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Checklist of hover flies (Diptera, Syrphidae) of the Republic of Georgia
expand article infoXimo Mengual, Sander Bot§, Tinatin Chkhartishvili|, André Reimann, Jana Thormann, Laura von der Mark
‡ Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere, Bonn, Germany
§ Unaffiliated, Haren, Netherlands
| Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
¶ Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

A checklist of the Syrphidae species of the Republic of Georgia is presented. New hover fly (Diptera: Syrphidae) records from Georgia are provided as a result of field work conducted in 2018. At the same time, published syrphid records for the country are here reviewed and updated. A total of 357 species of hoverflies are now documented from Georgia, 40 of which are reported for the first time. Moreover, DNA barcodes were sequenced for 238 specimens, representing 74 species from this country.

Keywords

DNA barcoding, faunistics, first record, flower flies, hover flies, new record, species list

Introduction

With an almost worldwide distribution, absent from Antarctica and remote oceanic islands, Syrphidae is a very species-rich family of Diptera with more than 6,000 described species (Brown 2009; Thompson 2019). Commonly called flower flies or hover flies, adults are associated with flowers that are used as mating sites and energy food sources (pollen and nectar). They are considered essential pollinators of wild flowering plants and crops (Pérez-Bañón et al. 2003a; Ssymank and Kearns 2009; Inouye et al. 2015) and have been used as bioindicators in order to evaluate biodiversity loss and the efficiency of restoration and conservation policies (Sommaggio 1999; Tscharntke et al. 2005; Biesmeijer et al. 2006; Ricarte et al. 2011; Sommaggio and Burgio 2014). Syrphid immatures have a large array of natural histories and are variable in structure and feeding modes (Rotheray 1993, Rotheray and Gilbert 1999, 2011). Some of these larvae play an important role as biological control agents of pests (Schmidt et al. 2004; Bergh and Short 2008; Bugg et al. 2008; Nelson et al. 2012; Eckberg et al. 2015) or as decomposers of organic matter (Lardé 1989; Martínez-Falcón et al. 2012), but some phytophagous larvae may be considered plant pests under certain circumstances (Edwards and Bevan 1951; Stuckenberg 1956; Tompsett 2002).

The Caucasus Region is situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea (Fig. 1) and is one of the global ‘biodiversity hotspots’ (Myers et al. 2000; Mittermeier et al. 2004; Zazanashvili et al. 2004). The region comprises the Republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia (sometimes all together called Transcaucasia), parts of northwestern Turkey, northern Iran, and Russian republics and krais between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east (area known as Ciscaucasia or Northern Caucasus). Georgia lies in the central part of the Caucasus Region and has two major mountainous ranges, i.e., the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus.

Figure 1. 

Sampling localities in Georgia during the field work in 2018.

Regarding species diversity, there is a geographic gap of knowledge in the Caucasus Region, especially on the dipteran fauna (Insecta: Diptera) (Wetzel et al. 2008; Oboňa et al. 2019). The hover fly fauna of Georgia has never been studied in detail. Previous works on the Syrphidae fauna of the Caucasus Region are predominantly done by Soviet authors, published mainly in Russian-language magazines, focusing in the fauna of the Northern Caucasus, although some include the fauna of Armenia and/or Azerbaijan (Portschinsky 1877; Radde 1899; Zaitzev 1912; Paramonov 1926a, 1926b, 1927a, 1927b; Stackelberg 1926, 1960, 1968; Zimina 1960, 1976; Skufjin 1967, 1976; Stackelberg and Richter 1968; Tóth and Günther 1992; Barkalov 1993; Kustov 2006, among others). More recently, Hauser (1998) presented new records for Azerbaijan with the description of two new species. Regarding Georgian syrphid fauna, Levitin (1962) and Tóth (1986) were the only authors who explicitly stated that their studies were entirely conducted in Georgia, and Gudjabidze (2002) is the only work known to the authors with a clear focus to document the syrphid fauna of Georgia. In addition, there are two general bibliographic references for the Palaearctic with notes on the Caucasus Region. The first is Peck (1988), who in her catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera barely mentioned Georgia explicitly, but used very often the term Transcaucasia (TC). Since then, no other work treated the entire Palaearctic syrphid fauna. The second reference is Speight (2018a), who focused on European species of hover flies. Speight (2018a) is a compilation of published works with some personal comments, but includes the distribution of the species with mentions to the Caucasus Region.

Since 2012, the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK) has coordinated and led the project German Barcode of Life (GBOL; https://www.bolgermany.de/), an initiative to create a DNA barcode library (Hebert et al. 2003a, 2003b) of the German animals, plants and fungi (Geiger et al. 2016). In 2017, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) granted a proposal to set up a Georgian-German Biodiversity Center (GGBC) as a multinational approach to explore the biodiversity of the Caucasus area (grant number 01DK17048; project’s website: https://ggbc.eu/). The experience of GBOL and its infrastructure is supposed to serve as a model for the development of a comparable structure in Georgia, together with other knowledge transfer and exchange of students and researchers between the ISU (Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia) and the ZFMK (Thormann et al. 2019). A continuation of the GGBC is currently planned as a Georgian-Armenian-German initiative, the Caucasus Barcode of Life Platform (CaBOL) (see Thormann et al. 2019 for more details). In the present work, we report the results of a collection expedition between June and July of 2018, as part of the collaboration effort between the ISU and the ZFMK. Within the GGBC framework, we here provide the first DNA barcodes for the syrphid fauna of Georgia, a stepping-stone for ongoing (GGBC) and planned (CaBOL) projects.

Materials and methods

Literature records

Authors used Peck (1988) as the primary source. In this publication, we registered all the species listed in the Transcaucasia (TC), i.e., south of the main ridge of the Caucasus, including Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Unless the country was explicitly indicated, we have listed to occur in Georgia all the TC species from Peck’s (1988) catalogue, and added a note when the species was explicitly listed from Georgia. Based on that keystone publication, we critically reviewed published literature up to date in order to find Georgian records. We assumed that Peck (1988) summarized other important works on the syrphid fauna of the Caucasus such as Stackelberg and Richter (1968) or Levitin (1962), who provided the first Syrphidae records from the Borjomi area, in Lesser Caucasus. Nevertheless, we also studied Levitin (1962) and Stackelberg and Richter (1968) in case some more precise locality details were mentioned in the original works.

In addition, we consulted the Georgian Biodiversity Database (http://biodiversity-georgia.net/index.php), which is a digital compilation of field observations and a summary of the work by Gudjabidze (2002), and two more general publications that somehow were updates of Peck (1988): Barkalov and Mutin (2018) and Speight (2018a). From Speight (2018a), we incorporated species listed from Georgia or the Caucasus; while from Barkalov and Mutin (2018), we included all the species listed as Transcaucasia (TC), although no Georgian records were explicitly given. If a species was listed as TC but no Georgian record was explicitly given, we indicate our records as the first ones for Georgia. Other more specific articles devoted to single taxa were all checked for Georgian records.

We did not study type material for species with uncertain taxonomic status. A revision of the taxonomic status of such species is beyond the scope of the present work. When appropriate, we have indicated such uncertainty under the species remarks. In the same line, we did not study the material reported from Georgia or Transcaucasia from other authors or published works. Nevertheless, we have indicated some remarks about the identification of previous published material.

For the current distribution of the listed species we used Speight (2018a) as the most up-to-date reference, although other published works were consulted for specific taxa in order to obtain a more accurate distribution. We used three different categories in the current distribution with comments: 1) realms such as Palaearctic when the species has a very broad distribution; 2) regions such as Europe or Transcaucasia; and 3) countries, like Georgia, when the species is only known from those countries. For a more detailed geographic distribution, we refer to Speight (2018a).

We need to point out that Gudjabidze (2002) has several systematic and nomenclatural errors. For the sake of traceability, we indicated such nomenclatural errors in the text with a [sic] (sic erat scriptum = thus was it written, intentionally so written).

New records

Field expedition took place between 15 June and 27 July 2018. Several Georgian provinces were visited (see Table 1) and all the specimens were collected using a hand-net except where indicated. Specimens collected by Sander Bot are deposited in the Sander Bot’s Personal Collection (SBPC; Haren, the Netherlands); specimens collected by André Reimann and Björn Rulik are deposited in the Senckenberg Museum für Tierkunde (MTD; Dresden, Germany) and in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK; Bonn, Germany); and specimens collected by Birthe Thormann, Jana Thormann, Benedikt Wipfler, David Tarkhnishvili, Jonas Astrin, Hans-Joachim Krammer, Marianne Espeland and Ximo Mengual are deposited in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK; Bonn, Germany). The flower flies of three malaise trap samples taken between 29 June and 14 July 2018 in the Kintrishi region as part of the GGBC project (Thormann et al. 2019) were sorted and studied by André Reimann and are also included in the present work. These specimens are deposited in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK; Bonn, Germany) and some duplicates are deposited in the Senckenberg Museum für Tierkunde (MTD; Dresden, Germany). In addition, material collected in Georgia by Jens-Hermann Stuke in 2001 and deposited at the ZFMK was studied by the first author and included as well.

A list of all the sampling localities with detailed information is given in Table 1 and illustrated in Fig. 1. Geographical coordinates were taken in the field and later corrected using Google Earth ®. SimpleMappr (Shorthouse 2010) was used to create Fig. 1. For the new records, the locality number is given following Table 1 and we indicate the number of specimens and sex and the unique identifier or number at the end. Specimens with unique identifiers starting with ZFMK-DIP or ZFMK-TIS are deposited in the ZFMK collections and are unique for each specimen, while identifiers starting with MTD denote single specimens or lots (group of specimens from the same collecting event) and are deposited in the MTD collections.

Specimens marked with an asterisk (*) are field observations only, so these fly/flies have not been collected. No additional photographic material exists for these field observations.

Table 1.

Sampling localities in Georgia from the 2018 field work.

Locality number Locality Coordinates Altitude [m]
L1 Imereti Region, near Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, Likani 41°49.912'N, 43°20.725'E 850
L2 Imereti Region, Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, Route 6 41°49.462'N, 43°18.01'E 1330
L3 Imereti Region, Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, crossing Route 6 and 1 41°49.87'N, 43°16.12'E 1780
L4 Imereti Region, Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, near Mt. Lomismta 41°52.002'N, 43°15.034'E 2000
L5 Imereti Region, Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, Route 9 41°51.955'N, 43°13.265'E 1900
L6 Imereti Region, Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, near Megruki river 41°50.76'N, 43°08.7'E 1800
L7 Imereti Region, Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, Amarati tourist shelter 41°48.623'N, 43°07.127'E 2050
L8 Imereti Region, Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park, Route 3 41°46.628'N, 43°08.642'E 1720
L9 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, along Enguri Reservoir 42°50.046'N, 42°01.343'E 600
L10 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, slopes northeast of Mestia 43°05.04'N, 42°45.52'E 1800
L11 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, Ushguli 42°55.022'N, 43°01.065'E 2100
L12 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, between Ushguli and Shkhara glacier 42°57.034'N, 43°04.492'E 2275
L13 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, Shkhara glacier 42°57.84'N, 43°05.605'E 2500
L14 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, north of Ushguli 42°56.88'N, 43°01.26'E 2800
L15 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, north of Ushguli 42°57.78'N, 42°59.4'E 2300
L16 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, south of Ushguli 42°54.724'N, 42°56.29'E 2430
L17 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, top of ridge, south of Ushguli 42°53.287'N, 42°58.736'E 2828
L18 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, slopes south of Ushguli 42°53.82'N, 43°00.48'E 2630
L19 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, along road north of Tsana 42°54.439'N, 43°08.52'E 1900
L20 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, east of Zeskho 42°53.291'N, 43°13.978'E 1900
L21 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, where Zeskho and Tskhenistskali rivers meet 42°49.273'N, 43°09.638'E 1400
L22 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, just east of Lentekhi 42°47.218'N, 42°44.545'E 800
L23 Tbilisi, Tbilisi city, National Botanical Garden 41°41.04'N, 44°48.18'E 500
L24 Adjara Region, Mtirala National Park, Chesnut trail 41°40.725'N, 41°51.878'E 290
L25 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve 41°44.069'N, 41°59.332'E 460
L26 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve 41°44.282'N, 42°00.455'E 595
L27 Guria Region, north from Atsana, along the road 42°03.355'N, 42°03.563'E 275
L28 Guria Region, road to Barkhmaro, creek 41°51.655'N, 42°21.431'E 1935
L29 Guria Region, Barkhmaro, forest 41°51.46'N, 42°19.442'E 2050
L30 Guria Region, road to Barkhmaro, meadow 41°53.179'N, 42°21.685'E 1645
L31 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve, Khino 41°44.069'N, 41°59.498'E 980
L32 Samtskhe-Javakheti, road from Sakire to Tsikhisjvari 41°43.957'N, 43°18.49'E 1600
L33 Samtskhe-Javakheti, road from Sakire to Tsikhisjvari 41°43.82'N, 43°20.087'E 1910
L34 Samtskhe-Javakheti, road from Sakire to Tsikhisjvari 41°43.625'N, 43°22.637'E 2185
L35 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Tsana 42°53.332'N, 43°08.58'E 1760–1775
L36 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, road to Tsana 42°52.436'N, 43°09'E 1600
L37 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Lentekhi towards antennae, meadow 42°46.646'N, 42°45.011'E 1370–1405
L38 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, near Lentekhi, antennae, meadow 42°46.468'N, 42°45.814'E 1710
L39 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Lentekhi 42°47.42'N, 42°43.556'E 760
L40 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve, Didvake, forest 41°44.779'N, 42°01.001'E 1102
L41 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve 41°44.095'N, 41°58.262'E 445
L42 Adjara Region, Mtirala National Park, Mount Mtirala 41°39.484'N, 41°47.9'E 1320
L43 Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Tskhmori, Chalistskali waterfall 42°31.875'N, 43°28.255'E 1225
L44 Imereti Region, NE of Tkibuli, Nakerala Pass 42°22.622'N, 43°02.209'E 1236
L45 Samtskhe-Javakheti, Akhaltsikhe, 3 km NE of Tsinubani 41°43.51'N, 43°09.81'E 904
L46 Samtskhe-Javakheti, Borjomi, mountain lake and surroundings, 9.5 km SSW of Borjomi 41°45.42'N, 43°20.71'E 1770
L47 Samtskhe-Javakheti, Borjomi, river valley 7 km SSW Chitakhevi 41°45.53'N, 43°12.59'E 910
L48 Samtskhe-Javakheti, Borjomi, river valley 8 km SW Borjomi 41°47.45'N, 43°18.22'E 840
L49 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Dusheti, river valley 18 km SSE Kobi 42°24.94'N, 44°35.95'E 1245
L50 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Dusheti, river valley 30 km SSE Kobi 42°18.13'N, 44°41.41'E 995
L51 Samtskhe-Javakheti, river valley 5 km SW Borjomi 41°48.61'N, 43°20.12'E 840
L52 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Stepantsminda, shallow moor at highway 42°30.59'N, 44°27.65'E 2372
L53 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Stepantsminda, river valley SW Stepantsminda 42°37.61'N, 44°36.38'E 1772
L54 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Stepantsminda, glacial river 6 km west of Stepantsminda 42°39.61'N, 44°33.39'E 2800–3035
L55 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Stepantsminda, gravel surface 3 km SSE of Kobi 42°31.21'N, 44°30.92'E 2885
L56 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Stepantsminda, highway near Kumlistsikh 42°26.82'N, 44°29.18'E 1835
L57 Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Stepantsminda, slopes west of Stepantsminda 42°39.55'N, 44°38.20'E 2500
L58 Adjara Region, Khelvachauri, hill 2 km E of Gonio 41°32.66'N, 41°34.91'E 420
L59 Adjara Region, Khelvachauri, river delta 7 km SSW of Batumi 41°35.23'N, 41°36.28'E 7
L60 Adjara Region, Khelvachauri, river delta 8 km SW of Batumi 41°35.66'N, 41°34.37'E 2
L61 Tbilisi, Tbilisi city, park near TV tower 41°41.62'N, 44°47.20'E 715
L62 Tbilisi, Tbilisi city, Turtle Lake 41°42.11'N, 44°45.31'E 692
L63 Kakheti, Sagarejo, 28 km ENE Tbilisi, near Ujarma 41°48'N, 45°09'E 890
L64 Kakheti, Sagarejo, 30 km ENE Tbilisi, near Paldo 41°49.79'N, 45°08.44'E 845
L65 Kakheti, Sagarejo, 32 km ENE Tbilisi, near Iori Reservoir 41°50.73'N, 45°08.20'E 862
L66 Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, shore 8 km SSW of Poti 42°04.29'N, 41°42.85'E 0
L67 Guria, wetland 4 km W Ghrmaghele (E of Grigoleti) 42°02.40'N, 41°45.02'E 0
L68 Imereti Region, Zestaponi, river valley 12 km NW Zestaponi 42°11.77'N, 42°53.04'E 137
L69 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve, road side between Didvake and Khino 41°44.734'N, 42°0.844'E41°43.039'N, 42°02.749'E 790 – 1100
L70 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve, Krummholtz forest, Malaise trap 13 41°45.31'N, 42°06.75'E 2268
L71 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve, above the waterfall, Malaise trap 6 41°44.6'N, 42°05.045'E 1235
L72 Adjara Region, Kintrishi Nature Reserve, woods at Khino monastry, Malaise trap 8 41°44.267'N, 41°58.715'E 403

Adult identification

General works with identification keys were used for generic level, i.e., Thompson and Rotheray (1998), Van Veen (2010), Speight (2018b). More specific works were used to species identifications, for instance Speight and Sarthou (2017) for several genera, Barkalov (1993) for Cheilosia Meigen, 1822; Stuke and Nielsen (2002) and Barkalov and Nielsen (2007) for Platycheirus Le Peletier and Audinet-Serville, 1828; Doczkal (2002) for Leucozona Schiner, 1860; Van Steenis and Lucas (2011) for Pipizella Rondani, 1856; Vujić et al. (2013) for Pipiza Fallén, 1810; Van Steenis et al. (2016) for Ceriana Rafinesque, 1815; Hayat and Claußen (1997) and Sorokina (2009) for Paragus Latreille, 1804; Lyneborg and Barkemeyer (2005) for Syritta Le Peletier and Audinet-Serville, 1828; Violovitsh (1974), Vujić et al. (2017) and Kazerani et al. (2017) for Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803; Reemer et al. (2005) for Myolepta Newman, 1838; Stackelberg (1958) and Van Steenis (2000) for Spilomyia Meigen, 1803; Krivosheina (2002, 2004, 2005) for Temnostoma Le Peletier and Audinet-Serville, 1828; and Hippa (1968) for Xylota Meigen, 1822.

The subgenus for each species, when this applies, has been indicated with the exception of the genus Eristalinus, as current subdivision of this genus based on morphological characteristics of the eyes in males (Thompson and Rotheray 1998) is not supported by molecular analyses (Pérez-Bañón et al. 2003b; Sonet et al. 2019).

For the author of the names published in Meigen (1822), the original work by Meigen was used. For the new species published in Meigen (1822), authorship was given to Hoffmannsegg when the abbreviation Hgg. appeared after the name; Megerle when abbreviation Meg. appeared after the name; Wiedemann when abbreviation Wied. appeared after the name; and to Meigen when no abbreviation was written after the name of the new species.

Molecular methods

DNA barcodes (Hebert et al. 2003a, 2003b) were generated by following the standard protocols of the GBOL (German Barcode of Life) project (Geiger et al. 2016; http://www.bolgermany.de). Total genomic DNA was isolated from one or two legs using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit and the BioSprint96 magnetic bead extractor by Qiagen (Hilden, Germany). Remnants of specimens were preserved and labelled as DNA voucher specimens for the purpose of morphological studies and deposited at the ZFMK. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene was carried out in total reaction mixes of 20 μl, including 2 μl of undiluted DNA template, 0.8 μl of each primer (10 pmol/μl), and standard amounts of the reagents provided with the 'Multiplex PCR' kit from Qiagen (Hilden, Germany). LCO1490-JJ [5'-CHACWAAYCATAAAGATATYGG-3'] and HCO2198-JJ [5'-AWACTTCVGGRTGVCC AAARAATCA-3'] (Astrin and Stüben 2008) were used as standard primers.

Thermal cycling was performed on Applied Biosystems 2720 Thermal Cyclers (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA), using a PCR program with two cycle sets, as a combination of a 'touchdown' and a 'step-up' routine as follows: hot start Taq activation: 15 min at 95 °C ; first cycle set (15 repeats): 35 s denaturation at 94°C, 90 s annealing at 55°C (−1°C per cycle) and 90 s extension at 72°C; second cycle set (25 repeats): 35 s denaturation at 94°C, 90 s annealing at 40°C, and 90 s extension at 72°C; final elongation 10 min at 72 °C. Unpurified PCR products were subsequently sent for bidirectional Sanger sequencing to BGI (Hong Kong, China). The sequences were edited for base-calling errors and assembled using Geneious R7 (version 7.1.3, Biomatters Ltd.) and all new sequences were submitted to GenBank (see accession numbers under each species).

We compared the newly obtained DNA barcodes from Georgian specimens with COI sequences present in GenBank (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) and in BOLD systems (http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php). We provided the Barcode Index Number (BIN) (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2013) for the sequenced taxa and for their nearest neighbour in BOLD systems when they had a BIN.

Results

A total of 2,312 specimens were studied. We reported 357 different species belonging to 78 genera, with 40 species recorded from Georgia for the first time. Moreover, we were able to sequence DNA barcodes for 238 specimens (GenBank accession numbers for each species are provided under the section Genetics) representing 74 species from this country (see Suppl. material 1: Figure S1). The species are listed in alphabetic order.

Checklist of Syrphidae of Georgia

Anasimyia contracta Torp & Claußen, 1980

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L63, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058254.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Anasimyia lineata (Fabricius, 1787)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Helophilus lineatus (Fallén, 1787) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L46, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058023.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Anasimyia lunulata (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Northern and Central Europe, British Isles, and European parts of Russia.

Anasimyia transfuga (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Northern and Central Europe, Balkan Peninsula and eastwards to European Russia, and as far as central Siberia.

Baccha elongata (Fabricius, 1775)

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Baccha elongata (Fabricius, 1775) and as Baccha obscuripennis Meigen, 1822; Peck (1988); Peck (1988) as B. obscuripennis; Gudjabidze (2002) as Baccha elongate (Fallen, 1817) [sic]; Gudjabidze (2002) as B. obscuripennis; Seropian (2013a) as field observation.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054019 = ZFMK-TIS-8000955, ZFMK-DIP-00054020 = ZFMK-TIS-8000964; • 1♀; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053673 = ZFMK-TIS-8005557; • 1♂; L26, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual; ZFMK-DIP-00053672 = ZFMK-TIS-8005549.

Genetics. We sequenced three specimens (MN621895, MN621896, MN621897), which have identical COI barcode sequences, and represent the first barcodes of this species from Georgia. The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:ABA3006. The average distance within this BIN is 0.19% (p-dist) and the maximum distance is 1.99% (p-dist). The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is the Nearctic species Baccha cognata Loew, 1863 (BOLD:AAG4682).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. In recent literature (Speight 2018a) Baccha obscuripennis Meigen, 1822 is considered a junior synonym of Baccha elongata. We follow this synonym here.

Brachyopa bicolor (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Brachyopa insensilis Collin, 1939

Reference. Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic.

Brachyopa pilosa Collin, 1939

Reference. Peck (1988).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; 1♂; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Northern and Central Europe, and European parts of Russia.

Brachypalpoides lentus (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Zelima lenta Mg.; Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Xylota lenta Linnaeus, 1758 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Asia Minor.

Brachypalpus (Brachypalpus) chrysites Egger, 1859

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Mutin and Ichige (2018) from West Transcaucasia.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Mountainous parts of central Europe and Pyrenees, Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, and European parts of Russia.

Brachypalpus (Brachypalpus) nigrifacies Stackelberg, 1965

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Brachypalpus nigrifacies Stackelberg, 1958 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Mutin and Ichige (2018).

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Caliprobola aurea (Sack, 1910)

Reference. Peck (1988) listed only from Azerbaijan; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. South of the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia and Azerbaijan.

Caliprobola speciosa (Rossi, 1790)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Calliprobola specioza Rossi [sic]; Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; *1; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Callicera aenea (Fabricius, 1777)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Speight (2018a) affirmed that the range of this species needs a reassessment because it can be confused with Callicera aurata (Rossi, 1790).

Callicera aurata (Rossi, 1790)

Reference. Barkalov and Mutin (2018) as C. aurata; Barkalov and Mutin (2018) as Callicera zhelochovtsevi Zimina, 1982; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic, including Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Speight (1991) synonymised C. zhelochovtsevi under C. aurata based on the study of specimens determined by Zimina. Distribution requires reassessment due to the confusion with C. aenea (Speight 2018a).

Callicera rohdendorfi Zimina, 1982

Reference. Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Crimea and Georgia.

Remarks. The taxonomic status of C. rohdendorfi is unclear. Speight (1991) suggested that this species is the same species as Callicera macquarti Rondani, 1844, but he did not see any material identified as C. rohdendorfi. Without further evidence, we keep it as a valid species.

Ceriana conopsoides (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Cerioides conopoides L. [sic]; Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Ceriana caucasica (Paramonov, 1925) [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L64, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058047.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Van Steenis et al. (2016) synonymised Ceriana caucasica (Paramonov, 1927) (Paramonov 1927a) under C. conopsoides.

Chalcosyrphus (Xylotina) nemorum (Fabricius, 1805)

Reference. Peck (1988).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053787 = ZFMK-TIS-8005576, ZFMK-DIP-00053789; • 2♂ 2♀; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054079, ZFMK-DIP-00054080 = ZFMK-TIS-8000966, ZFMK-DIP-00053791, ZFMK-DIP-00053792; • 2♂; L26, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053788 = ZFMK-TIS-8005568, ZFMK-DIP-00053790; • 1♂; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4523; • 2♂ 3♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002740, ZFMK-TIS-8002741, ZFMK-TIS-8002742, ZFMK-TIS-8002743, ZFMK-DIP-00061261]; • 1♂; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4564; 2♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4593; • 1♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002772.

Genetics. We obtained seven COI barcodes for this species (MN621898, MN621899, MN621900, MN621901, MN621902, MN621903, MN621904), all with identical COI sequence (0% p-dist). The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:AAG6762, with an average distance of 0.26% and a maximum distance of 2.41%. The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is the Nearctic species Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) anomalus (Shannon, 1925) (BOLD:AAQ2056).

Distribution. Holarctic.

Chalcosyrphus (Xylotodes) eunotus (Loew, 1873)

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it from Armenia; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Chalcosyrphus (Xylotodes) piger (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Xylota pigra Fabricius, 1777 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) pannonicus (Oldenberg, 1916)

Reference. Peck (1988).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002758.

Genetics. We sequenced one specimen of this taxon (MN621905). BOLD has no data for C. pannonicus, so this sequence is the first one to be registered in BOLD. The closest taxon in BOLD systems is the Nearctic species Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) anthreas (Walker, 1849), BOLD:AAY8777.

Distribution. Poland, Carpathian Mountains, Balkan Peninsula, Greece, and Transcaucasia.

Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) rufipes (Loew, 1873)

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) valgus (Gmelin, 1790)

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Xylotomima femoralis (Linnaeus, 1758); Peck (1988) as Chalcosyrphus (Xylotomima) femoratus (Linnaeus, 1758); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Thompson et al. (1982) explained that the concept of Loew (1854) for “femorata Linnaeus” is a junior synonym of Musca valga Gmelin, 1790.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) abagoensis Skufjin, 1979

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Described from Krasnodar region and reported from this area by Barkalov (1993) and Barkalov and Mutin (2018). Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) aerea Dufour, 1848

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia zetterstedti Becker, 1894; Gudjabidze (2002) as C. zetterstendti Becker, 1921 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. Claußen and Thompson (1996) synonymised C. zetterstedti under C. aerea.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) albipila Meigen, 1838

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia albipina Meigen, 1822 [sic].

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) albitarsis (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L1, 15 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 3♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L19, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Remarks. Geographic distribution needs reassessment as old species records need reconfirmation after Doczkal (2000a).

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) bergenstammi Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) bracusi Vujić & Claußen, 1994

Nem records. GEORGIA • 2♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg; • 2♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Southern and Central Europe, and Balkan Peninsula.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) brunnipennis Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia sareptana Becker, 1894.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. Vujić (1996) synonymised C. sareptana under C. brunnipennis.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) canicularis (Panzer, 1801)

Reference. Radde (1899); Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia canicularis Panzer, 1798 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 2♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053871; • 1♂; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053872; • 1♀; L31, 21 Jul 2018, J. Astrin leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8000118; • 2♂ 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053873 = ZFMK-TIS-8005511, ZFMK-DIP-00053976 = ZFMK-TIS-8003440, ZFMK-DIP-00053897; • 1♂; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053874; • 1♂; L33, 23 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054023 = ZFMK-TIS-8000982; • 1♂; L34, 23 Jul 2018, J. and B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8004303; • 10♂ 3♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053875, ZFMK-DIP-00053876, ZFMK-DIP-00053877, ZFMK-DIP-00053878, ZFMK-DIP-00053879, ZFMK-DIP-00053880, ZFMK-DIP-00053881, ZFMK-DIP-00053882, ZFMK-DIP-00053883, ZFMK-DIP-00053975 = ZFMK-TIS-8003452, ZFMK-DIP-00053898, ZFMK-DIP-00053901, ZFMK-DIP-00053906; • 4♂ 3♀; L36, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053884, ZFMK-DIP-00053886, ZFMK-DIP-00053887, ZFMK-DIP-00053893, ZFMK-DIP-00053899, ZFMK-DIP-00053900 = ZFMK-TIS-8005518, ZFMK-DIP-00053905; • 1♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8004124; • 8♂ 2 ♀;L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053885, ZFMK-DIP-00053888, ZFMK-DIP-00053889, ZFMK-DIP-00053890, ZFMK-DIP-00053891, ZFMK-DIP-00053892, ZFMK-DIP-00053896, ZFMK-DIP-00053977 = ZFMK-TIS-8003421, ZFMK-DIP-00053903, ZFMK-DIP-00053904; • 2♂ 1♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053894, ZFMK-DIP-00053895, ZFMK-DIP-00053902; • 2♂; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4506, ZFMK-TIS-8002665; • 1♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002757.

Genetics. The GenBank accession numbers for the seven sequenced specimens are MN621906, MN621907, MN621908, MN621909, MN621910, MN621911, MN621912. Our newly obtained DNA barcodes were virtually identical (0–0.1% p-dist). The BIN for this taxon is BOLD:ACI2500. Identification via DNA barcodes is not straightforward as C. canicularis and its nearest neighbour in BOLD systems, Cheilosia himantopa (Panzer, 1798), differ only 1.28% p-dist.

Distribution. Central Europe and Turkey.

Remarks. Geographic distribution needs reassessment after Stuke and Claußen (2000) reinstated C. himantopa (Panzer, 1798), a closely similar species of C. canicularis.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) chloris (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic, into Siberia.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) flavipes (Panzer, 1798)

Reference. Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic, into Siberia.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) fraterna (Meigen, 1830)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic, into Siberia.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) gigantea (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia gigantean Zetterstendt, 1843 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.;• 2♂; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic, except Mediterranean Basin.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) grossa (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia grossa Meigen, 1822 [sic].

Distribution. Palaearctic and Uttah Pradesh in northern India.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) impressa Loew, 1840

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia impressa Loew, 1848 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 2♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 4♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058257, ZFMK-DIP-00058258; • 1♀; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4530.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) lasiopa Kowarz, 1855

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Cheilosia honesta Rondani, 1868.

Distribution. Europe, Caucasus, and European parts of Russia.

Remarks. Peck (1988) listed Cheilosia (Cheilosia) lasiopa Kowarz, 1855 as junior synonym of C. honesta. Later, Claußen and Thompson (1996) considered C. honesta Rondani as junior synonym of Cheilosia (Cheilosia) barbata Loew, 1857 and the taxon known as C. honesta from other authors as synonym of Cheilosia (Cheilosia) lasiopa Kowarz, 1855. Speight (2018a) mentioned that Cheilosia (Cheilosia) lasiopa Kowarz, 1855 appears as Cheilosia honesta in recent literature. Thus, it seems reasonable that the taxon identified by Tóth (1986) as Cheilosia honesta was, indeed, C. lasiopa.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) latifrons (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia intonsa Loew, 1857.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Speight and Lucas (1992) synonymised C. intonsa under C. latifrons.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) lenis Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia omissa Becker, 1894.

New records. GEORGIA • 6♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 3♀; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 3♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 1♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Europe and European parts of Russia.

Remarks. Claußen and Speight (2007) synonymised C. omissa under C. lenis.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) melanopa (Zetterstedt, 1843)

New records. GEORGIA • 5♂; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 1♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 2♀; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L52, 30 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058102; • 1♀; L55, 31 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058103; • 1♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002723.

Genetics. We sequenced one specimen (MN621914) and the obtained sequence is very similar (98.87%) to the sequence of C. melanopa in GenBank (AY533360 from Yugoslavia; BIN = BOLD:AAW3655). BOLD has a second BIN for C. melanopa (BOLD:ACE3977 with specimens from Central and Northern Europe), which is very close to BOLD:AAW3655 (2.36% p-dist).

Distribution. Europe.

Remarks. Barkalov (1993) reported this species from Northern Caucasus and Armenia and mentioned that this taxon was polymorphic, with one morph having almost black legs and black pilosity on scutum and scutellum, and a second pale morph with legs partly yellow and mostly yellow pilosity on scutum and scutellum. We sequenced only a single specimen, but there are two BINs in BOLD systems with a relatively high uncorrected pairwise distance (2.36% p-dist; in the range of the p-distance among different species in other species pairs), which might represent these two morphs. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) melanura Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia melanura Becker, 1921 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Mountain ranges in Central Europe, Balkans, and Caucasus Mountains, east to the Baikal Region.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) mutabilis (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Radde (1899); Tóth (1986); Peck (1988) as C. mutabilis and as Cheilosia ruralis (Meigen, 1822); Gudjabidze (2002) as C. mutabilis and as C. ruralis; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 4♂ 13♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058118, ZFMK-DIP-00058119, ZFMK-DIP-00058120, ZFMK-DIP-00058104, ZFMK-DIP-00058105, ZFMK-DIP-00058106, ZFMK-DIP-00058107, ZFMK-DIP-00058108, ZFMK-DIP-00058109, ZFMK-DIP-00058110, ZFMK-DIP-00058111, ZFMK-DIP-00058112, ZFMK-DIP-00058113, ZFMK-DIP-00058114, ZFMK-DIP-00058115, ZFMK-DIP-00058116, ZFMK-DIP-00058117.

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic, into western Siberia.

Remarks. Claußen and Speight (1999) synonymised C. ruralis under C. mutabilis.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) pagana (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) paragigantea Barkalov, 1993

New records. GEORGIA • 2♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Barkalov (1993) described this species without indicating any type material, but mentioned that among the type material there were some specimens identified as C. gigantea by Stackelberg and Richter (1968). In his identification key, Barkalov (1993) stated that C. paragigantea is found in the Lesser Caucasus, but Barkalov and Mutin (2018) reported C. paragigantea only from Northern Caucausus. Thus, following Barkalov and Mutin (2018) as the most recent publication, we report this species for Georgia for the first time.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) proxima (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg; • 1♂; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) pseudogrossa Stackelberg, 1968

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia pseudogrossa Stackelberg, 1956 [sic].

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Stackelberg (1968) described the species from the Northern Caucasus (Teberda, Teberdinsky State Natural Biosphere Reserve), and Gudjabidze (2002) reported it from Tsebelda (Abkhazia region).

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) rhynchops Egger, 1860

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L18, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Europe and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Reported from the Northern Caucasus by Barkalov (1993), and subsequently by Barkalov and Mutin (2018). Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) schnabli Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia schnabli Becker, 1921 [sic]; Speight (2018a) listed it only from Dagestan in the Caucasus.

New records. GEORGIA • 4♂ 2♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂ 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053907 = ZFMK-TIS-8005512, ZFMK-DIP-00053909 = ZFMK-TIS-8005522; • 1♂; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053908 = ZFMK-TIS-8005519; • 1♀; L36, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054026 = ZFMK-TIS-8000996.

Genetics. The GenBank accession numbers for the three sequenced specimens are MN621915, MN621916, MN621917. The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:ADX7783 and our sequences are very similar (98.62%) with the single previous record of this species in GenBank (LT707517 from Russia).

Distribution. Balkan Peninsula, Transcaucasia, and Kazakhstan.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) teberdensis Barkalov, 1993

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Barkalov (1993) described this species from Northern Caucasus and, consequently, Barkalov and Mutin (2018) listed it. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) transcaucasica Stackelberg, 1960

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it only from Armenia and Azerbaijan; Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia transcaucasika Stackelberg, 1956 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 4♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 3♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058101.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) urbana (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Cheilosia praecox (Zetterstedt, 1843); Peck (1988) as Cheilosia praecox (Zetterstedt, 1843).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 3♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 5♂ 2♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L18, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 2♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂ 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. Speight et al. (1998) suggested C. praecox as a junior synonym of C. urbana, and Claußen and Speight (1999) synonymised C. ruralis under C. urbana.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) variabilis (Panzer, 1798)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L18, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic, into western Siberia.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) velutina Loew, 1840

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia velutina Loew, 1848 [sic].

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) vernalis (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L54, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058263, ZFMK-DIP-00058264; • 2♂ 2♀; L55, 31 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058259, ZFMK-DIP-00058260, ZFMK-DIP-00058261, ZFMK-DIP-00058262.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Cheilosia) vulpina (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Cheilosia conops Becker, 1894; Peck (1988) as Cheilosia conops.

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic, into western Siberia.

Remarks. Claußen and Speight (1988) synonymised C. conops under C. vulpina.

Cheilosia (Convocheila) cumanica Szilády, 1938

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia verae Stackelberg, 1968; Gudjabidze (2002) as C. verae Stackelberg, 1956 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018) as C. verae.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; • 1♂; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 2♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058068, ZFMK-DIP-00058067.

Distribution. Balkan Peninsula, Carpathians Mountains, Iran, and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Brădescu (1991) synonymised C. verae under C. cumanica.

Cheilosia (Convocheila) laticornis Rondani, 1857

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia latifacies Loew, 1857; Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia latifacies Loew, 1846 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Western and Central Europe, including Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Claußen and Thompson (1996) synonymised C. latifacies under C. laticornis.

Cheilosia (Eucartosyrphus) flavissima Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia pallipes Loew, 1863.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Peck (1988) listed C. flavissima as synonym of C. pallipes, most likely following Doesburg (1959), but Claußen and Ståhls (2007) separated both taxa and stated that C. pallipes applies to specimens from North America.

Cheilosia (Eucartosyrphus) ruffipes (Preyssler, 1793)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Cheilosia rufipes (Preyssler, 1793) [sic] [= Cheilosia ruffipes (Preyssler, 1793)]; Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia soror Zetterstendt, 1843 [sic].

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. In 1982, Eristalis soror Zetterstedt, 1843 (= Cheilosia soror) was synonymised with Syrphus ruffipes Preyssler, 1793 (= Cheilosia ruffipes) by Rozkošný et al. (1982). This synonymy was followed by subsequent authors, i.e., Peck (1988) listed C. soror as synonym of C. ruffipes (written as rufipes in Peck) and Vujić and Glumac (1994) listed C. soror as junior synonym of C. rufipes [sic] based on Peck (1988). More recently and without justification, Vujić (1996) accepted C. soror as a valid name, as explained in Vujić et al. (2002). In the more recent literature this taxon appears as Cheilosia soror (e.g., Van Veen 2010; Speight 2018a; Bot and Van der Meutter 2019), except in Barkalov and Mutin (2018) that is cited as Cheilosia rufipes. We keep the original spelling, Cheilosia ruffipes, as we think that the spelling by Peck (1988), Cheilosia rufipes, is either an error or an unjustified emendation of the name.

Cheilosia (Eucartosyrphus) scutellata (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L57, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058077; • 6♂ 2♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058069, ZFMK-DIP-00058070, ZFMK-DIP-00058072, ZFMK-DIP-00058073, ZFMK-DIP-00058074, ZFMK-DIP-00058075, ZFMK-DIP-00058071, ZFMK-DIP-00058076; • 2♀; L64, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058078, ZFMK-DIP-00058079.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Floccocheila) illustrata portschinskiana Stackelberg, 1960

Reference. Portschinsky (1877) as Cheilosia oestracea Linnaeus, 1761 [sic]; Radde (1899) as Cheilosia oestracea; Peck (1988) listed this subspecies only from Armenia, its type locality as defined by Stackelberg (1960); Gudjabidze (2002) as C. oestracae (Linnaeus, 1758) [sic], as C. portschinskiana Stackelberg, 1956 [sic], and as Eristalis oestraceus Linnaeus, 1758 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018) listed this subspecies only from Northern Caucasus.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *3; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *4♂; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♂ 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *4♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♀; L34, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053869 = ZFMK-TIS-8005510; • 3♀; L57, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058098, ZFMK-DIP-00058099, ZFMK-DIP-00058100; • 3♂ 12♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058083, ZFMK-DIP-00058088, ZFMK-DIP-00058097, ZFMK-DIP-00058084, ZFMK-DIP-00058085, ZFMK-DIP-00058086, ZFMK-DIP-00058087, ZFMK-DIP-00058089, ZFMK-DIP-00058090, ZFMK-DIP-00058091, ZFMK-DIP-00058092, ZFMK-DIP-00058093, ZFMK-DIP-00058094, ZFMK-DIP-00058095, ZFMK-DIP-00058096.

Genetics. We sequenced one specimen (MN621913) of C. illustrata portschinskiana from Georgia, and its COI sequence has high similarity (99.85%) with previously published sequences of C. illustrata illustrata (Harris, 1779) from other Palaearctic countries. The BIN for this species is BOLD:AAK1092.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Stackelberg (1960) stated that the taxon listed as Cheilosia oestracea (and its varieties b, c, d, e, and f) by Portschinsky (1877) was his new species Cheilosia portschinskiana. Our specimens fit the description of Cheilosia illustrata portschinskiana by Stackelberg (1960). According to Barkalov (1993), C. illustrata portschinskiana is the only subspecies of Cheilosia illustrata (Harris, 1779) occurring in the Caucasus.

The year of publication for Cheilosia illustrata was a convention. The original work by Harris (1776–1780) was published in five ‘decads’ or parts. Peck (1988) used the conventional date of 1780? with a question mark for decads 3, 4, and 5 based on Lisney (1960). Evenhuis (1997: page 343) established that the decad 4, where Musca illustratus is described on page 104, was dated as 1779 based on the latest date of the plates. Thus, the year of publication should be 1779, i.e., Cheilosia illustrata (Harris, 1779).

Cheilosia (Montanocheila) alpina (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia alpine Zetterstendt, 1846 [sic].

Distribution. Germany, Northern Europe, Siberia, Mongolia to the Pacific.

Remarks. Gudjabidze (2002) reported this species from Lagodekhi, Batsara canyon (Georgia), but this material was not available to our study. We think it would be necessary to compare the material from Gudjabidze (2002) with specimens from northern latitudes to confirm the presence of this taxon in Georgia.

Cheilosia (Montanocheila) caucasogenita Kuznetzov, 1997

Reference. Kuznetzov (1997); Barkalov and Mutin (2018) listed it from Northern Caucasus and Armenia.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Kuznetzov (1997) described this species based on specimens from Armenia, North Ossetia-Alania (Northern Caucasus, Russia) and Georgia.

Cheilosia (Montanocheila) chrysocoma (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Siberia.

Cheilosia (Montanocheila) pictipennis Egger, 1860

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Siberia.

Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia) armeniaca Stackelberg, 1960

Reference. Stackelberg (1960) described it from Armenia; Peck (1988) listed it only from Armenia; Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia armeniaca Stackelberg, 1956 [sic]; Ståhls and Barkalov (2017).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L13, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Cheilosia (Taeniocheilosia) bakurianiensis Kuznetzov, 1987

Reference. Kuznetzov (1987); Barkalov (1993) listed from Lesser Caucaus; Barkalov and Ståhls (1997).

Distribution. Only known from Georgia.

Cheilosia (Taeniochilosia) grisella Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Central Europe, Carpathians Mountains, Balkan Peninsula, and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Barkalov (1993) stated that C. grisella does not occur in the Caucasus, and previous records of this taxon belong to Cheilosia aenigmatosa Barkalov, 1993. Ståhls and Barkalov (1997) listed C. aenigmatosa as a junior synonym of C. pollinifacies Stackelberg, 1968 and considered C. grisella as a valid species.

Cheilosia (Taeniochilosia) impudens Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe and Transcaucasia.

Cheilosia (Taeniochilosia) nigripes (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Cheilosia (Taeniochilosia) pollinifacies Stackelberg, 1968

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it from Northern Caucasus and Azerbaijan; Gudjabidze (2002) as Cheilosia pollinifacies Stackelberg 1956 [sic]; Ståhls and Barkalov (1997) listed it from Transcaucasia.

New records. GEORGIA • 2♀; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂ 4♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 6♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L18, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂ 8♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L55, 31 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058122, ZFMK-DIP-00058121, ZFMK-DIP-00058123.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Cheilosia (Taeniochilosia) sahlbergi Becker, 1894

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Cheilosia (Taeniochilosia) vicina (Zetterstedt, 1849)

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Cheilosia nasutula Becker 1894.

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Turkey, and Siberia.

Remarks. Lucas et al. (1995) synonymised C. nasutula under C. vicina.

Chrysogaster cemiteriorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Chrysogaster chalybeata Meigen, 1822; Gudjabidze (2002) as C. chalybeata.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Chrysogaster musatovi Stackelberg, 1952

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 4♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057932, ZFMK-DIP-00057933, ZFMK-DIP-00057934, ZFMK-DIP-00057935.

Distribution. Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan.

Remarks. The taxonomic status of C. musatovi is unclear. Maibach et al. (1994a) and Speight (2018a) suggested the possibility that C. musatovi and Chrysogaster basalis Loew, 1857 could be the same species, and Thompson (2019) listed C. musatovi as synonym of C. basalis. More taxonomic work and the study of the type material are needed to solve the taxonomic status of C. musatovi. The four females here reported key out to C. musatovi using the identification key by Stackleberg (1989).

Chrysogaster solstitialis (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L33, 23 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054186 = ZFMK-TIS-8000981.

Genetics. We obtained one DNA barcode for this taxon (MN621918). The BIN for this specimen is BOLD:AAJ4882. The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems (5.31% p-dist) is another BIN (BOLD:AAY8878) identified also as C. solstitialis with specimens from Morocco and Spain.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Chrysotoxum arcuatum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053998 = ZFMK-TIS-8003420; • 2♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058245, ZFMK-DIP-00058246.

Genetics. We sequenced one specimen (MN621919) and its COI barcode has 99.18% similarity with a private sequence identified as Chrysotoxum intermedium Meigen, 1822.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Chrysotoxum bicinctum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L18, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *10; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *20; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054015 = ZFMK-TIS-8000951; • 2♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053636 = ZFMK-TIS-8005536, ZFMK-DIP-00053637 = ZFMK-TIS-8005544; • 1♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054016; • 1♂; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057479; • 1♀; L50, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057480.

Genetics. Two specimens were sequenced (MN621920, MN621921) and their COI sequences showed an uncorrected pairwise distance of 0.152%, very similar to other published sequences of this species (> 99%). The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:AAJ0967.

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic into central Siberia.

Chrysotoxum caucasicum Sack, 1930

Reference. Becker (1921) as Chrysotoxum derivatum Becker, 1921; Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Chrysotoxum caucasicum Linnaeus, 1758 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Central Palaearctic, into Afghanistan.

Chrysotoxum cautum (Harris, 1778)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002767.

Genetics. One specimen was sequenced (MN621922; BIN = BOLD:AAJ0972), with identical COI sequence to specimens of other countries. The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is Chrysotoxum tuberculatum Shannon, 1926 (BOLD:ACH8118), a species known from the Far East Region and Sichuan province (China).

Distribution. Europe, Turkey, European parts of Russia, and into Altai Mountains.

Remarks. The year of publication for this species was a convention. Peck (1988) used the conventional dates based on Lisney (1960): 1776 for decad 1, 1776? for decad 2, and 1780? for decads 3, 4, and 5. Evenhuis (1997: page 342) found that the decad 2, where Musca cautus is described on page 60, was dated as 1778 in the “Discours préliminaires” to the Encyclopédie méthodique par ordre des matièresInsectes. Thus, the year of publication should be 1778.

Chrysotoxum cisalpinum Rondani, 1926.

Reference. Peck (1988); Sommaggio 2007.

Distribution. France, Mediterranean Basin, Balkan Peninsula, Transcaucasia, eastwards into Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

Chrysotoxum elegans Loew, 1841

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Chrysotoxum elegans Loew, 1848 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L55, 31 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057481.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic, including Transcaucasia and Turkey.

Chrysotoxum fasciolatum (De Geer, 1776)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Chrysotoxum fasciolatum De egger, 1776 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic, but not present in southern Europe.

Chrysotoxum festivum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L57, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057483, ZFMK-DIP-00057484; • 1♂ 4♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057487, ZFMK-DIP-00057482, ZFMK-DIP-00057485, ZFMK-DIP-00057488, ZFMK-DIP-00057489.

Distribution. Palaearctic and northern India.

Chrysotoxum intermedium Meigen, 1822

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Europe.

Remarks. The material from the Caucasus Region referred as C. intermedium needs re-examination to reassess its taxonomic identity as C. lessonae is reported here and the two species are very similar (see Speight 2018a).

Chrysotoxum lessonae Giglio-Tos, 1890

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053638 = ZFMK-TIS-8005537; • 2♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053639, ZFMK-DIP-00053640 = ZFMK-TIS-8005545; • 1♂; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002732.

Genetics. We sequenced three specimens (MN621923, MN621924, MN621925); all with identical COI barcode. This species is not present in BOLD and we are providing the first COI sequences. The obtained sequences have a high similarity with sequences of Chrysotoxum intermedium (99.33%; BOLD:AAE9233).

Distribution. Europe, Turkey and Iran (Kazerani et al. 2017; Vujić et al. 2017).

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Chrysotoxum octomaculatum Curtis, 1837

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Chrysotoxum octomacullatum Curtis [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic.

Chrysotoxum orthostylum Vujić in Nedeljković et al., 2015

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, and Kyrgyzstan.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Chrysotoxum parmense Rondani, 1845

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Mediterranean Basin, Iran, Transcaucasia, and Central Palaearctic.

Chrysotoxum parvulum Violovitsh, 1973

Reference. Violovitsh (1973); Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057510; • 2♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 6♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Transcaucasia.

Chrysotoxum robustum Portschinsky, 1887

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Transcaucasia and Iran.

Chrysotoxum vernale Loew, 1841

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 5♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057508, ZFMK-DIP-00057509.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Chrysotoxum verralli Collin, 1940

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Chrysotoxum verralli Collin, 1931 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Transcaucasia, and into Siberia.

Criorhina berberina (Fabricius, 1805)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Penthesilea berberina F.; Tóth (1986) as Brachymyia berberina (Fabricius, 1805); Peck (1988) as Brachymyia berberina; Gudjabidze (2002) as Criorrhina berberiana (Fallén, 1817) [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002769.

Genetics. We sequenced one specimen (MN621926), with BIN BOLD:AAZ5304 (BOLD:AAZ5304). The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is a specimen of Criorhina talyshensis (Stackelberg, 1960) from Azerbaijan (2.6% p-dist).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Criorhina floccosa (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Brachymyia floccosa (Meigen, 1822); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Criorhina portschinskyi (Stackelberg, 1955)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Criorrhina portshinski Stackelberg, 1956 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Transcaucasia and Northern Caucasus.

Criorhina ranunculi (Panzer, 1804)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Dasysyrphus albostriatus (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus albostriatus Mg. [sic]; Tóth (1986); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus albostriatus (Fallén, 1817); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053840 = ZFMK-TIS-8005584; • 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054056 = ZFMK-TIS-8000873; • 1♀; L36, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054055 = ZFMK-TIS-8000998.

Genetics. We successfully sequenced one specimen (MN621927), with BIN BOLD:AAL1242. This BIN has an average variation of 0.17% (p-distance) within the BIN (0.48% max) and 2.41% (p-distance) with the nearest neighbour in BOLD systems, Dasysyrphus eggeri (Schiner, 1861) (BOLD:AAO9822).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Dasysyrphus eggeri (Schiner, 1861)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus eggeri Schiner, 1860 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Dasysyrphus friuliensis (Van der Goot, 1960)

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Dasysyrphus pinastri (De Geer, 1776)

Reference. Barkalov and Mutin (2018) from Transcaucasia.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L18, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. The name pinastri De Geer, 1776 here is applied sensu Locke and Skevington (2013), and it might refer to Dasysyrphus lunulatus (Meigen, 1822) of recent European authors (Doczkal 1996a; Speight 2018a).

Dasysyrphus tricinctus (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus tricinctus (Fallén, 1817).

New records. GEORGIA • *1; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Dasysyrphus venustus (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Dasysyrphus lunulatus (Meigen, 1822) and D. venustus; Peck (1988) as D. lunulatus and as D. venustus; Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus lunutatus Meigen, 1822 [sic] and Syrphus venustus Meigen, 1822.

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂ 2♀; L16, 27 Jun 2019, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Remarks. Locke and Skevington (2013) explained that the name lunulatus Meigen, 1822 has been used for two different taxa: venustus Meigen (of authors nec. Meigen) and pinastri De Geer (auctt.; Vockeroth 1986). In their work, Locke and Skevington (2013) stated that Vockeroth (1969) used the name lunulatus as pinastri; however, its correct usage should be as a synonym of venustus (Vockeroth 1986). Thus, we follow Locke and Skevington (2013) and consider all the previous citations of Dasysyrphus lunulatus as synonyms of Dasysyrphus venustus.

Didea fasciata Macquart, 1834

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Didea fasciata Mg. [sic]; Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 3♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053736, ZFMK-DIP-00053737, ZFMK-DIP-00053739, ZFMK-DIP-00053740, ZFMK-DIP-00054163 = ZFMK-TIS-8000954; • 1♂; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053738 = ZFMK-TIS-8005586; • 1♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053741 = ZFMK-TIS-8005592; • 1♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054162.

Genetics. The two sequenced specimens (MN621928, MN621929) differ only 1.67% (p-dist). The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:AAI9912, with an average distance of 0.54% (p-distance) within BIN (2.6% max) and 5.3% (p-distance) with the nearest neighbour in BOLD systems, Didea intermedia Loew, 1846 (BOLD:ABW1162).

Distribution. Holarctic and Indomalayan Region (northern India and Taiwan).

Didea intermedia Loew, 1846

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002702.

Genetics. A single male specimen was sequenced (MN621930), BIN BOLD:ABW1162. This specimen differs 5.93–6.08% (uncorrected pair-wise distance) from the previous specimens of D. fasciata.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Stackelberg and Richter (1968) stated that Levitin (1962) recorded this species from Borjomi area. In the original publication, Levitin (1962) did not list this species.

Doros profuges (Harris, 1779)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Doros conopseus (Fabricius, 1775).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Thompson et al. (1982) explained the application of the name Doros profuges to this taxon.

The year of publication for this species was a convention. The original work by Harris (1776–1780) was published in five ‘decads’ or parts. Peck (1988) used the conventional date of 1780? with a question mark for decads 3, 4, and 5 based on Lisney (1960). Evenhuis (1997: page 343) established that the decad 3, where Musca profuges is described on page 81, was dated as 1779 based on the latest date of the plates. Thus, the year of publication should be 1779.

Epistrophe diaphana (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Epistrophe eligans (Harris, 1779)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus bifasciatus Fallén, 1817 [sic] (= Syrphus bifasciata Fabricius, 1794); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Transcaucasia, and Turkey.

Remarks. The year of publication for this species is a convention. The original work by Harris (1776–1780) was published in five ‘decads’ or parts. Peck (1988) used the conventional date of 1780? with a question mark for decads 3, 4, and 5 based on Lisney (1960). Evenhuis (1997: page 343) established that the decad 4, where Musca eligans is described on page 105, was dated as 1779 based on the latest date of the plates. Thus, the year of publication should be 1779.

Epistrophe flava Doczkal & Schmid, 1994

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057585; • 1♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057586.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Epistrophe grossulariae (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus grossulariae Mg.; Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus grossulariae .

New records. GEORGIA • 3♂ 1♀; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L36, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053854 = ZFMK-TIS-8005587, ZFMK-DIP-00053995 = ZFMK-TIS-8003453; • 4♂ 1♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057587, ZFMK-DIP-00057588, ZFMK-DIP-00057589, ZFMK-DIP-00057590, ZFMK-DIP-00057591.

Genetics. One specimen was sequenced (MN621931) with BIN BOLD:AAI5313. The obtained COI sequence is very similar (> 99.6%) to other published sequences of this species from Europe. The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems (1.76% p-dist) is another BIN of E. grossulariae with specimens only from Canada (BOLD:ABY7460).

Distribution. Holarctic.

Epistrophe leiophthalma (Schiner & Egger, 1853)

Reference. Violovitsh (1979) as Stackelbergina amicorum Violovitsh, 1979; Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe and Transcaucasia.

Epistrophe nitidicollis (Megerle in Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus nitidicollis Meigen, 1822 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L2, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. The geographic range of this species needs reassessment due to the confusion with related species Epistrophe melanostoma (Zetterstedt, 1943) and Epistrophe ochrostoma (Zetterstedt, 1849) until recently (Doczkal and Schmid 1994).

Epistrophe ochrostoma (Zetterstedt, 1849)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. The geographic range of this species needs reassessment due to the confusion with related species Epistrophe melanostoma (Zetterstedt, 1943) and Epistrophe nitidicollis until recently (Doczkal and Schmid 1994).

Epistrophella euchroma (Kowarz, 1885)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Epistrophe (Epistrophella) euchroma (Kowarz, 1885); Speight (2018a) as Meligramma euchroma (Kowarz, 1885).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Transcaucasia, and into Siberia.

Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus balteatus Deg.; Tóth (1986); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776); Barjadze and Gratiashvili (2010).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L1, 15 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *5; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♀; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *4; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *5; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *4; L21, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♀; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *1; L22, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 3♂ 2♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053641, ZFMK-DIP-00054081 = ZFMK-TIS-8000959, ZFMK-DIP-00054084 = ZFMK-TIS-8000967, ZFMK-DIP-00053642, ZFMK-DIP-00053643; • 3♀; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053644 = ZFMK-TIS-8005565, ZFMK-DIP-00053645, ZFMK-DIP-00053646; • 1♀; L28, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053647; • 1♀; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053648; • 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053649; • 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054083; • 1♀; L32, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053650; • 1♂; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053651; • 1♀; L36, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054082 = ZFMK-TIS-8000997; • 1♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053652; • 1♂; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053653 = ZFMK-TIS-8005573; • 1♀; L45, 25 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057473; • 1♀; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057475; • 1♂; L51, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057471; • 2♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057477, ZFMK-DIP-00057478; • 1♂; L58, 27 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057472, ZFMK-DIP-00057476; • 1♀; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4527; • 1♂ 5♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002703, ZFMK-TIS-8002704, ZFMK-TIS-8002705, ZFMK-DIP-00061260, ZFMK-DIP-00061262, ZFMK-DIP-00061263; • 5♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4579; • 2♂ 9♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002728, ZFMK-TIS-8002729, ZFMK-TIS-8002730, ZFMK-DIP-00061264, ZFMK-DIP-00061265, ZFMK-DIP-00061266, ZFMK-DIP-00061267, ZFMK-DIP-00061268, ZFMK-DIP-00061269, ZFMK-DIP-00061270, ZFMK-DIP-00061271; • 4♂ 3♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4554, ZFMK-TIS-8002764, ZFMK-TIS-8002765, ZFMK-DIP-00061272, ZFMK-DIP-00061273, ZFMK-DIP-00061274, ZFMK-DIP-00061275.

Genetics. Eight specimens were sequenced (MN621932, MN621933, MN621934, MN621935, MN621936, MN621937, MN621938, MN621939) and their COI barcodes showed little variation (0–0.27%). The BIN is BOLD:AAC6833, but this BIN has several species besides E. balteatus; in other words, the p-dist among different taxa is smaller than among specimens of E. balteatus.

Distribution. Palaearctic and Indomalayan Region. The records from the Indomalayan Region need confirmation due to the confusion with other morphologically similar Episyrphus species. Speight (2018a) lists this species from Australia, but Wright and Skevington (2013) do not report it in their revision of the Australian species of Episyrphus.

Eriozona syrphoides (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Eristalinus aeneus (Scopoli, 1763)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Lathyrophthalmus aenus (Scopoli, 1763).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L60, 26 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058022.

Distribution. Holarctic, Afrotropical region, Indomalayan Region, Hawaii, and Australasian Region.

Eristalinus megacephalus (Rossi, 1794)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Lathyrophthalmus quinquelineatus F.; Peck (1988) as Eristalinus quinquelineatus (Fabricius, 1781); Gudjabidze (2002) as Lathyrophthalmus quinqueliniatus Fabricius, 1805 [sic]; Khachidze (2013) as field observation. Dirickx (1998) pointed out that European records of E. quinquelineatus are erroneous and refer to E. megacephalus.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 4♂ 4♀; L59, 28 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058004, ZFMK-DIP-00058005, ZFMK-DIP-00058006, ZFMK-DIP-00058007, ZFMK-DIP-00058008, ZFMK-DIP-00058009, ZFMK-DIP-00058010, ZFMK-DIP-00058011; • 3♂ 5♀; L60, 26 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058017, ZFMK-DIP-00058018, ZFMK-DIP-00058019, ZFMK-DIP-00058012, ZFMK-DIP-00058013, ZFMK-DIP-00058014, ZFMK-DIP-00058015, ZFMK-DIP-00058016; • 2♂; L67, 29 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058020, ZFMK-DIP-00058021.

Distribution. Mediterranean Basin, Turkey, Transcaucasia, and the Afrotropical Region.

Eristalinus sepulchralis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Eristalis sepulchralis Linnaeus, 1758 [sic] and Eristalinus sepulclaris (Linnaeus, 1758) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058046; • 1♂ 4♀; L60, 26 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058044, ZFMK-DIP-00058039, ZFMK-DIP-00058040, ZFMK-DIP-00058041, ZFMK-DIP-00058042; • 1♂ 2♀; L67, 29 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058045, ZFMK-DIP-00058038, ZFMK-DIP-00058043.

Distribution. Palaearctic and India.

Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818)

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4537.

Distribution. Palaearctic, Indomalayan Region, Afrotropical Region, and South America (introduced).

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) alpina (Panzer, 1798)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Eristalis alpinus Pz.; Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Portschinsky (1892) described Eristalis alpinus var. caucasicus Portschinsky, 1892 from the valley of the river Akstafa (also known as Aghstev) in Armenia and Azerbaijan. The taxonomic status of caucasica needs re-examination.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Radde (1899); Levitin (1962); Tóth (1986) as Eoseristalis arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053712 = ZFMK-TIS-8005552, ZFMK-DIP-00053720; • 1♂; L26, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054178; • 3♂ 3♀; L28, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053713, ZFMK-DIP-00053714, ZFMK-DIP-00053715, ZFMK-DIP-00053721, ZFMK-DIP-00053722, ZFMK-DIP-00054180 = ZFMK-TIS-8000975; • 1♀; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053716; • 1♂ 6♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054183, ZFMK-DIP-00053718 = ZFMK-TIS-8005560, ZFMK-DIP-00053719, ZFMK-DIP-00054177, ZFMK-DIP-00054182, ZFMK-DIP-00054184, ZFMK-DIP-00054185; • 1♂; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4524; • 3♂ 1♀; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053709, ZFMK-DIP-00053710, ZFMK-DIP-00053711, ZFMK-DIP-00053723; • 1♀; L34, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053724; • 1♂ 1♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053707, ZFMK-DIP-00053717; • 2♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054179 = ZFMK-TIS-8004100, ZFMK-DIP-00054181 = ZFMK-TIS-8004106; • 2♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053708, ZFMK-DIP-00053706; • 1♀; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4542; • 1♂ 1♀; L46, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058037, ZFMK-DIP-00058027; • 1♂; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058035, ZFMK-DIP-00058036; • 3♂ 1♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058032, ZFMK-DIP-00058033, ZFMK-DIP-00058034, ZFMK-DIP-00058024; • 2♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058025, ZFMK-DIP-00058026; • 3♂ 1♀; L59, 28 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058029, ZFMK-DIP-00058030, ZFMK-DIP-00058031, ZFMK-DIP-00058028; • 2♂; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4498, ZFMK-TIS-8002662; • 1♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002683.

Genetics. We sequenced six specimens (MN621940, MN621941, MN621942, MN621943, MN621944, MN621945) with BIN BOLD:ADK2468. The uncorrected pairwise distance among them was very low (0–0.16%). This BIN also has some specimens of the Nearctic species Eristalis brousii Williston, 1882. The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is the Palaearctic species Eristalis abusiva Collin, 1931 (BOLD:ADK2468, 1.97% p-dist).

Distribution. Holarctic and northern India.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) horticola (De Geer, 1776)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Palaearctic and India.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) intricaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Eristalis intrikarius Linnaeus, 1758 [sic].

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Transcaucasia, into Siberia.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) jugorum Egger, 1858

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Transcaucasia, Turkey, and Iran.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) nemorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Holarctic.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) pertinax (Scopoli, 1763)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Eristalis pertinax Scopoli, 1763 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 6♂ 1♀; L28, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053728, ZFMK-DIP-00053729, ZFMK-DIP-00053730, ZFMK-DIP-00053731, ZFMK-DIP-00053732, ZFMK-DIP-00054176 = ZFMK-TIS-8000973, ZFMK-DIP-00053727; • 1♂; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053733 = ZFMK-TIS-8005553; • 1♂; L30, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053725; • 2♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053726 = ZFMK-TIS-8005561, ZFMK-DIP-00053992 = ZFMK-TIS-8003422; • 2♂; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4534; • 1♀; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4540; • 1♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057986.

Genetics. One specimen was sequenced (MN621946), with BIN BOLD:AAQ3585 (average p-dist 0.17%; max p-dist 1.41%). The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is Eristalis obscura Loew, 1866 (BOLD:AAA6459, 5.53% p-dist).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Transcaucasia, and Turkey.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) rupium Fabricius, 1805

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as E. rapium Fabricius, 1777 [sic].

Distribution. Holarctic.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) similis (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Eoseristalis pratorum Meigen, 1822; Peck (1988) as Eristalis pratorum Meigen, 1822; Gudjabidze (2002) as Eristalis pratorum.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L28, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053735 = ZFMK-TIS-8005562; • 1♂; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053734 = ZFMK-TIS-8005554; • 1♀; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053993 = ZFMK-TIS-8003429; • 1♂; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4541; • 1♂; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002684.

Genetics. Four specimens were successfully sequenced (MN621947, MN621948, MN621949, MN621950); BIN BOLD:AAY9892. The similarity among these sequences was very high (99.85–100%). The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is Eristalis obscura Loew, 1866 (BOLD:AAA6459, 6.39% p-dist).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Nielsen (1995) synonymised Eristalis pratorum Megerle in Meigen, 1822 under E. similis.

Eristalis (Eoseristalis) transcaucasica Kuznetzov, 1994

Reference. Kuznetzov (1994).

Distribution. Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia.

Eristalis (Eristalis) tenax (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Radde (1899); Levitin (1962) as Eristalomyia tenax L.; Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • *1; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♂; L2, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *200; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *50; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *50; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *10; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♀; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *5; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *20; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *10; L21, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot obs.; • *5; L22, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 5♂ 3♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053685, ZFMK-DIP-00053686, ZFMK-DIP-00053687, ZFMK-DIP-00053688, ZFMK-DIP-00054172 = ZFMK-TIS-8000971, ZFMK-DIP-00053684, ZFMK-DIP-00053689, ZFMK-DIP-00054165 = ZFMK-TIS-8000960; • 3♀; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053690, ZFMK-DIP-00053981 = ZFMK-TIS-8003446, ZFMK-DIP-00053984 = ZFMK-TIS-8003445; • 3♀; L26, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053691 = ZFMK-TIS-8005551, ZFMK-DIP-00053986 = ZFMK-TIS-8003439, ZFMK-DIP-00053989 = ZFMK-TIS-8003438; • 5♂ 2♀; L28, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053692, ZFMK-DIP-00053693, ZFMK-DIP-00053694, ZFMK-DIP-00054164 = ZFMK-TIS-8000974, ZFMK-DIP-00054175 = ZFMK-TIS-8000980, ZFMK-DIP-00053697, ZFMK-DIP-00054174 = ZFMK-TIS-8000977; • 1♀; L30, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053696; • 2♂ 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053698, ZFMK-DIP-00053985 = ZFMK-TIS-8003443, ZFMK-DIP-00053980 = ZFMK-TIS-8003441; • 1♂; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002670; • 1♂ 3♀; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4508; • 3♂ 6♀; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053699, ZFMK-DIP-00053982 = ZFMK-TIS-8003433, ZFMK-DIP-00053991 = ZFMK-TIS-8003432, ZFMK-DIP-00053695, ZFMK-DIP-00053700, ZFMK-DIP-00053983 = ZFMK-TIS-8003436, ZFMK-DIP-00053987 = ZFMK-TIS-8003428, ZFMK-DIP-00053988 = ZFMK-TIS-8003431, ZFMK-DIP-00053990 = ZFMK-TIS-8003430; • 1♀; L34, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053701; • 1♂; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053702; • 1♀; L36, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053703; • 4♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054168 = ZFMK-TIS-8004107, ZFMK-DIP-00054170 = ZFMK-TIS-8004105, ZFMK-DIP-00054171 = ZFMK-TIS-8004104, ZFMK-DIP-00054173 = ZFMK-TIS-8004096; • 1♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, J. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054167 = ZFMK-TIS-8004080; • 1♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053704; • 1♂ 1♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, J. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054169 = ZFMK-TIS-8004029, ZFMK-DIP-00054166 = ZFMK-TIS-8004027; • 1♂; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053705 = ZFMK-TIS-8005559; • 2♂ 1♀; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4539; • 1♂; L44, 18 Jul 2018, J. Astrin leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8000055; • 1♂; L46, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057989; • 1♂; L51, 24 Jul 2001 J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057990; • 1♂; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057992; • 1♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057993; • 1♂; L58 27 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057991; • 2♂; L64 23 Jul 2001 J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057987, ZFMK-DIP-00057988; • 1♂ 2♀; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4496; • 1♀; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002660; • 4♂; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002679, ZFMK-TIS-8002680, ZFMK-DIP-00061276, ZFMK-DIP-00061277; • 3♂; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4571; • 4♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002681, ZFMK-TIS-8002682, ZFMK-DIP-00061278, ZFMK-DIP-00061279; • 3♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4572; • 1♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002733.

Genetics. Nine specimens were sequenced (MN621951, MN621952, MN621953, MN621954, MN621955, MN621956, MN621957, MN621958, MN621959), with BIN BOLD:AAB0391. The obtained sequences varied little (0–0.76%), and the nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is Eristalis obscura Loew, 1866 (4.19% p-dist).

Distribution. Almost cosmopolitan, known from all regions except the Antarctica.

Eumerus amoenus Loew, 1848

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054120 = ZFMK-TIS-8000882; ZFMK-DIP-00054122 = ZFMK-TIS-8000883.

Genetics. We sequenced two specimens (MN621960, MN621961), which show an uncorrected pairwise distance of 0.46%. In BOLD systems there are two BINs with specimens identified as E. amoenus BOLD:ACO7316 and BOLD:AAY8911.

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe, Transcaucasia, Central Palaearctic to Mongolia.

Eumerus argyropus Loew, 1848

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Mediterranean Europe, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and Transcaucasia.

Eumerus armenorum Stackelberg, 1960

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it only from Armenia; Barkalov and Mutin (2018) listed it from Transcaucasia.

Remarks. There is not a specific record from Georgia.

Distribution. Described from Armenia.

Eumerus caucasicus Stackelberg, 1952

Reference. Stackelberg (1952); Stackelberg (1961); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 5♂ 3♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058236, ZFMK-DIP-00058237, ZFMK-DIP-00058238, ZFMK-DIP-00058239, ZFMK-DIP-00058240, ZFMK-DIP-00058241, ZFMK-DIP-00058242, ZFMK-DIP-00058243.

Distribution. Georgia.

Remarks. This species was described based on a single male. We did not study the holotype, but our specimens fit the original description and key out to this species using the identification key by Stackelberg (1961). The females are identified as E. caucasicus based on the sampling event, plus we could not key them our properly using Stackelberg (1961). The studied specimens are the first records for this species since its original description. Moreover, this is the first report of a female of this species.

Eumerus clavatus Becker, 1921

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, Transcaucasia, and North Africa.

Eumerus falsus Becker, 1922

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Transcaucasia, Turkey, Israel, Iran, and Central Palaearctic.

Eumerus flavitarsis Zetterstedt, 1843

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054125 = ZFMK-TIS-8000884; • 1♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002790.

Genetics. We sequenced two specimens (MN621962, MN621963) and their COI sequences have an uncorrected pairwise distance of 0.15%. The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:AAQ1830.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Eumerus funeralis Megerle in Meigen, 1822

Reference. Stackelberg (1961) from Caucasus as Eumerus tuberculatus Rondani, 1857; Peck (1988) as E. tuberculatus.

Distribution. Palaearctic; but introduced in North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand.

Remarks. Speight et al. (1998) reinstated the name E. funeralis for the taxon previously known as E. tuberculatus in recent literature.

Eumerus graecus Becker, 1921

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Malta, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, and Transcaucasia.

Eumerus grandis Meigen, 1822

Reference. Stackelberg (1961) from Armenia as Eumerus annulatus (Panzer, 1798); Peck (1988) from Armenia; Speight (2018a) from Armenia.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L65, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058235.

Distribution. Europe, Transcaucasia, and known from Mongolia and China.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Eumerus longicornis Loew, 1855

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Central Europe and Transcaucasia.

Remarks: Records from the Caucasus require confirmation after Doczkal (1996b) (Speight (2018a).

Eumerus niveitibia Becker, 1921

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Bulgaria, Greece, Egypt, and Caucasus Mountains.

Eumerus ornatus Meigen, 1822

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L2, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Eumerus ovatus Loew, 1848

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Southern and Eastern Europe and Caucasus Mountains.

Eumerus sogdianus Stackelberg, 1952

Reference. Stackelberg (1952); Stackelberg (1961) from Transcaucasia; Peck (1988) from Georgia; Gudjabidze (2002) as Eumerus sogdianus Shtakleberg, 1956 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Eumerus strigatus (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Eumerus strigatus (Fallen, 1917) [sic].

Distribution. Palaearctic; introduced in North America, Australia, and New Zealand.

Eumerus sulcitibius Rondani, 1868

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it only from Azerbaijan; Barkalov and Mutin (2018) listed it from Transcaucasia.

New records. GEORGIA • 9♂; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054114, ZFMK-DIP-00054115 = ZFMK-TIS-8000881, ZFMK-DIP-00054116, ZFMK-DIP-00054117, ZFMK-DIP-00054118, ZFMK-DIP-00054119, ZFMK-DIP-00054121, ZFMK-DIP-00054123, ZFMK-DIP-00054124.

Genetics. We were able to sequence one specimen (MN621964), and its COI barcode sequence has 99.83% similarity with another COI barcode of a specimen of E. sulcitibius from Greece (KX083387). The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:ADW8728.

Distribution. Mediterranean Basin, Turkey to Azerbaijan.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Eumerus tricolor (Fabricius, 1798)

Reference. Stackelberg (1961) from Transcaucasia; Peck (1988) from Armenia; Gudjabidze (2002) as Eumerus tricolor Meigen, 1822 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Eumerus turanicus Stackelberg, 1952

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054126 = ZFMK-TIS-8000880.

Genetics. We sequenced the single collected male (MN621965), whose COI barcode has a similarity of 94.65% with E. amoenus. This species was not previously registered in BOLD systems.

Distribution. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) bucculatus (Rondani, 1857)

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Europe.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) corollae (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus corollae F.; Tóth (1986) as Metasyrphus corollae (Fabricius, 1794); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus corollae (Fallen, 1817) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L2, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L27, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053850 = ZFMK-TIS-8005593; • 2♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054096 = ZFMK-TIS-8000875, ZFMK-DIP-00054097 = ZFMK-TIS-8000876; • 1♀; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057498; • 1♂ 1♀; L52, 30 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057491, ZFMK-DIP-00057495; • 2♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057496, ZFMK-DIP-00057497; • 2♂ 3♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057490, ZFMK-DIP-00057492, ZFMK-DIP-00057493, ZFMK-DIP-00057494, ZFMK-DIP-00057499;• 1♀; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4502; • 6♂ 11♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002713, ZFMK-TIS-8002714, ZFMK-TIS-8002715, ZFMK-TIS-8002716, ZFMK-DIP-00061280, ZFMK-DIP-00061281, ZFMK-DIP-00061282, ZFMK-DIP-00061283, ZFMK-DIP-00061284, ZFMK-DIP-00061285, ZFMK-DIP-00061286, ZFMK-DIP-00061287, ZFMK-DIP-00061288, ZFMK-DIP-00061289, ZFMK-DIP-00061290, ZFMK-DIP-00061291, ZFMK-DIP-00061292; • 2♂ 10♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4570, MTD-Dip-A-R-4578; • 5♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002738, ZFMK-TIS-8002739, ZFMK-DIP-00061293, ZFMK-DIP-00061294, ZFMK-DIP-00061295; • 1♂ 3♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4568.

Genetics. We sequenced seven specimens (MN621966, MN621967, MN621968, MN621969, MN621970, MN621971, MN621972). The obtained sequences differ from 0 to 2.06% among them. The BIN for this species has a problem in BOLD systems and refers to a hemipteran species.

Distribution. Palaearctic, Afrotropical Region, and Taiwan.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) flaviceps (Rondani, 1857)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus braueri Egger, 1858; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe and Transcaucasia.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) goeldlini Mazánek, Láska & Bičík, 1999

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L21, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 4♂; L51, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057506, ZFMK-DIP-00057507, ZFMK-DIP-00057507, ZFMK-DIP-00057506.

Distribution. Europe and European parts of Russia.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) latifasciatus (Macquart, 1829)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus latifasciatus Macq.; Tóth (1986) as Metasyrphus latifasciatus (Macquart, 1829); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus latifasciatus Macquart, 1827 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • *1♂; L9, 21 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057595, ZFMK-DIP-00057596; • 1♂ 3♀; L52, 30 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057594, ZFMK-DIP-00057597, ZFMK-DIP-00057598, ZFMK-DIP-00057599; • 2♂; L64, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057592, ZFMK-DIP-00057593.

Distribution. Holarctic and India.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) luniger (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus luniger Mg.; Tóth (1986) as Metasyrphus luniger (Meigen, 1822); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus luniger Meigen, 1822.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L34, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053851 = ZFMK-TIS-8005594; • 1♀; L54, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057502; • 1♀; L55, 31 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057503; • 1♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057504.

Genetics. One specimen was sequenced (MN621973), with identical COI sequence to other published specimens of the same species (MF446537 from Germany; KF939552 and KF939551 from Spain). In BOLD systems, the BIN for E. luniger (BOLD:AAB2384) comprises specimens identified as different species of the same genus.

Distribution. Palaearctic and northern India.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) nitens (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus nitens Zetterstendt, 1843 [sic].

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Eupeodes (Eupeodes) nuba (Wiedemann, 1830)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Metasyrphus (Metasyrphus) nuba (Wiedemann, 1830); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057505.

Distribution. Canary Isles, Europe, Transcaucasia, Central Palaearctic to Mongolia.

Fagisyrphus cinctus (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus cinctus Flln.; Tóth (1986) as Meligramma cinctus Fallén, 1817; Peck (1988) as Melangyna (Meligramma) cincta (Fallén, 1817); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus cinctus Fallén, 1817.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4528; • 1♂; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054099 = ZFMK-TIS-8001001; • 1♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002712.

Genetics. We sequenced two specimens (MN621974, MN621975) which have exactly the same COI barcode. The Barcode Index Number Registry lists one BIN for this taxon (BOLD:AAQ4086) with an average variation of p-distance of 0.05% within the BIN (0.58% max) and 6.05% p-distance to the nearest neighbour, Meligramma triangulifera (Zetterstedt, 1843) (BOLD:AAZ1912).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Crimea.

Ferdinandea aurea Rondani, 1844

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Ferdinandea aurea Rondani, 1861 [sic].

Distribution. Southern Europe and Transcaucasia.

Ferdinandea cuprea (Scopoli, 1763)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Ferdinandea ruficornis (Fabricius, 1775)

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Hammerschmidtia ferruginea (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 3♂; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic, Western Coast of North America, and Alaska.

Helophilus continuus Loew, 1854

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Helophilus continuus Loew, 1846 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053802 = ZFMK-TIS-8005572; • 1♀; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054000 = ZFMK-TIS-8003448; • 1♂; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054208; • 2♂ 2♀; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053804, ZFMK-DIP-00053807, , ZFMK-DIP-00053999 = ZFMK-TIS-8003437, ZFMK-DIP-00054013; • 4♂ 1♀; L33, 23 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053801, ZFMK-DIP-00053805, ZFMK-DIP-00053806, ZFMK-DIP-00053809 = ZFMK-TIS-8005579, ZFMK-DIP-00054012 = ZFMK-TIS-8000983; • 1♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054010 = ZFMK-TIS-8004108; • 1♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, J. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054011 = ZFMK-TIS-8004028; • 1♂; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053803.

Genetics. We sequenced two specimens (MN621976, MN621977), whose COI barcodes differ 0.15%. One sequence (MN621977) matches another sequence present in BOLD from Altai Mountains, Russia. The BIN for all these specimens is BOLD:ACO6169 and the nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is Helophilus lapponicus Wahlberg, 1844 (BOLD:ACE4226).

Distribution. Eastern Europe, Transcaucasia, and through Russia to Kamchatka.

Helophilus pendulus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • *1♂; L21, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 1♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053793 = ZFMK-TIS-8005570.

Genetics. We sequenced one specimen (MN621978) and its COI barcode has 100% similarity with other published sequences of this species. The Barcode Index Number Registry lists 1 BIN for this taxon (BOLD:AAI6747) with an average p-distance of 0.25% within BIN (1.65% max.) and a p-distance of 1.96% to the nearest neighbour in BOLD systems, Helophilus sapporensis Matsumura, 1911 (BOLD:ACO5411).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Helophilus trivittatus (Fabricius, 1805)

Reference. Radde (1899); Peck (1988) as Helophilus parallelus (Harris, 1776); Gudjabidze (2002) as Helophilus trivitatus (Fabricius, 1777) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂ 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053794 = ZFMK-TIS-8005571, ZFMK-DIP-00054003 = ZFMK-TIS-8003442, ZFMK-DIP-00054002 = ZFMK-TIS-8003444; • 1♀; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4510; • 1♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053800; • 1♂ 2♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054009 = ZFMK-TIS-8004099, ZFMK-DIP-00054006 = ZFMK-TIS-8004113, ZFMK-DIP-00054007 = ZFMK-TIS-8004098; • 3♂ 4♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053795, ZFMK-DIP-00053796, ZFMK-DIP-00054004 = ZFMK-TIS-8003425, ZFMK-DIP-00054001 = ZFMK-TIS-8003424, ZFMK-DIP-00053797, ZFMK-DIP-00053798, ZFMK-DIP-00053799 = ZFMK-TIS-8005578; • 2♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054005 = ZFMK-TIS-8004228, ZFMK-DIP-00054008 = ZFMK-TIS-8004230; • 1♀; L60, 26 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057999; • 1♂; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4497 = ZFMK-TIS-8002661.

Genetics. We sequenced three specimens (MN621979, MN621980, MN621981) and the COI barcodes were very similar (0–0.53% p-distance difference). The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:ABY6684.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Van der Goot (1981) used Helophilus trivittatus for the taxon also known as Helophilus parallelus. Later, Van der Goot (1986) explained that the name Helophilus parallelus was wrongly applied to the taxon Helophilus trivittatus.

Heringia heringi (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Heringia senilis Sack, 1938

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988).

Remarks. Specimens of this taxon are often identified as Heringia heringi due to the lack of diagnosable differences (Claußen et al. 1994).

Ischiodon scutellaris (Fabricius, 1805)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Ischiodon scutellare Fabricius, 1794 [sic]; Mengual (2018).

Distribution. Greece, eastwards to Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Iran, Arabian Peninsula south to Indomalayan Region, Taiwan, Australasian and Oceanian regions except Hawaii, China, and Japan.

Lapposyrphus lapponicus (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus eapponicus Zett. [sic]; Tóth (1986); Peck (1988) as Metasyrphus (Lapposyrphus) lapponicus (Zetterstedt, 1838); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus lapponicus Zetterstendt, 1843 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L2, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic, also mentioned from Alaska to California.

Lejogaster metallina (Fabricius, 1781)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Liogaster metallina Fabricius, 1777 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 10♂ 5♀; L46, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057936, ZFMK-DIP-00057937, ZFMK-DIP-00057938, ZFMK-DIP-00057939, ZFMK-DIP-00057940, ZFMK-DIP-00057941, ZFMK-DIP-00057942, ZFMK-DIP-00057943, ZFMK-DIP-00057944, ZFMK-DIP-00057949, ZFMK-DIP-00057945, ZFMK-DIP-00057946, ZFMK-DIP-00057947, ZFMK-DIP-00057948, ZFMK-DIP-00057950; • 1♀; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057952; • 9♂ 6♀; L50, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057953, ZFMK-DIP-00057954, ZFMK-DIP-00057955, ZFMK-DIP-00057956, ZFMK-DIP-00057957, ZFMK-DIP-00057958, ZFMK-DIP-00057959, ZFMK-DIP-00057960, ZFMK-DIP-00057961, ZFMK-DIP-00057962, ZFMK-DIP-00057963, ZFMK-DIP-00057964, ZFMK-DIP-00057965, ZFMK-DIP-00057966, ZFMK-DIP-00057967; • 1♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057951.

Distribution. Palaeartic.

Lejogaster tarsata (Megerle in Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Lejogaster splendida (Meigen, 1822); Gudjabidze (2002) as Liogaster splendida Meigen, 1822 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 3♂ 1♀; L63, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057968, ZFMK-DIP-00057969, ZFMK-DIP-00057970, ZFMK-DIP-00057971.

Distribution. Palaeartic.

Remarks. Maibach et al. (1994b) reinstated the name Lejogaster tarsata (Megerle in Meigen, 1822) for the taxon referred as Lejogaster splendida (Megerle in Meigen, 1822) in recent literature.

Leucozona (Ischyrosyrphus) glaucia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Ischyrosyrphus glaucius Linnaeus, 1758 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; 1♀; • L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Leucozona (Ischyrosyrphus) laternaria (Müller, 1776)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Ischyrosyrphus laternarius Muller.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Leucozona (Leucozona) lucorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Remarks. Since the morphological characters, which help to distinguish between L. lucorum and L. nigripila, have only recently been clarified by Doczkal (2000b), it is unclear whether L. lucorum occurs in sympatry with L. nigripila in the Caucasus or whether all records should refer to L. nigripila.

Leucozona (Leucozona) nigripila Mik, 1888

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Leucozona lucorum Linnaeus, 1758 [sic]; Peck (1988) as Leucozona lucorum (Linnaeus, 1758); Gudjabidze (2002) as Leucozona lucorom (Linnaeus, 1758) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054014 = ZFMK-TIS-8000861; • 2♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057500, ZFMK-DIP-00057501.

Genetics. We were able to sequence one specimen (MN621982). The obtained COI barcode has a similiraty of > 99.4% with published sequences of L. lucorum. The BIN in BOLD systems comprising L. nigripila is BOLD:AAK9203, which also has specimens of Leucozona inopinata Doczkal, 2000 and L. lucorum (average distance within BIN of 0.5%, and 0.19% of maximum distance). The nearest neighbour in BOLD systems is Leucozona americana Curran, 1923 (BOLD:ACE4604; 1.26% p-distance).

Distribution. Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Here we have listed under L. nigripila all the previous records of L. lucorum. Since the morphological characters, which help to distinguish between L. lucorum and L. nigripila, have only recently been clarified by Doczkal (2000b), it is unclear if L. lucorum occurs in sympatry with L. nigripila in the Caucasus, but it is very unlikely. This species was described from Northern Caucasus (Circassia) and Doczkal (2000b) reported it from there and from Kussari (= Qusar, Azerbaijan). The specimen from Kussari is very likely to be the female that Mik (1888) mentioned from the Caucasus. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Mallota fuciformis (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe, European parts of Russia, Transcaucasia, and Iran.

Megasyrphus erraticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Megasyrphus annulipes (Zetterstedt, 1838); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus annulipes (Zetterstedt, 1838).

Distribution. Palaearctic, including Nepal.

Remarks. Thompson et al. (1982) synonymised Scaeva annulipes Zetterstedt, 1838 under Musca erratica Linnaeus, 1758.

Melangyna (Melangyna) compositarum (Verrall, 1873)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus compositarum Verall [sic].

Distribution. Holarctic.

Melangyna (Melangyna) lasiophthalma (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus lasiophthalmus Zetterstend, 1843 [sic].

Distribution. Holarctic.

Melangyna (Melangyna) umbellatarum (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus umbellatarum (Fallen, 1817) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Melanogaster nuda (Macquart, 1829)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Chrysogaster viduata (Linnaeus, 1758); Gudjabidze (2002) as Chrysogaster viduata Linnaeus, 1758 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. While fixing the name Musca viduata Linnaeus, 1758 with a lectotype designation, Thompson et al. (1982) suggested to apply the name Musca lucida Scopoli, 1763 for a taxon known as Chrysogaster viduata (Linnaeus, 1758) by various authors. Maibach et al. (1994b) established that the name Musca lucida was wrongly applied to this species and introduced Melanogaster nuda (Macquart, 1829) as replacement name for this taxon.

Melanogaster tumescens (Loew, 1873)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. European parts of Russia and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Maibach et al. (1994a) placed this taxon under the genus Melanogaster Rondani, 1857. This species is not referred to in recent literature and its status is unclear (Speight 2018a).

Melanostoma mellinum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Radde (1899); Levitin (1962); Tóth (1986); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 2♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L18, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L28, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053936; ZFMK-DIP-00054134 = ZFMK-TIS-8000976; • 3♂; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053921, ZFMK-DIP-00053925, ZFMK-DIP-00054132 = ZFMK-TIS-8001011; • 1♂; L30, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053937 = ZFMK-TIS-8005525; • 5♂ 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053923, ZFMK-DIP-00053924 = ZFMK-TIS-8005524, ZFMK-DIP-00054137, ZFMK-DIP-00054138, ZFMK-DIP-00054141, ZFMK-DIP-00054140; • 4♂ 1♀; L32, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053922, ZFMK-DIP-00053927, ZFMK-DIP-00053928, ZFMK-DIP-00053929, ZFMK-DIP-00054135 = ZFMK-TIS-8001006; • 2♂ 2♀; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053920, ZFMK-DIP-00053926, ZFMK-DIP-00054139, ZFMK-DIP-00054143; • 1♀; L34, 23 Jul 2018, J. and B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054136 = ZFMK-TIS-8004305 • 1♀; L34, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054131 = ZFMK-TIS-8000992; • 3♂ 1♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053931, ZFMK-DIP-00053932, ZFMK-DIP-00053933, ZFMK-DIP-00053935 = ZFMK-TIS-8005530; • 1♀; L36, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053934; • 1♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053930; • 1♂; L38, 25 Jul 2018, J. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054133 = ZFMK-TIS-8004025; • 2♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054142, ZFMK-DIP-00054144; • 4♀; L41, 19 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054127 = ZFMK-TIS-8000268, ZFMK-DIP-00054128 = ZFMK-TIS-8000271, ZFMK-DIP-00054129 = ZFMK-TIS-8000270, ZFMK-DIP-00054130 = ZFMK-TIS-8000269; • 1♀; L42, 25–28 Jul 2018, B. Wipfler leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054210; • 8♂ 10♀; L46, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057756, ZFMK-DIP-00057757, ZFMK-DIP-00057758, ZFMK-DIP-00057759, ZFMK-DIP-00057760, ZFMK-DIP-00057761, ZFMK-DIP-00057762, ZFMK-DIP-00057763, ZFMK-DIP-00057524, ZFMK-DIP-00057525, ZFMK-DIP-00057526, ZFMK-DIP-00057527, ZFMK-DIP-00057528, ZFMK-DIP-00057529, ZFMK-DIP-00057530, ZFMK-DIP-00057531, ZFMK-DIP-00057532, ZFMK-DIP-00057576; • 14♂ 13♀; L47, 25 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057764, ZFMK-DIP-00057765, ZFMK-DIP-00057766, ZFMK-DIP-00057767, ZFMK-DIP-00057768, ZFMK-DIP-00057769, ZFMK-DIP-00057770, ZFMK-DIP-00057771, ZFMK-DIP-00057772, ZFMK-DIP-00057773, ZFMK-DIP-00057774, ZFMK-DIP-00057775, ZFMK-DIP-00057776, ZFMK-DIP-00057777, ZFMK-DIP-00057511, ZFMK-DIP-00057512, ZFMK-DIP-00057513, ZFMK-DIP-00057514, ZFMK-DIP-00057515, ZFMK-DIP-00057516, ZFMK-DIP-00057517, ZFMK-DIP-00057518, ZFMK-DIP-00057519, ZFMK-DIP-00057520, ZFMK-DIP-00057521, ZFMK-DIP-00057522, ZFMK-DIP-00057523; • 7♂ 13♀; L48, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057614, ZFMK-DIP-00057615, ZFMK-DIP-00057616, ZFMK-DIP-00057617, ZFMK-DIP-00057618, ZFMK-DIP-00057619, ZFMK-DIP-00057740, ZFMK-DIP-00057544, ZFMK-DIP-00057545, ZFMK-DIP-00057546, ZFMK-DIP-00057547, ZFMK-DIP-00057548, ZFMK-DIP-00057549, ZFMK-DIP-00057550, ZFMK-DIP-00057551, ZFMK-DIP-00057552, ZFMK-DIP-00057553, ZFMK-DIP-00057554, ZFMK-DIP-00057555, ZFMK-DIP-00057556; • 1♂ 4♀; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057795, ZFMK-DIP-00057540, ZFMK-DIP-00057541, ZFMK-DIP-00057542, ZFMK-DIP-00057543; • 1♂ 1♀; L50, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057808, ZFMK-DIP-00057575; • 11♂ 7♀; L51, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057741, ZFMK-DIP-00057742, ZFMK-DIP-00057743, ZFMK-DIP-00057744, ZFMK-DIP-00057745, ZFMK-DIP-00057746, ZFMK-DIP-00057748, ZFMK-DIP-00057749, ZFMK-DIP-00057750, ZFMK-DIP-00057751, ZFMK-DIP-00057752, ZFMK-DIP-00057564, ZFMK-DIP-00057565, ZFMK-DIP-00057567, ZFMK-DIP-00057568, ZFMK-DIP-00057569, ZFMK-DIP-00057570, ZFMK-DIP-00057571; • 3♂ 6♀; L52, 30 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057753, ZFMK-DIP-00057754, ZFMK-DIP-00057755, ZFMK-DIP-00057558, ZFMK-DIP-00057559, ZFMK-DIP-00057560, ZFMK-DIP-00057561, ZFMK-DIP-00057562, ZFMK-DIP-00057563; • 15♂ 7♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057778, ZFMK-DIP-00057779, ZFMK-DIP-00057780, ZFMK-DIP-00057781, ZFMK-DIP-00057782, ZFMK-DIP-00057783, ZFMK-DIP-00057784, ZFMK-DIP-00057785, ZFMK-DIP-00057786, ZFMK-DIP-00057787, ZFMK-DIP-00057788, ZFMK-DIP-00057790, ZFMK-DIP-00057791, ZFMK-DIP-00057792, ZFMK-DIP-00057793, ZFMK-DIP-00057533, ZFMK-DIP-00057534, ZFMK-DIP-00057535, ZFMK-DIP-00057536, ZFMK-DIP-00057537, ZFMK-DIP-00057538, ZFMK-DIP-00057539; • 14♂ 3♀; L56, 30 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057600, ZFMK-DIP-00057601, ZFMK-DIP-00057602, ZFMK-DIP-00057603, ZFMK-DIP-00057604, ZFMK-DIP-00057605, ZFMK-DIP-00057606, ZFMK-DIP-00057607, ZFMK-DIP-00057608, ZFMK-DIP-00057609, ZFMK-DIP-00057610, ZFMK-DIP-00057611, ZFMK-DIP-00057612, ZFMK-DIP-00057613, ZFMK-DIP-00057572, ZFMK-DIP-00057573, ZFMK-DIP-00057574; • 2♂ 1♀; L57, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP -00057797, ZFMK-DIP-00057798, ZFMK-DIP-00057578; • 9♂ 1♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057799, ZFMK-DIP-00057800, ZFMK-DIP-00057801, ZFMK-DIP-00057802, ZFMK-DIP-00057803, ZFMK-DIP-00057804, ZFMK-DIP-00057805, ZFMK-DIP-00057806, ZFMK-DIP-00057807, ZFMK-DIP-00057557; • 1♀; L58, 27 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057581; • 2♀; L60, 26 Jul 2001 J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057579, ZFMK-DIP-00057580; • 1♀; L62, 22 Jul 2001 J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057584; • 2♀; L63, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057582, ZFMK-DIP-00057583; • 1♀; L64, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057577; • 1♂; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002719; • 2♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002753, ZFMK-TIS-8002754; • 1♂ 2♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002781, ZFMK-TIS-8002783, ZFMK-TIS-8002784.

Genetics. We sequenced nine specimens (MN621983, MN621984, MN621985, MN621986, MN621987, MN621988, MN621989, MN621990, MN621991) and the obtained COI barcodes differ 0–1.22%.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Remarks. Haarto and Ståhls (2014) proved that different Melanostoma species share the same COI haplotypes among them and that this mitochondrial gene is not very useful for species identification. Speight (2018a) mentioned the possibility of a species complex under this name because it has a large phenotypic variability and ecological amplitude.

Melanostoma orientale (Wiedemann, 1824)

Reference. Mutin and Barkalov (1999); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Transcaucasia, Indomalayan Region, and Eastern Palaearctic.

Melanostoma scalare (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Melanostoma scalare Fabricius, 1805 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • *1♂; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot obs.; • 2♀; L1, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L14, 25 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053941; • 1♀; L26, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054161; • 2♂; L28, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053939 = ZFMK-TIS-8005526, ZFMK-DIP-00053940; • 4♂ 5♀; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053938, ZFMK-DIP-00053942, ZFMK-DIP-00053943, ZFMK-DIP-00054154 = ZFMK-TIS-8001012, ZFMK-DIP-00053959, ZFMK-DIP-00053961, ZFMK-DIP-00053963, ZFMK-DIP-00053964, ZFMK-DIP-00054151 = ZFMK-TIS-8001014; • 1♀; L31, 20 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053962 = ZFMK-TIS-8005531; • 1♂ 1♀; L32, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053950, ZFMK-DIP-00053965; • 9♂ 1♀; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053949, ZFMK-DIP-00053951, ZFMK-DIP-00053952, ZFMK-DIP-00053953, ZFMK-DIP-00053954, ZFMK-DIP-00054153 = ZFMK-TIS-8000986, ZFMK-DIP-00054158, ZFMK-DIP-00054159, ZFMK-DIP-00054160, ZFMK-DIP-00053960; • 1♂ 1♀; L33, 23 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053945, ZFMK-DIP-00053946, ZFMK-DIP-00053947, ZFMK-DIP-00054156 = ZFMK-TIS-8000984; • 2♂ 1♀; L34, 23 Jul 2018, J. and B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054147 = ZFMK-TIS-8004304, ZFMK-DIP-00054152 = ZFMK-TIS-8004306, ZFMK-DIP-00054145 = ZFMK-TIS-8004307; • 2♂ 3♀; L34, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053944, ZFMK-DIP-00053955, ZFMK-DIP-00053957, ZFMK-DIP-00053958, ZFMK-DIP-00054148 = ZFMK-TIS-8000990; • 1♂; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053948; • 1♂ 2♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, J. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054149 = ZFMK-TIS-8004079, ZFMK-DIP-00054150 = ZFMK-TIS-8004078 ZFMK-DIP-00054155 = ZFMK-TIS-8004076; • 1♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053956; • 1♂; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054157; • 1♀; L40, 18 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054146 = ZFMK-TIS-8003799; • 1♀; L42, 25 Jul 2018, B. Rulik leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4548; • 6♂; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002717, ZFMK-TIS-8002718, ZFMK-DIP-00061296, ZFMK-DIP-00061297, ZFMK-DIP-00061298, ZFMK-DIP-00061299; • 6♂; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4552; • 7♂ 2♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002748, ZFMK-TIS-8002749, ZFMK-DIP-00061300, ZFMK-DIP-00061301, ZFMK-DIP-00061302, ZFMK-DIP-00061303, ZFMK-DIP-00061304, ZFMK-TIS-8002751, ZFMK-TIS-8002750; • 5♂; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4576; • 3♂ 3♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002780, ZFMK-DIP-00061307, ZFMK-DIP-00061308, ZFMK-TIS-8002782, ZFMK-DIP-00061305, ZFMK-DIP-00061306; • 2♂; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4558.

Genetics. We sequenced nine specimens (MN621992, MN621993, MN621994, MN621995, MN621996, MN621997, MN621998, MN621999, MN622000). They differ between 0% and 1.37% among them. These intraspecific distances overlap with interspecific distance; for example, our sequences of M. mellinum differ from 0% to 1.22% from sequences of M. scalare.

Distribution. Palaearctic, eastern Afrotropics, and Indomalayan Region.

Remarks. Speight (2018a) cited this species “throughout the Oriental region to New Guinea”, but Ramage et al. (2018) did not report it from Australasian and Oceanian Regions. Haarto and Ståhls (2014) proved that different Melanostoma species share the same COI haplotypes among them and that this mitochondrial gene is not very useful for species identification.

Meligramma guttata (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Melangyna (Meligramma) guttata (Fallén, 1817); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus gutatus (Fallen, 1817) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distributoin. Holarctic.

Meliscaeva auricollis (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus auricollis Meigen, 1822; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L2, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054017; • 1♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053811; • 1♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053810 = ZFMK-TIS-8005580; • 1♀; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053812 = ZFMK-TIS-8005588.

Genetics. The two sequenced specimens (MN622001, MN622002) differ on 0.3% in the COI barcode. The BIN for these specimens is BOLD:AAZ5262, with a maximum uncorrected pairwise distance f 2.08% within the BIN.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic, including Canary Isles.

Meliscaeva cinctella (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Syrphus cinctellus Zett.; Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus cinctellus Zetterstendt, 1843 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4513.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Merodon (Merodon) aberrans Egger, 1860

Reference. Radde (1899); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon abarrans Egger [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Merodon (Merodon) albifrons Meigen, 1822

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it only from Azerbaijan; Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L51, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058256.

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe, northern Africa, Crimea, and Transcaucasia.

Merodon (Merodon) annulatus (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Remarks. This species was described from France but it has never been recorded again from this country. Other records were reported from Italy, Greece, and Israel (Speight 2018a) but some of these records need confirmation (Vujić et al. 2020). The last identification key where this species was included was done by Sack (1928–1932). This species needs a redefinition/redescription to help distinguish it from other Merodon species (Speight 2018a).

Merodon (Merodon) aureus Fabricius, 1805

Reference. Radde (1899) as Merodon aeneus Meigen, 1822; Peck (1988) as Merodon aeneus Meigen, 1822 from Armenia, and as Merodon aureus Fabricius, 1805 from Germany and Yugoslavia; Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon aeneus Meigen, 1822.

Distribution. Europe, Transcaucasia, and North Africa, but needs reassessment.

Remarks. The Merodon aureus group comprises a number of different subgroups and species complexes (Veselić et al. 2017). All the identifications of this species are in need of verification to avoid confusion with other species of this complex. We follow Thompson (2019) and consider Merodon aeneus Megerle in Meigen, 1822 a junior synonym of Merodon aureus.

Merodon (Merodon) avidus (Rossi, 1790)

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it only from Armenia as Merodon avidus, but also listed it as Merodon spinipes (Fabricius, 1794); Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon spinipes.

Distribution. Mediterranean Basin.

Remarks. Merodon avidus is a species complex with taxonomic difficulties and a considerable morphological variability (Milankov et al. 2001, 2009; Ståhls et al. 2009; Popović et al. 2015; Ačanski et al. 2016). The color variability has been explained by the differential availability of trophic resources during the larval stage (Hurkmans 1993), but difficulties in distinguishing the species of this complex based on morphological characters remain. All the identifications of the species of this complex need verification.

Merodon (Merodon) caucasicus Portschinsky, 1877

Reference. Portschinsky (1877); Paramonov (1926b) as Merodon batumicus Paramonov, 1926; Levitin (1962) as Lampetia caucasica Porth.; Peck (1988) as Merodon batumicus Paramonov, 1926 and also as Merodon caucasicus Portschinsky, 1877; Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon batumicus Paramonov, 1925 [sic] and also as Merodon caucasicus Potschinkyi, 1881 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂ 2♀; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053917 = ZFMK-TIS-8005523, ZFMK-DIP-00053996 = ZFMK-TIS-8003434, ZFMK-DIP-00053918 = ZFMK-TIS-8005529, ZFMK-DIP-00053919 = ZFMK-TIS-8005534; • 2♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053912 = ZFMK-TIS-8005514, ZFMK-DIP-00053997 = ZFMK-TIS-8003449; • 9♂ 1♀; L50, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057975, ZFMK-DIP-00057976, ZFMK-DIP-00057977, ZFMK-DIP-00057978, ZFMK-DIP-00057979, ZFMK-DIP-00057980, ZFMK-DIP-00057981, ZFMK-DIP-00057982, ZFMK-DIP-00057983, ZFMK-DIP-00057984; • 2♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4560, ZFMK-TIS-8002768.

Genetics. We sequenced five specimens (MN622003, MN622004, MN622005, MN622006, MN622007) that differ from 0% to 0.61% in their COI sequence. This species is not present in BOLD or GenBank, so this are the first COI sequences for this taxon. The closest COI sequence in BOLD systems to the Merodon caucasicus sequences is one of Merodon mariae Hurkmans, 1993 (3.21–3.82% difference).

Distribution. Balkan Peninsula and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Merodon batumicus Paramonov, 1926 is now considered a junior synonym of M. caucasicus (proposed by Popov 2007; A. Vujić pers. comm. in Smit and Langeveld 2018). Merodon batumicus was described from Batumi area in Georgia (Paramonov 1926b) and reported for this country by Peck (1988) and Gudjabidze (2002).

Merodon (Merodon) cinereus (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon cinereus Fabricius, 1777 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Needs reassessment.

Remarks. Merodon cinereus is a species complex (Milankov et al. 2008; Francuski et al. 2011; Šašić et al. 2016) and all the identifications of this species complex are in need of verification.

Merodon (Merodon) crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925

Reference. Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Mediterranean Basin, Crimea, and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Barkalov and Mutin (2018) listed this species from Transcaucasia, but Speight (2018a) listed it only from Azerbaijan.

Merodon (Merodon) femoratus Sack, 1913

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon femoralis Sack, 1932 [sic].

Distribution. Mediterranean Basin, Crimea and Transcaucasia.

Merodon (Merodon) gudaurensis Portschinsky, 1877

Reference. Portschinsky (1877); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon gudauriensis Potshinskyi, 1881 [sic].

Distribution. Georgia.

Merodon (Merodon) kiritshenkoi (Stackelberg, 1960)

Reference. Peck (1988); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. The type locality of this species is in North Ossetia-Alania (Northern Caucasus), but Peck (1988) and Barkalov and Mutin (2018) listed it also from Transcaucasia.

Merodon (Merodon) loewi Van der Goot, 1964

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it only from Armenia; Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Europe, southern parts of European Russia, Transcaucasia, Turkey, and Israel.

Merodon (Merodon) moenium Hoffmannsegg in Meigen, 1822

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; •1♂; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 4♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L50, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057998.

Remarks. This species belongs to the avidus species complex and the identification using adult morphology is not straightforward (see remarks under Merodon avidus). Spring generations of Merodon avidus are very similar to those of M. moenium (Ačanski et al. 2016). Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Merodon (Merodon) nanus (Sack, 1931)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon nanus Sack, 1932 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Needs reassessment, but its presence confirmed from Greece, Armenia, Iran, and Middle East.

Remarks. Merodon nanus is a species complex (Vujić et al. 2015; Tubić et al. 2018) and all the records of this species complex are in need of verification.

Merodon (Merodon) natans (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Mediterranean Basin and Caucasus Mountains.

Remarks. Speceis very similar to Merodon (Merodon) pulveris Vujić and Radenković in Radenković et al. 2011 (Radenković et al. 2011).

Merodon (Merodon) nigritarsis Rondani, 1845

Reference. Peck (1988) as Merodon spinipes nigritarsis Rondani, 1845.

Distribution. Europe, Transcaucasia, and Turkey, but needs reassessment.

Remarks: M. nigritarsis is part of the nigritarsis species group. It is unclear which species name should be applied to the specimens mentioned by Peck (1988). All records of this species group are in need of verification.

Merodon (Merodon) obscuritarsis Strobl in Czerny & Strobl, 1909

Reference. Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Needs reassessment, but recorded from Spain and France. Barkalov and Mutin (2018) mentioned also Transcaucasia and northern Africa as part of its range.

Remarks. Marcos-García et al. (2007) stated that M. tricinctus Sack, 1913 is closely related to M. obscuritarsis and can be a synonym, but further studies are needed. Barkalov and Mutin (2018) reported both M. obscuritarsis and Merodon tricinctus from the Transcaucasia.

Merodon (Merodon) portschinskyi (Stackelberg, 1924)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon portshinskyi Sthakelberg, 1956 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂ 3♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L15, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 6♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 4♂; L20, 2 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia.

Merodon (Merodon) pruni (Rossi, 1790)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic, including Turkmenistan and Iraq.

Merodon (Merodon) ruficornis Meigen, 1822

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Cetral and Southern Europe, Balkan Peninsula and Ukraine (see Vujić et al. 2012).

Remarks. M. ruficornis is part of a species complex. Several species of this complex occur or are likely to occur in Georgia, but M. ruficornis itself is only known from Europe (Vujić et al. 2012). All the records of this species are in need of verification.

Merodon (Merodon) rufipes Sack, 1913

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Merodon rufipes Sack, 1932 [sic].

Distribution. Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Georgia.

Merodon (Merodon) tricinctus Sack, 1913

Reference. Peck (1988) listed it only from Armenia; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. Marcos-Garcia et al. (2007) stated that M. tricinctus is closely related to M. obscuritarsis and they can be synonyms, but further studies are needed.

Merodon (Merodon) velox Loew, 1869

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Turkey, and Transcaucasia.

Mesembrius peregrinus (Loew, 1846)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Helophilus (Mesembriuc) peregrinus Loew, 1846 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L60, 26 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057985.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Microdon analis (Macquart, 1842) / Microdon major Andries, 1912

Reference. Levitin (1962) as Microdon eggeri Mik.; Peck (1988) as Microdon eggeriMik, 1897; Gudjabidze (2002) as Microdon eggeri Mick, 1897 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L16, 26 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; •1♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002706.

Genetics. We sequenced one specimen (MN622008), and its COI barcode is very similar to other published sequences of M. analis (99.85% similarity), M. mutabilis (98.92% similarity) and M. major (96.94% similarity). The BIN for this taxon is BOLD:ABA2554.

Distribution. Palaearctic, but needs reassessment for each species of this complex.

Remarks. Doczkal and Schmid (1999) synonymised M. eggeri under M. analis. Microdon analis and Microdon major can only be distinguished using features of its developmental stages (Schmid 2004). It is unclear if one of the two or both species occur in Georgia.

Microdon mutabilis (Linnaeus, 1758) / Microdon myrmicae Schönrogge et al., 2002

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Microdon mutabilis (Linnaeus, 1758); Peck (1988) as M. mutabilis; Gudjabidze (2002) as M. mutabilis; Barkalov and Mutin (2018) as M. mutabilis.

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 30 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic, but needs reassessment for each species of this complex.

Remarks. Microdon mutabilis and Microdon myrmicae can only be distinguished using features of its developmental stages (Schönrogge et al. 2002). It is unclear if one of the two or both species occur in Georgia.

Milesia crabroniformis (Fabricius, 1775)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Milesia crabroniformis Linnaeus, 1758 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 3♂ 4♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053969 = ZFMK-TIS-8003454, ZFMK-DIP-00053628, ZFMK-DIP-00053629, ZFMK-DIP-00053631, ZFMK-DIP-00053632 = ZFMK-TIS-8005543, ZFMK-DIP-00053633, ZFMK-DIP-00053634; • 1♂; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053630 = ZFMK-TIS-8005535; • 1♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053635; • 1♀; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4531; • 4♂ 1♀; L69, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4505, MTD-Dip-A-R-4515, MTD-Dip-A-R-4516, ZFMK-GGBC8002669, MTD-Dip-A-R-4517.

Genetics. Three specimens were sequenced (MN622009, MN622010, MN622011), and their COI barcodes differ from 0% to 0.38%. BOLD currently lists two specimens with COI sequences from Portugal (99.54–99.85% similarity with our samples), but the data are not public prior to this publication.

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe, North Africa, Turkey and Georgia.

Remarks. Zaitzev (1912) listed from Abkhazia an unidentified species of Milesia, close to M. cabroniformis but with larger yellow pattern. The identity of this taxon remains unclear.

Milesia semiluctifera (Villers, 1798)

Reference. Peck (1988); Seropian (2013b) as field observation; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, Middle East, Transcaucasia, east into Turkmenistan.

Myathropa florea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Radde (1899) as Helophilus floreus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Helophilus nigrotarsatus Schiner, 1860; Levitin (1962) as Myiatropa florea L. [sic]; Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Myiatropa florae Linnaeus, 1758 [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L8, 20 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♂; L22, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053746 = ZFMK-TIS-8005563, ZFMK-DIP-00053750 = ZFMK-TIS-8005564, ZFMK-DIP-00054089 = ZFMK-TIS-8000972; • 1♂; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4509; • 2♀; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4521; • 1♂; L33, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053748 = ZFMK-TIS-8005556; • 1♀; L35, 24 Jul 2018, J. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054090 = ZFMK-TIS-8003928; • 1♂ 4♀; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053743, ZFMK-DIP-00053745, ZFMK-DIP-00053747, ZFMK-DIP-00053749 = ZFMK-TIS-8005738, ZFMK-DIP-00053994 = ZFMK-TIS-8003423; • 1♂; L38, 25 Jul 2018, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054091 = ZFMK-TIS-8004229; • 2♂; L38, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053742 = ZFMK-TIS-8005555, ZFMK-DIP-00053744; • 1♂ 2♀; L42, 25 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4538; • 1♂; L48, 24 Jul 2001 J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058001; • 1♀; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058003; • 1♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058002; • 1♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00058255; • 1♂ 1♀; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4499, ZFMK-TIS-8002663.

Genetics. Four specimens were successfully sequenced (MN622012, MN622013, MN622014, MN622015) and their COI barcodes differ 0.15–0.61%. Currently there are three BINs in BOLD systems with specimens identified as M. florea: BOLD:ADQ8445, BOLD:ADR1776, and BOLD:AAP9713. Our specimens belong to the last BIN.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Myolepta dubia (Fabricius, 1805)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Myolepta luteola (Gmelin, 1790); Gudjabidze (2002) as M. luteola; Reemer et al. (2005); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Thompson and Pont (1994) noted that the name Musca luteola Gmelin, 1790 was preoccupied by Musca luteola Scopoli, 1763 and suggested the name Thereva dubia Fabricius, 1805 [= Myolpeta dubia (Fabricius, 1805)] as the next available name for this taxon.

Reemer et al. (2005) mentioned the possibility that part of the records of M. dubia from Transcaucasia (Stackelberg and Richter 1968 from Azerbaijan) may belong to Myolepta trojana Reemer and Hauser in Reemer, Hauser & Speight, 2005, as only one single specimen from Georgia was identified as M. dubia.

Myolepta nigritarsis Coe, 1957

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Myolepta obscura Becher, 1882

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Central Europe, Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, and Transcaucasia.

Myolepta potens (Harris, 1779)

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, Turkey, and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Reemer et al. (2005) suggested caution with records of this species from the Caucasus Region (see Stackelberg and Richter 1968) because the closely related species Myolepta mada Reemer and Hauser in Reemer, Hauser & Speight, 2005 may occur in this region, although it is currently known only from Azerbaijan.

The year of publication for this species is a convention. The original work by Harris (1776–1780) was published in five ‘decads’ or parts. Peck (1988) used the conventional date of 1780? with a question mark for decads 3, 4, and 5 based on Lisney (1960). Evenhuis (1997: page 343) established that the decad 4, where Musca potens is described on page 110, was dated as 1779 based on the latest date of the plates. Thus, the year of publication should be 1779.

Myolepta trojana Reemer and Hauser in Reemer, Hauser & Speight, 2005

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L21, 3 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Greece, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Iran.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Myolepta vara (Panzer, 1798)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Europe and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Reemer et al. (2005) studied material from Azerbaijan, but no published record exists explicitly from Georgia. Peck (1988) listed the Far East (Khabarovsk and Primorye Territories) in the range of this species, but these records needs verification (Reemer et al. 2005).

Neoascia (Neoascia) annexa (Müller, 1776)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Neoascia floralis (Meigen, 1822); Gudjabidze (2002) as Neoascia floralis Meigen, 1822 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L65, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057973.

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Remarks. Thompson (1981) synonymised Ascia floralis Meigen, 1822 [= Neoascia floralis (Meigen, 1822)] under Neoascia podagrica (Fabricius, 1775), and explained that the name floralis Meigen was applied wrongly by some authors to N. annexa. Previous records of N. annexa need verification as they might belong to Neoascia subannexa Claußen and Hayat 1997.

Neoascia (Neoascia) podagrica (Fabricius, 1775)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Neoascia podagrica Fabricius, 1794 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Neoascia (Neoascia) tenur (Harris, 1779)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Neoascia dispar (Meigen, 1822).

New records. GEORGIA • L52, 30 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; 1♀; ZFMK-DIP-00057974].

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, Turkey, Transcaucasia, and into Siberia.

Remarks. Thompson (1981) synonymised Ascia dispar Meigen, 1822 [= Neoascia dispar (Meigen, 1822)] under Neoascia meticulosa (Scopoli, 1763), and explained that the name dispar Meigen was applied wrongly by some authors to N. tenur.

The year of publication for this species is a convention. The original work by Harris (1776–1780) was published in five ‘decads’ or parts. Peck (1988) used the conventional date of 1780? with a question mark for decads 3, 4, and 5 based on Lisney (1960). Evenhuis (1997: page 343) established that the decad 4, where Musca tenur is described on page 112, was dated as 1779 based on the latest date of the plates. Thus, the year of publication should be 1779.

Neoascia (Neoascia) subannexa Claußen and Hayat 1997

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053862; • 6♂1♀; L25, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053855, ZFMK-DIP-00053858, ZFMK-DIP-00053859 = ZFMK-TIS-8005596, ZFMK-DIP-00053860, ZFMK-DIP-00054092, ZFMK-DIP-00054094, ZFMK-DIP-00053864; • 2♂ 3♀; L26, 18 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053856, ZFMK-DIP-00053857, ZFMK-DIP-00054093, ZFMK-DIP-00054095, ZFMK-DIP-00053861; • 1♀; L30, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053863 = ZFMK-TIS-8005602; • 1♀; L58, 27 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057972; • 2♂; L31, 23 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4529, ZFMK-GGBC8002675; • 1♂; L69, 18 Jul 2018, A. Reimann leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4505; • 2♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002724, MTD-Dip-A-R-4596; • 4♂ 1♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002761, ZFMK-TIS-8002762, ZFMK-TIS-8002763, ZFMK-DIP-00061309, ZFMK-DIP-00061312; • 3♂ 1♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4557, MTD-Dip-A-R-4580; • 1♂ 2♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002786, ZFMK-DIP-00061310, ZFMK-DIP-00061311.

Genetics. We sequenced seven specimens (MN622016, MN622017, MN622018, MN622019, MN622020, MN622021, MN622022), whose COI barcodes differ 0–1.52%. This species was not yet registered in BOLD, and our COI sequences were similar (> 98.3%) to other private sequences in BOLD identified as Neoascia annexa.

Distribution. Turkey and Georgia.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Neoascia (Neoasciella) geniculata (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Europe, into Russia to eastern Siberia.

Neoascia (Neoasciella) interrupta (Megerle in Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe into Russia to eastern Siberia, and Caucasus Region.

Neoascia (Neoasciella) meticulosa (Scopoli, 1763)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Neoascia aenea Meigen, 1822; Gudjabidze (2002) as Neoascia aenea Meigen, 1822; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Remarks. Thompson (1981) synonymised N. aenea under N. meticulosa.

Neoascia (Neoasciella) obliqua Coe, 1940

Reference. Peck (1988) from Armenia; Gudjabidze (2002) as Neoascia oblique Coe [sic]; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Neocnemodon latitarsis (Egger, 1865)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Cnemodon latitarsis Egger, 1776 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia. Recorded in North America (New Brunswick) but not established (Skevington et al. 2019).

Neocnemodon vitripennis (Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Orthonevra brevicornis (Loew, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Orthoneura brevicornis Loew, 1848 [sic] and Chrysogaster brevicornis Loew, 1848 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, Transcaucasia, eastwards into Siberia.

Orthonevra elegans (Wiedemann in Meigen, 1822)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Palaearctic, except in the Mediterranean Basin.

Orthonevra frontalis (Loew, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Orthonevra intermedia Lundbeck, 1916

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Chrysogaster intermedia Lennaeus, 1758 [sic].

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Orthonevra nobilis (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L11, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 3♀; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057994, ZFMK-DIP-00057995, ZFMK-DIP-00057996; • 1♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057997.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Orthonevra pilifacies Stackelberg, 1952

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Transcaucasia and Central Palaearctic into Afghanistan.

Orthonevra plumbago (Loew, 1840)

Reference. Gudjabidze (2002) as Orthonevra plumbago Loew, 1848 [sic].

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Georgia.

Paragus (Pandasyophthalmus) constrictus Šimič, 1986

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057880; • 3♂; L59, 28 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057877, ZFMK-DIP-00057878, ZFMK-DIP-00057879.

Distribution. Palaearctic, but needs reassessment due to confusion with other similar species.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Paragus (Pandasyopthalmus) haemorrhous Megerle in Meigen, 1822

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L10, 22 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L31, 21 Jul 2018, J. Astrin leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8000135; • 1♂; L37, 25 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054198; • 4♂ 1♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054196 = ZFMK-TIS-8000869, ZFMK-DIP-00054199, ZFMK-DIP-00054200, ZFMK-DIP-00054201, ZFMK-DIP-00054202; • 1♂; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057856; • 1♂; L60 26 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057853; • 19♂; L66, 28 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057834, ZFMK-DIP-00057835, ZFMK-DIP-00057836, ZFMK-DIP-00057837, ZFMK-DIP-00057838, ZFMK-DIP-00057839, ZFMK-DIP-00057840, ZFMK-DIP-00057841, ZFMK-DIP-00057842, ZFMK-DIP-00057843, ZFMK-DIP-00057844, ZFMK-DIP-00057845, ZFMK-DIP-00057846, ZFMK-DIP-00057847, ZFMK-DIP-00057848, ZFMK-DIP-00057849, ZFMK-DIP-00057850, ZFMK-DIP-00057851, ZFMK-DIP-00057852; • 2♂; L68, 29 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057854, ZFMK-DIP-00057855; • 1♂; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002789.

Genetics. We successfully sequenced three specimens (MN622025, MN622026, MN622032) and their COI barcodes differ from 0.3% to 0.61%. In BOLD there are three BINs with specimens identified as P. haemorrhous: BOLD:AAC2439, BOLD:ABZ4619, and BOLD:AAC2438.

Distribution. Holarctic and Afrotropical Regions.

Paragus (Pandasyopthalmus) tibialis (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Bigot (1880) as Orthonevra varipes Bigot, 1880; Levitin (1962); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1sp; L31, 21 Jul 2018, J. Astrin leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8000135; • 1♂; L45, 25 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057868; • 1♂; L46, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057860; • 2♂; L59, 28 Jul 2001 J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057859, ZFMK-DIP-00057869; • 8♂; L63, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057858, ZFMK-DIP-00057861, ZFMK-DIP-00057862, ZFMK-DIP-00057863, ZFMK-DIP-00057864, ZFMK-DIP-00057865, ZFMK-DIP-00057866, ZFMK-DIP-00057867; • 1♂; L68, 29 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057857; • 1♀; L71, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002759.

Genetics. One specimen of this species was sequenced (MN622023), which has identical COI barcode as other specimens of P. tibialis previously published (AY174468, AY174465, AY476841 from the BIN BOLD:ABZ4619), but also has 100% similarity in the COI sequence with specimens of P. coadunatus Rondani, 1847 (AY174467) and P. haemorrhous (AY174470, AY174466, AY174469).

Distribution. Western Palaearctic, but needs reassessment.

Paragus (Paragus) albifrons (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L47, 25 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057872; • 1♂; L58, 27 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057870; • 1♂; L68, 29 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057871.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Paragus (Paragus) bicolor (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L32, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053870 = ZFMK-TIS-8005600; • 1♂; L47, 25 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057875; • 1♂; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057876; • 1♂; L63, 23 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057874.

Genetics. A single specimen was sequenced (MN622024), and its COI barcode is identical as one published sequence for a specimen identified as Paragus testaceus Meigen, 1822 (AY476848) and 99.42% similar to another specimen of P. bicolor (AY174462), or 99.83% similar to two private sequences of P. bicolor. The BIN BOLD:AAF8068 in BOLD systems comprises specimens of P. testaceus and P. bicolor.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Paragus (Paragus) compeditus Wiedemann, 1830

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Palaearctic and Afrotropical Regions.

Paragus (Paragus) finitimus Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1971

Reference. Tóth (1986).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Paragus (Paragus) flammeus Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1971

Reference. Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Western and Central Palaearctic.

Paragus (Paragus) kopdagensis Hayat & Claußen, 1997

Reference. Speight (2018a) from Northern Caucasus.

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057832, ZFMK-DIP-00057833.

Distribution. Turkey and Caucasus Region.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Paragus (Paragus) pecchiolii Rondani, 1857

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L24, 17 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054205 = ZFMK-TIS-8000969; • 1♀; L34, 22 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054206 = ZFMK-TIS-8000989; • 1♂ 1♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054203 = ZFMK-TIS-8000871, ZFMK-DIP-00054204 = ZFMK-TIS-8000872; • 2♂ 1♀; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002787, ZFMK-DIP-00061313, ZFMK-TIS-8002788; • 2♂; L72, 29 Jun–13 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; MTD-Dip-A-R-4562.

Genetics. We sequenced four specimens (MN622027, MN622028, MN622029, MN622030) and their COI barcodes differ from 0% to 0.15%, and they are > 99.2% similar to other published and non-publicly available COI sequences of P. pecchiollii. The BIN for our specimens is BOLD:ABA3664.

Distribution. Western Palaearctic.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Paragus (Paragus) quadrifasciatus Meigen, 1822

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054195 = ZFMK-TIS-8000868; • 1♂; L61, 22 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057882.

Genetics. A single female was sequenced (MN622031) and its COI barcode is very similar to other private sequences of P. quadrifasciatus in BOLD systems (> 99.7%). The BIN for our specimen is BOLD:ACG5063.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Parasyrphus annulatus (Zetterstedt, 1838)

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus annulatus Zetterstend, 1843 [sic]; Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L7, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Parasyrphus nigritarsis (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988)

New records. GEORGIA • 5♂; L17, 28 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Holarctic.

Parasyrphus punctulatus (Verrall, 1873)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Syrphus punctullatus Verall [sic]; Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Palaearctic, including Nepal.

Parasyrphus vittiger (Zetterstedt, 1843)

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia into Siberia, and Caucasus Region.

Parhelophilus frutetorum (Fabricius, 1775)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Helophilus (Parhelophilus) frutetorum (Fabricius, 1775); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia into Siberia, and Transcaucasia.

Parhelophilus versicolor (Fabricius, 1794)

Reference. Peck (1988) Helophilus (Parhelophilus) versicolor (Fabricius, 1794).

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Pelecocera (Chamaesyrphus) scaevoides (Fallén, 1817)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Chamaesyrphus scaevoides (Fallén, 1817); Gudjabidze (2002) as Chamaesyrphus scaevoides (Fallén, 1817); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, European parts of Russia, and Transcaucasia.

Pelecocera (Pelecocera) tricincta Hoffmannsegg in Meigen, 1822

Reference. Peck (1988); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, Transcaucasia, European parts of Russia into Siberia.

Pipiza austriaca Meigen, 1822

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Needs reassessment after Vujić et al. (2013).

Pipiza festiva Meigen, 1822

Reference. Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002); Barkalov and Mutin (2018); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Palaearctic, but not in northern Africa.

Pipiza lugubris (Fabricius, 1775)

Reference. Tóth (1986) as Pipiza signata Meigen, 1822.

Distribution. Europe and Georgia.

Remarks. Vujić et al. (2013) synonymised P. signata under P. lugubris. The specimen collected and studied by Tóth (1986) needs verification.

Pipiza noctiluca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002).

Distribution. Probably Europe, Russia and Turkey, but needs reassessment after Vujić et al. (2013).

Pipizella annulata (Macquart, 1829)

Reference. Peck (1988).

Distribution. Europe.

Remarks. According to Van Steenis and Lucas (2011), records of this species from Turkey might belong to Pipizella orientalis Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011. It seems reasonable that the material from Transcaucasia cited by Peck (1988) might also belong to P. orientalis.

Pipizella cornuta Kuznetzov, 1987

Reference. Kuznetzov (1987); Van Steenis and Lucas (2011); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Northern Caucasus and Georgia.

Remarks. Kuznetzov (1987), in the original description of this species, listed the type material from North Ossetia, but the type material studied by Van Steenis and Lucas (2011) was collected in South Ossetia, as authors pointed out (Van Steenis and Lucas 2011). Consequently, the records from Northern Caucasus need verification.

Pipizella curvitibia Stackelberg, 1960

Reference. Van Steenis and Lucas (2011).

Distribution. North-east Turkey and Transcaucasia.

Pipizella divicoi (Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974)

Reference. Kuznetzov (1987); Peck (1988) as Pipizella divicoi (Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974) and as Pipizella opaca Violovitsh, 1981; Van Steenis and Lucas (2011); Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 4♂ 2♀; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054187 = ZFMK-TIS-8000862, ZFMK-DIP-00054188 = ZFMK-TIS-8000863, ZFMK-DIP-00054189, ZFMK-DIP-00054190, ZFMK-TIS-8000866, ZFMK-TIS-8000867; • 1♂; L49, 4 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057830; • 12♂; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057818, ZFMK-DIP-00057819, ZFMK-DIP-00057820, ZFMK-DIP-00057821, ZFMK-DIP-00057822, ZFMK-DIP-00057823, ZFMK-DIP-00057824, ZFMK-DIP-00057825, ZFMK-DIP-00057826, ZFMK-DIP-00057827, ZFMK-DIP-00057828, ZFMK-DIP-00057829.

Genetics. We sequenced four specimens (MN622033, MN622034, MN622035, MN622036) with identical COI barcode. Our COI barcodes are very similar to other sequences from different species in BOLD systems, such as Pipizella zeneggenensis (Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974) (99.69–99.83% similarity), P. divicoi (99.69%), and P. viduata (Linnaeus, 1758) (99.69%).

Distribution. Palaearctic, but not in northern Africa.

Pipizella nataliae Kuznetzov, 1990

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L17, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Northern Caucasus, Georgia, and Turkey.

Remarks. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Pipizella orientalis Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011

Reference. Van Steenis and Lucas (2011); Speight (2018a).

New records. GEORGIA • 2♂; L39, 23–26 Jul 2018, malaise trap, X. Mengual, M. Espeland, B. Thormann leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054191 = ZFMK-TIS-8000864, ZFMK-DIP-00054192 = ZFMK-TIS-8000865; • 9♂; L53, 1 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057809, ZFMK-DIP-00057810, ZFMK-DIP-00057811, ZFMK-DIP-00057812, ZFMK-DIP-00057813, ZFMK-DIP-00057814, ZFMK-DIP-00057815, ZFMK-DIP-00057816, ZFMK-DIP-00057817.

Genetics. We were able to sequence two specimens of this taxon (MN622037, MN622038), which is not present in BOLD systems or GenBank. The two COI barcodes were identical between them and very similar to other Pipizella species (100% similarity with sequences of Pipizella annulata and 99.24% similar to P. zeneggenensis).

Distribution. Georgia and Turkey.

Pipizella vandergooti Van Steenis & Lucas, 2011

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053865 = ZFMK-TIS-8005569, ZFMK-DIP-00053866 = ZFMK-TIS-8005577; • 1♂; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057831; • 2♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002725, ZFMK-TIS-8002726.

Genetics. Three specimens (a male and two females) were sequenced (MN622039, MN622040, MN622041) and their COI barcodes differ from 0% to 0.61%. This species was not present in BOLD systems or GenBank, and our sequences are identical (100% similarity) to COI sequences of specimens identified as Pipizella pennina (Goeldlin de Tiefenau, 1974) and P. zeneggenensis.

Distribution. Georgia and Turkey.

Remarks. We have assumed that the three collected females belong to this species based on the COI sequences and the co-occurrence with a male. Reported for Georgia for the first time.

Pipizella viduata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Reference. Peck (1988) as Pipizella varipes (Meigen, 1822); Speight (2018a).

Distribution. Europe, North Africa, Transcaucasia, European parts of Russia into Siberia.

Remarks. Thompson et al. (1982) synonymised P. varipes under P. viduata.

Pipizella virens (Fabricius, 1805)

Reference. Levitin (1962); Tóth (1986); Gudjabidze (2002) a Pipizella virens Fallen, 1817 [sic]; Barkalov and Mutin (2018).

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂ 1♀; L4, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.

Distribution. Palaearctic.

Platycheirus (Platycheirus) albimanus (Fabricius, 1781)

Reference. Tóth (1986); Peck (1988); Gudjabidze (2002) as Platycheirus albimanus (Fabricius, 1721) [sic].

New records. GEORGIA • 1♂; L2, 16 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♀; L3, 17 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L5, 18 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 2♀; L6, 19 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♀; L11, 23 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L12, 24 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L16, 27 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂ 1♀; L19, 29 Jun 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 1♂; L20, 1 Jul 2018, S. Bot leg.; • 2♂; L29, 19 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00054027 = ZFMK-TIS-8001013, ZFMK-DIP-00053966 = ZFMK-TIS-8005527; • 2♀; L33, 23 Jul 2018, X. Mengual leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00053967 = ZFMK-TIS-8005532, ZFMK-DIP-00053968; • 1♀; L46, 24 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057331; • 1♀; L54, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057332; • 3♀; L55, 31 Jul 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057335, ZFMK-DIP-00057336, ZFMK-DIP-00057337; • 9♂ 2♀; L57, 3 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057320, ZFMK-DIP-00057321, ZFMK-DIP-00057322, ZFMK-DIP-00057323, ZFMK-DIP-00057324, ZFMK-DIP-00057325, ZFMK-DIP-00057326, ZFMK-DIP-00057327, ZFMK-DIP-00057328, ZFMK-DIP-00057329, ZFMK-DIP-00057330; • 2♀; L57, 2 Aug 2001, J.-H. Stuke leg.; ZFMK-DIP-00057333, ZFMK-DIP-00057334; • 2♂ 1♀; L70, 30 Jun–14 Jul 2018, malaise trap, GGBC-members leg.; ZFMK-TIS-8002720, ZFMK-TIS-8002721, ZFMK-TIS-8002722; • 2♂ 2♀; L7