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 8.4/5.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.9; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.3/3.2; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.9; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.7/2.9/7.8/2.7/1.6/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 1.2; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Isochromodes sheilaDHJ05 (Geometridae) feeding on Calatola costaricensis (Icacinaceae) (new record).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus ireneae Schauff

Figures 400–403, 407–409, 791

Euplectrus ireneae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 204–207. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ paratype of Euplectrus ireneae (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 401); vertex with parts close to eyes dark reddish-brown; eyes and ocelli large (Fig. 408), WE/WF = 0.9, OOL/DO = 0.5; dorsellum anteriorly without a groove or foveae (Fig. 791); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; legs white with hind coxa and hind femur yellowish-white (Fig. 400); gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown anterolateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 400).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna with scape white, pedicel and flagellomeres yellowish-white (Fig. 403). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 401). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 407). Vertex with parts close to eyes dark reddish-brown; smooth (Fig. 408). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 408).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 400). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with nine setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, partly smooth (Fig. 409). Dorsellum anteriorly without a groove or foveae (Fig. 791). Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 791); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs white with hind coxa and hind femur yellowish-white (Fig. 400). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown anterolateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 402).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.8/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 4.7/1.3/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/1.1/2.9/2.0; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.3/2.2/5.8/1.7/1.3/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Motya Poole02 (Nolidae) feeding on Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus ivonae Schauff

Figures 426, 596–602, 610–612, 792

Euplectrus ivonae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 207–209. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 6♀ 1♂ paratypes of Euplectrus ivonae (USNM). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 68♀ 5♂ feeding on Cropia cedica, C. connecta, C. hadenoides (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM); caterpillar project voucher codes 90-SRNP-2196, 05-SRNP-46246, 06-SRNP-56342, 06-SRNP-56345, 12-SRNP-78168 (DHJPAR0051504).

Diagnosis

Lower face yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 597) or white (male, Fig. 598), with a black stripe the width of smallest diameter of toruli close to eyes; scutellum with a small hump posteromedially (Fig. 612); dorsellum anteriorly with a very wide groove, medially 0.7× as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 792); legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 596); petiole 0.8× as long as wide; female gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 599), male gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown anterolateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 600); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle and with base narrow, 3.4× as long as wide (Fig. 602).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½, yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel and flagellomere 1 yellowish-brown, 2–6 dark brown dorsally and yellowish-brown ventrally (Fig. 601). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face yellowish-brown with a black stripe the width of smallest diameter of toruli close to eyes (Fig. 597). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae that deviates away from eyes in upper part (Fig. 613). Vertex smooth (Fig. 614). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 614).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 596). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 612). Dorsellum anteriorly with a very wide groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 792), groove medially 0.7× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 792); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and hind femur yellowish-brown (Fig. 596). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 599).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.6/1.0/1.4; POL/OOL/POO = 5.6/2.6/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.1; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.2/3.3; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.6/2.8/8.0/2.7/1.7/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Length of body 2.2 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle and with base narrow (Fig. 602), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔ (Fig. 426). Otherwise similar to female except lower face white (Fig. 598); gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown anterolateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 600).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.4; MM/LG = 0.9.

Hosts and biology

Cropia cedica feeding on Cordia alliodora, C. connecta feeding on C. alliodora and Varronia inermis (host plants are Boraginaceae), C. hadenoides feeding on Hyptis obtusifolia (Lamiaceae) (all new records), Euscirrhopterus poeyi feeding on Pisonia aculeata (Nyctaginaceae) (Schauff and Janzen 2001) (all hosts are Noctuidae).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus josei Schauff

Figures 603–609, 613–615, 793

Euplectrus josei Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 209–210. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ 1♂ paratypes of Euplectrus josei (BMNH). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 29♀ 2♂ from Guanacaste Province on Paectes lunodes and P. tumida; caterpillar project voucher codes: 93-SRNP-2869, 93-SRNP-2871, 93-SRNP-3064, 93-SRNP-3093, 95-SRNP-6055 (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown in both sexes, reaching to level of outer lateral margin of toruli (Figs 604, 605); vertex with parts close to eyes dark reddish-brown; eyes and ocelli large (Figs 613, 614), WE/WF = 0.7, OOL/DO = 0.6; petiole 0.7× as long as wide in female, 1.0× in male; legs white with hind coxa yellowish-white (Fig. 603); female gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown anterolateral margins, posterior ½ with anterior ½ dark brown and posterior ½ reddish-brown (Fig. 606), male gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown anterolateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 607); male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 3.0× as long as wide (Fig. 609).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape white, pedicel and flagellomeres yellowish-brown (Fig. 608). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, reaching to level of outer lateral margin of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 604). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 613). Vertex with parts close to eyes dark reddish-brown; with very weak reticulation (Fig. 614). Occipital margin with a carina (Fig. 614).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 603). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 13 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 615). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 793), groove medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 793); anteromedially with a transverse triangular cup; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs white with hind coxa yellowish-white (Fig. 603). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 19 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown anterolateral margins, posterior ½ with anterior ½ dark brown and posterior ½ reddish-brown (Fig. 606).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.5/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 8.0/3.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.6; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/1.5/3.3/2.4; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.8; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.6/6.8/2.2/1.8/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 2.2 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 609), with sensory pores along entire ventral margin. Otherwise similar to female except petiole longer; gaster shorter with anterior ½ white with dark brown anterolateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 607).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.0; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Paectes lunodes feeding on Ocotea veraguensis (Lauraceae) (Schauff and Janzen 2001), P. tumida feeding on Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) (new record) (hosts are Euteliidae).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Euplectrus magdae Schauff

Figures 18, 616–622, 630–632, 794

Euplectrus magdae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 210–214. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ paratype of Euplectrus magdae (BMNH). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 42♀ 11♂ from Guanacaste Province; caterpillar project voucher codes: 94-SRNP-6167, 96-SRNP-11096, 99-SRNP-11068, 00-SRNP-19037, 01-SRNP-9851, 01-SRNP-16124, 05-SRNP-46987, 07-SRNP-46045, 11-SRNP-56354 (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 617); vertex reddish-brown; dorsellum anteriorly with two large foveae (Fig. 794); fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg with coxa yellowish-brown, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ yellowish-brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-white (Fig. 616); petiole 0.9× as long as wide in female, 1.2× in male; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white (female, Fig. 619), or dusky white (male, Fig. 620), with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown.

Description

Female. Length of body 3.0 mm. Antenna with scape, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-white, 3–4 pale brown, 5–6 dark brown (Fig. 621). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margins of toruli, with part between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 617), and vertex reddish-brown. Frons close to eyes with three rows of setae (Fig. 630). Vertex smooth (Fig. 631). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 631).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 616). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 14 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 632). Dorsellum anteriorly with two large foveae (Fig. 794), surface behind foveae reticulate. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 794); anteromedially with a transverse triangular cup; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs (Fig. 616): fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg with coxa yellowish-brown, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ yellowish-brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-white. Fore wing with submarginal vein with five setae; costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 24 admarginal setae, in two rows.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 619).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.2/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 5.8/3.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.6/3.1; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 2.1; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.5/6.2/2.3/1.5/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape white, expanded and widest close to base (Fig. 622), sensory pores confined to a wide groove along entire ventral margin. Otherwise similar to female except legs paler: fore and mid coxae white, femora yellowish-white in basal ½, yellowish-brown in apical ½, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; petiole longer; gaster with anterior ½ dusky white with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 620), and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.7; LP/WP = 1.2; MM/LG = 1.5.

Hosts and biology

Dasylophia maxtlaDHJ06 (Schauff and Janzen 2001); new records: Chliara croesus feeding on Andira inermis, Colax apulusDHJ01 feeding on Pterocarpus orbiculatus, Dasylophia guarana feeding on Platymiscium parviflorum, Hapigiodes sigifredomarini feeding on Lonchocarpus guatemalensis, Pentobesa pinnaDHJ02 feeding on Inga vera and I. punctata. All hosts are Notodontidae, and all host plants are Fabaceae.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province).

Euplectrus mariae Schauff

Figures 20, 623–629, 633–635, 795

Euplectrus mariae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 214–216. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ 1♂ paratypes of Euplectrus mariae (BMNH). Additional material: Costa Rica: 41♀ 7♂ from Guanacaste Province; caterpillar project voucher codes: 92-SRNP-993, 92-SRNP-2923, 92-SRNP-2924, 92-SRNP-3032, 92-SRNP-3141, 92-SRNP-3142, 92-SRNP-3297, 93-SRNP-1577, 93-SRNP-1582, 93-SRNP-1585, 94-SRNP-1055, 94-SRNP-1063, 94-SRNP-1071, 94-SRNP-1075, 94-SRNP-1081, 94-SRNP-1088, 94-SRNP-1090, 94-SRNP-1160, 94-SRNP-1216, 94-SRNP-1217, 96-SRNP-1314, 09-SRNP-72128 (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially with median part yellowish-brown and lateral parts white, pale area reaching half-way between outer lateral margins of toruli and eyes (Figs 624, 625); fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown (Fig. 623); petiole 0.6× as long as wide in female, 0.8× in male; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 626) or white (male, Fig. 627) with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown; male antenna with scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, 2.9× as long as wide (Fig. 629), and with apicoventral sensory area dark brown.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-brown, 3–6 yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally (Fig. 628). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially with median part yellowish-brown and lateral parts white, reaching half-way between outer lateral margins of toruli and eyes, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 624). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 633). Vertex smooth (Fig. 634). Occipital margin with a weak carina (Fig. 634).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 623). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 15 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 635). Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 795), groove medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 795); anteromedially with a transverse triangular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs (Fig. 623): fore and mid legs yellowish-white, hind leg yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 626).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 8.2/4.2/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.1; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.5/4.7/3.7; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.9; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.5/6.3/2.1/1.4/1.0/2.1; LP/WP = 0.6; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Length of body 1.9 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle, sensory pores confined to apicoventral 2/3 and with sensory area dark brown (Fig. 629). Otherwise similar to female except legs yellowish-white with hind coxa and hind femur slightly darker; petiole longer; gaster shorter and with pale parts white (Fig. 627).

Ratios. LC/WS = 2.9; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Concana hoshea, C. Poole01, C. Poole02 (Noctuidae) (Schauff and Janzen 2001) feeding on Byrsonima crassifolia, Heteropterys laurifolia, and Hiraea reclinata (all host plants are Malpighiaceae).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus orias Schauff

Figures 417–420

Euplectrus orias Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 216–217. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ paratype of Euplectrus orias (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Head dark brown and shiny, lower face medially pale brown (Fig. 418); scutellum almost smooth with only very weak traces of reticulation; legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa dark brown and hind femur pale brown (Fig. 417); fore wing submarginal vein with four setae; petiole 0.6× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 419).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.3 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres dark brown (Fig. 420). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head dark brown and shiny, lower face medially pale brown (Fig. 418). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae. Vertex smooth. Occipital margin with a carina.

Mesosoma dark brown and shiny (Fig. 417). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; almost smooth with only very weak traces of reticulation. Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae. Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa dark brown and hind femur pale brown (Fig. 417). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, and margin with one seta close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 419).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.5/1.3/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 4.8/3.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.5/5.5/4.5; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.4/6.2/2.5/1.3/1.0/1.3; LP/WP = 0.6; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Oxydia sociataDHJ02 (Geometridae) feeding on Picramnia antidesma (Simaroubaceae) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard

Figures 402–403, 404–409, 410–420, 421–427, 428–434, 435–440, 441–452, 453–463, 464–469, 470–478, 479–488, 489–494, 636–643, 796

Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard, 1885: 26. Lectotype ♂ (USNM), designated here, examined.

Material

Type material: ♂ lectotype of E. platyhypenae (USNM). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 12♀ 1♂ from Guanacaste on Spodoptera frugiperda; caterpillar project voucher code: 05-SRNP-16047, no barcode (BMNH, CNC, INBio, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face black (Figs 637, 638); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 636); eyes small (Fig. 492); propodeum with a triangular median carina (Fig. 796); petiole 0.6× as long as wide; gaster yellowish-brown with black lateral margins (female, Fig. 639), or black with a large yellowish-white spot in apical ½ (male, Fig. 640); male antenna with scape slightly expanded, widest in the middle, and 3.1× as long as wide (Fig. 643).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white in basal ½ and yellowish-brown in apical ½, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres yellowish-brown ventrally and dark brown dorsally (Fig. 641). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 637). Frons close to eyes with two irregular rows of setae (Fig. 492). Vertex with very weak reticulation, smooth lateral to posterior ocelli (Fig. 493). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 493).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 636). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak reticulation (Fig. 494). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a very narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 796), groove medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 796); anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with 15 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 636). Fore wing: costal cell with one complete row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 18 admarginal setae mainly in one row, in apical ⅓ in two rows.

Gaster yellowish-brown with lateral margins black (Fig. 639).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.5/1.0/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 6.1/3.6/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/4.6/3.4; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.7/2.4/7.8/3.1/1.6/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 0.6; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.7 mm. Scape yellowish-white, slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 643), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔. Similar to female except gaster shorter and black with a large yellowish-white spot in apical ½ (Fig. 640).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.1; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Plathypena scabra (Howard 1885), Spodoptera frugiperda feeding on Cipura campanulata (Iridaceae) (new record) (both hosts are Noctuidae).

Distribution

USA (D.C.) (Howard 1885), Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (new record).

Remarks

Euplectrus platyhypenae was described from one female and one male but no primary type was selected. The male labeled “Euplectrus platyhypenae How. ms.”, “No.657, P.o, July 11.82”, “Type No. 1655, U.S.N.M.”, is hereby selected as lectotype.

The name of this species is frequently misspellt in the literature, as “Euplectrus plathypenae”, as is also the host Spodoptera frugiperda, as “S. fugiperda”.

Euplectrus ronniei Schauff

Figures 651–655

Euplectrus ronniei Schauff, in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 219–220. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ paratype of Euplectrus ronniei (USNM). Additional material: 1♀ 1♂ with same label data as female paratype (USNM), but not included in the original description.

Diagnosis

Lower face medially white with median ⅓ pale yellowish-brown, extending to half-way between level of outer lateral margins of toruli and eyes (Fig. 652); legs yellowish-white with hind coxae pale yellowish-brown (Fig. 651); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white (female, Fig. 653) or white (male, Fig. 654) with dark brown anterior and lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown. Very similar to E. chrisgrinteri the only differences are that E. ronniei has shorter petiole (both sexes) and different host preferences, possibly also in the characters of male scape – but the appearance of the male scape in E. ronniei is not known (head is missing in single known male specimen).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna (missing in non-type specimen) with scape white with apex and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum yellowish-brown with ventral parts pale yellowish-brown (Fig. 655). Mandibles and palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially white with median ⅓ pale yellowish-brown, extending to half-way between level of outer lateral margins of toruli and eye, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 652). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae. Vertex smooth. Occipital margin rounded.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 651). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth. Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae. Propodeum with very weak reticulation; anteromedially with a triangular cup that has posterior part strongly raised; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-white with hind coxa pale yellowish-brown (Fig. 651). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface predominantly with one row of setae, two rows at base, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown anterior and lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 653).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 6.0/2.7/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/5.1/3.7; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.7/7.1/2.4/1.6/1.0/1.9; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body without head 1.5 mm. Similar to female except shorter gaster with pale area white (Fig. 654). The head is missing in single available male specimen.

Ratios. MM/LG = 1.2.

Hosts and biology

Cautethia spuria (Sphingidae) feeding on Exostema mexicanum (Rubiaceae) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Remarks

The type series of E. ronniei contains two females, one the holotype, from Cautethia spuria (Sphingidae), and three males reared from Oxidercia toxea (Noctuidae). The specimens from Cautethia, among them the holotype, belong to a different species than the specimens from Oxidercia. As the holotype of E. ronniei is from Cautethia spuria, being the name-bearing type, these two females are E. ronniei. The male specimens from Oxidercia belong to a different species, possibly E. garygibsoni, which has the same host, but some morphological features do not agree between the females of E. garygibsoni and the males that formerly were E. ronniei. There are no barcode for the specimens from Oxidercia. The identity of the males from Oxidercia remains unsolved until further information becomes available.

Euplectrus testaceipes (Cameron)

Figures 6–8, 9–11, 12–13, 644–650, 656–658, 797

Rekabia testaceipes Cameron, 1904: 66. Lectotype ♂ (BMNH), examined.

Euplectrus testaceipes (Cameron) (Kerrich 1974: 636).

Elachistus carinatus Cameron, 1913: 126. Lectotype ♀ (BMNH), examined. Synonymized by Bouček (1977: 11).

Euplectrus walteri Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 224–225. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined. New synonym.

Material

Type material: male lectotype of Rekabia testaceipes (BMNH), female lectotype of Elachistus carinatus (BMNH), 1♀ 1♂ paratypes of Euplectrus walteri (BMNH). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 31♀ 8♂ from Guanacaste Province; caterpillar project voucher codes: 84-SRNP-623, 84-SRNP-805, 91-SRNP-1636, 92-SRNP-2262, 92-SRNP-3018, 92-SRNP-3174, 92-SRNP-3708, 92-SRNP-3811, 92-SRNP-4114, 93-SRNP-2239, 95-SRNP-7544, 96-SRNP-6830, 96-SRNP-10435, 97-SRNP-3135, 98-SRNP-10806, 01-SRNP-14301, 02-SRNP-7759, 05-SRNP-46152, 07-SRNP-31879, 08-SRNP-16396, 08-SRNP-13885, 10-SRNP-72733 (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face pointed downwards, medially yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 645) or yellowish-white (male, Fig. 646), pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margin of toruli and up between toruli; legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 644); dorsellum with a wide groove along anterior margin (Fig. 797), medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum; propodeum with a wide median carina (Fig. 797); gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins that are broken posteriorly, posterior ½ black, in female with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 647); male antenna with scape slightly expanded, widest in the middle, 3.0× as long as wide (Fig. 650); petiole 1.0× as long as wide in female, 1.1× in male, with a strong seta anterolaterally.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.9 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown, 2–6 dark brown (Fig. 649). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer margin of toruli and up between toruli (Fig. 645). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae in lower ½, with two irregular rows in upper ½ (Fig. 656). Vertex smooth (Fig. 657). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 657).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 644). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 15 setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with rather strong engraved reticulation (Fig. 658). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a wide groove (Fig. 797), medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 797); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 644). Fore wing: costal cell with two complete rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 19 admarginal setae in one row.

Petiole with a strong seta anterolaterally. Gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins that are broken posteriorly, posterior ½ black with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 647).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 8.4/4.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.3/3.1; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.7; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.5/7.3/2.8/1.8/1.0/1.5; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 2.5 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 650), sensory pores confined to apicoventral ⅔. Similar to female except antenna with flagellum longer and more slender (Fig. 650); lower face with pale area yellowish-white (Fig. 646); petiole longer; gaster shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.0; LP/WP = 1.1; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Manduca dilucida feeding on Tabebuia ochracea (Bignoniaceae); M. florestan feeding on Aegiphila martinicensis, Cornutia grandifolia (Lamiaceae), Cydista heterophylla, Pithecoctenium crucigerum, T. ochracea (Bignoniaceae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae); M. lanuginosa feeding on C. heterophylla; M. rustica feeding on A. martinicensis (Lamiaceae), Merremia umbellata (Convolvulaceae); M. sexta feeding on Capsicuum annuum (Solanaceae) (all hosts are Sphingidae).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001), Guyana (Cameron 1913), Nicaragua (Cameron 1904).

Euplectrus xiomarae Schauff

Figures 27, 659–661, 662–668, 798

Euplectrus xiomarae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 226–227. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ 1♂ paratypes of Euplectrus xiomarae (BMNH). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 59♀ 5♂ (dried and mounted) from Guanacaste Province; caterpillar project voucher codes: 92-SRNP-4614, 92-SRNP-4642, 05-SRNP-19390, 05-SRNP-19416, 05-SRNP-19573, 07-SRNP-24233, 07-SRNP-46304, 07-SRNP-47004 (BMNH, CNC, INBio, MZLU, MIUCR, USNM). Additional material in alcohol with following caterpillar project voucher codes: 92-SRNP-4602, 92-SRNP-4609, 92-SRNP-4652, 93-SRNP-4384, 93-SRNP-4388, 05-SRNP-19377, 05-SRNP-19354, 05-SRNP-19351, 05-SRNP-19352, 05-SRNP-19558, 05-SRNP-19375, 05-SRNP-47274, 05-SRNP-19987, 05-SRNP-19363, 07-SRNP-24233, 07-SRNP-46365, 07-SRNP-46741, 07-SRNP-46944, 07-SRNP-46365, 07-SRNP-46944, 07-SRNP-46741, 07-SRNP-47385, 07-SRNP-15585, 07-SRNP-46712, 07-SRNP-15652, 07-SRNP-46169, 07-SRNP-15320, 07-SRNP-15327, 07-SRNP-46373, 07-SRNP-47448, 07-SRNP-46810, 07-SRNP-47104, 07-SRNP-47085, 07-SRNP-46475, 07-SRNP-46443, 07-SRNP-46074, 07-SRNP-15675, 07-SRNP-46140, 07-SRNP-15354, 07-SRNP-36651, 07-SRNP-46480, 07-SRNP-46075, 07-SRNP-46459, 07-SRNP-65671, 07-SRNP-46407, 07-SRNP-15731, 07-SRNP-46138, 07-SRNP-46031, 07-SRNP-46011, 07-SRNP-15657, 07-SRNP-46378, 07-SRNP-15661, 07-SRNP-15654, 07-SRNP-33250, 07-SRNP-15326, 07-SRNP-15735, 07-SRNP-33390, 07-SRNP-47261, 07-SRNP-47399, 07-SRNP-47390, 07-SRNP-46721, 07-SRNP-15736, 07-SRNP-46555, 07-SRNP-15819, 07-SRNP-46612, 07-SRNP-24257, 07-SRNP-47216, 07-SRNP-34433.

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Figs 663, 664); fore and mid legs yellowish-brown, hind leg with coxa dark brown, femur dark brown with basal ⅓ yellowish-brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown (Fig. 662); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 665) or white (male, Fig. 666) with black lateral margins, posterior ½ black; male scape slightly expanded, widest in the middle, 3.7× as long as wide (Fig. 668).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–2 pale brown, 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 667). Mandibles yellowish-white, palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching to level of middle of toruli (Fig. 663). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 659). Vertex with very weak reticulation, smooth lateral to posterior ocelli (Fig. 660). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 660).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 662). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with seven setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with weak reticulation (Fig. 661). Dorsellum along anterior margin with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 798), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation (Fig. 798); anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with 11 setae. Legs (Fig. 662): fore and mid legs yellowish-brown, hind leg with coxa dark brown, femur dark brown with basal ⅓ yellowish-brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two complete rows of setae, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 17 admarginal setae mainly in one row, in apical ⅓ in two rows.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with black lateral margins, posterior ½ black (Fig. 665).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.7/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 8.2/6.2/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.0/5.1/3.8; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.8; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.2/6.7/2.4/1.7/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.1.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape yellowish-white, slightly expanded and widest in the middle (Fig. 668); sensory pores confined to apicoventral ½. Similar to female except shorter gaster that has pale parts white (Fig. 666).

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.7; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Hemiceras and Rosema spp. (Notodontidae) feeding on Inga spp. (Fabaceae): Hemiceras clarki feeding on Inga vera, H. corema feeding on Inga oerstediana, H. nigrescens feeding on Inga punctata, H. sabis feeding on Inga oerstediana, H. vecina feeding on Inga sapindoides, H. zula feeding on Inga densiflora and I. oerstediana, H. Janzen13 feeding on Inga vera, Rosema attenuata feeding on Inga punctata, R. thestiaDHJ02 feeding on Inga oerstediana.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Species treatments – described species from the Americas, not found in ACG

Euplectrus catocalae Howard

Figures 669–675

Euplectrus catocalae Howard, 1885: 27. Lectotype ♂ (USNM), designated here, examined.

Material

Type material: 2♀ 3♂ syntypes of Euplectrus catocalae (USNM). Additional material: 6♀ 1♂ (USNM) with same label data as syntypes, but not mentioned in the original description – see remarks below.

Diagnosis

Lower face predominantly pale, medially yellowish-brown and laterally yellowish-white but with a black area the width of the width of scape between pale spot and eye margin (Figs 670, 671); vertex with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (female, Fig. 672), or dark brown with a large white spot in anterior ½ (male, Fig. 673); legs yellowish-white, hind coxa slightly darker (Fig. 669); petiole 0.8× as long as wide.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 674). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, vertex with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown, lower face predominantly pale, medially yellowish-brown and laterally yellowish-white, with a black area the width of the width of scape between pale spot and eye margin (Fig. 670). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae. Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, smooth outside ocellar triangle. Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 669). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with engraved rather strong reticulation, meshes isodiametric. Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove, reaching ¼ the length of dorsellum. Propodeum with very weak reticulation; anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 13 setae. Legs yellowish-white, hind coxae slightly darker(Fig. 669). Wing veins and setae transparent; submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with two irregular and sparse rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 12 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 672).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.3; POL/OOL/POO = 6.8/3.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.6/3.0; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.3/1.8/6.7/2.1/1.3/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Length of body 2.0 mm. Scape narrow and widest medially (Fig. 675); sensory area with same colour as remaining scape (yellowish-white). Otherwise similar to female.

Ratios. LC/WS = 4.8; MM/LG = 0.9.

Hosts and biology

From a larva of Catocala sp. (Erebidae) (Howard 1885).

Distribution

USA (Missouri) (Howard 1885).

Remarks

The description of E. catocalae was based on two females and three males reared from a larva collected July 5 1873, in Saint Louis, Missouri. In the USNM there is a card with five points, each point with a specimen – two females and three males. These specimens are labeled “411 L. Par on Catocala”, “Type No. 2656 U.S.N.M.”, but there is no information on locality or collection date. However, as the number of specimens of each sex, the host, and the specimens agree with the description, these are strong indications that these specimens are the type material. The five specimens are from left to right: a female with head missing, a male with antennae missing, a female with antennae missing, a male with antennae missing, a male with left antenna missing. The male on the far right is designated lectotype and the remaining specimens are paralectotypes. In the USNM there is also another card with seven points, each point with a specimen – six females and one male, and with same label data as as the syntypes. There is no mention of these seven specimens in the original description and even though they are conspecific with the syntypes and probably from the same collecting event they are not type material. Six of these specimens lack the head, and the 7th specimen, a female, lacks the flagellum on the right antenna.

Euplectrus chapadae Ashmead

Figures 676–680

Euplectrus chapadae Ashmead, 1904: 517. Lectotype ♀ (USNM), designated by LaSalle and Schauff 1992: 20, examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ lectotype of Euplectrus chapadae (USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face completely pale, with median part reddish-brown and parts close to eyes yellowish-brown (Fig. 677); dorsellum with a narrow groove along anterior margin (Fig. 680); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 676); petiole 1.0× as long as wide; gaster dark brown with a large pale spot in anterior ½ (Fig. 678).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomere 1 pale brown (Fig. 679), remaining flagellomeres missing. Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face completely pale (Fig. 677), with median part reddish-brown and parts close to eyes yellowish-brown. Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae. Vertex smooth. Occipital margin rounded.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 676). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 1.1× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation and with lateral and posterior margins smooth. Dorsellum with a narrow groove along anterior margin, medially ¼ as long as length of dorsellum (Fig. 680). Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 676). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown with a large pale spot in anterior ½ (Fig. 678).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.8/1.0/1.7; POL/OOL/POO = 5.0/4.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.0/5.7/4.0; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.8; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.7/2.7/7.3/2.6/1.7/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 1.0; MM/LG = 1.5.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Brazil (Ashmead 1904).

Remarks

According to LaSalle and Schauff (1992) the lectotype specimen of E. chapadae designated by them was a male. However, the specimen examined, which also has the lectotype label by LaSalle & Schauff, is a female.

The lectotype specimen is with head detached from the body and glued separately to the card. The specimen lacks all flagellomeres except the flagellomere 1 on both antennae, and left fore tarsus.

Euplectrus comstockii Howard

Figures 681–687

Euplectrus comstockii Howard, 1880: 159. Neotype female in USNM, designated by Schauff (2001), examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ neotype of Euplectrus comstockii (USNM). Additional material: 3♀ 4♂ (USNM) from the series of specimens mentioned by Schauff and Janzen (2001), from which the neotype was selected.

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 682) or white (male, Fig. 683), pale area reaching slightly outside of level of outer lateral margin of toruli, part between pale area and eyes black (female) or dark brown (male); scutellum smooth in anteromedian ⅔, remaining parts with very weak reticulation; legs yellowish-white, except yellowish-brown hind coxa (Fig. 681); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a round yellowish-brown spot (female, Fig. 684), or anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins (male, Fig. 685); male scape slightly expanded and widest apically, 3.3× as long as wide (Fig. 687), sensory pores confined to anteroventral ½.

Description

Female. Length of body 1.9 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, base of scape whitish, flagellomeres brown (Fig. 686). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, vertex dark reddish-brown almost black, lower face yellowish-brown medially, pale area reaching slightly outside of level of outer lateral margin of toruli, part between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 682). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae. Vertex smooth. Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 681). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; smooth in anteromedian ⅔, remaining parts with very weak reticulation. Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae, groove medially 0.4× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with nine setae. Legs yellowish-white, hind coxa yellowish-brown (Fig. 681). Both fore wings missing in examined female specimen.

Gaster dark brown, anterior ½ with a round yellowish-brown spot (Fig. 684).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.2/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 5.0/2.7/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.4/3.2; WH/WT = 1.0; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.8/6.8/2.4/1.4/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.5.

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest apically (Fig. 687), sensory pores confined to anteroventral ½. Wings transparent, veins yellowish-white and setae black; submarginal vein with four setae; costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row. Otherwise similar to female except gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 685), and shorter.

Ratios. LC/WS = 3.3; PM/ST = 1.4; MM/LG = 1.8.

Hosts and biology

Alabama argillacea (Erebidae) (Howard 1880).

Distribution

USA (Alabama) (Howard 1880).

Euplectrus edithae Schauff

Figures 692–698, 703–705, 799

Euplectrus edithae Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 198–200. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ paratype of Euplectrus edithae (BMNH). Additional material: 1♀ from Zurqui de Moravia in Costa Rica, i.e. the type locality (MIUCR); 4♀ 2♂ from COSTA RICA: Puntarenas, Monteverde, no date, ex Lepidoptera (possibly Notodontidae) on Lycopodium (BMNH, CNC, INBio, USNM); 1♀ from Alajuela, N. slope Volcan Cacao (MZLU).

Diagnosis

Lower face completely black (Figs 693, 694); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 692); petiole 0.8× as long as wide; gaster in female yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 695), in male with anterior ½ yellowish-brown in median ⅓ and dark brown laterally, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 696); male scape narrow and widest in apical part, 4.1× as long as wide (Fig. 698), sensory area confined to apicoventral ½ and with same colour as remaining scape (yellowish-white).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown with base yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 697). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 693). Frons close to eyes with three rows of setae (Fig. 703). Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, smooth outside triangle (Fig. 704). Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 704).

Mesosoma dark brown and shiny (Fig. 692). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with nine setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 705). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 799), groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 799); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 12 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 692). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 12 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins (Fig. 695).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.7/1.3/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 21.0/16.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 2.3; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/4.6/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.2/2.6/7.6/3.2/1.4/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 2.0 mm. Scape narrow and widest in apical part (Fig. 698), sensory area confined to apicoventral ½ and with same colour as remaining scape (yellowish-white). Gaster in anterior ½ yellowish-brown in median ⅓ and dark brown laterally, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 696). Otherwise similar to female.

Ratio. LC/WS = 4.1.

Hosts and biology

From a caterpillar feeding on Lycopodium (Lycopodiaceae) (new record).

Distribution

Costa Rica (Puntarenas and San José Provinces).

Euplectrus frontalis Howard

Figures 716–719

Euplectrus frontalis Howard, 1885: 27. Holotype ♀ (USNM), examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ holotype of Euplectrus frontalis (USNM). Additional material: 1♂ (USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face in male (female head missing) yellowish-brown with a narrow dark stripe between pale area and eye margin, dark stripe about as wide as ½ the diameter of one torulus, and with part between antennal scrobes reddish-brown (Fig. 717); gaster in female yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins and with a round dark brown spot posteromedially (Fig. 718), in male with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown; legs yellowish-white (Fig. 716); dorsellum with a narrow groove along anterior margin, medially reaching ⅓ of dorsellum length; petiole 0.5× as long as wide.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.5 mm (estimated as the female examined lacks head).

Head missing in holotype female.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 716). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with engraved rather strong reticulation, meshes slightly elongate, posterior margin smooth. Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove, medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum, part behind groove with very weak reticulation. Propodeum with very weak reticulation; anteromedially with a very short and wide cup, 0.3× as long as wide; propodeal callus with 14 setae. Legs yellowish-white (Fig. 716). Wings missing holotype female.

Gaster yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins and with a round dark brown spot posteromedially (Fig. 718).

Ratios. TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 2.7/1.5/5.7/1.3/1.2/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 0.5; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape yellowish-white, expanded apically, sensory area with same colour as remaining scape; pedicel and basal three flagellomeres yellowish-brown, apical three flagellomeres missing in examined male (Fig. 719). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head dark reddish-brown, lower face yellowish-brown with a narrow dark stripe between pale area and eye margin, dark stripe about as wide as ½ the diameter of one torulus, and with part between antennal scrobes reddish-brown (Fig. 717). Frons close to eyes with two irregular rows of setae. Vertex with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle, outside ocellar triangle smooth. Occipital margin rounded.

Fore wing: costal cell with two irregular and sparse rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 17 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown.

Otherwise similar to female.

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.9/1.0/1.8; POL/OOL/POO = 6.3/3.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.8; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.1/4.3/3.0; LC/WS = 3.6; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; MM/LG = 1.3.

Hosts and biology

Noctuidae indet. on black walnut (Juglans nigra) (Howard 1885).

Distribution

USA (Virginia) (Howard 1885).

Remarks

The original description was based on a single female from an unknown noctuid larva collected on black walnut in September 13, 1882, Arlington Virginia. In the USNM there are two specimens, a female and a male, under this name. Both are labeled “No. 2841, Sept-13-82”, “Type No. 2657, U.S.N.M.”. Howard does not mention any male in his description, but as the male mentioned above has the same labels as the holotype female these two specimens are very likely from the same series and are conspecific. The female lacks the head and wings, the male lacks left flagellum and apical 3 flagellomeres on the right antenna, left fore leg with only coxa and left mid leg with coxa+femur remaining, left hind leg with apical 3 tarsomeres missing.

As the female lacks the head, features of the male head has been used to include the female in the key. Female and male heads are similar in some features, but the placement of the female in the key must be considered provisional until a female head is found.

Euplectrus furnius Walker

Euplectrus furnius Walker, 1843: 48. Lectotype ♀ (BMNH), examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ lectotype of Euplectrus furnius (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Lower face black; antennal flagellum short, e.g. flagellomeres 3–4 1.1× as long as wide; scutellum with very weak reticulation, almost smooth; legs yellowish-brown; petiole 0.9× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.0 mm. Antenna with scape, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 3–6 pale brown. Mandibles and palpi yellowish-brown. Head including lower face black and shiny. Vertex smooth and shiny. Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle.

Mesosoma black and shiny. Scutellum convex, 1.0× as long as wide, with very weak engraved reticulation, posterior and lateral margins smooth. Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae, groove medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup that has posterior part strongly raised; propodeal callus with eight setae. Legs yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell on margin with two setae close to marginal vein.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown.

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.3/1.0/nm; POL/OOL/POO = 4.0/3.0/nm; OOL/DO = nm; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/6.3/7.3/5.7; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.0/7.6/2.8/1.4/1.0/2.0; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.5.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

The West Indies (St Vincent) (Walker 1843).

Remarks

Lectotype specimen with left flagellum missing. See also remarks under E. insularis.

Euplectrus insularis (Howard)

Pachyscapha insularis Howard, 1897: 159. Lectotype ♂ (BMNH), examined.

Euplectrus insularis (Howard), Peck (1951: 453).

Material

Type material: ♂ lectotype of Pachyscapha insularis (BMNH).

Diagnosis

Very similar to the male of E. alvarowillei, i.e. with a black and strongly swollen scape (Fig. 59), pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-white and flagellomere 3 dark brown. Differs in having lower face medially reddish-brown (black in E. alvarowillei); petiole transverse (0.8× as long as wide) (1.0× as long as wide in E. alvarowillei); hind legs with coxae and femora yellowish-brown (darker in E. alvarowillei).

Description

Male. Length of body 1.6 mm. Antenna with scape black, strongly swollen, not possible to measure as both scapes have collapsed; pedicel and flagellomeres 1–2 yellowish-white, flagellomere 3 black with peduncle yellowish-white (flagellomeres 4-6 missing). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-brown. Head black and shiny, lower face medially reddish-brown. Vertex smooth and shiny. Occipital margin rounded.

Mesosoma black and shiny. Mesoscutum with sidelobes with several setae. Scutellum convex; 1.1× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation, posterior and lateral margins smooth. Dorsellum along anterior margin with a very narrow groove. Propodeum smooth and shiny; anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-brown.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with lateral margins dark brown, posterior ½ dark brown.

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.4/1.3/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 1.7/1.0/nm; OOL/DO = nm; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/4.6/3.0; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = nm; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.0/7.2/2.6/1.4/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.4.

Female. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

The West Indies (Grenada) (Howard 1897).

Remarks

Bouček (1977) synonymized E. insularis with E. furnius. Euplectrus insularis is known only from males and E. furnius only from females. The biology is not known for either species. Until the host is known for either and the sexes can be associated it is best to keep these two species separate. Lectotype specimen of E. insularis with flagellomeres 4-6 and right fore wing missing.

Euplectrus junctus Gahan

Figures 688–691

Euplectrus junctus Gahan, 1927: 30–31. Lectotype ♀ (USNM), designated here, examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ lectotype of Euplectrus junctus (USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, pale area extending slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 689); legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa slightly darker (Fig. 688); fore wing submarginal vein with six setae; petiole 0.5× as long as wide; gaster yellowish-brown, in anterior ⅔ with lateral margins dark brown, and with a darker spot in posteromedian part (Fig. 690).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.1 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown with ventral part of flagellomeres 1–3 yellowish-brown (Fig. 691). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black with parts lateral to ocellar triangle dark reddish-brown and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-white with median part yellowish-brown, pale area extending slightly outside outer lateral margins of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 689). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae. Vertex smooth lateral to ocellar triangle, with very weak reticulation inside ocellar triangle. Occipital margin with a carina.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 688). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak and engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth. Dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that is divided by longitudinal carinae. Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with five visible setae, but some appears broken off, so probably with more than five setae. Legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa slightly darker (Fig. 688). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae, and margin with two setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster yellowish-brown with margins in anterior ⅔ dark brown and with a darker spot in posteromedian part (Fig. 690).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.1/1.0/1.4; POL/OOL/POO = 6.0/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.3/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.6/2.2/6.2/1.8/1.0/1.2/2.2; LP/WP = 0.5; MM/LG = 1.4.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Isoparce cupressi (Sphingidae) (Gahan 1927).

Distribution

USA (Florida) (Gahan 1927).

Remarks

This species was described from three females but no primary type was selected. One of the females labeled “ALACHUA CO., FLA, Waldo, x.13-1924, 253, T.H. Hubbell”, “Reared fron Isoparce cupressi”, “Type No. 29451 U.S.N.M.”, “Euplectrus junctus Gahan female Type”, is hereby selected as lectotype.

Euplectrus leucotrophis Howard

Figures 699–702

Euplectrus leucotrophis Howard, 1885: 26. Lectotype ♂ (USNM), designated here, examined.

Material

Type material: 3♂ syntypes of Euplectrus leucotrophis, one of which is selected lectotype here (USNM).

Diagnosis

Entire lower face white with median part yellowish-white (Fig. 700); scape slightly expanded and widest in apical part, 3.6× as long as wide (Fig. 700), sensory pores confined to apico-ventral part, sensory area with same colour as scape; legs white; petiole 0.6× as long as wide, with posterior margin strongly curved forwards (Fig. 702); gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with anterolateral margins dark brown, margin broken medially by white stripe, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 701).

Description

Male. Length of body 1.3 mm. Antenna with scape white, pedicel yellowish-white, flagellomeres missing in type specimens; scape slightly expanded and widest in apical part (Fig. 700), sensory pores confined to apico-ventral part, sensory area with same colour as scape. Mandibles and palpi white. Head dark reddish-brown and shiny, entire lower face white with median part yellowish-white (Fig. 700). Frons close to eyes with a row of setae and with some setae parallel to this row. Vertex smooth. Occipital margin with a weak carina behind ocellar triangle.

Mesosoma dark reddish-brown (Fig. 699). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with eight setae. Scutellum 1.1× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, with posterior margin smooth. Dorsellum anteriorly without a groove or foveae. Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs white (Fig. 699). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein; with 12 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with anterolateral margins dark brown, margin broken medially by white stripe, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 701).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.5/1.0/1.5; POL/OOL/POO = 5.3/2.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 0.8; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.7/3.6; LC/WS = 3.6; WH/WT = 1.3; PM/ST = 1.2; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 2.7/1.5/5.0/1.4/1.2/1.0/1.3; LP/WP = 0.6; MM/LG = 1.7.

Female. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Recorded as “Arctiidae indet.” (Howard 1885), but highly unlikely to be the host. Arctiidae is nowadays classifed as a subfamily (Arctiinae) in Erebidae.

Distribution

USA (Florida) (Howard 1885).

Remarks

The syntype series consists of three males. One male is on a strongly corroded pin and this specimen lacks the head. Two males are glued to the same card, specimen to the left lacks entire left antenna and pedicel+flagellum on the right antenna, the right hindwing, hind legs, tarsus on right midleg; specimen to the right lacks the flagellum on the left antenna and pedicel+flagellum on the right antenna, tarsus on right fore and mid legs, and right wing-pair. The lectotype is the male to the right of the two males glue to the same card. Labels on the pin: “No.647.a. July 19.80 [1880]”, “Type No. 2654 U.S.N.M.”, “Euplectrus leuctrophis How. ms.”. All specimens have a pale appearance which might be due to bleaching by light.

Euplectrus marginatus Ashmead

Figures 727–729

Euplectus[sic!] marginatus Ashmead, 1885: 18. Lectotype ♀ (USNM), designated here, examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ lectotype of Euplectus marginatus (USNM).

Diagnosis

Head including lower face black (Fig. 728); scutellum with strong engraved reticulation; dorsellum and propodeum with strong reticulation; legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 727); petiole 0.7× as long as wide; gaster dark brown with a yellowish-brown spot anteromedially (Fig. 729).

Description

Female. Length of body 1.5 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, (Fig. 728). Mandibles and palpi not visible. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 728). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae. Vertex with weak reticulation. Occipital margin with a carina.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 727). Mesoscutum with number of setae on sidelobes difficult to see because they are mostly broken. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with strong engraved reticulation. Dorsellum with a narrow groove along anterior margin. Propodeum strongly reticulate; anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with six setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 727). Fore wing: setae on ventral side of costal cell and admarginal setae difficult to see; margin of costal cell with one seta close to marginal vein.

Gaster dark brown with a small yellowish-brown spot anteromedially (Fig. 729).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = nm; POL/OOL/POO = 4.1/1.9/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.6/6.0/4.5; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.3; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.8/7.8/2.8/1.3/1.0/2.3; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.5.

Male. Not seen.

Hosts and biology

Noctuidae indet. (Lepidoptera) (Ashmead 1885).

Distribution

USA (Florida) (Ashmead 1885).

Remarks

This species was described from 15 specimens, 13 females and 2 males, but no primary type was selected. One of the females is here designated as lectotype, with labels “Jacksonville, Fla”, “Type”, “Type No.27642, U.S.N.M.”, “Euplectrus marginatus Ashm.”, “Euplectrus marginatus Lectotype Gordh 1978”. This specimen was selected as lectotype by G. Gordh but was never validated. The redescription above is based on the lectotype, as are also the illustrations. The lectotype lacks entire right antenna and left antennal flagellum.

Euplectrus mellipes Provancher

Figures 460–463

Euplectrus mellipes Provancher, 1887: 207. Lectotype ♀ (CNC), designated by Gahan and Rohwer 1917: 399, examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ lectotype of Euplectrus mellipes (CNC).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching half-way between outer lateral margins of toruli and eyes (Fig. 461); scutellum reticulate with elongate meshes that converge toward the middle, anteromedian ½ of scutellum with weaker reticulation; legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 460); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 462).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres brown (Fig. 463). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-brown. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-brown, pale area reaching half-way between outer lateral margins of toruli and eyes, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 461). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae. Vertex smooth. Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 460). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 12 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; reticulate with elongate meshes that converge toward the middle, anteromedian ½ of scutellum with weaker reticulation. Dorsellum with a very narrow groove along anterior margin, medially 0.1× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with 12 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 460). Fore wing: costal cell with one row of setae on ventral surface, and margin with four setae close to marginal vein.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 462).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.0/1.0/1.2; POL/OOL/POO = 6.0/3.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.6/3.6; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.4; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.3/2.0/6.2/2.0/1.5/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Canada (Provancher 1887).

Remarks

The antennae of the lectotype lack flagellum of right antenna and apical two flagellomeres on left antenna.

Euplectrus pachyscaphus Girault

Figures 448–452

Euplectrus pachyscapha Girault, 1917a: 2. Lectotype ♀ (USNM), designated here, examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ lectotype of Euplectrus pachyscapha (USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially reddish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 449); head below level of eyes distinctly pointed (Fig. 449); female scape long with ⅕ reaching above level of vertex (Fig. 452); dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that covers ⅓ the length of dorsellum and is divided by longitudinal carinae; legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa slightly darker (Fig. 448); petiole 0.5× as long as wide; gaster yellowish-brown in median ⅓ with lateral margins dark brown, and with a dark brown round spot posteromedially (Fig. 450).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.4 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 451); scape long with ⅕ reaching above level of vertex (Fig. 452). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially reddish-brown, pale area reaching to outer lateral margins of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 449). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae. Vertex inside ocellar triangle with very weak reticulation, outside triangle smooth. Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 448). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 16 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with weak and engraved reticulation and with elongate meshes in anterior ⅓ and isodiametric in posterior ⅔, posterior margin smooth. Dorsellum with a groove along anterior margin that is divided by longitudinal carinae, medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum with weak reticulation; anteromedially with a triangular cup; propodeal callus with ten setae. Legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa slightly darker (Fig. 448). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with two rows of setae, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 17 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster yellowish-brown in median ⅓ with lateral margins dark brown, and with a dark brown round spot posteromedially (Fig. 450).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.7/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 5.6/3.4/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.8; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.0/5.0/3.9; WH/WT = 1.0; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.5/2.3/7.1/2.3/1.5/1.0/1.8; LP/WP = 0.5; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Not found.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

USA (Kansas) (Girault 1917a).

Remarks

Euplectrus pachyscaphus was described from an unspecified number of female and male specimens. The only remaining specimen in USNM (M. Gates personal communication) is a female which is used for the redescription above. This specimen is labeled “Type 21159 U.S.N.M.” and a handwritten label “Euplectrus pachyscapha Girault ♀ type”, and is here designated lectotype.

Euplectrus puttleri Gordh

Figures 706–708, 709–715, 800

Euplectrus puttleri Gordh in Puttler et al., 1980: 28–29. Holotype ♀ (USNM), not found.

Material

Type material: 10♀ 3♂ paratypes of E. puttleri (UCR).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially yellowish-white with median ⅓ yellowish-brown, pale area reaching slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli (Figs 710, 711); dorsellum anteriorly with a groove that medially is 0.6× as long as dorsellum (Fig. 800); legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa slightly darker (Fig. 709); petiole 0.7× as long as wide in female, 0.8× in male; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown (female, Fig. 712) or white (male, Fig. 713), with wide dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 715).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.3 mm. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellomeres pale brown (Fig. 714). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-white. Head black and shiny, lower face medially yellowish-white with median ⅓ yellowish-brown, pale area extending slightly outside of outer lateral margins of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 710). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 706). Vertex smooth (Fig. 707). Occipital margin with a carina (Fig. 707).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 709). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 11 setae. Scutellum 1.0× as long as wide; with rather weak and engraved reticulation and with elongate meshes, posterior and lateral margins smooth (Fig. 708). Dorsellum anteriorly with a very wide groove, medially 0.6× as long as length of dorsellum, that is divided by longitudinal carinae (Fig. 800). Propodeum smooth (Fig. 800); anteromedially with a semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 9–12 setae. Legs yellowish-brown with hind coxa slightly darker (Fig. 709). Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 13 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-brown with wide dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 712).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.6/1.0/1.1; POL/OOL/POO = 9.5/5.5/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.7; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/3.8/6.3/4.7; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.0; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.8/2.4/6.0/1.8/1.4/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.7; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.5 mm. Scape slightly expanded and widest above the middle and with base narrow (Fig. 715), sensory area dark brown and confined to apicoventral ⅓. Otherwise similar to female except petiole longer and pale parts of gaster white (Fig. 713).

Ratios. LC/WS = 4.4; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.0.

Hosts and biology

Anticarsia gemmatalis (Erebidae) (Puttler et al. 1980).

Distribution

Colombia, and introduced into the USA (Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi) (Puttler et al. 1980).

Remarks

The holotype female of E. puttleri that according to the original description should be deposited in USNM could not be found there (M. Gates, personal communication).

Euplectrus rojasi Schauff

Euplectrus rojasi Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 217–219. Holotype ♀ (USNM), not found.

Material

The species was described from a single female that was deposited in USNM (Schauff and Janzen 2001). However, this holotype could not be located in the collections of USNM (M. Gates, personal communication), and therefore no material of this species has been examined.

Diagnosis

In spite of the lack of material the original description gives valuable clues as to the identity of this species. Lower face is brown medially and dark yellow lateral to median dark brown area; hind coxae are black; posterior part of scutellum is overhanging dorsellum and hides anterior part of dorsellum; propodeum with anteromedian cup flattened, not raised as in the other species of Euplectrus; petiole is 1.5× as long as wide, i.e. very long for a Euplectrus.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Cartago Province) (Schauff and Janzen 2001).

Euplectrus semimarginatus Girault

Figures 477–478

Euplectrus semimarginatus Girault, 1917b: 1. Lectotype female in USNM, designated here, examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ lectotype of Euplectrus semimarginatus (USNM).

Diagnosis

See remarks below.

Description

Female. Head missing in lectotype specimen. Length of body 1.9 mm (excluding head).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 477). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with nine setae. Scutellum convex; 1.0× as long as wide; with very weak reticulation, hence shiny. Dorsellum hidden behind glue. Propodeum with very weak reticulation and shiny; anteromedian part hidden behind glue; propodeal callus with 15 setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 477). Wings transparent, veins and setae yellowish-white; setae on submarginal vein all broken off; admarginal setae and setae in costal cell not visible, hidden in glue.

Gaster yellowish-brown with anterolateral margins dark brown (Fig. 478).

Ratios. PM/ST = 1.2; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.0/2.6/7.0/2.8/1.4/1.0/1.6; LP/WP = 0.5; MM/LG = 1.3.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Aphis rumicis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Girault 1917b). In view of other host records for species of Euplectrus this host record is very dubious and needs verification.

Distribution

USA (Texas) (Girault 1917b).

Remarks

The lectotype female lacks the head and is therefore not possible to include in the identification key. However, the gaster is with a very distinct pattern: yellowish-brown with dark brown margins in anterior ⅓ (Fig. 478), much like in E. bobwhartoni and E. charlesporteri. E. semimarginatus also has very weak reticulation on the scutellum, which thus is shiny, as in E. bobwhartoni (Fig. 69) but unlike E. charlesporteri which has stronger reticulation on the scutellum (Fig. 86). E. semimarginatus differs from E. bobwhartoni in having hindleg with tarsomere 1 1.7× as long as tarsomere 4, in E. bobwhartoni tarsomere 1 and 4 are equally long. Also similar to E. floryae and E. jesusugaldei but both these species have the dark margins on female gaster extending along more or less the entire gaster.

In the original description there is no mention on what material the description is based. Therefore a female that agrees with the original description, in USNM, and labeled: “College Stn Sept Banks”, “Texas”, “Type 21431”, “Euplectrus semimarginatus Girault female type” is designated as lectotype here.

Euplectrus solitarius Ashmead

Figures 486–488

Euplectrus solitarius Ashmead, 1904: 517. Holotype ♀ (USNM), examined.

Material

Type material: ♀ holotype of Euplectrus solitarius (USNM).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margins of toruli (Fig. 487); legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 486); scutellum with very weak engraved reticulation, almost smooth medially and with posterior ⅕ smooth; dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove that medially reaches ⅕ of length of dorsellum.

Description

Female. Length of body 1.3 mm (excluding gaster which is missing in holotype). Antenna with scape yellowish-white, pedicel yellowish-brown (Fig. 488). Mandibles and palpi yellowish-brown. Head black and shiny, lower face medially reddish-brown, pale area reaching to level of outer lateral margins of toruli, parts between pale area and eyes black (Fig. 487). Frons close to eyes with three rows of setae. Vertex smooth. Occipital margin rounded.

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 486). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 14 setae. Scutellum 1.1× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, almost smooth medially and with posterior ⅕ smooth. Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove, medially about 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth; anteromedially with a triangular cup that has posterior part strongly raised; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs yellowish-brown (Fig. 486). Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 15 admarginal setae, in one row.

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.8/1.1/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 4.2/2.8/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.6; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.4/4.3/3.3; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.6; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 3.4/2.0/5.8/1.8/1.2/1.0/1.4.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Brazil (Ashmead 1904).

Remarks

The holotype specimen lacks flagellum on both antennae, femora, tibiae and tarsi on fore legs, entire hind left leg, and petiole+gaster. The missing body parts make it difficult to fix the identity of this species and it is therefore not possible to include in the key.

Euplectrus valverdei Schauff

Figures 720–726, 730–732, 801

Euplectrus valverdei Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 220–224. Holotype ♀ (INBio), not examined.

Material

Type material: 1♀ 1♂ paratypes (BMNH). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 2♀ from Alajuela Province in malaise traps (INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face medially dark reddish-brown to black and not clearly delimited from surrounding black areas (Fig. 721); mandibles dark brown; female with fore and midlegs with coxae yellowish-white, femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; hind coxa pale brown, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ pale brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown (Fig. 720), male legs as in female but with hind coxa yellowish-brown; petiole 0.8× as long as wide; female gaster dark brown with a large T-shaped yellowish-white spot in anterior ½ and with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 723), male gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 724); male scape strongly expanded and widest close to base (Fig. 726), 1.4× as long as wide, sensory pores cover entire inner lateral surface.

Description

Female. Length of body 2.6 mm. Antenna with scape white with apex yellowish-white, pedicel, flagellomere 1 and base of 2 yellowish-brown, apical part of flagellomere 2 and entire 3–6 dark brown (Fig. 725). Mandibles dark brown, palpi white. Head black and shiny, lower face below toruli very dark reddish-brown to black and not clearly delimited from surrounding black areas (Fig. 721). Frons close to eyes with two rows of setae (Fig. 730). Vertex smooth (Fig. 731). Occipital margin rounded (Fig. 731).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 720). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with 10 setae. Scutellum 1.2× as long as wide; with weak engraved reticulation (Fig. 731). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove (Fig. 801), medially 0.3× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 801); anteromedially with a transverse semicircular cup; propodeal callus with 11 setae. Legs (Fig. 720): fore and mid legs with coxae yellowish-white, femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; hind coxa pale brown, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ pale brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell on ventral surface with one row of setae, and margin with five setae close to marginal vein; with 12 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster dark brown with a large T-shaped yellowish-white spot in anterior ½ and with apex reddish-brown (Fig. 723).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 1.7/1.1/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 6.9/4.6/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.5; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.8/4.7/3.2; WH/WT = 1.2; PM/ST = 1.5; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.5/2.4/7.5/2.9/1.7/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 0.8; MM/LG = 1.0.

Male. Length of body 1.8 mm. Scape strongly expanded and widest close to base, sensory pores cover entire inner lateral surface (Fig. 726). Otherwise similar to female except scape yellowish-brown, flagellomeres 1–4 yellowish-white, 5–6 pale brown (Fig. 726); hind coxa yellowish-brown; gaster with anterior ½ white with dark brown lateral margins and posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 724).

Ratios. LC/WS = 1.4; MM/LG = 1.0.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Alajuela and San José Provinces).

Euplectrus zamorai Schauff

Figures 502–505, 509–511, 802

Euplectrus zamorai Schauff in Schauff & Janzen, 2001: 227–228. Holotype ♀ (USNM), examined.

Material

Type material: holotype female of Euplectrus zamorai (USNM). Additional material: COSTA RICA: 2♀ from Guanacaste and Heredia provinces in malaise traps (BMNH, INBio).

Diagnosis

Lower face black (Fig. 503); antenna with scape, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–3 yellowish-white, flagellomeres 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 505); mandibles and palpi dark brown; fore and midlegs with coxae yellowish-white, femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; hind coxa dark brown, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ pale brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown (Fig. 502); petiole 0.9× as long as wide; gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 504).

Description

Female. Length of body 2.2 mm. Antenna with scape, pedicel and flagellomeres 1–3 yellowish-white, 4–6 dark brown (Fig. 505). Mandibles and palpi dark brown. Head including lower face black and shiny (Fig. 503). Frons close to eyes with one row of setae (Fig. 509). Vertex smooth (Fig. 510). Occipital margin with a carina behind ocellar triangle (Fig. 510).

Mesosoma black and shiny (Fig. 502). Each sidelobe of mesoscutum with four setae. Scutellum 0.9× as long as wide; with very weak engraved reticulation, posterior margin smooth (Fig. 511). Dorsellum anteriorly with a narrow groove (Fig. 802), medially 0.2× as long as length of dorsellum. Propodeum smooth (Fig. 802); anteromedially with a semicircular cup that has posterior part strongly raised; propodeal callus with seven setae. Legs (Fig. 502): fore and mid legs with coxae yellowish-white, femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown; hind coxa dark brown, femur with basal ½ yellowish-white and apical ½ pale brown, tibia and tarsus yellowish-brown. Fore wing: costal cell with two rows of setae on ventral surface, and margin with three setae close to marginal vein; with 12 admarginal setae, in one row.

Gaster with anterior ½ yellowish-white with dark brown lateral margins, posterior ½ dark brown (Fig. 504).

Ratios. HE/MS/WM = 2.2/1.1/1.0; POL/OOL/POO = 4.8/2.0/1.0; OOL/DO = 1.2; WE/WF/WH/HH = 1.0/2.3/4.3/3.2; WH/WT = 1.1; PM/ST = 1.8; TS1/TS2/LT/LT1/LT2/LT3/LT4 = 4.4/2.7/6.7/2.3/1.6/1.0/1.7; LP/WP = 0.9; MM/LG = 0.9.

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Costa Rica (Schauff and Janzen 2001) (Guanacaste & Heredia Provinces).

Species with uncertain status

Euplectrus brasiliensis Ashmead

Euplectrus brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904: 516–517. Type material lost (LaSalle and Schauff 1992: 20).

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

Bolivia (LaSalle and Schauff 1992).

Euplectrus hircinus (Say)

Eulophus hircinus Say, 1836: 274. Type material not located, probably destroyed (Mawdsley 1993).

Euplectrus hircinus (Say), Peck 1951: 453.

Material

No specimens found.

Hosts and biology

Unknown.

Distribution

USA (Indiana) (Say 1836).

Remarks

The morphological differences between many of the species of Euplectrus are small, a fact that previous species descriptors have not realized. Therefore descriptions such as the one by Say, of E. hircinus, fit to any number, or none, of the species. Without type material, E. hircinus is impossible to identify.

Euplectrus ronnai (Brèthes)

Figures 579, 580

Heteroscapus ronnai Brèthes, 1918: 10. Lectotype ♂ (MACN), designated here.

Euplectrus ronnai (Brèthes) (De Santis 1980b: 154).

Material

See below under remarks.

Hosts and biology

Lepidoptera indet. (Brèthes 1918).

Distribution

Brazil (Brèthes 1918).

Remarks

The type material of this species is mainly destroyed, the only parts remaining (Juan José Martínez in MACN, personal communication) are one antenna each of a male and a female on slides (Figs 579, 580). As only an antenna of each sex remain it is difficult to fix the identity of E. ronnai. The strongly enlarged yellow scape in the male is the same as in E. valverdei, but some other characters are different between these species. The males of E. ronnai have entire antenna yellow (Fig. 580, also according to the original description), and mid tibia with apical part black (according to original description); males of E. valverdei have flagellomeres 1–4 yellowish-white and 5–6 pale brown, and mid tibia entirely yellowish-brown. Thus these are very probably different species. The only remaining and distinctive part of E. ronnai is the male antenna on slide, which also agrees with the original description, and this is hereby designated as lectotype for the species. The female antenna on slide is designated paralectotype of E. ronnai.

Plates

Figures 1–4.

Euplectrus terminology, schematic illustrations: 1 head in frontal view 2 vertex 3 apex of hind leg with tibial spurs and tarsus 4 part of left fore wing. For explanation of abbreviations see text under “Abbreviations”.

Figures 5–8.

Euplectrus spp.: 5 freshly killed (by freezing) adult E. paulheberti on an author’s hand (DHJ), newly eclosed from cocoons below the cadaver of Aellopos clavipes (Sphingidae) (13-SRNP-10107) 6 two female E. testaceipes exploring a penultimate instar Manduca barnesi (Sphingidae) (94-SRNP-4497) for oviposition in the field; they were extremely tenacious in staying mounted on the caterpillar through hours of strong buffeting in a plastic bag on the author’s belt (DHJ) 7 early instar E. testaceipes where oviposited on the back of a last instar Manduca albiplaga (Sphingidae) (08-SRNP-16395) 8 middle instar E. testaceipes growing on the back of a penultimate instar Manduca albiplaga (Sphingidae) (08-SRNP-16396).

Figures 9–11.

Euplectrus testaceipes: 9 last instar growing on the back of the caterpillar (08-SRNP-16396) in Fig. 8 10 beginning cocoon spinning on the back of the caterpillar (08-SRNP-16396) in Fig. 8 11 nearly completed ruff of gregarious cocoons on the back of caterpillar (08-SRNP-16396) in Fig. 8.

Figures 12–15.

Euplectrus spp.: 12 close view of last instar E. testaceipes feeding on the back of penultimate instar Manduca rustica (Sphingidae) (13-SRNP-71715) 13 cocoon ruff of E. testaceipes on penultimate instar Manduca florestan (Sphingidae) (10-SRNP-72733) 14 dorsal view of mid-instar E. davidwahli feeding on last instar Hypena Poole36 (Erebidae) (11-SRNP-30665) 15 lateral view of mid-instar E. davidwahli feeding on last instar Hypena Poole36 (Erebidae) (11-SRNP-30665).

Figures 16–18.

Euplectrus spp.: 16 last instar E. charlesmicheneri feeding on last instar Sicya medangula (Geometridae) (08-SRNP-35772) 17 last instar E. johnnoyesi feeding on pen-penultimate instar Gonodonta sinaldus (Erebidae) (07-SRNP-33589) 18 last instar E. magdae feeding on penultimate instar Pentobesa pinnaDHJ02 (Notodontidae) (05-SRNP-19353).

Figures 19–22.

Euplectrus spp.: 19 two different sizes of E. mikesharkeyi feeding on penultimate instar Perigea micrippia (Noctuidae) (10-SRNP-36122); this may represent two different oviposition events or differential growth capacity that depends on the location on the caterpillar and/or whether competing parasitoids are present 20 last instar E. mariae feeding on last instar Concana hoshea (Noctuidae) (09-SRNP-72128) 21 last instar E. floryae feeding on penultimate instar Enyo ocypete (Sphingidae) (97-SRNP-4188) 22 prepupal E. eowilsoni beginning to spin their cocoon mass on last instar Argyrosticta vauaurea (Noctuidae) (07-SRNP-65277).

Figures 23–26.

Euplectrus spp.: 23 prepupal E. hugokonsi beginning to search for their cocooning site under the cadaver of last instar Dasylophia guarana (Notodontidae) (07-SRNP-58948) 24 newly spun cocoons of E. hugokonsi enveloping the cadaver of the Dasylophia guarana in Fig. 23 25 prepupal E. iangauldi spinning their communal ruff of cocoons around the cadaver of a penultimate instar Perigonia lusca (Sphingidae) (06-SRNP-22585) 26 prepupal E. mikeschauffi within their communal ruff of cocoons around the cadaver of a penultimate instar Enyo ocypete (Sphingidae) (11-SRNP-31737).

Figures 27–30.

Euplectrus spp.: 27 pupae and cocoons of E. xiomarae beneath the cadaver of a penultimate instar Hemiceras clarki (Notodontidae) (92-SRNP-4609); the yellow balls between the pupae are meconial pellets, one defecated by each larva immediately before pupation 28 prepupae of E. wonyoungchoi in their partly spun cocoons beneath the cadaver of Elaphria Poole08 (Noctuidae) (11-SRNP-32964); they have not yet defecated their meconial pellets 29 pupae of E. lubomirmasneri beneath the cadaver of Cecharismena zoum (Erebidae) (14-SRNP-30332); the black balls are recently defecated meconial pellets 30 lateral view of the same Euplectrus and caterpillar as in Fig. 29.

Figures 31–33.

Euplectrus spp.: 31 newly eclosed pupal remains of E. johnlasallei that were below the cadaver of the caterpillar of Sericochroa Janzen01 (Notodontidae) (07-SRNP-31411), which has been lifted off of them as they were stuck to the surface of the glass rearing bottle to which they were glued by the drying pupal liquids, with the cocoon silk at the sides and the cadaver as the roof of the pupal chamber 32 recently eclosed pupal remains of E. fernandezi glued to the leaf below the cadaver of a last instar Euglyphis jessiehillae (Lasiocampidae) (06-SRNP-4798); the hairy caterpillar has been lifted off the pupae and this species of Euplectrus appears to not spin a silken cocoon as do all the other reared ACG Euplectrus 33 recently eclosed pupal remains of E. fernandezi glued to the leaf, with no visible silk, beneath the hairy cadaver of a last instar Euglyphis jessiehillae (Lasiocampidae) (07-SRNP-2713).

Figure 34.

Proportion of Lepidoptera families, each with number of species, parasitized by 74 species of Euplectrus with known host records from the Americas (data source mainly from the ACG inventory).

Figure 35.

Interspecific variation of DNA barcodes among species of ACG Euplectrus displayed using the Neighbor-Joining method (Saitou and Nei 1987) with distances computed using the Kimura 2-parameter method (Kimura 1980) conducted in MEGA6 (Tamura et al 2013). When there was more than one sequence available for each species, the representative sequence was selected based on quality (longest read length with the fewest ambiguities). Line labels are the voucher code|species name|host family|number of barcoded specimens in the ACG database at the time of writing. In the two cases where two species have nearly identical barcodes, morphological differences suggest that each pair indeed contains two species, the veracity of which will be the subject of further research when more samples are available.

Figures 36–46.

Euplectrus spp. 36–42 E. alejandrovalerioi (DHJPAR0053946): 36 habitus in lateral view, female 37 head in frontal view, female 38 head in frontal view, male 39 gaster in dorsal view, female 40 gaster in dorsal view, male 41 antenna in lateral view, female 42 antenna in lateral view, male; 43–46 E. alexsmithi (DHJPAR0028872), female: 43 habitus in lateral view 44 head in frontal view 45 gaster in dorsal view 46 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 47–52.

Euplectrus spp., females. 47–49 E. alejandrovalerioi (DHJPAR0053946): 47 head in frontal view 48 vertex 49 mesosoma in dorsal view 50–52 E. alexsmithi (DHJPAR0028872): 50 head in frontal view 51 vertex 52 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 53–63.

Euplectrus spp. 53–59 E. alvarowillei (DHJPAR0028881): 53 habitus in lateral view, female 54 head in frontal view, female 55 head in frontal view, male 56 gaster in dorsal view, female 57 gaster in dorsal view, male 58 antenna in lateral view, female 59 antenna in lateral view, male 60–63 E. bobwhartoni (DHJPAR0028861), female: 60 habitus in lateral view 61 head in frontal view 62 gaster in dorsal view 63 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 64–69.

Euplectrus spp., females. 64–66 E. alvarowillei (DHJPAR0028881): 64 head in frontal view 65 vertex 66 mesosoma in dorsal view 67–69 E. bobwhartoni (DHJPAR0028861): 67 head in frontal view 68 vertex 69 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 70–80.

Euplectrus spp. 70–76 E. andybennetti (94-SRNP-5588, no barcode): 70 habitus in lateral view, female 71 head in frontal view, female 72 head in frontal view, male 73 gaster in dorsal view, female 74 gaster in dorsal view, male 75 antenna in lateral view, female 76 antenna in lateral view, male 77–80 E. charlesporteri (97-SRNP-9717, no barcode), female: 77 habitus in lateral view 78 head in frontal view 79 gaster in dorsal view 80 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 81–86.

Euplectrus spp., females. 81–83 E. andybennetti (94-SRNP-5588, no barcode): 81 head in frontal view 82 vertex 83 mesosoma in dorsal view 84–86 E. charlesporteri (97-SRNP-9717, no barcode): 84 head in frontal view 85 vertex 86 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 87–97.

Euplectrus spp. 87–93 E. andydeansi (DHJPAR0046907): 87 habitus in lateral view, female 88 head in frontal view, female 89 head in frontal view, male 90 gaster in dorsal view, female 91 gaster in dorsal view, male 92 antenna in lateral view, female 93 antenna in lateral view, male 94–97 E. chrisgrinteri (95-SRNP-3415, no barcode), female: 94 habitus in lateral view 95 head in frontal view 96 gaster in dorsal view 97 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 98–103.

Euplectrus spp., females. 98–100 E. andydeansi (DHJPAR0046907): 98 head in frontal view 99 vertex 100 mesosoma in dorsal view 101–103 E. chrisgrinteri (95-SRNP-3415, no barcode): 101 head in frontal view 102 vertex 103 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 104–114.

Euplectrus spp. 104–110 E. annettewalkerae (DHJPAR0046917): 104 habitus in lateral view, female 105 head in frontal view, female 106 head in frontal view, male 107 gaster in dorsal view, female 108 gaster in dorsal view, male 109 antenna in lateral view, female 110 antenna in lateral view, male; 111–114 E. daveroubiki (DHJPAR0023280), female: 111 habitus in lateral view 112 head in frontal view 113 gaster in dorsal view 114 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 115–120.

Euplectrus spp., females. 115–117 E. annettewalkerae (DHJPAR0046917): 115 head in frontal view 116 vertex 117 mesosoma in dorsal view; 118–120 E. daveroubiki (DHJPAR0023280): 118 head in frontal view 119 vertex 120 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 121–131.

Euplectrus spp. 121–127 E. billbrowni (DHJPAR0028838): 121 habitus in lateral view, female 122 head in frontal view, female 123 head in frontal view, male 124 gaster in dorsal view, female 125 gaster in dorsal view, male 126 antenna in lateral view, female 127 antenna in lateral view, male; 128–131 E. davesmithi (DHJPAR0028811), female: 128 habitus in lateral view 129 head in frontal view 130 gaster in dorsal view 131 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 132–137.

Euplectrus spp., females. 132–134 E. billbrowni (DHJPAR0028838): 132 head in frontal view 133 vertex 134 mesosoma in dorsal view; 135–137 E. davesmithi (DHJPAR0028811): 135 head in frontal view 136 vertex 137 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 138–148.

Euplectrus spp. 138–144 E. carlosarmientoi (DHJPAR0023273): 138 habitus in lateral view, female 139 head in frontal view, female 140 head in frontal view, male 141 gaster in dorsal view, female 142 gaster in dorsal view, male 143 antenna in lateral view, female 144 antenna in lateral view, male; 145–148 E. dianariasae (DHJPAR0046906), female: 145 habitus in lateral view 146 head in frontal view 147 gaster in dorsal view 148 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 149–154.

Euplectrus spp., females. 149–151 E. carlosarmientoi (DHJPAR0023273): 149 head in frontal view 150 vertex 151 mesosoma in dorsal view; 152–154 E. dianariasae (DHJPAR0046906): 152 head in frontal view 153 vertex 154 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 155–165.

Euplectrus spp. 155–161 E. carlrettenmeyeri (DHJPAR0046912): 155 habitus in lateral view, female 156 head in frontal view, female 157 head in frontal view, male 158 gaster in dorsal view, female 159 gaster in dorsal view, male 160 antenna in lateral view, female 161 antenna in lateral view, male 162–165 E. garygibsoni (DHJPAR0042124), female: 162 habitus in lateral view 163 head in frontal view 164 gaster in dorsal view 165 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 166–171.

Euplectrus spp., females. 166–168 E. carlrettenmeyeri (DHJPAR0046912): 166 head in frontal view 167 vertex 168 mesosoma in dorsal view; 169–171 E. garygibsoni (DHJPAR0042124): 169 head in frontal view 170 vertex 171 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 172–182.

Euplectrus spp. 172–178 E. charlesmicheneri (DHJPAR0031152): 172 habitus in lateral view, female 173 head in frontal view, female 174 head in frontal view, male 175 gaster in dorsal view, female 176 gaster in dorsal view, male 177 antenna in lateral view, female 178 antenna in lateral view, male; 179–182 E. gavinbroadi (DHJPAR0045450), female: 179 habitus in lateral view 180 head in frontal view 181 gaster in dorsal view 182 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 183–188.

Euplectrus spp., females. 183–185 E. charlesmicheneri (DHJPAR0031152): 183 head in frontal view 184 vertex 185 mesosoma in dorsal view; 186–188 E. gavinbroadi (DHJPAR0045450): 186 head in frontal view 187 vertex 188 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 189–199.

Euplectrus spp. 189–195 E. chrisdarlingi (DHJPAR0028698): 189 habitus in lateral view, female 190 head in frontal view, female 191 head in frontal view, male 192 gaster in dorsal view, female 193 gaster in dorsal view, male 194 antenna in lateral view, female 195 antenna in lateral view, male; 196–199 E. gerarddelvarei (DHJPAR0042126), female: 196 habitus in lateral view 197 head in frontal view 198 gaster in dorsal view 199 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 200–205.

Euplectrus spp., females. 200–202 E. chrisdarlingi (DHJPAR0028698): 200 head in frontal view 201 vertex 202 mesosoma in dorsal view; 203–205 E. gerarddelvarei (DHJPAR0042126): 203 head in frontal view 204 vertex 205 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 206–216.

Euplectrus spp. 206–212 E. corriemoreauae (DHJPAR0053131): 206 habitus in lateral view, female 207 head in frontal view, female 208 head in frontal view, male 209 gaster in dorsal view, female 210 gaster in dorsal view, male 211 antenna in lateral view, female 212 antenna in lateral view, male 213–216 E. howelldalyi (DHJPAR0028882), male: 213 habitus in lateral view 214 head in frontal view 215 gaster in dorsal view 216 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 217–222.

Euplectrus spp. 217–219 E. corriemoreauae, female (DHJPAR0053131): 217 head in frontal view 218 vertex 219 mesosoma in dorsal view; 220–222 E. howelldalyi, male (DHJPAR0028882): 220 head in frontal view 221 vertex 222 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 223–233.

Euplectrus spp. 223–229 E. davidwahli (DHJPAR0042122): 223 habitus in lateral view, female 224 head in frontal view, female 225 head in frontal view, male 226 gaster in dorsal view, female 227 gaster in dorsal view, male 228 antenna in lateral view, female 229 antenna in lateral view, male; 230–233 E. jesusugaldei (97-SRNP-9370, no barcode), female: 230 habitus in lateral view 231 head in frontal view 232 gaster in dorsal view 233 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 234–239.

Euplectrus spp., females. 234–236 E. davidwahli (DHJPAR0042122): 234 head in frontal view 235 vertex 236 mesosoma in dorsal view; 237–239 E. jesusugaldei (97-SRNP-9370, no barcode): 237 head in frontal view 238 vertex 239 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 240–250.

Euplectrus spp. 240–246 E. donquickei (DHJPAR0028814): 240 habitus in lateral view, female 241 head in frontal view, female 242 head in frontal view, male 243 gaster in dorsal view, female 244 gaster in dorsal view, male 245 antenna in lateral view, female 246 antenna in lateral view, male; 247–250 E. jjrodriguezae (94-SRNP-7129, no barcode), female: 247 habitus in lateral view 248 head in frontal view 249 gaster in dorsal view 250 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 251–256.

Euplectrus spp., females. 251–253 E. donquickei (DHJPAR0028814: 251 head in frontal view 252 vertex 253 mesosoma in dorsal view; 254–256 E. jjrodriguezae (94-SRNP-7129, no barcode): 254 head in frontal view 255 vertex 256 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 257–267.

Euplectrus spp. 257–263 E. eowilsoni (DHJPAR0028932): 257 habitus in lateral view, female 258 head in frontal view, female 259 head in frontal view, male 260 gaster in dorsal view, female 261 gaster in dorsal view, male 262 antenna in lateral view, female 263 antenna in lateral view, male 264–267 E. markshawi (DHJPAR0028896), female: 264 habitus in lateral view 265 head in frontal view 266 gaster in dorsal view 267 antenna in lateral view.

Figures 268–273.

Euplectrus spp., females. 268–270 E. eowilsoni (DHJPAR0028932): 268 head in frontal view 269 vertex 270 mesosoma in dorsal view; 271–273 E. markshawi (DHJPAR0028896): 271 head in frontal view 272 vertex 273 mesosoma in dorsal view.

Figures 274–284.

Euplectrus spp. 274–280 E. henrytownesi (DHJPAR0028805): 274 habitus in lateral view, female 275 head in frontal view, female 276 head in frontal view, male 277 gaster in dorsal view, female 278 gaster in dorsal view, male 279 antenna in lateral view, female 280 antenna in lateral view, male; 281–284 E. ninazitaniae (DHJPAR0028735), female: 281 habitus in lateral view 282 head in frontal view 283 gaster in dorsal view 284 antenna in lateral view.