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Research Article
Four new species of Asian horned toads (Anura, Megophryidae, Megophrys) from southern China
expand article infoZhi-Tong Lyu, Yuan-Qiu Li§, Zhao-Chi Zeng|, Jian Zhao|, Zu-Yao Liu, Guo-Xin Guo§, Ying-Yong Wang
‡ Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
§ Guangdong Shimentai National Nature Reserve, Qingyuan, China
| Shenzhen Shuanghuamu Biological Technology Co., LTD, Shenzhen, China
¶ University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Open Access

Abstract

Recent phylogenetic analysis encompassing multilocus nuclear-gene and matrilineal mtDNA genealogy has revealed a series of cryptic species of the subgenus Panophrys within genus Megophrys from southern and eastern China. This study demonstrates that the Panophrys specimens from the hilly areas among Guangdong, Guangxi and Hunan can be morphologically distinguished from all recognized congeners, thereby providing additional supports for the recognitions of four new species of Panophrys, namely Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis Lyu, Wang & Zhao, sp. nov. from northeastern Guangxi, Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina Lyu, Liu & Wang, sp. nov. from northern Guangdong, and Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis Lyu, Zeng & Wang, sp. nov. and Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis Lyu, Zeng & Wang, sp. nov. from southern Hunan. The descriptions of these species take the number of Megophrys species to 101, 46 of which belong to the subgenus Panophrys.

Keywords

cryptic species, diversity, morphology, Panophrys, taxonomy

Introduction

The Asian horned toad genus Megophrys Kuhl & Van Hasselt, 1822 within the family Megophryidae Bonaparte, 1850, is a typical representative for Oriental fauna, spreading throughout southern China, southern and eastern Himalayas, across Indochina to islands of the Sunda Shelf and the Philippines (Mahony et al. 2017; Liu et al. 2018; Frost 2020). Although morphological identifications on Megophrys species are not easy (Li et al. 2014; Liu et al. 2018), with the progress in integrative taxonomy, a large number of new species have been recognized in the last decade, and takes the species number of genus Megophrys sensu lato to 97 (Frost 2020).

During our herpetological surveys in the hilly areas among Guangdong, Guangxi and Hunan, southern China (Fig. 1), a series of specimens of horned toads were collected. These specimens morphologically belong to genus Megophrys but could not be assigned to any recognized species by the combinations of characteristics. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis encompassing multilocus nuclear-gene and matrilineal mtDNA genealogy conducted by Liu et al. (2018) has indicated that these specimens should be regarded as four cryptic species of the subgenus Panophrys, i.e., M. sp29 from northern Guangdong, M. sp25 from northeastern Guangxi, and M. sp2 and M. sp28 from southwestern Hunan. In this study, as a follow-up work on this series of specimens, we provide the additional morphological comparisons and descriptions to substantiate the recognition of these four cryptic species of Panophrys from southern China.

Figure 1. 

Map showing the collecting location of the new species. 1 Huaping Nature Reserve, Lingui District, Guilin City, Guangxi 2 Mt Yangming, Shuangpai County, Yongzhou City, Hunan 3 Shimentai Nature Reserve, Yingde City, Qingyuan City, Guangdong.

Materials and methods

Taxonomic system. The higher systematics of Asian horned toads has been in intensive debates for decades (Delorme et al. 2006; Frost et al. 2006; Li and Wang 2008; Chen et al. 2017; Deuti et al. 2017; Mahony et al. 2017; Liu et al. 2018; Li et al. 2020). In this study, not involving in the controversy of generic relationship in subfamily Megophryinae, we followed the most recent taxonomic arrangement (Mahony et al. 2017; Liu et al. 2018; Frost 2020), in which the genus Megophrys is considered to include seven subgenera: Atympanophrys Tian & Hu, 1983, Brachytarsophrys Tian & Hu, 1983, Megophrys, Ophryophryne Boulenger, 1903, Pelobatrachus Beddard, 1908, Panophrys Rao & Yang, 1997, and Xenophrys Günther, 1864. Since the subgenus Panophrys has been unanimously considered as a monophyletic group that is significantly divergent from other subgenera, we perform the analyses and comparisons on the undescribed specimens with Panophrys congeners in this study.

Phylogeny. Two mitochondrial genes, namely partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S) and partial cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene (CO1), were used for phylogenetic analysis. All sequences were attained from GenBank, encompassing 17 samples of the unnamed species (originally submitted by Liu et al. 2018) and 40 samples from 40 recognized Panophrys congeners. Besides, two samples of subgenus Xenophrys were incorporated into our dataset as out-groups. Detailed information of these materials is given in Table 1.

Table 1.

Localities, voucher information, and GenBank numbers for all samples used in this study.

ID Species Localities Voucher number 16s co1
Megophrys (Panophrys)
1 M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. China: Guangxi: Huaping Nature Reserve SYS a002192 MH406669 MH406109
2 M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. China: Guangxi: Huaping Nature Reserve SYS a002193 MH406670 MH406110
3 M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. China: Guangxi: Huaping Nature Reserve SYS a002289 MH406681 MH406127
4 M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. China: Guangxi: Huaping Nature Reserve SYS a002917 MH406724 MH406176
5 M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. China: Guangdong: Shimentai Nature Reserve SYS a002077 MH406655 MH406092
6 M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. China: Guangdong: Shimentai Nature Reserve SYS a002081 MH406656 MH406093
7 M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. China: Guangdong: Shimentai Nature Reserve SYS a004172 MH406787 MH406249
8 M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. China: Guangdong: Shimentai Nature Reserve SYS a004173 MH406788 MH406250
9 M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002874 MH406713 MH406165
10 M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002875 MH406714 MH406166
11 M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002876 MH406715 MH406167
12 M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002878 MH406717 MH406169
13 M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002879 MH406718 MH406170
14 M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002877 MH406716 MH406168
15 M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002888 MH406719 MH406171
16 M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002889 MH406720 MH406172
17 M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. China: Hunan: Mt Yangming SYS a002890 MH406721 MH406173
18 M. (Pa.) acuta China: Guangdong: Heishiding Nature Reserve SYS a002266 KJ579119 MH406122
19 M. (Pa.) baolongensis China: Chongqing: Baolong Town KIZ 019216 KX811813 KX812093
20 M. (Pa.) binchuanensis China: Yunnan: Mt. Jizu KIZ 019441 KX811849 KX812112
21 M. (Pa.) binlingensis China: Sichuan: Mt. Wawu SYS a005313 MH406892 MH406354
22 M. (Pa.) boettgeri China: Fujian: Mt. Wuyi SYS a004149 MF667878 MH406247
23 M. (Pa.) brachykolos China: Hong Kong SYS a002258 KJ560403 MH406120
24 M. (Pa.) caudoprocta China: Hunan: Badagongshan Nature Reserve SYS a004281 MH406795 MH406257
25 M. (Pa.) cheni China: Hunan: Taoyuandong Nature Reserve SYS a002142 KJ560398 MH406098
26 M. (Pa.) daweimontis China: Yunnan: Mt. Dawei KIZ 048997 KX811867 KX812125
27 M. (Pa.) dongguanensis China: Guangdong: Mt. Yinping SYS a001973 MH406647 MH406083
28 M. (Pa.) fansipanensis Vietnam: Lao Cai: Sa Pa VNMN 2018.01 MH514886 /
29 M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis Vietnam: Lao Cai: Sa Pa VNMN 07034 MH514890 /
30 M. (Pa.) huangshanensis China: Anhui: Mt. Huangshan SYS a002703 MF667883 MH406161
31 M. (Pa.) insularis China: Guangdong: Nan’ao Island SYS a002169 MF667887 MF667924
32 M. (Pa.) jiangi China: Guizhou: Kuankuoshui Nature Reserve CIB KKS20180722006 MN107743 MN107748
33 M. (Pa.) jingdongensis China: Yunnan: Mt. Wuliang SYS a003928 MH406773 MH406232
34 M. (Pa.) jinggangensis China: Jiangxi: Mt. Jinggang SYS a004028 MH406780 MH406239
35 M. (Pa.) jiulianensis China: Jiangxi: Mt. Jiulian SYS a004219 MH406791 MH406253
36 M. (Pa.) kuatunensis China: Fujian: Mt. Wuyi SYS a003449 MF667881 MH406206
37 M. (Pa.) leishanensis China: Guizhou: Mt. Leigong SYSa002213 MH406673 MH406113
38 M. (Pa.) liboensis China: Guizhou: Libo Country 20150813001 MF285253 /
39 M. (Pa.) lini China: Hunan: Taoyuandong Nature Reserve SYS a002381 MF667874 MH406135
40 M. (Pa.) lishuiensis China: Zhejiang: Lishui City WYF00169 KY021418 /
41 M. (Pa.) minor China: Sichuan: Mt. Qingcheng SYS a003209 MF667862 MH406194
42 M. (Pa.) mufumontana China: Hunan: Mt. Mufu SYS a006390 MK524104 MK524135
43 M. (Pa.) nankunensis China: Guangdong: Mt. Nankun SYS a004501 MH406822 MH406284
44 M. (Pa.) nanlingensis China: Guangdong: Nanling Nature Reserve SYS a001964 MH406646 MH406082
45 M. (Pa.) obesa China: Guangdong: Heishiding Nature Reserve SYS a002271 KJ579121 MH406123
46 M. (Pa.) ombrophila China: Fujian: Mt. Wuyi WUYI2015101 KX856397 /
47 M. (Pa.) omeimontis China: Sichuan: Mt. Emei SYS a005301 MH406887 MH406349
48 M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa Vietnam: Thanh Hoa: Pu Hu Nature Reserve KIZ 011650 KX811889 KX812138
49 M. (Pa.) rubrimera Vietnam: Lao Cai: Sa Pa VNMN 2017.002 MF536420 /
50 M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis China: Hunan: Badagongshan Nature Reserve SYS a004306 MH406797 MH406259
51 M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis China: Hunan: Nanshan Forest Park HNNU 18NS01 MK836023 MK977594
52 M. (Pa.) spinata China: Guizhou: Mt. Leigong SYS a002226 MH406675 MH406115
53 M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus China: Hunan: Badagongshan Nature Reserve SYS a004310 MH406801 MH406263
54 M. (Pa.) wugongensis China: Jiangxi: Mt. Wugong SYS a004800 MH406853 MH406315
55 M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis China: Yunnan: Mt. Wuliang SYS a003924 MH406771 MH406230
56 M. (Pa.) wushanensis China: Hubei: Shennongjia Nature Reserve SYS a003008 MH406732 MH406184
57 M. (Pa.) xianjuensis China: Zhejiang: Xianju County CIB XJ190505 MN563753 MN563769
Megophrys (Xenophrys)
58 M. (X.) glandulosa China: Yunnan: Mt. Gaoligong SYS a003758 MH406755 MH406214
59 M. (X.) mangshanensis China: Guangdong: Mt. Sanyue SYS a002177 MH406666 MH406106

DNA sequences were aligned by the Clustal W algorithm with default parameters (Thompson et al. 1997) and trimmed with the gaps partially deleted in MEGA 6 (Tamura et al. 2013). Two gene segments, 632 base pairs (bp) of CO1 and 541 bp of16S, were concatenated seriatim into a 1173-bp sequence, and were further tested in jmodeltest v2.1.2 with Akaike and Bayesian information criteria, all resulting the best-fitting nucleotide substitution models of GTR+I+G. Sequenced data was analyzed using Bayesian inference (BI) in MrBayes 3.2.4 (Ronquist et al. 2012). Two independent runs were conducted in a BI analysis, each of which was performed for 10,000,000 generations and sampled every 1000 generations with the first 25% samples were discarded as burn-in, resulting a potential scale reduction factor (PSRF) of < 0.005. Mean genetic distances of 16S gene between and within species were calculated in MEGA 6 using the uncorrected p-distance model.

Bioacoustics. Advertisement calls of the unnamed species were recorded in the field by a SONY PCM-D50 digital sound recorder. The sound files in wave format were sampled at 48 kHz with 24 bits in depth. Raven pro 1.5 (Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 2003–2014) was used to output the spectrograms and to measure interrelated parameters with Fast Fourier transform of 256 points and a 50% overlap. The following measurements were performed: call/note duration (the difference between begin time and end time for a selected call/note), notes per call, inter-note intervals (the difference between end time for a selected note and begin time for the next selected note), peak frequency (the frequency at which peak power occurs within the selected call), high frequency (the highest frequency of the selected call), low frequency (the lowest frequency of the selected call), bandwidth 90% (the difference between the 5% and 95% frequencies of a selected call).

Morphology. Thirty-six unnamed specimens from the hilly areas among Guangdong, Guangxi and Hunan, southern China were examined, 17 of which have been used in the phylogenetic analysis. All examined specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and later transferred to 70% ethanol. All studied specimens are deposited in The Museum of Biology, Sun Yat-sen University (SYS), and Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CIB), China.

External measurements were made for the unnamed specimens with digital calipers (Neiko 01407A Stainless Steel 6-Inch Digital Caliper, USA) to the nearest 0.1 mm. Mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated in R 3.3.2 (R Core Team 2016). These measurements were as follows:

ED eye diameter (from the anterior corner of the eye to posterior corner of the eye);

FTL foot length (from distal end of shank to the tip of digit IV);

HDL head length (from tip of snout to the articulation of the jaw);

HDW head width (head width at the commissure of the jaws);

HND hand length (from the proximal border of the outer palmar tubercle to the tip of digit III);

IND internasal distance (distance between nares);

IOD interorbital distance (minimum distance between upper eyelids);

RAD radio-ulna length (from the flexed elbow to the proximal border of the outer palmar tubercle);

SNT snout length (from tip of snout to the anterior corner of the eye);

SVL snout-vent length (from tip of snout to posterior margin of vent);

TD tympanum diameter (horizontal diameter of tympanum);

TED tympanum-eye distance (from anterior edge of tympanum to posterior corner of the eye);

TIB tibial length (from the outer surface of the flexed knee to the heel).

Sex was determined by secondary sexual characters, i.e., the presence of vocal sac, nuptial pads/spines in males (Fei et al. 2016).

Morphological characters of all 42 recognized congeners of subgenus Panophrys for comparisons were based on the examination of museum specimens listed in Appendix I and on information available in the literature (Table 2).

Table 2.

Literature for morphological characters of 42 recognized species of Megophrys (Panophrys).

ID Species References
1 M. (Pa.) acuta Wang, Li & Jin, 2014 Li et al. 2014
2 M. (Pa.) baolongensis Ye, Fei & Xie, 2007 Ye et al. 2007; Fei and Ye 2016
3 M. (Pa.) binchuanensis Ye & Fei, 1995 Fei and Ye 2016
4 M. (Pa.) binlingensis Jiang, Fei & Ye, 2009 Fei and Ye 2016
5 M. (Pa.) boettgeri (Boulenger, 1899) Fei and Ye 2016
6 M. (Pa.) brachykolos Inger & Romer, 1961 Fei and Ye 2016
7 M. (Pa.) caudoprocta Shen, 1994 Fei and Ye 2016
8 M. (Pa.) cheni (Wang & Liu, 2014) Wang et al. 2014
9 M. (Pa.) daweimontis Rao & Yang, 1997 Fei and Ye 2016
10 M. (Pa.) dongguanensis Wang & Wang Wang et al. 2019a
11 M. (Pa.) fansipanensis Tapley, Cutajar, Mahony, Nguyen, Dau, Luong, Le, Nguyen, Nguyen, Portway, Luong & Rowley, 2018 Tapley et al. 2018
12 M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis Tapley, Cutajar, Mahony, Nguyen, Dau, Luong, Le, Nguyen, Nguyen, Portway, Luong & Rowley, 2018 Tapley et al. 2018
13 M. (Pa.) huangshanensis Fei & Ye, 2005 Fei and Ye 2016
14 M. (Pa.) insularis (Wang, Liu, Lyu, Zeng & Wang, 2017) Wang et al. 2017a
15 M. (Pa.) jiangi Liu, Li, Wei, Xu, Cheng, Wang & Wu, 2020 Liu et al. 2020
16 M. (Pa.) jingdongensis Fei & Ye, 1983 Fei and Ye 2016
17 M. (Pa.) jinggangensis (Wang, 2012) Wang et al. 2012
18 M. (Pa.) jiulianensis Wang, Zeng, Lyu & Wang Wang et al. 2019a
19 M. (Pa.) kuatunensis Pope, 1929 Fei and Ye 2016
20 M. (Pa.) latidactyla Orlov, Poyarkov & Nguyen, 2015 Orlov et al. 2015
21 M. (Pa.) leishanensis Li, Xu, Liu, Jiang, Wei & Wang, 2018 Li et al. 2018
22 M. (Pa.) liboensis (Zhang, Li, Xiao, Li, Pan, Wang, Zhang & Zhou, 2017) Zhang et al. 2017
23 M. (Pa.) lini (Wang & Yang, 2014) Wang et al. 2014
24 M. (Pa.) lishuiensis (Wang, Liu & Jiang, 2017) Wang et al. 2017b
25 M. (Pa.) minor Stejneger, 1926 Fei and Ye 2016
26 M. (Pa.) mufumontana Wang, Lyu & Wang Wang et al. 2019a
27 M. (Pa.) nankunensis Wang, Zeng & Wang Wang et al. 2019a
28 M. (Pa.) nanlingensis Lyu, Wang, Liu & Wang Wang et al. 2019a
29 M. (Pa.) obesa Wang, Li & Zhao, 2014 Li et al. 2014
30 M. (Pa.) ombrophila Messenger & Dahn, 2019 Messenger et al. 2019
31 M. (Pa.) omeimontis Liu, 1950 Fei and Ye 2016
32 M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa Bourret, 1937 Fei and Ye 2016
33 M. (Pa.) robrimera Tapley, Cutajar, Mahony, Chung, Dau, Nguyen, Luong & Rowley, 2017 Tapley et al. 2017
34 M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis Jiang, Ye & Fei, 2008 Jiang et al. 2008; Fei and Ye 2016
35 M. (Pa.) shuichengensis Tian & Sun, 1995 Tian et al. 2000; Fei and Ye 2016
36 M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis Wang, Deng, Liu, Wu & Liu, 2019 Wang et al. 2019b
37 M. (Pa.) spinata Liu & Hu, 1973 Fei and Ye 2016
38 M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo & Li, 2010 Mo et al. 2010; Fei and Ye 2016
39 M. (Pa.) wugongensis Wang, Lyu & Wang Wang et al. 2019a
40 M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis Ye & Fei, 1995 Fei and Ye 2016
41 M. (Pa.) wushanensis Ye & Fei, 1995 Fei and Ye 2016
42 M. (Pa.) xianjuensis Wang, Wu, Peng, Shi, Lu & Wu, 2020 Wang et al. 2020

Results

The BI phylogenetic result is shown in Fig. 2 with Bayesian posterior probabilities (BPP) for major nodes > 0.90. The mean p-distances of 16S gene among all in-group and out-group species used in this study are given in Table 3. The diagnostic characters separating all 42 recognized species of the subgenus Panophrys are given in Table 4.

Figure 2. 

Phylogenetic tree of Megophrys (Panophrys) inferred from mitochondrial genes by Bayesian inference.

The unnamed samples from Huaping Nature Reserve, Guangxi (samples ID 1–4 in Table 1), are clustered into a monophyletic clade with strong node supports (BPP 1.00) and almost have no molecular divergences (p-distances 0.0), which was defined as a cryptic species Megophrys sp25 in Liu et al. (2018); this population can be further distinguished from all recognized and undescribed species by a combination of distinctive morphological characters (see Taxonomic accounts below). Therefore, the population from Huaping Nature Reserve represents a separately evolving lineage, and is described as a new species, Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov.

The samples from Shimentai Nature Reserve, Guangxi (samples ID 5–8 in Table 1), are grouped into a monophyletic clade with strong node supports (BPP 1.00) and almost have no molecular divergences (p-distances 0.0), which was defined as a cryptic species Megophrys sp29 in Liu et al. (2018); samples (ID 14–17 in Table 1) from Mt Yangming, Hunan, are clustered into a monophyletic clade with strong node supports (BPP 1.00) and have small molecular divergences (p-distances 0.3), which was defined as a cryptic species M. sp28 in Liu et al. (2018). These two populations are sister taxa to each other with significant genetic divergences (p-distances 4.1), and can be distinguished from all congeners by a combination of distinctive morphological characters (see Taxonomic accounts below). Therefore, the populations from Shimentai Nature Reserve and Mt Yangming represent two separately evolving lineage, and are described as new species, Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. and Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov., respectively.

The other samples from Mt Yangming, Hunan (samples ID 9–13 in Table 1), cluster into a monophyletic clade with strong node supports (BPP 1.00) and almost have no molecular divergences (p-distances 0.0), which was defined as a cryptic species Megophrys sp2 in Liu et al. (2018). This clade is conspicuously distant from the sympatric species Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. in phylogeny. Furthermore, this population can be distinguished from all congener species by a combination of distinctive morphological characters (see Taxonomic accounts below). Therefore, this population from Mt Yangming represents a separately evolving lineage, and is described as a new species, Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov.

Table 3.

Mean p-distance of 16S gene among the Megophrys (Panophrys) species used in this study.

ID Species 1– 4 5– 8 9– 13 14–17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57
1– 4 M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. 0.0
5– 8 M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. 3.8 0.0
9– 13 M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. 3.9 4.1 0.0
14–17 M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. 3.4 3.4 4.3 0.3
18 M. (Pa.) acuta 7.3 8.8 7.3 7.3 /
19 M. (Pa.) baolongensis 3.6 4.0 4.4 2.9 7.3 /
20 M. (Pa.) binchuanensis 4.8 5.4 4.8 4.9 8.1 4.4 /
21 M. (Pa.) binlingensis 4.9 5.1 5.0 4.3 8.9 3.8 2.5 /
22 M. (Pa.) boettgeri 2.4 3.4 3.9 2.1 7.0 2.7 4.0 3.7 /
23 M. (Pa.) brachykolos 5.4 5.5 3.9 5.2 8.1 4.6 5.3 6.5 4.7 /
24 M. (Pa.) caudoprocta 3.5 4.3 5.0 3.2 7.3 2.5 4.4 3.7 2.4 5.8 /
25 M. (Pa.) cheni 3.5 4.0 3.0 3.5 7.8 2.7 3.8 4.3 2.6 4.3 3.9 /
26 M. (Pa.) daweimontis 4.4 5.4 4.2 4.4 7.0 4.0 2.8 2.9 3.4 6.3 4.0 3.6 /
27 M. (Pa.) dongguanensis 5.2 4.7 4.3 4.9 8.1 4.0 5.3 5.2 4.1 5.8 5.0 2.8 4.6 /
28 M. (Pa.) fansipanensis 5.1 5.0 4.7 4.6 10.5 4.0 4.6 4.2 4.2 5.5 4.6 4.4 4.6 5.7 /
29 M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis 4.6 5.0 4.7 4.0 8.4 3.8 3.2 2.9 3.6 5.7 4.0 4.0 3.6 4.9 2.5 /
30 M. (Pa.) huangshanensis 2.8 3.8 4.3 2.6 7.0 3.0 4.4 4.1 0.7 5.0 2.8 3.0 3.6 4.5 4.6 4.0 /
31 M. (Pa.) insularis 5.2 4.5 4.1 4.5 9.2 4.2 5.7 5.2 4.5 5.6 5.2 2.8 5.5 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 /
32 M. (Pa.) jiangi 7.3 8.3 7.9 7.5 12.0 7.6 8.4 8.7 7.1 8.6 8.1 7.7 8.2 8.8 8.0 7.8 7.9 8.6 /
33 M. (Pa.) jingdongensis 4.5 5.1 4.9 4.7 8.6 4.2 2.9 2.6 4.1 6.7 3.7 4.1 2.5 6.0 4.0 4.0 4.5 5.8 8.6 /
34 M. (Pa.) jinggangensis 3.5 4.9 3.0 3.7 7.3 3.6 4.2 4.1 3.2 5.0 4.3 3.0 4.0 5.0 4.6 4.4 3.6 4.1 7.0 4.3 /
35 M. (Pa.) jiulianensis 2.8 3.8 4.3 2.8 8.1 2.9 4.9 4.3 2.2 5.2 3.0 3.5 4.8 4.5 3.8 3.2 2.6 4.5 8.1 5.0 3.9 /
36 M. (Pa.) kuatunensis 3.7 3.8 3.4 3.6 8.1 3.0 4.6 4.7 2.8 4.1 3.7 2.4 4.0 2.8 4.4 4.2 3.2 3.4 8.1 4.9 3.7 3.6 /
37 M. (Pa.) leishanensis 2.4 3.6 4.1 2.6 7.3 2.5 3.4 3.4 1.7 4.9 2.8 3.0 3.4 4.7 3.6 3.4 2.1 4.7 6.6 3.5 3.4 2.4 3.4 /
38 M. (Pa.) liboensis 3.4 3.8 4.7 3.2 7.8 3.2 4.9 4.9 1.7 4.6 3.2 3.5 4.4 4.7 4.7 4.2 2.1 5.0 7.7 5.2 4.3 3.0 3.0 2.8 /
39 M. (Pa.) lini 4.1 4.7 2.2 4.5 7.0 4.7 4.9 5.2 3.4 3.9 4.7 3.0 4.4 4.1 5.5 5.3 3.7 4.3 8.1 5.0 3.6 4.5 3.2 3.9 4.3 /
40 M. (Pa.) lishuiensis 5.0 6.9 5.8 5.0 8.4 4.5 6.3 6.3 3.8 6.8 5.3 4.8 6.0 5.8 6.5 5.3 4.8 5.3 10.6 7.8 6.0 4.8 4.5 4.5 4.5 6.0 /
41 M. (Pa.) minor 5.6 6.2 6.2 5.1 9.5 6.1 5.5 5.6 4.5 6.4 5.6 5.4 5.1 6.4 5.5 5.1 5.1 7.1 7.0 5.8 5.4 6.0 5.4 5.1 5.4 6.2 7.6 /
42 M. (Pa.) mufumontana 3.8 4.2 4.7 2.6 8.6 3.2 4.6 4.3 2.4 5.4 3.2 3.6 4.4 5.1 4.5 4.0 3.0 4.5 7.2 4.7 3.4 3.2 3.4 2.6 3.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 /
43 M. (Pa.) nankunensis 4.5 4.3 4.1 4.3 8.9 3.2 5.5 5.0 3.9 5.4 4.3 2.2 4.6 2.6 5.3 5.1 4.3 4.1 8.6 5.2 4.5 4.3 3.0 4.1 4.7 4.3 5.8 6.7 4.5 /
44 M. (Pa.) nanlingensis 4.9 5.8 3.4 4.9 7.8 5.3 5.7 5.2 4.3 5.0 6.0 3.9 5.3 4.9 5.5 5.3 4.7 4.5 8.5 6.0 4.7 5.0 4.5 4.5 5.8 3.6 6.3 6.0 5.3 5.0 /
45 M. (Pa.) obesa 6.2 7.1 5.4 6.8 8.4 6.8 7.8 8.1 5.1 7.8 7.6 3.2 5.9 5.1 7.6 7.6 5.7 5.4 11.7 7.0 6.5 6.8 4.6 5.9 6.5 5.1 5.7 9.2 7.6 4.9 6.5 /
46 M. (Pa.) ombrophila 5.2 5.8 5.0 5.2 9.7 4.9 5.9 6.2 4.5 6.0 6.0 3.2 5.3 4.7 5.5 5.5 4.9 4.5 8.4 6.0 5.2 5.2 4.7 4.3 5.6 5.2 4.8 7.1 5.4 4.7 6.0 4.1 /
47 M. (Pa.) omeimontis 4.7 5.1 3.9 4.5 9.2 4.6 2.7 2.4 3.9 5.8 4.3 3.9 2.7 5.0 3.6 3.0 4.3 5.2 9.0 2.4 4.5 4.5 4.3 3.6 4.7 4.5 6.1 5.6 4.5 4.7 5.2 6.8 5.4 /
48 M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa 5.7 6.7 5.5 6.1 8.4 4.9 3.6 4.0 4.9 6.6 4.8 5.1 3.6 6.3 6.1 5.1 4.9 7.0 9.5 4.4 5.7 6.3 5.1 4.4 5.9 4.7 7.3 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.3 9.2 6.8 4.0 /
49 M. (Pa.) rubrimera 4.7 5.4 5.1 4.2 9.7 4.2 2.5 2.7 2.8 5.9 4.2 3.8 2.3 5.5 4.2 3.6 3.6 5.7 8.2 2.3 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.2 4.2 5.3 6.5 5.1 3.8 4.9 5.7 7.3 5.5 2.5 4.4 /
50 M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis 5.2 5.6 5.2 4.9 9.2 4.4 3.4 1.7 4.3 7.1 4.3 4.5 3.0 5.4 4.2 3.6 4.7 5.2 9.4 3.5 4.9 4.9 5.2 3.9 5.4 5.4 6.5 6.2 5.1 5.0 5.4 7.8 6.2 3.7 5.3 3.6 /
51 M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis 1.5 3.4 3.4 2.4 5.9 2.5 4.0 4.3 1.7 4.1 3.0 2.6 4.0 4.3 4.0 3.4 2.1 4.1 6.8 4.5 3.0 2.2 2.6 1.7 2.0 3.4 3.8 4.9 2.6 3.5 4.1 5.7 4.5 4.1 5.3 4.0 4.7 /
52 M. (Pa.) spinata 4.9 5.1 4.7 4.5 9.2 4.4 3.2 1.1 3.9 6.7 4.3 4.5 3.2 5.4 4.2 3.2 3.9 5.6 9.4 3.4 4.9 4.5 5.2 3.5 5.0 4.7 6.5 5.8 4.9 5.4 5.0 7.8 6.2 2.8 4.6 3.4 1.7 4.3 /
53 M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus 2.6 3.4 3.7 2.2 7.0 1.7 3.6 3.0 1.7 4.7 2.4 2.2 3.4 3.9 4.0 3.4 2.1 3.9 7.7 3.4 2.6 2.4 2.6 1.9 2.8 3.9 4.3 5.1 2.6 3.0 4.5 5.1 4.3 3.9 4.8 3.2 3.2 2.1 3.5 /
54 M. (Pa.) wugongensis 3.9 4.2 3.9 3.9 8.9 4.2 4.6 4.5 3.6 6.0 4.7 2.8 4.0 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.7 4.5 8.1 4.3 3.6 3.4 4.3 3.7 4.7 4.5 6.0 5.3 4.9 4.3 4.5 5.7 4.9 4.5 6.5 4.2 4.5 3.7 4.1 3.4 /
55 M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis 3.9 5.5 4.7 4.9 9.2 4.6 3.2 3.4 4.1 6.3 4.5 4.5 2.9 5.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 5.8 8.3 3.0 4.7 4.7 4.3 3.7 4.9 5.4 6.5 5.4 4.7 5.2 6.2 7.0 5.8 3.0 4.6 2.8 4.3 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.9 /
56 M. (Pa.) wushanensis 3.6 3.6 3.6 2.8 8.1 2.1 4.0 3.9 2.6 4.9 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.0 3.6 7.7 4.3 3.2 3.0 3.2 2.4 3.4 4.5 4.0 6.0 3.2 3.7 5.0 6.0 4.3 3.7 5.0 3.8 4.5 2.6 4.5 1.7 3.9 3.9 /
57 M. (Pa.) xianjuensis 3.6 4.4 4.0 3.2 7.3 3.2 4.0 4.4 2.3 4.9 3.6 3.0 3.6 4.2 4.8 3.8 3.0 4.2 7.6 4.4 4.0 3.4 3.0 2.7 3.2 4.6 2.8 5.5 3.4 4.0 5.1 5.1 4.6 3.8 5.1 3.8 5.3 2.9 5.0 2.9 4.8 4.4 3.2 /
Table 4.

Diagnostic characters separating all 46 species of the Megophrys (Panophrys).

ID Species SVL in males (in mm) SVL in females (in mm) Horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid: slightly large (2), small (1) Vomerine teeth: present (1), or absent (0) Tongue: notched (1), or not notched (0) Lateral fringes on toes: wide (2), narrow (1), or lacking (0) Webs on toes: more than one-fourth (2), rudimentary (1), or lacking (0) TD/ED TIB/SVL
1 M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. 55.8–61.4 68.5–74.8 2 0 0 1 1 0.49–0.63 0.45–0.47
2 M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. 28.0–30.6 / 1 1 0 1 1 0.57–0.66 0.44–0.53
3 M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. 38.6–42.0 44.4 1 0 0 2 1 0.38–0.49 0.41–0.46
4 M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. 33.2–37.1 45.2 1 0 0 1 1 0.42–0.50 0.44–0.51
5 M. (Pa.) acuta 27.1–33.0 28.1–33.6 2 0 0 1 1 0.57–0.71 0.38–0.45
6 M. (Pa.) baolongensis 42.0–45.0 / 1 0 1 0 0 0.41 0.46
7 M. (Pa.) binchuanensis 32.0–36.0 40.2–42.5 1 0 1 or 0 2 1 0.33–0.50 0.46–0.48
8 M. (Pa.) binlingensis 45.1–51.0 / 1 0 1 / 1 0.47–0.52 0.52–0.53
9 M. (Pa.) boettgeri 34.5–37.8 39.7–46.8 1 0 1 2 1 0.40–0.67 0.45–0.49
10 M. (Pa.) brachykolos 33.7–39.3 33.9–45.9 1 0 0 0 1 > 0.50 0.37–0.42
11 M. (Pa.) caudoprocta 81.3 / 2 1 0 / 1 0.5 0.51
12 M. (Pa.) cheni 26.2–29.5 31.8–34.1 1 0 1 2 1 0.41–0.54 0.50–0.54
13 M. (Pa.) daweimontis 34.0–37.0 40.0–46.0 1 1 / 0 0 / 0.54
14 M. (Pa.) dongguanensis 30.2–39.3 / 1 1 0 0 1 0.42–0.60 0.41–0.46
15 M. (Pa.) fansipanensis 30.9–44.3 41.7–42.5 1 1 1 0 0 0.53–0.80 0.49–0.59
16 M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis 37.4–47.6 59.6 1 1 1 0 0 0.54–0.75 0.44–0.63
17 M. (Pa.) huangshanensis 36.0–41.6 44.2 1 0 1 0 0 <0.50 0.42–0.45
18 M. (Pa.) insularis 36.8–41.2 47.1 1 1 1 0 1 0.46–0.57 0.40–0.43
19 M. (Pa.) jiangi 34.4–39.2 39.5–40.4 1 0 0 0 1 / /
20 M. (Pa.) jingdongensis 53.0–56.5 63.5 1 1 1 2 2 / 0.58–0.59
21 M. (Pa.) jinggangensis 35.1–36.7 38.4–41.6 2 1 0 1 1 0.73–0.88 0.47–0.50
22 M. (Pa.) jiulianensis 30.4–33.9 34.1–37.5 1 1 1 0 1 0.50–0.59 0.44–0.48
23 M. (Pa.) kuatunensis 26.2–29.6 37.4 1 0 1 1 0 0.44 0.38–0.48
24 M. (Pa.) latidactyla 38.9 / 2 1 0 2 1 0.85 0.52
25 M. (Pa.) leishanensis 30.4–38.7 42.3 1 0 0 0 1 / /
26 M. (Pa.) liboensis 60.5–67.7 60.8–70.6 2 1 1 2 1 0.48–0.78 0.44–0.61
27 M. (Pa.) lini 34.1–39.7 37.0–39.9 1 0 0 2 1 0.40–0.60 0.46–0.53
28 M. (Pa.) lishuiensis 30.7–34.7 36.9–40.4 1 0 0 0 0 / /
29 M. (Pa.) minor 34.5–41.2 / 1 0 1 0 1 0.8–0.83 0.46–0.48
30 M. (Pa.) mufumontana 30.1–30.8 36.3 1 0 0 1 1 0.51–0.58 0.47–0.53
31 M. (Pa.) nankunensis 29.9–34.9 39.4–41.9 1 1 0 0 1 0.43–0.61 0.35–0.42
32 M. (Pa.) nanlingensis 30.5–37.3 / 1 1 1 1 1 0.43–0.57 0.45–0.51
33 M. (Pa.) obesa 35.6 37.5–41.2 1 0 0 0 1 0.51–0.66 0.41–0.47
34 M. (Pa.) ombrophila 27.4–34.5 32.8–35.0 1 0 0 0 0 0.53–0.69 0.33–0.41
35 M. (Pa.) omeimontis 56.0–59.5 68.0–72.5 1 1 1 1 1 / 0.52–0.56
36 M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa 36.2–38.0 / 2 1 0 2 2 / 0.55
37 M. (Pa.) rubrimera 26.7–30.5 / 1 1 1 1 0 0.58–0.76 0.48–0.56
38 M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis 54.7 / 1 1 1 1 1 0.62 0.59
39 M. (Pa.) shuichengensis 102.0–118.3 99.8–115.6 2 0 1 2 2 0.67 0.43–0.47
40 M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis 30.3–33.7 37.6 1 0 0 0 1 0.40–0.63 0.50–0.55
41 M. (Pa.) spinata 47.2–54.4 54.0–55.0 1 0 1 2 2 0.43 0.56–0.58
42 M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus 33.2–39.0 50.5 1 0 0 0 1 0.5 0.45–0.51
43 M. (Pa.) wugongensis 31.0–34.1 38.5–42.8 1 0 0 0 1 0.45–0.53 0.37–0.44
44 M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis 27.3–31.6 41.3 1 0 1 or 0 0 0 0.5 0.50–0.51
45 M. (Pa.) wushanensis 30.4–35.5 38.4 1 0 0 0 (in female), 2 (in male) 1 0.5 0.47–0.48
46 M. (Pa.) xianjuensis 31.0–36.3 41.6 1 0 0 1 1 0.48–0.60 0.40–0.50

Taxonomic accounts

Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis Lyu, Wang & Zhao, sp. nov.

Figures 3, 4A

Chresonymy

Megophrys sp25 (SYS a002192–93, 2289, 2917 in Liu et al. 2018).

Type material

Holotype. SYS a002917 (Figs 3, 4A), adult male, collected on 16 June 2014 by Yu-Long Li and Ying-Yong Wang from Huaping Nature Reserve (25.5554N, 109.9490E; ca 1300 m a.s.l.), Lingui District, Guilin City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, PR China.

Paratypes. Three adult specimens from the same locality as the holotype: male SYS a002192 and female SYS a002193 collected on 10 July 2013 by Jian Zhao and Yu-Long Li; female SYS a002289 collected on 9 September 2013 by Zu-Yao Liu.

Etymology

The specific epithet mirabilis means marvelous, referring to its distinctive habitus and color pattern of this species within the subgenus Panophrys.

Common name

Huaping Horned Toad (in English) / Huā Píng Jiăo Chán (花坪角蟾 in Chinese)

Figure 3. 

Adult male holotype SYS a002917 of Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov. in life A dorsolateral view B ventral view C hand D foot.

Diagnosis

(1) Body size relatively large, SVL 55.8–61.4 mm (N = 2) in adult males and SVL 68.5–74.8 (N = 2) mm in adult females; (2) snout rounded in dorsal view; (3) internasal distance smaller than interorbital distance; (4) tympanum clear, moderate size, TD/ED 0.49–0.63; (5) absence of vomerine ridge and vomerine teeth; (6) tongue small, majorly attached to the mandible, free margin small and rounded, not notched behind; (7) hindlimbs slender, heels overlapping and tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward at the central eye; (8) fingers with distinct lateral fringes, presence of indistinct subarticular tubercles at the bases; (9) toes with distinct lateral fringes and rudiment of webs, presence of indistinct subarticular tubercles at the bases; (10) presence of slightly large horn-like tubercle at the edge of upper eyelid; (11) dorsal skin smooth with granules, (12) skin on flanks flabby, with spiny tubercles; (13) supratympanic fold distinct, with dense tubercles, forming an extremely swollen large shoulder gland above insertion of arm; (14) grayish brown above, tinged with blue in males, but dorsum of head and body reddish brown in females; (15) ventral surface of throat and chest with grayish blue latticed patches and black spots in males, but with orange latticed patches and black spots in females; (16) presence of underdeveloped nuptial pads on the dorsal surface of the first finger in adult males.

Comparison

Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from all recognized congeners, by having a small tongue, majorly attached to the mandible, flank skin flabby with spiny tubercles, and supratympanic fold with dense tubercles forming an extremely swollen large shoulder gland above insertion of arm.

Further, detailed comparative data of Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov. with 42 recognized congeners of Panophrys are given in Table 4.

Five Panophrys species were previously recorded from the hilly areas among Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hunan, namely Megophrys (Panophrys) acuta, M. (Pa.) brachykolos, M. (Pa.) nanlingensis, M. (Pa.) obesa, and M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis. M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) acuta by the larger body size, SVL 55.8–61.4 mm in males and 68.5–74.8 mm in females (vs. 27.1–33.0 mm in males and 28.1–33.6 in females), snout rounded in dorsal view (vs. strongly remarkably pointed), fingers with distinct lateral fringes (vs. absent), and overlapping heels (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) brachykolos by the larger body size, SVL 55.8–61.4 mm in males and 68.5–74.8 mm in females (vs. 33.7–39.3 mm in males and 33.9–45.9 in females), slightly large horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. small), fingers and toes with distinct lateral fringes (vs. all absent), overlapping heels (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) nanlingensis by the larger body size, SVL 55.8–61.4 mm in males (vs. 30.5–37.3 mm), slightly large horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. small), absence of vomerine ridge and vomerine teeth (vs. both present), tongue not notched behind (vs. notched), and fingers with distinct lateral fringes (vs. absent). M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) obesa by larger body size, SVL 55.8–61.4 mm in males and 68.5–74.8 mm in females (vs. 35.6 mm in male and 37.5–41.2 in females), slightly large horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. small), absence of vomerine ridge (vs. present), fingers and toes with distinct lateral fringes (vs. all absent), and overlapping heels (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis by larger body size, SVL 55.8–61.4 mm in males and 68.5–74.8 mm in females (vs. 30.3–33.7 mm in males and 37.6 in female), slightly large horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. small), and fingers and toes with lateral fringes (vs. all absent).

Figure 4. 

The holotype specimen of each new species in preservative A Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov. B M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. C M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. D M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. 1 dorsal view 2 ventral view 3 lateral view.

With a large body size, SVL 55.8–61.4 mm in adult males and 68.5–74.8 mm in adult females, Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov. is significantly different from 30 congeners whose SVL < 50 mm in males or < 60 mm in females, namely M. (Pa.) baolongensis, M. (Pa.) binchuanensis, M. (Pa.) boettgeri, M. (Pa.) cheni, M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) dongguanensis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) huangshanensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, M. (Pa.) jiangi, M. (Pa.) jinggangensis, M. (Pa.) jiulianensis, M. (Pa.) kuatunensis, M. (Pa.) latidactyla, M. (Pa.) leishanensis, M. (Pa.) lini, M. (Pa.) lishuiensis, M. (Pa.) minor, M. (Pa.) mufumontana, M. (Pa.) nankunensis, M. (Pa.) ombrophila, M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa, M. (Pa.) rubrimera, M. (Pa.) spinata, M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus, M. (Pa.) wugongensis, M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis, M. (Pa.) wushanensis, and M. (Pa.) xianjuensis.

Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov. can be further distinguished from the remaining seven congeners by the following characteristics: SVL 55.8–61.4 mm in adult males and 68.5–74.8 mm in adult females [vs. SVL 45.1–51.0 mm in adult males in M. (Pa.) binlingensis; vs. SVL 81.3 mm in adult male in M. (Pa.) caudoprocta; vs. SVL 63.5 mm in adult female in M. (Pa.) jingdongensis; vs. SVL 102.0–118.3 mm in adult males and 99.8–115.6 mm in adult females in M. (Pa.) shuichengensis]; slightly large horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid [vs. small in M. (Pa.) binlingensis, M. (Pa.) jingdongensis, M. (Pa.) omeimontis, and M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis]; vomerine teeth absent [vs. present in M. (Pa.) caudoprocta, M. (Pa.) jingdongensis, M. (Pa.) liboensis, M. (Pa.) omeimontis, and M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis]; tongue not notched behind [vs. notched in M. (Pa.) binlingensis, M. (Pa.) jingdongensis, M. (Pa.) liboensis, M. (Pa.) omeimontis, M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis, and M. (Pa.) shuichengensis]; lateral fringes on toes narrow [vs. wide in M. (Pa.) jingdongensis, M. (Pa.) liboensis, and M. (Pa.) shuichengensis]; rudimentary webs on toes [vs. more than one-fourth webs in M. (Pa.) jingdongensis and M. (Pa.) shuichengensis].

Description of holotype

Adult male. Body size large, SVL 61.4 mm; head width slightly larger than head length, HDW/HDL 1.02; snout rounded in dorsal view, projecting, sloping backward to mouth in profile, protruding well beyond margin of lower jaw; top of head flat; eyes large, ED 0.31 of HDL, pupil vertical; nostril oblique-ovoid; canthus rostralis well developed; loreal region slightly oblique; internasal distance smaller than interorbital distance; tympanum clear, TD/ED 0.49; large ovoid choanae at the base of the maxilla; absence of vomerine ridge and vomerine teeth; tongue small, majority attached at the mouth, margin rounded, not notched behind; absence of vocal sac.

Radio-ulna length 0.26 of SVL and hand 0.28 of SVL; hand without webs, fingers with distinct lateral fringes, relative finger length II < I < IV < III; tips of fingers slightly dilated, round; one indistinct subarticular tubercle at the bases of each finger; metacarpal tubercles indistinct, the inner one observably enlarged and the outer one smaller; presence of underdeveloped nuptial pad on the dorsal surface of the first finger, without nuptial spines. Hindlimbs slender, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward at the central eye when hindlimb is stretched along the side of the body; heels overlapping when the flexed hindlimbs are held at right angles to the body axis; tibia length 0.47 of SVL and foot length 0.71 of SVL; relative toe length I < II < V < III < IV; tips of toes round and slightly dilated; toes with narrow lateral fringes and rudiment of webs; one indistinct subarticular tubercle at the bases of each toe; inner metatarsal tubercle long ovoid and the outer one absent.

Dorsal skin smooth with sparse granules; flanks flabby with spiny tubercles; distinct supratympanic fold curving postero-ventrally from posterior corner of eye to a level above insertion of arm; small tubercles arranged from above the nostril, along the canthus rostralis, edge of upper eyelid and supratympanic fold, to the posterior margin of temporal region; a distinct horn-like prominent tubercle on the edge of upper eyelid; a discontinuous X-shaped ridge with several short ridges on two sides on the back; transverse skin ridges on the dorsal shank and thigh; ventral surface smooth; several tubercles on posterior hindlimbs; small pectoral gland closer to axilla; a single large femoral gland on rear of thigh.

Coloration

Grayish brown above in life; an dark interorbital triangle with light colored center and edge; a dark X-shaped making with light edge on the central of dorsum; dark brown transverse bands on forearms and hindlimbs; supratympanic fold light gray; dark vertical band below the eye; iris grayish brown; ventral surface grayish white; throat and chest with grayish blue latticed patches and black spots; ventral hands and feet grayish white, tips of digits creamy white, metacarpal tubercle and metatarsal tubercle grayish white; pectoral gland and femoral gland white.

Variations

Measurement data of type series are listed in Table 5. All paratypes are similar to the holotype. Females (SVL 68.5–74.8 mm) are significantly larger than males (SVL 55.8–61.4 mm). Dorsal surfaces reddish brown and ventral surfaces with orange latticed patches and black spots in females SYS a002193, 2289.

Distribution and ecology

Currently, Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov. is only known from Huaping Nature Reserve, northeastern Guangxi. The individuals were found on shrubbery branches near trail paths between elevations of 1300–1330 m a.s.l. from June to September. Males were not calling when found, but the collected female specimens bear mature yellowish oocytes. Tadpoles have not been found and ecological information remains unknown.

Table 5.

Measurements (in mm) of the type series of Megophrys (Panophrys) mirabilis sp. nov., * for the holotype.

SYS a002917 * SYS a002192 SYS a002193 SYS a002289
Sex Male Male Female Female
SVL 61.4 55.8 74.8 68.5
HDL 21.4 18.8 23.7 22.6
HDW 21.8 18.8 23.9 22.4
SNT 7.8 7.1 9.0 8.8
IND 6.7 5.9 7.5 6.8
IOD 7.2 6.5 8.1 7.6
ED 6.7 5.9 8.1 6.8
TD 3.3 3.2 4.3 4.3
TED 3.3 3.2 4.2 3.7
HND 17.3 15.3 20.2 19.5
RAD 15.9 13.9 18.3 17.6
FTL 43.7 37.8 48.8 43.2
TIB 28.9 26.3 33.8 30.5

Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina Lyu, Liu & Wang, sp. nov.

Figures 4B, 5, 6A

Chresonymy

Megophrys sp29 (SYS a002077, 2081, 4172–4173 in Liu et al. 2018)

Type material

Holotype. SYS a004710 (Figs 4B, 5), adult male, collected on 27 April 2016 by Zhi-Tong Lyu and Yuan-Qiu Li from Shimentai Nature Reserve (24.4095N, 113.1095E; ca 370 m a.s.l.), Yingde City, Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, PR China.

Paratypes. Eleven adult males from the same locality as the holotype: SYS a002077, 2081–2085, collected on 25–26 April 2013 by Run-Lin Li and Yuan-Qiu Li; SYS a004172–4173, collected on 27 July 2015 by Ying-Yong Wang and Yuan-Qiu Li; SYS a005448/CIB 110015 collected on 19 August 2016 and SYS a005992–5993 collected on 20 June 2017 by Zhi-Tong Lyu and Yong-You Zhao.

Etymology

The specific epithet shimentaina refers to its type locality, Shimentai Nature Reserve.

Common name

Shimentai Horned Toad (in English) / Shí Mén Taí Jiăo Chán (石门台角蟾in Chinese)

Diagnosis

(1) Body size small, SVL 28.0–30.6 (28.9 ± 0.9, N = 12) mm in adult males; (2) snout rounded in dorsal view; (3) tympanum clear, TD/ED 0.57–0.66; (4) presence of weak vomerine ridge and vomerine teeth; (5) margin of tongue rounded, not notched behind; (6) hindlimbs slender, heels overlapping and tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward between tympanum to anterior corner of eye; (7) tibia 0.44–0.53 of SVL and foot 0.62–0.76 of SVL; (8) fingers with narrow lateral fringes, presence of indistinct subarticular tubercles at the bases; (9) toes with narrow lateral fringes and rudiment of webs, absence of subarticular tubercle; (10) presence of a small horn-like tubercle at the edge of upper eyelid; (11) presence of tiny, barely visible, black to dark brown spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs; (12) dorsal skin rough, a discontinuous “/ \”-shaped ridge with two discontinuous dorsolateral ridges on two sides on the back; (13) several large warts on the flanks; (14) supratympanic fold distinct and white, with tiny spines; (15) light brown above, a dark brown stripe on each upper eyelid; (16) single subgular vocal sac in males; (17) weak nuptial pads with serried olive nuptial spines, on the dorsal surface of the first and second fingers in adult males.

Figure 5. 

Adult male holotype SYS a004710 of Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. in life A dorsolateral view B ventral view C hand D foot E posterior view F large warts on the flanks and absence of conical spines on supratympanic fold.

Comparison

Comparative data of Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. with M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. and 42 recognized congeners of Panophrys are given in Table 4.

Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. by the smaller body size, SVL 28.0–30.6 mm in males (vs. 55.8–61.4 mm in males), small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. slightly large), presence of vomerine teeth (vs. absent), the presence of tiny spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs (vs. such spines absent), presence of vocal sac in males (vs. absent), and presence of nuptial spines in males (vs. absent).

Compared with the five Panophrys species previously recorded from the hilly areas among Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hunan, Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) acuta by the small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. slightly large), snout rounded in dorsal view (vs. strongly remarkably pointed), presence of vomerine teeth (vs. absent), presence of tiny spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs (vs. such spines absent), and overlapping heels (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) brachykolos by the smaller body size SVL 28.0–30.6 mm in males (vs. 33.7–39.3 mm in males), presence of vomerine teeth (vs. absent), presence of tiny spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs (vs. such spines absent), narrow lateral fringes on toes (vs. absent), and overlapping heels (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) nanlingensis by the presence of tiny spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs (vs. such spines absent), and tongue not notched behind (vs. notched). M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) obesa by the smaller body size SVL 28.0–30.6 mm in males (vs. 35.6 mm in single male), presence of vomerine teeth (vs. absent), presence of tiny spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs (vs. such spines absent), narrow lateral fringes on toes (vs. absent), and overlapping heels (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis by the presence of vomerine teeth (vs. absent), tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward between tympanum to anterior corner of eye (vs. at the eye), and the presence of tiny spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs (vs. such spines absent).

With a small body size, SVL 28.0–30.6 mm in adult males, Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. is significantly different from 15 congeners whose SVL > 35 mm in males, namely M. (Pa.) baolongensis, M. (Pa.) binlingensis, M. (Pa.) caudoprocta, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) huangshanensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, M. (Pa.) jingdongensis, M. (Pa.) jinggangensis, M. (Pa.) latidactyla, M. (Pa.) liboensis, M. (Pa.) omeimontis, M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa, M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis, M. (Pa.) shuichengensis, and M. (Pa.) spinata.

Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. can be further distinguished from the remaining 22 congeners by the following characteristics: vomerine teeth present [vs. absent in M. (Pa.) binchuanensis, M. (Pa.) boettgeri, M. (Pa.) cheni, M. (Pa.) jiangi, M. (Pa.) kuatunensis, M. (Pa.) leishanensis, M. (Pa.) lini, M. (Pa.) lishuiensis, M. (Pa.) minor, M. (Pa.) mufumontana, M. (Pa.) ombrophila, M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus, M. (Pa.) wugongensis, M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis, M. (Pa.) wushanensis, and M. (Pa.) xianjuensis]; tongue not notched behind [vs. notched in M. (Pa.) cheni, M. (Pa.) boettgeri, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) jiulianensis, M. (Pa.) kuatunensis, M. (Pa.) minor, and M. (Pa.) rubrimera]; lateral fringes on toes narrow [vs. absent in M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) dongguanensis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) jiangi, M. (Pa.) jiulianensis, M. (Pa.) leishanensis, M. (Pa.) lishuiensis, M. (Pa.) minor, M. (Pa.) nankunensis, M. (Pa.) ombrophila, M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus, M. (Pa.) wugongensis, and M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis; wide in M. (Pa.) binchuanensis, M. (Pa.) boettgeri, M. (Pa.) cheni, and M. (Pa.) lini; vs. absent in females while wide in males in M. (Pa.) wushanensis]; rudimentary webs on toes [vs. lacking webs in M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) kuatunensis, M. (Pa.) lishuiensis, M. (Pa.) ombrophila, M. (Pa.) rubrimera, and M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis].

Figure 6. 

Advertisement calls spectrograms A Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. B M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. C M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. 1 sonogram 2 waveform.

Description of holotype

Adult male. Body size small, SVL 28.4 mm; head width slightly smaller than head length, HDW/HDL 0.95; snout rounded in dorsal view, projecting, sloping backward to mouth in profile, protruding well beyond margin of lower jaw; top of head flat; eyes large, ED 0.33 of HDL, pupil vertical; nostril oblique-ovoid; canthus rostralis well developed; loreal region slightly oblique; internasal distance slightly larger than interorbital distance; tympanum clear, in medium size, TD/ED 0.61; large ovoid choanae at the base of the maxilla; presence of weak vomerine ridge and vomerine teeth; margin of tongue rounded, not notched behind; presence of a single subgular vocal sac, a pair of slit-like openings at posterior of jaw.

Radio-ulna length 0.22 of SVL and hand 0.26 of SVL; hand without webs, fingers with narrow lateral fringes, relative finger length I ≈ II < IV < III; tips of fingers slightly dilated, round; one indistinct subarticular tubercle at the bases of each finger; inner metacarpal tubercle observably enlarged and the outer one smaller; nuptial pads with serried olive nuptial spines on the dorsal surface of the first and second fingers. Hindlimbs slender, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward to the posterior corner of eye when hindlimb is stretched along the side of the body; heels overlapping when the flexed hindlimbs are held at right angles to the body axis; tibia length 0.47 of SVL and foot length 0.67 of SVL; relative toe length I < II < V < III < IV; tips of toes round and slightly dilated; toes with distinct lateral fringes and rudiment of webs, without subarticular tubercle; inner metatarsal tubercle long ovoid and the outer one absent.

Dorsal skin rough; numerous granules densely arranged on the top of head, loreal region, lips, temporal region, dorsal body, flanks and dorsal limbs; several tubercles on upper eyelid, including a horn-like prominent tubercle on the edge; all granules and tubercles bearing tiny, barely visible spines; clear supratympanic fold with tiny spines, curving postero-ventrally from posterior corner of eye to a level above insertion of arm; tubercles and granules forming discontinuous “/ \”-shaped ridge and two discontinuous dorsolateral ridges on two sides at the central back; large tubercles and warts on the flanks; ventral surface smooth; several granules bearing black spines on the region around cloaca and rear of hindlimbs; small pectoral gland closer to axilla; a single large femoral gland on rear of thigh.

Coloration

Light brown above in life; a dark brown stripe on dorsal surface of each eye; narrow dark brown transverse bands on forearms and hindlimbs; supratympanic fold white; dark vertical band below the eye; iris reddish brown; all spines black or dark brown; ventral surface pale; throat flesh color; scarlet spots on the chest; a large white blotch on the belly; a pair of lateroventral longitudinal broad black stripes with several white tubercles on two sides; ventral limbs flesh color with white spots; ventral hands and ventral feet brown, tips of digits pale brown; metacarpal tubercle and metatarsal tubercle reddish; pectoral gland and femoral gland white.

Variations

Measurement data of type series are listed in Table 6. All paratypes are extremely similar to the holotype but SYS a002082 has an “X” pattern on its back.

Distribution and ecology

Currently, Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. is known only from Shimentai Nature Reserve, northern Guangdong. This toad is uncommon in its distribution areas. All individuals were found from two slowly flowing mountain streams between elevations of 210–500 m a.s.l. Males call on plant leaves from April to August, suggesting their breeding season corresponds to this period. Females and tadpoles have not been found.

Vocalization

The advertisement calls of Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov. were recorded from four males at 18–20 °C air temperature on 27 April 2016. Thirty calls with 96 notes are measured and the spectrograms are shown in Fig. 6A. The advertisement call is made up of 3.8 ± 0.4 (3–4, N = 30) continuous click notes. Each call lasts 0.50 ± 0.07 s (0.36–0.58 s, N = 30) and each note lasts 85 ± 8 ms (64–101 ms, N = 96) with an interval of 67 ± 14 ms (44–121 ms, N = 71) between every two notes. The peak frequency measures at 4895 ± 124 Hz (4688–5156 Hz, N = 96).

Table 6.

Measurements (in mm) of the type series of Megophrys (Panophrys) shimentaina sp. nov., * for the holotype.

SYS a004710* SYS a002077 SYS a002081 SYS a002082 SYS a002083 SYS a002084 SYS a002085 SYS a004172 SYS a004173 SYS a005448 / CIB 110015 SYS a005992 SYS a005993
Sex Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male
SVL 28.4 28.5 28.1 30.6 29.0 29.2 28.8 28.0 30.4 28.0 29.3 28.7
HDL 10.0 10.1 9.9 10.4 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.9 10.5 10.7 10.1 10.1
HDW 9.6 9.5 9.5 10.0 9.6 9.7 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.3 9.8 9.9
SNT 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.4 3.4
IND 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 2.8 3.1 3.0
IOD 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.6
ED 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
TD 2.0 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1
TED 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5
HND 7.4 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.5 7.4 7.3 6.8 7.2 7.8 7.1 7.5
RAD 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.5 6.1 6.3 6.0 6.4
FTL 19.1 19.9 19.0 20.5 19.4 19.3 19.3 17.9 18.7 21.4 19.4 20.3
TIB 13.5 14.2 13.2 14.9 13.4 14.3 13.6 12.8 13.3 14.9 13.4 14.6

Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis Lyu, Zeng & Wang, sp. nov.

Figures 4C, 6B, 7

Chresonymy

Megophrys sp2 (SYS a002874–76, 2878–79 in Liu et al. 2018)

Holotype

SYS a002875 (Figs 4C, 7), adult male, collected on 12 June 2014 by Yu-Long Li and Ying-Yong Wang from Mt Yangming (26.1177N, 111.8945E; ca 1360 m a.s.l.), Shuangpai County, Yongzhou City, Hunan Province, PR China.

Paratypes

Eleven adult specimens, female SYS a002874 and males SYS a002876/CIB 116072 and SYS a002878–2886, collected at the same time from the same locality as the holotype.

Etymology

The specific epithet xiangnanensis is an adjective derived from Chinese Pinyin Xiāng Nán, which means southern Hunan, for the distribution area of this species.

Common name

Southern Hunan Horned Toad (in English) / Xiāng Nán Jiăo Chán (湘南角蟾 in Chinese)

Diagnosis

(1) Moderate body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm (40.3 ± 1.3, N = 11) in adult males and SVL 44.4 mm in adult female; (2) snout rounded in dorsal view; (3) tympanum clear, TD/ED 0.38–0.49; (4) presence of weak vomerine ridge, absence of vomerine teeth; (5) margin of tongue rounded, not notched behind; (6) hindlimbs slender, heels just meeting and tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward between eye and tympanum; (7) tibia 0.41–0.46 of SVL and foot 0.57–0.62 of SVL; (8) fingers without lateral fringes, presence of distinct subarticular tubercles at the bases; (9) toes with relatively wide lateral fringes and rudiment of webs, presence of distinct subarticular tubercles at the bases; (10) presence of small horn-like tubercle at the edge of upper eyelid; (11) dorsal skin smooth with sparse granules, a discontinuous X-shaped ridge with two discontinuous dorsolateral ridges on two side on the back; (12) sparse tubercles on the flanks; (13) supratympanic fold light colored; (14) single subgular vocal sac in males; (15) presence of nuptial pads on the dorsal surface of the first and second fingers in adult males.

Figure 7. 

Adult male holotype SYS a002875 of Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. in life A dorsolateral view B ventral view C hand D foot.

Comparison

Comparative data of Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. with M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov., M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov., and 42 recognized congeners of Panophrys are given in Table 4.

Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. by the smaller body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm in males and 44.4 mm in single female (vs. 55.8–61.4 mm in males and 68.5–74.8 in females), small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. slightly large), wide lateral fringes on toes (vs. narrow), heels just meeting (vs. overlapping), presence of vocal sac in males (vs. absent), and presence of nuptial spines in males (vs. absent).

Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. by the larger body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm in males (vs. 28.0–30.6 mm in males), absence of vomerine teeth (vs. present), wide lateral fringes on toes (vs. narrow), and heels just meeting (vs. overlapping).

Compared with the five Panophrys species previously recorded from the hilly areas among Guangdong, Guangxi and Hunan, Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) acuta by the larger body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm in males and 44.4 mm in single female (vs. 27.1–33.0 mm in males and 28.1–33.6 mm in females), small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. slightly large), snout rounded in dorsal view (vs. strongly remarkably pointed), wide lateral fringes on toes (vs. narrow), and heels just meeting (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) brachykolos by the wide lateral fringes on toes (vs. absent), and heels just meeting (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) nanlingensis by the larger body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm in males (vs. 30.5–37.3 mm in males), absence of vomerine teeth (vs. present), tongue not notched behind (vs. notched), wide lateral fringes on toes (vs. narrow) , and heels just meeting (vs. overlapping). M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) obesa by the larger body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm in males and 44.4 mm in single female (vs. 35.6 mm in single male and 37.5–41.2 mm in females), wide lateral fringes on toes (vs. absent), and heels just meeting (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis by the larger body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm in males and 44.4 mm in single female (vs. 30.3–33.7 mm in males and 37.6 in female), wide lateral fringes on toes (vs. absent), and heels just meeting (vs. overlapping).

With a moderate body size, SVL 38.6–42.0 mm in adult males, Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. is significantly different from 18 congeners whose SVL< 35 mm or > 45 mm in males, namely M. (Pa.) binlingensis, M. (Pa.) caudoprocta, M. (Pa.) cheni, M. (Pa.) jingdongensis, M. (Pa.) jiulianensis, M. (Pa.) kuatunensis, M. (Pa.) liboensis, M. (Pa.) lishuiensis, M. (Pa.) mufumontana, M. (Pa.) nankunensis, M. (Pa.) ombrophila, M. (Pa.) omeimontis, M. (Pa.) rubrimera, M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis, M. (Pa.) shuichengensis, M. (Pa.) spinata, M. (Pa.) wugongensis, and M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis.

Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. can be further distinguished from the remaining 19 congeners by the following characteristics: small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid [vs. slightly large in M. (Pa.) jinggangensis, M. (Pa.) latidactyla, and M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa]; vomerine teeth absent [vs. present in M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) dongguanensis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, M. (Pa.) jinggangensis, M. (Pa.) latidactyla, and M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa]; tongue not notched behind [vs. notched in M. (Pa.) baolongensis, M. (Pa.) boettgeri, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) huangshanensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, and M. (Pa.) minor]; lateral fringes on toes wide [vs. absent in M. (Pa.) baolongensis, M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) dongguanensis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) huangshanensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, M. (Pa.) jiangi, M. (Pa.) leishanensis, M. (Pa.) minor, and M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatu; vs. narrow in M. (Pa.) jinggangensis and M. (Pa.) xianjuensis; vs. absent in females while wide in males in M. (Pa.) wushanensis]; rudimentary webs on toes [vs. more than one-fourth webs in M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa; vs. lacking webs in M. (Pa.) baolongensis, M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, and M. (Pa.) huangshanensis].

Description of holotype

Adult male. Moderate body size, SVL 40.9 mm; head width slightly larger than head length, HDW/HDL 1.02; snout rounded in dorsal view, projecting, sloping backward to mouth in profile, protruding well beyond margin of lower jaw; top of head flat; eyes large, ED 0.41 of HDL, pupil vertical; nostril oblique-ovoid; canthus rostralis well developed; loreal region slightly oblique; internasal distance slightly larger than interorbital distance; tympanum clear, TD/ED 0.44; large ovoid choanae at the base of the maxilla; presence of weak vomerine ridge, absence of vomerine teeth; margin of tongue rounded, not notched behind; presence of a single subgular vocal sac, a pair of slit-like openings at posterior of jaw.

Radio-ulna length 0.22 of SVL and hand 0.23 of SVL; hand without webs, fingers without lateral fringes, relative finger length I < II < IV < III; tips of fingers slightly dilated, round; one distinct subarticular tubercle at the bases of each finger; inner metacarpal tubercle observably enlarged and the outer one smaller; a single nuptial pad on the dorsal surface of the first and second fingers. Hindlimbs slender, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward between eye and tympanum when hindlimb is stretched along the side of the body; heels just meeting when the flexed hindlimbs are held at right angles to the body axis; tibia length 0.42 of SVL and foot length 0.58 of SVL; relative toe length I < II < V < III < IV; tips of toes round and slightly dilated; toes with relatively wide lateral fringes and rudiment of webs; one distinct subarticular tubercle at the bases of each toe; inner metatarsal tubercle long ovoid and the outer one absent.

Dorsal skin smooth with sparse granules; sparse tubercles on the flanks; a horn-like prominent tubercle on the edge; clear supratympanic fold curving postero-ventrally from posterior corner of eye to a level above insertion of arm; a discontinuous X-shaped ridge and two discontinuous dorsolateral ridges on two sides at the central back; sparse tubercles on the dorsal shank and thigh; ventral surface smooth; several tubercles on posterior hindlimbs; small pectoral gland closer to axilla; a single large femoral gland on rear of thigh.

Coloration

Yellowish brown above in life; a dark interorbital triangle with light colored center and edge; a dark X-shaped making with light edge on the central of dorsum; dark brown transverse bands on forearms and hindlimbs; supratympanic fold light colored; dark vertical band below the eye; iris light brown with net-like stripes; throat and anterior chest reddish gray; a longitudinal stripe on the throat; a large white blotch with scarlet spots on the belly; one pair of lateroventral longitudinal broad reddish stripes on two sides; ventral limbs flesh color; ventral hands purplish, tips of fingers pale-grey, metacarpal tubercle reddish; ventral feet purplish brown, tips of fingers pale grey, metatarsal tubercle reddish; pectoral gland and femoral gland white.

Variations

Measurement data of type series are listed in Table 7. All paratypes are similar to the holotype. Female (SVL 44.4 mm) are slightly larger than males (SVL 38.6–42.0 mm).

Distribution and ecology

Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. is currently known only from Mt Yangming, southwestern Hunan. This toad inhabits areas near slowly flowing mountain streams surrounded by moist subtropical secondary evergreen broadleaf forests between elevations of 900–1400 m a.s.l. Males call from May to July, and during this time the males bear nuptial pads. Only one female individual was found, and tadpoles and other ecological information remain unknown.

Vocalization

The advertisement calls of Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov. were recorded from the Holotype at 16 °C air temperature on 12 June 2014. Four calls with 98 notes are measured and the spectrograms are shown in Fig. 6B. The advertisement call is made up of 24.5 ± 4.7 (17–29, N = 4) continuous click notes. Each call lasts 9.46 ± 1.77 s (6.39–10.53 s, N = 4) and each note lasts 151 ± 12 ms (113–177 ms, N = 98) with an interval of 240 ± 95 ms (148–631 ms, N = 94) between every two notes. The peak frequency measures at 3033 ± 123 Hz (2813–3188 Hz, N = 98).

Table 7.

Measurements (in mm) of the type series of Megophrys (Panophrys) xiangnanensis sp. nov., * for the holotype.

SYS a002875* SYS a002876 / CIB 116072 SYS a002878 SYS a002879 SYS a002880 SYS a002881 SYS a002882 SYS a002883 SYS a002884 SYS a002885 SYS a002886 SYS a002874
Sex Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Female
SVL 40.9 38.7 39.0 40.2 38.6 40.5 41.7 41.5 42.0 41.0 39.1 44.4
HDL 13.2 12.6 12.3 13.1 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.4 13.0 12.8 14.0
HDW 13.5 12.5 12.6 13.3 12.8 13.2 13.1 13.2 14.0 13.1 13.0 14.3
SNT 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.5 4.7 4.6 4.3 5.0
IND 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.3 4.0 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.5
IOD 3.7 3.6 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.8 44.3
ED 5.4 4.6 5.0 5.1 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.5
TD 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.1 1.9 2.2 2.1 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.7
TED 2.3 2.4 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.9 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.5 2.2 2.4
HND 9.3 9.0 8.8 9.0 8.9 10.3 9.3 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.2 9.8
RAD 9.0 8.7 8.8 8.8 8.9 9.8 9.3 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.2 9.8
FTL 23.9 23.0 24.3 22.9 23.1 24.8 24.2 24.3 24.3 23.5 23.8 27.6
TIB 17.0 17.9 17.8 17.0 17.9 18.2 18.2 18.2 17.3 17.4 17.7 19.1

Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis Lyu, Zeng & Wang, sp. nov.

Figures 4D, 6C, 8

Chresonymy

Megophrys sp28 (SYS a002877, 2888–2890 in Liu et al. 2018)

Holotype

SYS a002887 (Figs 4D, 8), adult male, collected on 12 June 2014 by Yu-Long Li and Ying-Yong Wang from Mt Yangming (26.1177N, 111.8945E; ca 1360 m a.s.l.), Shuangpai County, Yongzhou City, Hunan Province, PR China.

Paratypes

Seven adult specimens from the same locality as the holotype: female SYS a002877, and males SYS a2888–2889, 2891–2892, collected at the same time as the holotype; male SYS a002307 and SYS a002310/CIB 116073, collected on 8 September 2013 by Zu-Yao Liu.

Etymology

The specific epithet yangmingensis refers to its type locality, Mt Yangming.

Common name

Mt Yangming Horned Toad (in English) / Yáng Míng Shān Jiăo Chán (阳明山角蟾in Chinese)

Figure 8. 

Adult male holotype SYS a002887 of Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. in life A dorsolateral view B ventral view C hand D foot E villiform black nuptial spines F single subgular vocal sac.

Diagnosis

(1) Body size small, SVL 33.2–37.1 mm (35.3 ± 1.4, N = 7) in adult males and SVL 45.2 mm in adult female; (2) snout rounded in dorsal view; (3) tympanum clear, TD/ED 0.42–0.50; (4) presence of weak vomerine ridge, absence of vomerine teeth; (5) margin of tongue rounded, not notched behind; (6) hindlimbs slender, heels overlapping and tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward at the anterior corner of the eye; (7) tibia 0.47–0.51 of SVL and foot 0.64–0.69 of SVL in males, while tibia 0.44 of SVL and foot 0.51 of SVL in female; (8) fingers without lateral fringes, presence of distinct subarticular tubercles at the bases; (9) toes with lateral fringes and rudiment of webs, presence of subarticular tubercles at the bases; (10) presence of small horn-like tubercle at the edge of upper eyelid; (11) dorsal skin rough with sparse granules, a discontinuous X-shaped ridge with two discontinuous dorsolateral ridges on two side on the back; (12) sparse tubercles on the flanks; (13) orange-brown or light brown above, a dark interorbital triangle with light colored center and edge, a dark X-shaped making with light edge on the central of dorsum; (14) single subgular vocal sac in males; (15) presence of villiform black nuptial spines on the dorsal surface of the first and second fingers in adult males.

Comparison

Comparative data of Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. with M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov., M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov., M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov., and 42 recognized congeners of Panophrys are given in Table 4.

Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) mirabilis sp. nov. by the smaller body size, SVL 33.2–37.1 mm in males and 45.2 mm in single female (vs. 55.8–61.4 mm in males and 68.5–74.8 in females), small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. slightly large), presence of vocal sac in males (vs. absent), and presence of nuptial spines in adult males (vs. absent).

Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) shimentaina sp. nov. by the larger body size, SVL 33.2–37.1 mm in males (vs. 28.0–30.6 mm in males), absence of vomerine teeth (vs. present), and absence of tiny spines on the whole dorsal skin, flanks, dorsal limbs, the region around cloaca, and rear of hindlimbs (vs. such spines present).

Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) xiangnanensis sp. nov. by the smaller body size, SVL 33.2–37.1 mm in males (vs. 38.6–42.0), heels overlapping (vs. just meeting), tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward at the anterior corner of the eye (vs. between eye and tympanum), and narrow lateral fringes on toes (vs. wide).

Compared with the five Panophrys species previously recorded from the hilly areas among Guangdong, Guangxi and Hunan, Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) acuta by the larger body size, SVL 33.2–37.1 mm in males and 45.2 mm in single female (vs. 27.1–33.0 mm in males and 28.1–33.6 mm in females), small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid (vs. slightly large), snout rounded in dorsal view (vs. strongly remarkably pointed), and heels overlapping (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) brachykolos by the narrow lateral fringes on toes (vs. absent), and heels overlapping (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) nanlingensis by the absence of vomerine teeth (vs. present), and tongue not notched behind (vs. notched). M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) obesa by the narrow lateral fringes on toes (vs. absent), and heels overlapping (vs. not meeting). M. (Pa.) yangmingensis sp. nov. differs from M. (Pa.) shunhuangensis sp. nov. by the presence of vomerine ridge (vs. absence).

With a small body size, SVL 33.2–37.1 mm in adult males, Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. is significantly different from nine congeners whose SVL > 40 mm in males, namely M. (Pa.) baolongensis, M. (Pa.) binlingensis, M. (Pa.) caudoprocta, M. (Pa.) jingdongensis, M. (Pa.) liboensis, M. (Pa.) omeimontis, M. (Pa.) sangzhiensis, M. (Pa.) shuichengensis, and M. (Pa.) spinata.

Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. can be further distinguished from the remaining 28 congeners by the following characteristics: small horn-like tubercle at upper eyelid [vs. slightly large in M. (Pa.) jinggangensis, M. (Pa.) latidactyla, and M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa]; vomerine teeth absent [vs. present in M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) dongguanensis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, M. (Pa.) jinggangensis, M. (Pa.) jiulianensis, M. (Pa.) latidactyla, M. (Pa.) nankunensis, M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa, and M. (Pa.) rubrimera]; tongue not notched behind [vs. notched in M. (Pa.) cheni, M. (Pa.) boettgeri, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) huangshanensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, M. (Pa.) jiulianensis, M. (Pa.) kuatunensis, M. (Pa.) minor, and M. (Pa.) rubrimera]; lateral fringes on toes narrow [vs. absent in M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) dongguanensis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) huangshanensis, M. (Pa.) insularis, M. (Pa.) jiangi, M. (Pa.) jiulianensis, M. (Pa.) leishanensis, M. (Pa.) lishuiensis, M. (Pa.) minor, M. (Pa.) nankunensis, M. (Pa.) ombrophila, M. (Pa.) tuberogranulatus, M. (Pa.) wugongensis, and M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis; vs. wide in M. (Pa.) binchuanensis, M. (Pa.) boettgeri, M. (Pa.) cheni, M. (Pa.) latidactyla, M. (Pa.) lini, and M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa; vs. absent in females while wide in males in M. (Pa.) wushanensis]; rudimentary webs on toes [vs. more than one-fourth webs in M. (Pa.) palpebralespinosa; vs. lacking webs in M. (Pa.) daweimontis, M. (Pa.) fansipanensis, M. (Pa.) hoanglienensis, M. (Pa.) huangshanensis, M. (Pa.) kuatunensis, M. (Pa.) lishuiensis, M. (Pa.) ombrophila, M. (Pa.) rubrimera, and M. (Pa.) wuliangshanensis]; tympanum clear with distinct edge [vs. upper 1/4 of tympanum concealed by supratympanic fold in M. (Pa.) mufumontana]; tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward at the anterior corner of the eye [vs. between tympanum and eye in M. (Pa.) xianjuensis].

Description of holotype

Adult male. Body size moderate, SVL 35.1 mm; head width slightly larger than head length, HDW/HDL 1.01; snout rounded in dorsal view, projecting, protruding well beyond margin of lower jaw; top of head flat; eyes large, ED 0.43 of HDL, pupil vertical; nostril oblique-ovoid; canthus rostralis well developed; loreal region slightly oblique; internasal distance slightly larger than interorbital distance; tympanum clear, TD/ED 0.43; large ovoid choanae at the base of the maxilla; presence of weak vomerine ridge, absence of vomerine teeth; margin of tongue rounded, not notched behind; presence of a single subgular vocal sac, a pair of slit-like openings at posterior of jaw.

Radio-ulna length 0.24 of SVL and hand 0.23 of SVL; hand without webs, fingers without lateral fringes, relative finger length II < I < IV < III; tips of fingers slightly dilated, round; one distinct subarticular tubercle at the bases of each finger; inner metacarpal tubercle observably enlarged and the outer one smaller; villiform black nuptial spines on the dorsal surface of the first and second fingers. Hindlimbs slender, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward at the anterior corner of eye when hindlimb is stretched along the side of the body; heels overlapping when the flexed hindlimbs are held at right angles to the body axis; tibia length 0.51 of SVL and foot length 0.67 of SVL; relative toe length I < II < V < III < IV; tips of toes round and slightly dilated; toes with lateral fringes and rudiment of webs; one subarticular tubercle at the bases of each toe; inner metatarsal tubercle long ovoid and the outer one absent.

Dorsal skin rough with sparse granules; sparse tubercles on the flanks and hindlimbs; several tubercles on upper eyelid, including a horn-like prominent tubercle on the edge; clear supratympanic fold curving postero-ventrally from posterior corner of eye to a level above insertion of arm; a discontinuous X-shaped ridge and two discontinuous dorsolateral ridges on two sides at the central back; four transverse skin ridges on the dorsal shank and thigh; ventral surface smooth; several granules on posterior hindlimbs; small pectoral gland closer to axilla; a single large femoral gland on rear of thigh.

Coloration

Orange-brown above in life; a triangular making with light edge between eyes; a dark X-shaped making with light edge on the central of dorsum; supratympanic fold light brown; dark vertical band below the eye; iris orange-brown; throat and anterior chest purplish brown; belly dark gray with a large white blotch on the central; ventral limbs purplish; ventral hands reddish brown with dark stripes, tips of fingers pale-grey, metacarpal tubercle reddish; ventral feet purplish, tips of fingers pale-grey, metatarsal tubercle reddish; pectoral gland and femoral gland white.

Variations

Measurement data of type series are listed in Table 8. All paratypes are similar to the holotype. The single female (SVL 45.2 mm) are distinctly larger than males (SVL 33.2–37.1 mm), while with relatively shorter hindlimbs. Dorsal surfaces lighter brown in SYS a002877, 2888–2889, 2891–2892.

Distribution and ecology

Currently, Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. is only known from Mt Yangming, southwestern Hunan. This toad inhabits near flowing mountain streams over 1300 m a.s.l. Males call from early June to early September. Males found in early June bear well developed nuptial spines, while the spines are absent in males found in early September, suggesting the breeding season of this toad is before September. Only one female was found, and tadpoles and more ecological information remain unknown.

Vocalization

The advertisement calls of Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov. were recorded from the Holotype at 16 °C air temperature on 12 June 2014. Five calls with 160 notes are measured and the spectrograms are shown in Fig. 6C. The advertisement call is made up by 31.6 ± 9.0 (22–46, N = 5) continuous click notes. Each call lasts 7.38 ± 2.08 s (4.61–10.58 s, N = 5) and each note lasts 75 ± 5 ms (64–94 ms, N = 160) with an interval of 160 ± 31 ms (120–366 ms, N = 155) between every two notes. The peak frequency measures at 3424 ± 82 Hz (3375–3563 Hz, N = 160).

Table 8.

Measurements (in mm) of the type series of Megophrys (Panophrys) yangmingensis sp. nov., * for the holotype.

SYS a002887 * SYS a002307 SYS a002310/CIB 116073 SYS a002888 SYS a002889 SYS a002891 SYS a002892 SYS a002877
Sex Male Male Male Male Male Male Male Female
SVL 35.1 34.5 36.6 33.2 37.1 36.4 34.5 45.2
HDL 11.3 11.6 11.7 11.2 11.9 11.5 11.2 13.6
HDW 11.4 11.9 11.7 11.1 11.8 11.5 11.3 13.5
SNT 4.0 4.4 4.2 3.8 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.8
IND 3.9 3.6 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.8 4.2
IOD 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.4 3.8 3.6 3.7 4.4
ED 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.7 5.0 4.7 5.6
TD 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.8
TED 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 2.1 1.7 1.6 2.1
HND 8.0 8.2 8.2 7.0 8.2 8.2 7.9 10.1
RAD 8.5 8.2 8.2 7.0 9.2 8.4 8.0 9.9
FTL 24.2 23.3 23.4 21.1 24.1 24.1 23.2 23.0
TIB 17.8 17.2 17.3 15.5 17.3 17.6 17.0 19.9

Discussion

The phylogenetic analysis encompassing multilocus nuclear-gene and matrilineal mtDNA genealogy (Liu et al. 2018) has revealed 41 cryptic species within the subgenus Panophrys. Subsequently, eight of them were described as seven new species (Li et al. 2018; Wang et al. 2019a, b). It is worth noting that the cryptic species M. sp6 and M. sp7 revealed based on molecular data were suggested to be the same species and is described as M. (Pa.) nanlingensis after detailed morphological examination (Wang et al. 2019a). In our present study, we propose four new species, on the basis of detailed morphological evidences combined with previous phylogenetic data. There are 29 undescribed cryptic species remaining according to Liu et al. (2018), nevertheless, the recognitions from molecular data still require validation from detailed morphological characteristics to substantiate.

The genus Panophrys was established by Rao and Yang (1997) but was controversially considered as a subgenus or synonymy of Xenophrys or Megophrys by different subsequent morphological researches (Dubois and Ohler 1998; Delorme et al. 2006; Li and Wang 2008; Fei et al. 2009). Based on multilocus nuclear-gene and matrilineal mtDNA genealogy, three recent studies have revealed highly similar phylogenetic relationships within Megophryinae, which is unanimously considered to contain the following monophyletic groups: Pelobatrachus, Megophrys, Xenophrys, Panophrys, Brachytarsophrys, Ophryophryne, Atympanophrys (Chen et al. 2017; Mahony et al. 2017; Liu et al. 2018). However, the taxonomic proposals for these groups are in conflict by different authors. Chen et al. (2017) considered that subfamily Megophryinae is valid and composed of five genera: Atympanophrys, Brachytarsophrys, Megophrys, Ophryophryne and Xenophrys (including Panophrys as a subgenus). Mahony et al. (2017) treated the entire subfamily Megophryinae as a single genus Megophrys with containing seven subgenera (corresponding to the seven molecularly resolved clades). To resolve these conflicts, Li et al. (2020) suggested to elevate the seven monophyletic subgenera to genus levels, which fulfills the following three criteria to be descriptively useful: reasonably compact, monophyletic, and ecologically, morphologically or biogeographically distinct (Gill et al. 2005). Li et al.’s suggestion was based on the review of Brachytarsophrys, which shows significant differences against other groups. Therefore, the recognition of genus Brachytarsophrys must be accepted, while further supported evidences for other genera are needed.

Acknowledgements

We thank to Yong-You Zhao, Run-Lin Li, Jian Wang, Yu-Long Li, Tian-Du Zhang, Jiang-Mo Zhang, Hai-Long He, Si-Yu Zhang, and Hong-Hui Chen for their help in the fieldwork. This work was supported by the Project of Comprehensive Scientific Survey of Luoxiao Mountains Region of Ministry of Science and Technology of PR China (No. 2013FY111500), the Specimen Platform of Ministry of Science and Technology of PR China, teaching specimens sub-platform (No.2005DKA21403-JK), the Biodiversity Conservation Programme of Ministry of Ecology and Environment of PR China, and the Project of Animal Diversity Survey and Monitoring System Construction of Guangdong Shimentai National Nature Reserve.

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Appendix I

Specimens examined

Megophrys (Panophrys) acuta (10): China: Guangdong: Fengkai: Heishiding Nature Reserve (type locality): SYS a000168, 0517, 0521, 3257, 2159, 2266–2269, 2276.

Megophrys (Panophrys) binlingensis (2): China: Sichuan: Hongya: Mt. Wawu (type locality): SYS a005313–5314.

Megophrys (Panophrys) boettgeri (16): China: Fujian: Wuyishan: Mt. Wuyi (type locality): SYS a002480, 4149–4151; Jiangxi: Guixi: Yangjifeng Nature Reserve: SYS a000312, 0315, 0328–0330, 0376, 0378; Guangfeng: Tongboshan Nature Reserve: SYS a001671–1673, 1683, 1700.

Megophrys (Panophrys) brachykolos (2): China: Hong Kong (type locality): SYS a001502–1503.

Megophrys (Panophrys) caudoprocta (3): China: Hunan: Sangzhi: Badagongshan Nature Reserve (type locality): SYS a004281, 4308–4309.

Megophrys (Panophrys) cheni (19): China: Jiangxi: Jinggangshan: Mt. Jinggang (type locality): SYS a001427–1429, 1871–1873; Hunan: Yanling: Taoyuandong Nature Reserve: SYS a002123–2127, 2140–2145.

Megophrys (Panophrys) huangshanensis (13): China: Anhui: Huangshan: Mt. Huangshan (type locality): SYS a002702–2707; Jiangxi: Wuyuan: Mt. Dazhang: SYS a001622–1623, 3705–3707; Zhejiang: Lin’an: Mt. Tianmu: SYS a002684–2685.

Megophrys (Panophrys) jingdongensis (14): China: Yunnan: Jingdong: Mt. Wuliang (type locality): SYS a003909, 3928–3929; Zhenyuan: Mt. Ailao: SYS a001778, 2988, 2989–2991, 2993–2994, 3005–3006, 3903–3904.

Megophrys (Panophrys) jinggangensis (11): China: Jiangxi: Jinggangshan: Mt. Jinggang (type locality): SYS a001413–1416, 1430, 4028; Hunan: Yanling: Taoyuandong Nature Reserve: SYS a001859–1863.

Megophrys (Panophrys) kuatunensis (3): China: Fujian: Wuyishan: Guadun: SYS a001579, 1590; Jiangxi: Guixi: Yangjifeng Nature Reserve: SYS a000241.

Megophrys (Panophrys) lini (27): China: Hunan: Yanling: Taoyuandong Nature Reserve (type locality): SYS a002128; Jiangxi: Jinggangshan: Mt. Jinggang: SYS a001417–1424, 2375–2386; Suichuan: Nanfengmian Nature Reserve: SYS a002369–2374.

Megophrys (Panophrys) minor (5): China: Sichuan: Dujiangyan: Mt. Qingcheng (type locality): SYS a003209–3213.

Megophrys (Panophrys) obesa (4): China: Guangdong: Fengkai: Heishiding Nature Reserve (type locality): SYS a002270–2272, 3047.

Megophrys (Panophrys) omeimontis (11): China: Sichuan: Emeishan: Mt. Emei (type locality): SYS a001798–1801, 1940–1941, 5301; Hongya: Mt. Wawu: SYS a005330–5331; Pingshan: Mt. Laojun: SYS a002740–2741.

Megophrys (Panophrys) sangzhiensis (6): China: Hunan: Sangzhi: Badagongshan Nature Reserve (type locality): SYS a004306–4307, 4313–4316.

Megophrys (Panophrys) spinata (2): China: Guizhou: Leishan: Mt. Leigong (type locality): SYS a002226–2227.

Megophrys (Panophrys) tuberogranulatus (1): China: Hunan: Sangzhi: Badagongshan Nature Reserve (type locality): SYS a004310.

Megophrys (Panophrys) wushanensis (5): China: Hubei: Shennongjia: Shennongjia Nature Reserve: SYS a003008–3011, 3013.

Megophrys (Panophrys) wuliangshanensis (5): China: Yunnan: Jingdong: Mt. Wuliang (type locality): SYS a003924–3925; Zhenyuan: Mt. Ailao: SYS a002983–29

Megophrys (Xenophrys) glandulosa (13): China: Yunnan: Jingdong: Mt. Wuliang (type locality): SYS a003907–3908, 3923; Tengchong: Gaoligong Nature Reserve: SYS a002944–2946, 3757–3758, 3762, 3792–3795.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) cf. major (3): China: Yunnan: Mengla: Zhushihe: SYS a002961–2962, 3955.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) mangshanensis (10): China: Guangdong: Ruyuan: Nanling Nature Reserve: SYS a000493–0496, 0586; Renhua: Danxiashan Geological Park: SYS a000288; Huaiji: Mt. Sanyue: SYS a002177; Shaoguan: Mt. Longtou: SYS a002749; Jiangxi: Longnan: Jiulianshan Nature Reserve: SYS a000996–0997.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) medogensis (3): China: Xizang: Motuo: Beibeng (type locality): SYS a002932–2933, 2935.

Megophrys (Xenophrys) pachyproctus (1): China: Xizang: Motuo: Beibeng (type locality): SYS a002934.